[USC02] 25 USC Ch. 18: INDIAN HEALTH CARE
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*Public Laws 116-315 through 117-1 have been enacted but classifications have not yet been finalized. The currency ("laws in effect") date does not reflect acts for which classification has not been finalized.

25 USC Ch. 18: INDIAN HEALTH CARE
From Title 25—INDIANS

CHAPTER 18—INDIAN HEALTH CARE

GENERAL PROVISIONS

Sec.
1601.
Congressional findings.
1602.
Declaration of national Indian health policy.
1603.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—INDIAN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL

1611.
Congressional statement of purpose.
1612.
Health professions recruitment program for Indians.
1613.
Health professions preparatory scholarship program for Indians.
1613a.
Indian health professions scholarships.
1614.
Indian health service extern programs.
1615.
Continuing education allowances.
1616.
Community Health Representative Program.
1616a.
Indian Health Service Loan Repayment Program.
1616a–1.
Scholarship and Loan Repayment Recovery Fund.
1616b.
Recruitment activities.
1616c.
Tribal recruitment and retention program.
1616d.
Advanced training and research.
1616e.
Nursing program.
1616e–1.
Nursing school clinics.
1616f.
Tribal culture and history.
1616g.
INMED program.
1616h.
Health training programs of community colleges.
1616i.
Additional incentives for health professionals.
1616j.
Retention bonus.
1616k.
Nursing residency program.
1616l.
Community health aide program.
1616m.
Matching grants to tribes for scholarship programs.
1616n.
Tribal health program administration.
1616o.
University of South Dakota pilot program.
1616p.
Health professional chronic shortage demonstration programs.
1616q.
Exemption from payment of certain fees.
1616r.
Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—HEALTH SERVICES

1621.
Indian Health Care Improvement Fund.
1621a.
Catastrophic Health Emergency Fund.
1621b.
Health promotion and disease prevention services.
1621c.
Diabetes prevention, treatment, and control.
1621d.
Other authority for provision of services.
1621e.
Reimbursement from certain third parties of costs of health services.
1621f.
Crediting of reimbursements.
1621g.
Health services research.
1621h.
Mental health prevention and treatment services.
1621i.
Managed care feasibility study.
1621j.
California contract health services demonstration program.
1621k.
Coverage of screening mammography.
1621l.
Patient travel costs.
1621m.
Epidemiology centers.
1621n.
Comprehensive school health education programs.
1621o.
Indian youth grant program.
1621p.
American Indians Into Psychology Program.
1621q.
Prevention, control, and elimination of communicable and infectious diseases.
1621r.
Contract health services payment study.
1621s.
Prompt action on payment of claims.
1621t.
Licensing.
1621u.
Liability for payment.
1621v.
Offices of Indian Men's Health and Indian Women's Health.
1621w.
Repealed.
1621x.
Limitation on use of funds.
1621y.
Contract health service administration and disbursement formula.
1622.
Transferred.
1623.
Special rules relating to Indians.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—HEALTH FACILITIES

1631.
Consultation; closure of facilities; reports.
1632.
Safe water and sanitary waste disposal facilities.
1633.
Preferences to Indians and Indian firms.
1634.
Expenditure of non-Service funds for renovation.
1635.
Repealed.
1636.
Grant program for construction, expansion, and modernization of small ambulatory care facilities.
1637.
Indian health care delivery demonstration projects.
1638.
Land transfer.
1638a.
Tribal management of federally owned quarters.
1638b.
Applicability of Buy American requirement.
1638c.
Contracts for personal services in Indian Health Service facilities.
1638d.
Credit to appropriations of money collected for meals at Indian Health Service facilities.
1638e.
Other funding, equipment, and supplies for facilities.
1638f.
Indian country modular component facilities demonstration program.
1638g.
Mobile health stations demonstration program.

        

SUBCHAPTER III–A—ACCESS TO HEALTH SERVICES

1641.
Treatment of payments under Social Security Act health benefits programs.
1642.
Purchasing health care coverage.
1643.
Amount and use of funds reimbursed through medicare and medicaid available to Indian Health Service.
1644.
Grants to and contracts with the Service, Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations to facilitate outreach, enrollment, and coverage of Indians under Social Security Act health benefit programs and other health benefits programs.
1645.
Sharing arrangements with Federal agencies.
1646.
Authorization for emergency contract health services.
1647.
Eligible Indian veteran services.
1647a.
Nondiscrimination under Federal health care programs in qualifications for reimbursement for services.
1647b.
Access to Federal insurance.
1647c.
General exceptions.
1647d.
Navajo Nation medicaid agency feasibility study.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—HEALTH SERVICES FOR URBAN INDIANS

1651.
Purpose.
1652.
Contracts with, and grants to, urban Indian organizations.
1653.
Contracts and grants for provision of health care and referral services.
1654.
Contracts and grants for determination of unmet health care needs.
1655.
Evaluations; renewals.
1656.
Other contract and grant requirements.
1657.
Reports and records.
1658.
Limitation on contract authority.
1659.
Facilities renovation.
1660.
Urban Health Programs Branch.
1660a.
Grants for alcohol and substance abuse related services.
1660b.
Treatment of certain demonstration projects.
1660c.
Urban NIAAA transferred programs.
1660d.
Conferring with urban Indian organizations.
1660e.
Expanded program authority for urban Indian organizations.
1660f.
Community Health Representatives.
1660g.
Use of Federal Government facilities and sources of supply.
1660h.
Health information technology.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—ORGANIZATIONAL IMPROVEMENTS

1661.
Establishment of the Indian Health Service as an agency of the Public Health Service.
1662.
Automated management information system.
1663.
Office of Direct Service Tribes.
1663a.
Nevada Area Office.

        

SUBCHAPTER V–A—BEHAVIORAL HEALTH PROGRAMS

Part A—General Programs

1665.
Definitions.
1665a.
Behavioral health prevention and treatment services.
1665b.
Memoranda of agreement with the Department of the Interior.
1665c.
Comprehensive behavioral health prevention and treatment program.
1665d.
Mental health technician program.
1665e.
Licensing requirement for mental health care workers.
1665f.
Indian women treatment programs.
1665g.
Indian youth program.
1665h.
Inpatient and community-based mental health facilities design, construction, and staffing.
1665i.
Training and community education.
1665j.
Behavioral health program.
1665k.
Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders programs.
1665l.
Child sexual abuse prevention and treatment programs.
1665m.
Domestic and sexual violence prevention and treatment.
1665n.
Behavioral health research.

        

Part B—Indian Youth Suicide Prevention

1667.
Findings and purpose.
1667a.
Definitions.
1667b.
Indian youth telemental health demonstration project.
1667c.
Substance abuse and mental health services Administration grants.
1667d.
Use of predoctoral psychology and psychiatry interns.
1667e.
Indian youth life skills development demonstration program.

        

SUBCHAPTER VI—MISCELLANEOUS

1671.
Reports.
1672.
Regulations.
1673.
Repealed.
1674.
Leases with Indian tribes.
1675.
Confidentiality of medical quality assurance records; qualified immunity for participants.
1676.
Limitation on use of funds appropriated to Indian Health Service.
1677.
Nuclear resource development health hazards.
1678.
Arizona as contract health service delivery area.
1678a.
North Dakota and South Dakota as contract health service delivery area.
1679.
Eligibility of California Indians.
1680.
California as a contract health service delivery area.
1680a.
Contract health facilities.
1680b.
National Health Service Corps.
1680c.
Health services for ineligible persons.
1680d.
Infant and maternal mortality; fetal alcohol syndrome.
1680e.
Contract health services for the Trenton Service Area.
1680f.
Indian Health Service and Department of Veterans Affairs health facilities and services sharing.
1680g.
Reallocation of base resources.
1680h.
Demonstration projects for tribal management of health care services.
1680i.
Child sexual abuse treatment programs.
1680j.
Tribal leasing.
1680k.
Repealed.
1680l.
Shared services for long-term care.
1680m.
Results of demonstration projects.
1680n.
Priority for Indian reservations.
1680o.
Authorization of appropriations.
1680p.
Annual budget submission.
1680q.
Prescription drug monitoring.
1680r.
Tribal health program option for cost sharing.
1680s.
Disease and injury prevention report.
1680t.
Other GAO reports.
1680u.
Traditional health care practices.
1680v.
Director of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Treatment.
1681.
Omitted.
1682.
Subrogation of claims by Indian Health Service.
1683.
Indian Catastrophic Health Emergency Fund.
1684.
Emergency plan for Indian safety and health.
1685.
Service of traditional foods in public facilities.

        

GENERAL PROVISIONS

§1601. Congressional findings

The Congress finds the following:

(1) Federal health services to maintain and improve the health of the Indians are consonant with and required by the Federal Government's historical and unique legal relationship with, and resulting responsibility to, the American Indian people.

(2) A major national goal of the United States is to provide the resources, processes, and structure that will enable Indian tribes and tribal members to obtain the quantity and quality of health care services and opportunities that will eradicate the health disparities between Indians and the general population of the United States.

(3) A major national goal of the United States is to provide the quantity and quality of health services which will permit the health status of Indians to be raised to the highest possible level and to encourage the maximum participation of Indians in the planning and management of those services.

(4) Federal health services to Indians have resulted in a reduction in the prevalence and incidence of preventable illnesses among, and unnecessary and premature deaths of, Indians.

(5) Despite such services, the unmet health needs of the American Indian people are severe and the health status of the Indians is far below that of the general population of the United States.

(Pub. L. 94–437, §2, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400; Pub. L. 102–573, §3(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 102 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 redesignated subsecs. (a), (b), (c), and (d) as pars. (1), (3), (4), and (5), respectively, realigned margins, and added par. (2).

1992Pub. L. 102–573 substituted "finds the following:" for "finds that—" in introductory provisions and struck out last sentence of subsec. (d) which compared death rates of Indians to those of all Americans for tuberculosis, influenza and pneumonia, and compared death rates for infants, subsec. (e) which related to threat to fulfillment of Federal responsibility to Indians posed by low health status of American Indian people, subsec. (f) which enumerated causes imperiling improvements in Indian health, and subsec. (g) which related to confidence of Indian people in Federal Indian health services.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Short Title of 2010 Amendment

Section 1(a) of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935, provided that: "This Act [probably means S. 1790 as enacted into law by Pub. L. 111–148, enacting subchapter V–A of this chapter, sections 1616p to 1616r, 1621y, 1638a, 1638e to 1638g, 1647 to 1647d, 1660d to 1660h, 1663, 1663a, 1675, 1678, 1678a, 1679, and 1680p to 1680v of this title, amending sections 1601 to 1603, 1615, 1616l, 1621, 1621a, 1621c to 1621f, 1621h, 1621j to 1621m, 1621o to 1621q, 1621t to 1621v, 1631, 1637, 1638b, 1641, 1642, 1644, 1645, 1652, 1659, 1660b, 1661, 1680b, 1680c, 1680l, and 1680o of this title and sections 1395l, 1395qq, 11705, 11706, 11709, and 11711 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, repealing sections 1616p, 1621w, 1638a, 1647, 1660d, 1663, 1675, 1678, 1679, and 1680k of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 11705 of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Indian Health Care Improvement Reauthorization and Extension Act of 2009'."

Short Title of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–417, §1, Nov. 1, 2000, 114 Stat. 1812, provided that: "This Act [enacting and amending section 1645 of this title, amending sections 1395qq and 1396j of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1645 of this title] may be cited as the 'Alaska Native and American Indian Direct Reimbursement Act of 2000'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–313, §1(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3820, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 1603, 1613a, 1621j, 1645, 1665e, 1665j, and 1680k of this title] may be cited as the 'Indian Health Care Improvement Technical Corrections Act of 1996'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–573, §1, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4526, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Indian Health Amendments of 1992'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–630, title V, §501, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4556, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1621h, 1637, 1659, and 1660 of this title, amending sections 1653, 1657, and 2474 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1621h, 1653, and 2415 of this title] may be cited as the 'Indian Health Care Amendments of 1990'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–713, §1, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4784, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1616 to 1616j, 1621a to 1621g, 1636, 1651 to 1658, 1661, 1662, and 1680a to 1680j of this title and sections 254s and 295j of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 1603, 1612 to 1613a, 1614, 1615, 1621, 1631, 1632, 1634, 1674, 1676, and 1678 to 1680 of this title and section 5316 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, repealing section 1635 of this title and section 254r of Title 42, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1611, 1621b, 1661, and 1677 of this title and sections 254r, 1395qq, and 1396j of Title 42, amending provisions set out as a note under section 1396j of Title 42, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 1396j of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Indian Health Care Amendments of 1988'."

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–537, §1(a), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3173, provided that: "this Act [enacting sections 1622, 1634, and 1676 to 1680 of this title, amending sections 1603, 1612 to 1614, 1621, 1651 to 1657, and 1674 of this title and section 294y–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and repealing section 1658 of this title] may be cited as the 'Indian Health Care Amendments of 1980'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 94–437, §1, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, provided: "That this Act [enacting this chapter and sections 1395qq and 1396j of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, amending sections 234, 1395f, 1395n, and 1396d of Title 42, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1671 of this title and sections 1395qq and 1396j of Title 42] may be cited as the 'Indian Health Care Improvement Act'."

Separability

Pub. L. 100–713, title VIII, §801, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4839, provided that: "If any provision of this Act, any amendment made by this Act [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note above], or the application of such provision or amendment to any person or circumstances is held to be invalid, the remainder of this Act, the remaining amendments made by this Act, and the application of such provision or amendment to persons or circumstances other than those to which it is held invalid, shall not be affected thereby."

Availability of Appropriations

Pub. L. 100–713, §4, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4785, provided that: "Any new spending authority (described in subsection (c)(2)(A) or (B) of section 401 of the Congressional Budget Act of 1974 [2 U.S.C. 651(c)(2)(A), (B)]) which is provided under this Act [see Short Title of 1988 Amendment note above] shall be effective for any fiscal year only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts."

§1602. Declaration of national Indian health policy

Congress declares that it is the policy of this Nation, in fulfillment of its special trust responsibilities and legal obligations to Indians—

(1) to ensure the highest possible health status for Indians and urban Indians and to provide all resources necessary to effect that policy;

(2) to raise the health status of Indians and urban Indians to at least the levels set forth in the goals contained within the Healthy People 2010 initiative or successor objectives;

(3) to ensure maximum Indian participation in the direction of health care services so as to render the persons administering such services and the services themselves more responsive to the needs and desires of Indian communities;

(4) to increase the proportion of all degrees in the health professions and allied and associated health professions awarded to Indians so that the proportion of Indian health professionals in each Service area is raised to at least the level of that of the general population;

(5) to require that all actions under this chapter shall be carried out with active and meaningful consultation with Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and conference with urban Indian organizations, to implement this chapter and the national policy of Indian self-determination;

(6) to ensure that the United States and Indian tribes work in a government-to-government relationship to ensure quality health care for all tribal members; and

(7) to provide funding for programs and facilities operated by Indian tribes and tribal organizations in amounts that are not less than the amounts provided to programs and facilities operated directly by the Service.

(Pub. L. 94–437, §3, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 102–573, §3(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4526; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in par. (5), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 103 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to declaration of health objectives.

1992Pub. L. 102–573 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The Congress hereby declares that it is the policy of this Nation, in fulfillment of its special responsibilities and legal obligation to the American Indian people, to meet the national goal of providing the highest possible health status to Indians and to provide existing Indian health services with all resources necessary to effect that policy."

§1603. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) Area office

The term "Area office" means an administrative entity including a program office, within the Indian Health Service through which services and funds are provided to the service units within a defined geographic area.

(2) Behavioral health

(A) In general

The term "behavioral health" means the blending of substance (alcohol, drugs, inhalants, and tobacco) abuse and mental health disorders prevention and treatment for the purpose of providing comprehensive services.

(B) Inclusions

The term "behavioral health" includes the joint development of substance abuse and mental health treatment planning and coordinated case management using a multidisciplinary approach.

(3) California Indian

The term "California Indian" means any Indian who is eligible for health services provided by the Service pursuant to section 1679 of this title.

(4) Community college

The term "community college" means—

(A) a tribal college or university; or

(B) a junior or community college.

(5) Contract health service

The term "contract health service" means any health service that is—

(A) delivered based on a referral by, or at the expense of, an Indian health program; and

(B) provided by a public or private medical provider or hospital that is not a provider or hospital of the Indian health program.

(6) Department

The term "Department", unless otherwise designated, means the Department of Health and Human Services.

(7) Disease prevention

(A) In general

The term "disease prevention" means any activity for—

(i) the reduction, limitation, and prevention of—

(I) disease; and

(II) complications of disease; and


(ii) the reduction of consequences of disease.

(B) Inclusions

The term "disease prevention" includes an activity for—

(i) controlling—

(I) the development of diabetes;

(II) high blood pressure;

(III) infectious agents;

(IV) injuries;

(V) occupational hazards and disabilities;

(VI) sexually transmittable diseases; or

(VII) toxic agents; or


(ii) providing—

(I) fluoridation of water; or

(II) immunizations.

(8) FAE

The term "FAE" means fetal alcohol effect.

(9) FAS

The term "fetal alcohol syndrome" or "FAS" means a syndrome in which, with a history of maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy, the following criteria are met:

(A) Central nervous system involvement such as mental retardation, developmental delay, intellectual deficit, microencephaly, or neurologic abnormalities.

(B) Craniofacial abnormalities with at least 2 of the following: microophthalmia, short palpebral fissures, poorly developed philtrum, thin upper lip, flat nasal bridge, and short upturned nose.

(C) Prenatal or postnatal growth delay.

(10) Health profession

The term "Health profession" means allopathic medicine, family medicine, internal medicine, pediatrics, geriatric medicine, obstetrics and gynecology, podiatric medicine, nursing, public health nursing, dentistry, psychiatry, osteopathy, optometry, pharmacy, psychology, public health, social work, marriage and family therapy, chiropractic medicine, environmental health and engineering, an allied health profession, or any other health profession.

(11) Health promotion

The term "health promotion" means any activity for—

(A) fostering social, economic, environmental, and personal factors conducive to health, including raising public awareness regarding health matters and enabling individuals to cope with health problems by increasing knowledge and providing valid information;

(B) encouraging adequate and appropriate diet, exercise, and sleep;

(C) promoting education and work in accordance with physical and mental capacity;

(D) making available safe water and sanitary facilities;

(E) improving the physical, economic, cultural, psychological, and social environment;

(F) promoting culturally competent care; and

(G) providing adequate and appropriate programs, including programs for—

(i) abuse prevention (mental and physical);

(ii) community health;

(iii) community safety;

(iv) consumer health education;

(v) diet and nutrition;

(vi) immunization and other methods of prevention of communicable diseases, including HIV/AIDS;

(vii) environmental health;

(viii) exercise and physical fitness;

(ix) avoidance of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders;

(x) first aid and CPR education;

(xi) human growth and development;

(xii) injury prevention and personal safety;

(xiii) behavioral health;

(xiv) monitoring of disease indicators between health care provider visits through appropriate means, including Internet-based health care management systems;

(xv) personal health and wellness practices;

(xvi) personal capacity building;

(xvii) prenatal, pregnancy, and infant care;

(xviii) psychological well-being;

(xix) reproductive health and family planning;

(xx) safe and adequate water;

(xxi) healthy work environments;

(xxii) elimination, reduction, and prevention of contaminants that create unhealthy household conditions (including mold and other allergens);

(xxiii) stress control;

(xxiv) substance abuse;

(xxv) sanitary facilities;

(xxvi) sudden infant death syndrome prevention;

(xxvii) tobacco use cessation and reduction;

(xxviii) violence prevention; and

(xxix) such other activities identified by the Service, a tribal health program, or an urban Indian organization to promote achievement of any of the objectives referred to in section 1602(2) of this title.

(12) Indian health program

The term "Indian health program" means—

(A) any health program administered directly by the Service;

(B) any tribal health program; and

(C) any Indian tribe or tribal organization to which the Secretary provides funding pursuant to section 47 of this title.

(13) Indians or Indian

The term "Indians" or "Indian", unless otherwise designated, means any person who is a member of an Indian tribe, as defined in subsection (d) hereof,1 except that, for the purpose of sections 1612 and 1613 of this title, such terms shall mean any individual who 2

(A),3 irrespective of whether he or she lives on or near a reservation, is a member of a tribe, band, or other organized group of Indians, including those tribes, bands, or groups terminated since 1940 and those recognized now or in the future by the State in which they reside, or who is a descendant, in the first or second degree, of any such member, or

(B) is an Eskimo or Aleut or other Alaska Native, or

(C) is considered by the Secretary of the Interior to be an Indian for any purpose, or

(D) is determined to be an Indian under regulations promulgated by the Secretary.

(14) Indian tribe

The term "Indian tribe" means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village or group or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (85 Stat. 688) [43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.], which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(15) Junior or community college

The term "junior or community college" has the meaning given the term in section 1058(e) 1 of title 20.

(16) Reservation

(A) In general

The term "reservation" means a reservation, Pueblo, or colony of any Indian tribe.

(B) Inclusions

The term "reservation" includes—

(i) former reservations in Oklahoma;

(ii) Indian allotments; and

(iii) Alaska Native Regions established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.).

(17) Secretary

The term "Secretary", unless otherwise designated, means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(18) Service

The term "Service" means the Indian Health Service.

(19) Service area

The term "Service area" means the geographical area served by each area office.

(20) Service unit

The term "Service unit" means an administrative entity of the Service or a tribal health program through which services are provided, directly or by contract, to eligible Indians within a defined geographic area.

(21) Substance abuse

The term "Substance abuse" includes inhalant abuse.

(22) Telehealth

The term "telehealth" has the meaning given the term in section 254c–16(a) of title 42.

(23) Telemedicine

The term "telemedicine" means a telecommunications link to an end user through the use of eligible equipment that electronically links health professionals or patients and health professionals at separate sites in order to exchange health care information in audio, video, graphic, or other format for the purpose of providing improved health care services.

(24) Tribal college or university

The term "tribal college or university" has the meaning given the term in section 1059c(b) of title 20.

(25) Tribal health program

The term "tribal health program" means an Indian tribe or tribal organization that operates any health program, service, function, activity, or facility funded, in whole or part, by the Service through, or provided for in, a contract or compact with the Service under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.).1

(26) Tribal organization

The term "tribal organization" has the meaning given the term in section 4 of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450b).1

(27) Urban center

The term "Urban center" means any community which has a sufficient urban Indian population with unmet health needs to warrant assistance under subchapter IV, as determined by the Secretary.

(28) Urban Indian

The term "Urban Indian" means any individual who resides in an urban center, as defined in subsection (g) hereof,1 and who meets one or more of the four criteria in subsection (c)(1) through (4) of this section.1

(29) Urban Indian organization

The term "Urban Indian organization" means a nonprofit corporate body situated in an urban center, governed by an urban Indian controlled board of directors, and providing for the maximum participation of all interested Indian groups and individuals, which body is capable of legally cooperating with other public and private entities for the purpose of performing the activities described in section 1653(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 94–437, §4, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1401; Pub. L. 96–537, §2, Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3173; Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §§201(b), 203(b), title V, §502, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4803, 4804, 4824; Pub. L. 102–573, §3(c), title IX, §902(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4529, 4591; Pub. L. 104–313, §2(a), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3820; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

Subsection (d) hereof, referred to in par. (13), was redesignated par. (14) of this section by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in pars. (14) and (16)(B)(iii), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43, and Tables.

Section 1058(e) of title 20, referred to in par. (15), probably means section 1058(f) of title 20, which defines "junior or community college". Section 1058(e) of title 20 was redesignated section 1058(f) of title 20 by Pub. L. 105–244, title III, §303(b)(1), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1639.

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act, referred to in pars. (25) and (26), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. Section 4 of the Act was classified to section 450b of this title prior to editorial reclassification as section 5304 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Subsection (g) hereof, referred to in par. (28), was redesignated par. (27) of this section by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Subsection (c)(1) through (4) of this section, referred to in par. (28), was redesignated par. (13)(A) to (D) of this section by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 104 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 substituted "In this chapter:" for "For purposes of this chapter—" in introductory provisions, redesignated pars. in subsecs. (c), (j), (k), and (l) as subpars. and realigned margins, redesignated subsecs. (a) to (q) as pars. (17), (18), (13), (14), (26), (28), (27), (29), (1), (20), (11), (7), (19), (10), (21), (8), and (9), respectively, and realigned margins, struck out former pars. (7), (9), (11), (20), and (26), as so redesignated, added pars. (2) to (7), (9), (11), (12), (15), (16), (20), and (22) to (26), arranged pars. in numerical order, and inserted heading and "The term" after each par. designation. Prior to amendment, pars. (7), (9), (11), (20), and (26), as so redesignated, defined disease prevention, FAS, health promotion, service unit, and tribal organization, respectively. Amendment directing redesignation of pars. contained in subsec. (c) as subpars. was executed by redesignating pars. (1) to (4) as subpars. (A) to (D), respectively, as the probable intent of Congress. Amendment directing the striking of paragraph "(12) (as redesignated by paragraph (3))" could not be executed because there was no par. (12) redesignated by par. (3).

1996—Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 104–313 inserted "allopathic medicine," before "family medicine" and substituted "an allied health profession, or any other health profession" for "and allied health professions".

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §902(1), substituted "sections 1612 and 1613 of this title" for "sections 1612, 1613, and 1621(c)(5) of this title".

Subsecs. (m) to (q). Pub. L. 102–573, §3(c), added subsecs. (m) to (q).

1988—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–713, §502, inserted "urban" after "governed by an".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 100–713, §201(b), added subsec. (i) and struck out former subsec. (i) which defined "rural Indian".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–713, §201(b), added subsec. (j) and struck out former subsec. (j) which defined "rural community".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 100–713, §§201(b), 203(b), added subsec. (k) and struck out former subsec. (k) which defined "rural Indian organization".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–713, §203(b), added subsec. (l).

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–537, §2(a), substituted "Secretary of Health and Human Services" for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 96–537, §2(b), substituted "governed by an Indian controlled board of directors" for "composed of urban Indians".

Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 96–537, §2(c), added subsecs. (i) to (k).

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by a dash.

3 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

SUBCHAPTER I—INDIAN HEALTH PROFESSIONAL PERSONNEL

§1611. Congressional statement of purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to increase the number of Indians entering the health professions and to assure an adequate supply of health professionals to the Service, Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations involved in the provision of health care to Indian people.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §101, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1402; Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §101, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4530.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–573 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "The purpose of this subchapter is to augment the inadequate number of health professionals serving Indians and remove the multiple barriers to the entrance of health professionals into the Service and private practice among Indians."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Advisory Panel and Report on Recruitment and Retention

Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §110, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4800, directed Secretary of Health and Human Services to establish an advisory panel composed of 10 physicians or other health professionals who are employees of, or assigned to, the Indian Health Service, 3 representatives of tribal health boards, and 1 representative of an urban health care organization, such advisory panel to conduct an investigation of (1) administrative policies and regulatory procedures which impede recruitment or retention of physicians and other health professionals by Indian Health Service, and (2) regulatory changes necessary to establish pay grades for health professionals employed by, or assigned to, the Service that correspond to the pay grades established for positions provided under 38 U.S.C. 4103 and 4104 and costs associated with establishing such pay grades, and, no later than the date that is 18 months after Nov. 23, 1988, to submit to Congress a report on the investigation, together with any recommendations for administrative or legislative changes in existing law, practices, or procedures.

§1612. Health professions recruitment program for Indians

(a) Grants for education and training

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall make grants to public or nonprofit private health or educational entities or Indian tribes or tribal organizations to assist such entities in meeting the costs of—

(1) identifying Indians with a potential for education or training in the health professions and encouraging and assisting them—

(A) to enroll in courses of study in such health professions; or

(B) if they are not qualified to enroll in any such courses of study, to undertake such postsecondary education or training as may be required to qualify them for enrollment;


(2) publicizing existing sources of financial aid available to Indians enrolled in any course of study referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection or who are undertaking training necessary to qualify them to enroll in any such course of study; or

(3) establishing other programs which the Secretary determines will enhance and facilitate the enrollment of Indians in, and the subsequent pursuit and completion by them of, courses of study referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(b) Application for grant; submittal and approval; preference; payment

(1) No grant may be made under this section unless an application therefor has been submitted to, and approved by, the Secretary. Such application shall be in such form, submitted in such manner, and contain such information, as the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe. The Secretary shall give a preference to applications submitted by Indian tribes or tribal organizations.

(2) The amount of any grant under this section shall be determined by the Secretary. Payments pursuant to grants under this section may be made in advance or by way of reimbursement, and at such intervals and on such conditions as the Secretary finds necessary.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §102, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1402; Pub. L. 96–537, §3(a), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3173; Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §101, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4785; Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§102(a), 117(b)(1), title IX, §902(2)(A), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4530, 4544, 4591.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "identifying Indians with a potential for education or training in the health professions and encouraging and assisting them (A) to enroll in schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, public health, nursing, or allied health professions; or (B), if they are not qualified to enroll in any such school, to undertake such post-secondary education or training as may be required to qualify them for enrollment;".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(a)(2), substituted "course of study" for "school" in two places and "paragraph (1)" for "clause (1)(A)".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(a)(3), substituted "enrollment of Indians in, and the subsequent pursuit and completion by them of, courses of study referred to in paragraph (1) of this subsection" for "enrollment of Indians, and the subsequent pursuit and completion by them of courses of study, in any school referred to in clause (1)(A) of this subsection".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §902(2)(A), substituted "prescribe. The Secretary shall" for ": Provided, That the Secretary shall".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §117(b)(1), struck out subsec. (c) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1989 to 1992.

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–713 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "For the purpose of making payments pursuant to grants under this section, there are authorized to be appropriated $900,000 for fiscal year 1978, $1,500,000 for fiscal year 1979, and $1,800,000 for fiscal year 1980. There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $2,300,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, $2,600,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, $3,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, and $3,500,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984."

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–537 substituted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, for provisions authorizing appropriation of such amounts as may be specifically authorized by an act enacted after Sept. 30, 1976.

§1613. Health professions preparatory scholarship program for Indians

(a) Requirements

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall make scholarship grants to Indians who—

(1) have successfully completed their high school education or high school equivalency; and

(2) have demonstrated the capability to successfully complete courses of study in the health professions.

(b) Purposes and duration of grants; preprofessional and pregraduate education

Scholarship grants made pursuant to this section shall be for the following purposes:

(1) Compensatory preprofessional education of any grantee, such scholarship not to exceed two years on a full-time basis (or the part-time equivalent thereof, as determined by the Secretary).

(2) Pregraduate education of any grantee leading to a baccalaureate degree in an approved course of study preparatory to a field of study in a health profession, such scholarship not to exceed 4 years (or the part-time equivalent thereof, as determined by the Secretary).

(c) Covered expenses

Scholarship grants made under this section may cover costs of tuition, books, transportation, board, and other necessary related expenses of a grantee while attending school.

(d) Basis for denial of assistance

The Secretary shall not deny scholarship assistance to an eligible applicant under this section solely on the basis of the applicant's scholastic achievement if such applicant has been admitted to, or maintained good standing at, an accredited institution.

(e) Eligibility for assistance under other Federal programs

The Secretary shall not deny scholarship assistance to an eligible applicant under this section solely by reason of such applicant's eligibility for assistance or benefits under any other Federal program.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §103, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 96–537, §3(b), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3174; Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §102, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4785; Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §102(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4530.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(b)(1), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "have demonstrated the capability to successfully complete courses of study in schools of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, public health, nursing, or allied health professions."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(b)(2), inserted before period at end "on a full-time basis (or the part-time equivalent thereof, as determined by the Secretary)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(b)(3), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Pregraduate education of any grantee leading to a baccalaureate degree in an approved premedicine, predentistry, preosteopathy, preveterinary medicine, preoptometry, or prepodiatry curriculum, such scholarship not to exceed four years."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(b)(4), struck out "full time" after "while attending school".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(b)(5), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section—

"(1) $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1989,

"(2) $3,700,000 for fiscal year 1990,

"(3) $4,400,000 for fiscal year 1991, and

"(4) $5,100,000 for fiscal year 1992."

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–713, §102(b), inserted "of a grantee while attending school full time" after "expenses".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 100–713, §102(a), added subsecs. (d) and (e) and struck out former subsec. (d) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of this section: $800,000 for fiscal year 1978, $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1979, and $1,300,000 for fiscal year 1980. There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $3,510,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, $4,000,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, $4,620,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, and $5,300,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984."

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–537, §3(b)(1), substituted provisions specifying in pars. (1) and (2), purposes for which scholarship grants could be made, for provisions that the scholarship grant shall be for a period not to exceed two academic years, which years shall be for compensatory preprofessional education of the grantee.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–537, §3(b)(2), substituted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, for provisions authorizing appropriations of such amounts as may be specifically authorized by an act enacted after Sept. 30, 1976.

§1613a. Indian health professions scholarships

(a) General authority

In order to provide health professionals to Indians, Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations, the Secretary, acting through the Service and in accordance with this section, shall make scholarship grants to Indians who are enrolled full or part time in appropriately accredited schools and pursuing courses of study in the health professions. Such scholarships shall be designated Indian Health Scholarships and shall be made in accordance with section 254l of title 42, except as provided in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Recipients; active duty service obligation

(1) The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall determine who shall receive scholarships under subsection (a) and shall determine the distribution of such scholarships among such health professions on the basis of the relative needs of Indians for additional service in such health professions.

(2) An individual shall be eligible for a scholarship under subsection (a) in any year in which such individual is enrolled full or part time in a course of study referred to in subsection (a) of this section.

(3)(A) The active duty service obligation under a written contract with the Secretary under section 254l of title 42 that an individual has entered into under that section shall, if that individual is a recipient of an Indian Health Scholarship, be met in full-time practice, by service—

(i) in the Indian Health Service;

(ii) in a program conducted under a contract entered into under the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.];

(iii) in a program assisted under subchapter IV of this chapter; 1

(iv) in the private practice of the applicable profession if, as determined by the Secretary, in accordance with guidelines promulgated by the Secretary, such practice is situated in a physician or other health professional shortage area and addresses the health care needs of a substantial number of Indians; or 2


(B) At the request of any individual who has entered into a contract referred to in subparagraph (A) and who receives a degree in medicine (including osteopathic or allopathic medicine), dentistry, optometry, podiatry, or pharmacy, the Secretary shall defer the active duty service obligation of that individual under that contract, in order that such individual may complete any internship, residency, or other advanced clinical training that is required for the practice of that health profession, for an appropriate period (in years, as determined by the Secretary), subject to the following conditions:

(i) No period of internship, residency, or other advanced clinical training shall be counted as satisfying any period of obligated service that is required under this section.

(ii) The active duty service obligation of that individual shall commence not later than 90 days after the completion of that advanced clinical training (or by a date specified by the Secretary).

(iii) The active duty service obligation will be served in the health profession of that individual, in a manner consistent with clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A).


(C) A recipient of an Indian Health Scholarship may, at the election of the recipient, meet the active duty service obligation described in subparagraph (A) by service in a program specified in that subparagraph that—

(i) is located on the reservation of the tribe in which the recipient is enrolled; or

(ii) serves the tribe in which the recipient is enrolled.


(D) Subject to subparagraph (C), the Secretary, in making assignments of Indian Health Scholarship recipients required to meet the active duty service obligation described in subparagraph (A), shall give priority to assigning individuals to service in those programs specified in subparagraph (A) that have a need for health professionals to provide health care services as a result of individuals having breached contracts entered into under this section.

(4) In the case of an individual receiving a scholarship under this section who is enrolled part time in an approved course of study—

(A) such scholarship shall be for a period of years not to exceed the part-time equivalent of 4 years, as determined by the Secretary;

(B) the period of obligated service described in paragraph (3)(A) shall be equal to the greater of—

(i) the part-time equivalent of one year for each year for which the individual was provided a scholarship (as determined by the Secretary); or

(ii) two years; and


(C) the amount of the monthly stipend specified in section 254l(g)(1)(B) of title 42 shall be reduced pro rata (as determined by the Secretary) based on the number of hours such student is enrolled.


(5)(A) An individual who has, on or after October 29, 1992, entered into a written contract with the Secretary under this section and who—

(i) fails to maintain an acceptable level of academic standing in the educational institution in which he is enrolled (such level determined by the educational institution under regulations of the Secretary),

(ii) is dismissed from such educational institution for disciplinary reasons,

(iii) voluntarily terminates the training in such an educational institution for which he is provided a scholarship under such contract before the completion of such training, or

(iv) fails to accept payment, or instructs the educational institution in which he is enrolled not to accept payment, in whole or in part, of a scholarship under such contract,


in lieu of any service obligation arising under such contract, shall be liable to the United States for the amount which has been paid to him, or on his behalf, under the contract.

(B) If for any reason not specified in subparagraph (A) an individual breaches his written contract by failing either to begin such individual's service obligation under this section or to complete such service obligation, the United States shall be entitled to recover from the individual an amount determined in accordance with the formula specified in subsection (l) of section 1616a of this title in the manner provided for in such subsection.

(C) Upon the death of an individual who receives an Indian Health Scholarship, any obligation of that individual for service or payment that relates to that scholarship shall be canceled.

(D) The Secretary shall provide for the partial or total waiver or suspension of any obligation of service or payment of a recipient of an Indian Health Scholarship if the Secretary determines that—

(i) it is not possible for the recipient to meet that obligation or make that payment;

(ii) requiring that recipient to meet that obligation or make that payment would result in extreme hardship to the recipient; or

(iii) the enforcement of the requirement to meet the obligation or make the payment would be unconscionable.


(E) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any case of extreme hardship or for other good cause shown, the Secretary may waive, in whole or in part, the right of the United States to recover funds made available under this section.

(F) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, with respect to a recipient of an Indian Health Scholarship, no obligation for payment may be released by a discharge in bankruptcy under title 11, unless that discharge is granted after the expiration of the 5-year period beginning on the initial date on which that payment is due, and only if the bankruptcy court finds that the nondischarge of the obligation would be unconscionable.

(c) Placement Office

The Secretary shall, acting through the Service, establish a Placement Office to develop and implement a national policy for the placement, to available vacancies within the Service, of Indian Health Scholarship recipients required to meet the active duty service obligation prescribed under section 254m of title 42 without regard to any competitive personnel system, agency personnel limitation, or Indian preference policy.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §104, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §104(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4786; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§102(c), 103, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4531, 4532; Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3820.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(A)(ii), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 104 of Pub. L. 94–437, title I, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1403, amended former section 234 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(1)(A), substituted "The active duty service obligation under a written contract with the Secretary under section 254l of title 42 that an individual has entered into under that section shall, if that individual is a recipient of an Indian Health Scholarship, be met in full-time practice, by service—" for "The active duty service obligation prescribed under section 254m of title 42 shall be met by a  recipient  of  an  Indian  Health  Scholarship  by service—" in introductory provisions, struck out "or" at end of cl. (iii), and substituted "; or" for period at end of cl. (iv).

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(1)(C), added subpar. (B). Former subpar. (B) redesignated (C).

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(1)(D), substituted "described in subparagraph (A) by service in a program specified in that subparagraph" for "prescribed under section 254m of title 42 by service in a program specified in subparagraph (A)".

Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(1)(B), redesignated subpar. (B) as (C). Former subpar. (C) redesignated (D).

Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(1)(E), substituted "Subject to subparagraph (C)," for "Subject to subparagraph (B)," and "described in subparagraph (A)" for "prescribed under section 254m of title 42".

Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(1)(B), redesignated subpar. (C) as (D).

Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(2)(A), substituted "the period of obligated service described in paragraph (3)(A) shall be equal to the greater of—" for "the period of obligated service specified in section 254l(f)(1)(B)(iv) of title 42 shall be equal to the greater of—" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(2)(B), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 254l(g)(1)(B) of title 42.

Subsec. (b)(5)(C) to (F). Pub. L. 104–313, §2(b)(3), added subpars. (C) to (F).

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(c)(1)(C), substituted "accredited schools and pursuing courses of study in the health professions" for "accredited schools of medicine, osteopathy, podiatry, psychology, dentistry, environmental health and engineering, nursing, optometry, public health, allied health professions, and social work".

Pub. L. 102–573, §102(c)(1)(A), (B), substituted "Indians, Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations" for "Indian communities" and "full or part time" for "full time".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(c)(2)(A), substituted "full or part time" for "full time" and "course of study" for "health profession school".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(c)(2)(B), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), redesignated former subpars. (A) to (D) as cls. (i) to (iv), respectively, and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(c)(2)(C), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 102–573, §103, added par. (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(c)(3), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "For purposes of this section, the term 'Indian' has the same meaning given that term by subsection (c) of section 1603 of this title, including all individuals described in clauses (1) through (4) of that subsection."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(c)(4), struck out subsec. (d) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1989 to 1992.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §102(d), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4532, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (c)(1)(C) and subsection (c)(2)(B) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to scholarships granted under section 104 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act [this section] after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 29, 1992]."

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by "or".

2 So in original. The "; or" probably should be a period.

§1614. Indian health service extern programs

(a) Employment of scholarship grantees during nonacademic periods

Any individual who receives a scholarship grant pursuant to section 1613a of this title shall be entitled to employment in the Service during any nonacademic period of the year. Periods of employment pursuant to this subsection shall not be counted in determining the fulfillment of the service obligation incurred as a condition of the scholarship grant.

(b) Employment of medical and other students during nonacademic periods

Any individual enrolled in a course of study in the health professions may be employed by the Service during any nonacademic period of the year. Any such employment shall not exceed one hundred and twenty days during any calendar year.

(c) Employment without regard to competitive personnel system or agency personnel limitation; compensation

Any employment pursuant to this section shall be made without regard to any competitive personnel system or agency personnel limitation and to a position which will enable the individual so employed to receive practical experience in the health profession in which he or she is engaged in study. Any individual so employed shall receive payment for his or her services comparable to the salary he or she would receive if he or she were employed in the competitive system. Any individual so employed shall not be counted against any employment ceiling affecting the Service or the Department of Health and Human Services.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §105, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 95–83, title III, §307(n)(2), Aug. 1, 1977, 91 Stat. 393; Pub. L. 96–537, §3(c), Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3174; Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §103, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4786; Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§102(e), 117(b)(2), title IX, §902(2)(B), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4532, 4544, 4591.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(e)(1), substituted "section 1613a of this title" for "section 254r of title 42".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §102(e)(2), substituted "course of study in the health professions" for "school of medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, veterinary medicine, optometry, podiatry, pharmacy, public health, nursing, or allied health professions".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §902(2)(B), substituted "Department of Health and Human Services" for "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–573, §117(b)(2), struck out subsec. (d) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1989 to 1992.

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–713 amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of this section: $600,000 for fiscal year 1978, $800,000 for fiscal year 1979, and $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1980. There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $990,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1981, $1,140,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1982, $1,310,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1983, and $1,510,000 for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1984."

1980—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 96–537 substituted provisions authorizing appropriations of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, for provisions authorizing appropriation of such amounts as may be specifically authorized by an act enacted after Sept. 30, 1976.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–83 substituted reference to "section 294y–1 of title 42" for reference to "section 104" meaning section 104 of Pub. L. 94–437, which added section 234(i)(2) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

§1615. Continuing education allowances

In order to encourage scholarship and stipend recipients under sections 1613a, 1614, and 1616h of this title and health professionals, including community health representatives and emergency medical technicians, to join or continue in an Indian health program and to provide services in the rural and remote areas in which a significant portion of Indians reside, the Secretary, acting through the Service, may—

(1) provide programs or allowances to transition into an Indian health program, including licensing, board or certification examination assistance, and technical assistance in fulfilling service obligations under sections 1613a, 1614, and 1616h of this title; and

(2) provide programs or allowances to health professionals employed in an Indian health program to enable those professionals, for a period of time each year prescribed by regulation of the Secretary, to take leave of the duty stations of the professionals for professional consultation, management, leadership, and refresher training courses.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §106, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §105, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4787; Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§104(a), 115, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4533, 4543; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 134(c) of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to discretionary allowances to health professionals employed in the Service to take leave for professional consultation and refresher training courses and included a limitation on use of appropriations to establish postdoctoral training programs for health professionals.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573, §104(a), inserted "nurses," after "physicians, dentists,".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §115, amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section—

"(1) $500,000 for fiscal year 1989,

"(2) $526,300 for fiscal year 1990,

"(3) $553,800 for fiscal year 1991, and

"(4) $582,500 for fiscal year 1992."

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–713 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of this section: $100,000 for fiscal year 1978, $200,000 for fiscal year 1979, and $250,000 for fiscal year 1980. For fiscal years 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984 there are authorized to be appropriated for the purpose of this section such sums as may be specifically authorized by an Act enacted after this chapter."

§1616. Community Health Representative Program

(a) Under the authority of section 13 of this title, the Secretary shall maintain a Community Health Representative Program under which the Service—

(1) provides for the training of Indians as health paraprofessionals, and

(2) uses such paraprofessionals in the provision of health care, health promotion, and disease prevention services to Indian communities.


(b) The Secretary, acting through the Community Health Representative Program of the Service, shall—

(1) provide a high standard of training for paraprofessionals to Community Health Representatives to ensure that the Community Health Representatives provide quality health care, health promotion, and disease prevention services to the Indian communities served by such Program,

(2) in order to provide such training, develop and maintain a curriculum that—

(A) combines education in the theory of health care with supervised practical experience in the provision of health care, and

(B) provides instruction and practical experience in health promotion and disease prevention activities, with appropriate consideration given to lifestyle factors that have an impact on Indian health status, such as alcoholism, family dysfunction, and poverty,


(3) maintain a system which identifies the needs of Community Health Representatives for continuing education in health care, health promotion, and disease prevention and maintain programs that meet the needs for such continuing education,

(4) maintain a system that provides close supervision of Community Health Representatives,

(5) maintain a system under which the work of Community Health Representatives is reviewed and evaluated, and

(6) promote traditional health care practices of the Indian tribes served consistent with the Service standards for the provision of health care, health promotion, and disease prevention.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §107, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §107, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4788; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §105, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4535.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §105(1), inserted "and maintain" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–573, §105(2), inserted at end "with appropriate consideration given to lifestyle factors that have an impact on Indian health status, such as alcoholism, family dysfunction, and poverty,".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §105(3), substituted "maintain" for "develop" in two places.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–573, §105(4), struck out "develop and" before "maintain".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 102–573, §105(3), substituted "maintain" for "develop".

§1616a. Indian Health Service Loan Repayment Program

(a) Establishment

(1) The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall establish a program to be known as the Indian Health Service Loan Repayment Program (hereinafter referred to as the "Loan Repayment Program") in order to assure an adequate supply of trained health professionals necessary to maintain accreditation of, and provide health care services to Indians through, Indian health programs.

(2) For the purposes of this section—

(A) the term "Indian health program" means any health program or facility funded, in whole or part, by the Service for the benefit of Indians and administered—

(i) directly by the Service;

(ii) by any Indian tribe or tribal or Indian organization pursuant to a contract under—

(I) the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.], or

(II) section 23 of the Act of April 30, 1908 1 (25 U.S.C. 47), popularly known as the "Buy-Indian" Act; or


(iii) by an urban Indian organization pursuant to subchapter IV of this chapter; and


(B) the term "State" has the same meaning given such term in section 254d(i)(4) 1 of title 42.

(b) Eligibility

To be eligible to participate in the Loan Repayment Program, an individual must—

(1)(A) be enrolled—

(i) in a course of study or program in an accredited institution, as determined by the Secretary, within any State and be scheduled to complete such course of study in the same year such individual applies to participate in such program; or

(ii) in an approved graduate training program in a health profession; or


(B) have—

(i) a degree in a health profession; and

(ii) a license to practice a health profession in a State;


(2)(A) be eligible for, or hold, an appointment as a commissioned officer in the Regular or Reserve Corps 2 of the Public Health Service;

(B) be eligible for selection for civilian service in the Regular or Reserve Corps 2 of the Public Health Service;

(C) meet the professional standards for civil service employment in the Indian Health Service; or

(D) be employed in an Indian health program without a service obligation; and

(3) submit to the Secretary an application for a contract described in subsection (f).

(c) Application and contract forms

(1) In disseminating application forms and contract forms to individuals desiring to participate in the Loan Repayment Program, the Secretary shall include with such forms a fair summary of the rights and liabilities of an individual whose application is approved (and whose contract is accepted) by the Secretary, including in the summary a clear explanation of the damages to which the United States is entitled under subsection (l) in the case of the individual's breach of the contract. The Secretary shall provide such individuals with sufficient information regarding the advantages and disadvantages of service as a commissioned officer in the Regular or Reserve Corps 2 of the Public Health Service or a civilian employee of the Indian Health Service to enable the individual to make a decision on an informed basis.

(2) The application form, contract form, and all other information furnished by the Secretary under this section shall be written in a manner calculated to be understood by the average individual applying to participate in the Loan Repayment Program.

(3) The Secretary shall make such application forms, contract forms, and other information available to individuals desiring to participate in the Loan Repayment Program on a date sufficiently early to ensure that such individuals have adequate time to carefully review and evaluate such forms and information.

(d) Vacancies; priority

(1) Consistent with paragraph (3), the Secretary, acting through the Service and in accordance with subsection (k), shall annually—

(A) identify the positions in each Indian health program for which there is a need or a vacancy, and

(B) rank those positions in order of priority.


(2) Consistent with the priority determined under paragraph (1), the Secretary, in determining which applications under the Loan Repayment Program to approve (and which contracts to accept), shall give priority to applications made by—

(A) Indians; and

(B) individuals recruited through the efforts of Indian tribes or tribal or Indian organizations.


(3)(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), of the total amounts appropriated for each of the fiscal years 1993, 1994, and 1995 for loan repayment contracts under this section, the Secretary shall provide that—

(i) not less than 25 percent be provided to applicants who are nurses, nurse practitioners, or nurse midwives; and

(ii) not less than 10 percent be provided to applicants who are mental health professionals (other than applicants described in clause (i)).


(B) The requirements specified in clause (i) or clause (ii) of subparagraph (A) shall not apply if the Secretary does not receive the number of applications from the individuals described in clause (i) or clause (ii), respectively, necessary to meet such requirements.

(e) Approval

(1) An individual becomes a participant in the Loan Repayment Program only upon the Secretary and the individual entering into a written contract described in subsection (f).

(2) The Secretary shall provide written notice to an individual promptly on—

(A) the Secretary's approving, under paragraph (1), of the individual's participation in the Loan Repayment Program, including extensions resulting in an aggregate period of obligated service in excess of 4 years; or

(B) the Secretary's disapproving an individual's participation in such Program.

(f) Contract terms

The written contract referred to in this section between the Secretary and an individual shall contain—

(1) an agreement under which—

(A) subject to paragraph (3), the Secretary agrees—

(i) to pay loans on behalf of the individual in accordance with the provisions of this section, and

(ii) to accept (subject to the availability of appropriated funds for carrying out this section) the individual into the Service or place the individual with a tribe or Indian organization as provided in subparagraph (B)(iii), and


(B) subject to paragraph (3), the individual agrees—

(i) to accept loan payments on behalf of the individual;

(ii) in the case of an individual described in subsection (b)(1)—

(I) to maintain enrollment in a course of study or training described in subsection (b)(1)(A) until the individual completes the course of study or training, and

(II) while enrolled in such course of study or training, to maintain an acceptable level of academic standing (as determined under regulations of the Secretary by the educational institution offering such course of study or training);


(iii) to serve for a time period (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "period of obligated service") equal to 2 years or such longer period as the individual may agree to serve in the full-time clinical practice of such individual's profession in an Indian health program to which the individual may be assigned by the Secretary;


(2) a provision permitting the Secretary to extend for such longer additional periods, as the individual may agree to, the period of obligated service agreed to by the individual under paragraph (1)(B)(iii);

(3) a provision that any financial obligation of the United States arising out of a contract entered into under this section and any obligation of the individual which is conditioned thereon is contingent upon funds being appropriated for loan repayments under this section;

(4) a statement of the damages to which the United States is entitled under subsection (l) for the individual's breach of the contract; and

(5) such other statements of the rights and liabilities of the Secretary and of the individual, not inconsistent with this section.

(g) Loan repayment purposes; maximum amount; tax liability reimbursement; schedule of payments

(1) A loan repayment provided for an individual under a written contract under the Loan Repayment Program shall consist of payment, in accordance with paragraph (2), on behalf of the individual of the principal, interest, and related expenses on government and commercial loans received by the individual regarding the undergraduate or graduate education of the individual (or both), which loans were made for—

(A) tuition expenses;

(B) all other reasonable educational expenses, including fees, books, and laboratory expenses, incurred by the individual; and

(C) reasonable living expenses as determined by the Secretary.


(2)(A) For each year of obligated service that an individual contracts to serve under subsection (f) the Secretary may pay up to $35,000 (or an amount equal to the amount specified in section 254l–1(g)(2)(A) of title 42) on behalf of the individual for loans described in paragraph (1). In making a determination of the amount to pay for a year of such service by an individual, the Secretary shall consider the extent to which each such determination—

(i) affects the ability of the Secretary to maximize the number of contracts that can be provided under the Loan Repayment Program from the amounts appropriated for such contracts;

(ii) provides an incentive to serve in Indian health programs with the greatest shortages of health professionals; and

(iii) provides an incentive with respect to the health professional involved remaining in an Indian health program with such a health professional shortage, and continuing to provide primary health services, after the completion of the period of obligated service under the Loan Repayment Program.


(B) Any arrangement made by the Secretary for the making of loan repayments in accordance with this subsection shall provide that any repayments for a year of obligated service shall be made no later than the end of the fiscal year in which the individual completes such year of service.

(3) For the purpose of providing reimbursements for tax liability resulting from payments under paragraph (2) on behalf of an individual, the Secretary—

(A) in addition to such payments, may make payments to the individual in an amount not less than 20 percent and not more than 39 percent of the total amount of loan repayments made for the taxable year involved; and

(B) may make such additional payments as the Secretary determines to be appropriate with respect to such purpose.


(4) The Secretary may enter into an agreement with the holder of any loan for which payments are made under the Loan Repayment Program to establish a schedule for the making of such payments.

(h) Effect on employment ceiling of Department of Health and Human Services

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, individuals who have entered into written contracts with the Secretary under this section, while undergoing academic training, shall not be counted against any employment ceiling affecting the Department of Health and Human Services.

(i) Recruiting programs

The Secretary shall conduct recruiting programs for the Loan Repayment Program and other health professional programs of the Service at educational institutions training health professionals or specialists identified in subsection (a).

(j) Prohibition of assignment to other government departments

Section 215 of title 42 shall not apply to individuals during their period of obligated service under the Loan Repayment Program.

(k) Staff needs of health programs administered by Indian tribes

The Secretary, in assigning individuals to serve in Indian health programs pursuant to contracts entered into under this section, shall—

(1) ensure that the staffing needs of Indian health programs administered by an Indian tribe or tribal or health organization receive consideration on an equal basis with programs that are administered directly by the Service; and

(2) give priority to assigning individuals to Indian health programs that have a need for health professionals to provide health care services as a result of individuals having breached contracts entered into under this section.

(l) Voluntary termination of study or dismissal from educational institution; collection of damages

(1) An individual who has entered into a written contract with the Secretary under this section and who—

(A) is enrolled in the final year of a course of study and who—

(i) fails to maintain an acceptable level of academic standing in the educational institution in which he is enrolled (such level determined by the educational institution under regulations of the Secretary);

(ii) voluntarily terminates such enrollment; or

(iii) is dismissed from such educational institution before completion of such course of study; or


(B) is enrolled in a graduate training program, fails to complete such training program, and does not receive a waiver from the Secretary under subsection (b)(1)(B)(ii),


shall be liable, in lieu of any service obligation arising under such contract, to the United States for the amount which has been paid on such individual's behalf under the contract.

(2) If, for any reason not specified in paragraph (1), an individual breaches his written contract under this section by failing either to begin, or complete, such individual's period of obligated service in accordance with subsection (f), the United States shall be entitled to recover from such individual an amount to be determined in accordance with the following formula:

A=3Z(t-s/t)

in which—

(A) "A" is the amount the United States is entitled to recover;

(B) "Z" is the sum of the amounts paid under this section to, or on behalf of, the individual and the interest on such amounts which would be payable if, at the time the amounts were paid, they were loans bearing interest at the maximum legal prevailing rate, as determined by the Treasurer of the United States;

(C) "t" is the total number of months in the individual's period of obligated service in accordance with subsection (f); and

(D) "s" is the number of months of such period served by such individual in accordance with this section.


Amounts not paid within such period shall be subject to collection through deductions in Medicare payments pursuant to section 1395ccc of title 42.

(3)(A) Any amount of damages which the United States is entitled to recover under this subsection shall be paid to the United States within the 1-year period beginning on the date of the breach or such longer period beginning on such date as shall be specified by the Secretary.

(B) If damages described in subparagraph (A) are delinquent for 3 months, the Secretary shall, for the purpose of recovering such damages—

(i) utilize collection agencies contracted with by the Administrator of the General Services Administration; or

(ii) enter into contracts for the recovery of such damages with collection agencies selected by the Secretary.


(C) Each contract for recovering damages pursuant to this subsection shall provide that the contractor will, not less than once each 6 months, submit to the Secretary a status report on the success of the contractor in collecting such damages. Section 3718 of title 31 shall apply to any such contract to the extent not inconsistent with this subsection.

(m) Cancellation or waiver of obligations; bankruptcy discharge

(1) Any obligation of an individual under the Loan Repayment Program for service or payment of damages shall be canceled upon the death of the individual.

(2) The Secretary shall by regulation provide for the partial or total waiver or suspension of any obligation of service or payment by an individual under the Loan Repayment Program whenever compliance by the individual is impossible or would involve extreme hardship to the individual and if enforcement of such obligation with respect to any individual would be unconscionable.

(3) The Secretary may waive, in whole or in part, the rights of the United States to recover amounts under this section in any case of extreme hardship or other good cause shown, as determined by the Secretary.

(4) Any obligation of an individual under the Loan Repayment Program for payment of damages may be released by a discharge in bankruptcy under title 11 only if such discharge is granted after the expiration of the 5-year period beginning on the first date that payment of such damages is required, and only if the bankruptcy court finds that nondischarge of the obligation would be unconscionable.

(n) Annual report

The Secretary shall submit to the President, for inclusion in each report required to be submitted to the Congress under section 1671 of this title, a report concerning the previous fiscal year which sets forth—

(1) the health professional positions maintained by the Service or by tribal or Indian organizations for which recruitment or retention is difficult;

(2) the number of Loan Repayment Program applications filed with respect to each type of health profession;

(3) the number of contracts described in subsection (f) that are entered into with respect to each health profession;

(4) the amount of loan payments made under this section, in total and by health profession;

(5) the number of scholarship grants that are provided under section 1613a of this title with respect to each health profession;

(6) the amount of scholarship grants provided under section 1613a of this title, in total and by health profession;

(7) the number of providers of health care that will be needed by Indian health programs, by location and profession, during the three fiscal years beginning after the date the report is filed; and

(8) the measures the Secretary plans to take to fill the health professional positions maintained by the Service or by tribes or tribal or Indian organizations for which recruitment or retention is difficult.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §108, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §108, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4789; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§106(a)–(g)(1), (h), (i), 117(b)(3), title IX, §902(2)(C), (D), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4535–4537, 4544, 4591.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii)(I), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Section 23 of the Act of April 30, 1908, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii)(II), probably should be a reference to section 23 of act June 25, 1910, ch. 431, 36 Stat. 861, which is popularly known as the "Buy Indian Act", and is classified to section 47 of this title. Act Apr. 30, 1908, ch. 153, 35 Stat. 70, does not contain a section 23 but does have provisions (at 35 Stat. 71) similar to those in section 23 of act June 25, 1910, ch. 431, 36 Stat. 861.

Section 254d(i)(4) of title 42, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B), was redesignated section 254d(j)(4) of title 42 by Pub. L. 107–251, title III, §310(b)(1), Oct. 26, 2002, 116 Stat. 1643.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(a)(1), substituted "health professionals" for "physicians, dentists, nurses, nurse practitioners, physician assistants, clinical and counseling psychologists, graduates of schools of public health, graduates of schools of social work, and other health professionals".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(a)(2)(A)(i), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "as a full-time student in the final year of a course of study or program in an accredited institution, as determined by the Secretary, within any State; or".

Subsec. (b)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(a)(2)(A)(ii), substituted "a health profession" for "medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, or other health profession".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(a)(2)(B), in cl. (i), substituted "a degree in a health profession; and" for "a degree in medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, or other health profession;", redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii) and substituted "a health profession" for "medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, or other health profession", and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "completed an approved graduate training program in medicine, osteopathy, dentistry, or other health profession in a State, except that the Secretary may waive the completion requirement of this clause for good cause; and".

Subsec. (b)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(a)(2)(C), inserted "and" at end of par. (2)(D), added par. (3), and struck out former pars. (3) and (4) which read as follows:

"(3) submit an application to participate in the Loan Repayment Program; and

"(4) sign and submit to the Secretary, at the time of submission of such application, a written contract (described in subsection (f) of this section) to accept repayment of educational loans and to serve (in accordance with this section) for the applicable period of obligated service in an Indian health program."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(b)(1), substituted "Consistent with paragraph (3), the" for "The".

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 102–573, §902(2)(C), substituted "Indian health" for "Indian Health".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(b)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(c), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "An individual becomes a participant in the Loan Repayment Program only on the Secretary's approval of the individual's application submitted under subsection (b)(3) of this section and the Secretary's acceptance of the contract submitted by the individual under subsection (b)(4) of this section."

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(d), inserted ", including extensions resulting in an aggregate period of obligated service in excess of 4 years" before "; or".

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(e), in introductory provisions, substituted "loans received by the individual regarding the undergraduate or graduate education of the individual (or both), which loans were made for" for "loans received by the individual for".

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(f), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "Except as provided in subparagraph (B) and paragraph (3), for each year of obligated service for which an individual contracts to serve under subsection (f) of this section, the Secretary may pay up to $25,000 on behalf of the individual for loans described in paragraph (1)."

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(g)(1), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "In addition to payments made under paragraph (2), in any case in which payments on behalf of an individual under the Loan Repayment Program result in an increase in Federal, State, or local income tax liability for such individual, the Secretary may, on the request of such individual, make payments to such individual in a reasonable amount, as determined by the Secretary, to reimburse such individual for all or part of the increased tax liability of the individual."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–573, §902(2)(D), substituted "health professional programs of the Service" for "Service manpower programs".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(h), amended subsec. (k) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (k) read as follows: "The Secretary shall ensure that the staffing needs of Indian health programs administered by any Indian tribe or tribal or Indian organization receive consideration on an equal basis with programs that are administered directly by the Service."

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 102–573, §106(i), amended subsec. (n) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (n) consisted of pars. (1) and (2) requiring submission of annual reports to Congress by the first of March and the first of July of each year.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 102–573, §117(b)(3), struck out subsec. (o) which read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each fiscal year to carry out the provisions of this section."


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

Reference to Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service deemed to be a reference to the Ready Reserve Corps, see section 402(c)(3) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §106(g)(2), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4537, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to contracts under section 108 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act [this section] entered into on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 29, 1992]."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 See Change of Name note below.

§1616a–1. Scholarship and Loan Repayment Recovery Fund

(a) Establishment

There is established in the Treasury of the United States a fund to be known as the Indian Health Scholarship and Loan Repayment Recovery Fund (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Fund"). The Fund shall consist of such amounts as may be appropriated to the Fund under subsection (b). Amounts appropriated for the Fund shall remain available until expended.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

For each fiscal year, there is authorized to be appropriated to the Fund an amount equal to the sum of—

(1) the amount collected during the preceding fiscal year by the Federal Government pursuant to—

(A) the liability of individuals under subparagraph (A) or (B) of section 1613a(b)(5) of this title for the breach of contracts entered into under section 1613a of this title; and

(B) the liability of individuals under section 1616a(l) of this title for the breach of contracts entered into under section 1616a of this title; and


(2) the aggregate amount of interest accruing during the preceding fiscal year on obligations held in the Fund pursuant to subsection (d) and the amount of proceeds from the sale or redemption of such obligations during such fiscal year.

(c) Use of funds

(1) Amounts in the Fund and available pursuant to appropriation Acts may be expended by the Secretary, acting through the Service, to make payments to an Indian tribe or tribal organization administering a health care program pursuant to a contract entered into under the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.]—

(A) to which a scholarship recipient under section 1613a of this title or a loan repayment program participant under section 1616a of this title has been assigned to meet the obligated service requirements pursuant to 1 sections; and

(B) that has a need for a health professional to provide health care services as a result of such recipient or participant having breached the contract entered into under section 1613a of this title or section 1616a of this title.


(2) An Indian tribe or tribal organization receiving payments pursuant to paragraph (1) may expend the payments to recruit and employ, directly or by contract, health professionals to provide health care services.

(d) Investment of excess funds

(1) The Secretary of the Treasury shall invest such amounts of the Fund as such Secretary determines are not required to meet current withdrawals from the Fund. Such investments may be made only in interest-bearing obligations of the United States. For such purpose, such obligations may be acquired on original issue at the issue price, or by purchase of outstanding obligations at the market price.

(2) Any obligation acquired by the Fund may be sold by the Secretary of the Treasury at the market price.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §108A, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §110, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4538.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

1 So in original. Probably should be "to such".

§1616b. Recruitment activities

(a) The Secretary may reimburse health professionals seeking positions in the Service, including individuals considering entering into a contract under section 1616a of this title, and their spouses, for actual and reasonable expenses incurred in traveling to and from their places of residence to an area in which they may be assigned for the purpose of evaluating such area with respect to such assignment.

(b) The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall assign one individual in each area office to be responsible on a full-time basis for recruitment activities.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §109, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §108, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4794; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §107, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4538.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–573, §107(1), substituted "Recruitment activities" for "Travel expenses for recruitment" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §107(2), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated $100,000 for each of the fiscal years 1990, 1991, and 1992, for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section."

§1616c. Tribal recruitment and retention program

(a) Projects funded on competitive basis

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall fund, on a competitive basis, projects to enable Indian tribes and tribal and Indian organizations to recruit, place, and retain health professionals to meet the staffing needs of Indian health programs (as defined in section 1616a(a)(2) of this title).

(b) Eligibility

(1) Any Indian tribe or tribal or Indian organization may submit an application for funding of a project pursuant to this section.

(2) Indian tribes and tribal and Indian organizations under the authority of the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.] shall be given an equal opportunity with programs that are administered directly by the Service to compete for, and receive, grants under subsection (a) for such projects.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §110, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §108, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4794; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §117(b)(4), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4544.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573 struck out subsec. (c) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1990 to 1992.

§1616d. Advanced training and research

(a) Establishment of program

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall establish a program to enable health professionals to pursue advanced training or research in areas of study for which the Secretary determines a need exists. In selecting participants for a program established under this subsection, the Secretary, acting through the Service, shall give priority to applicants who are employed by the Indian Health Service, Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations, at the time of the submission of the applications.

(b) Obligated service

An individual who participates in a program under subsection (a), where the educational costs are borne by the Service, shall incur an obligation to serve in an Indian health program (as defined in section 1616a(a)(2) of this title) for a period of obligated service equal to at least the period of time during which the individual participates in such program. In the event that the individual fails to complete such obligated service, the individual shall be liable to the United States for the period of service remaining. In such event, with respect to individuals entering the program after October 29, 1992, the United States shall be entitled to recover from such individual an amount to be determined in accordance with the formula specified in subsection (l) of section 1616a of this title in the manner provided for in such subsection.

(c) Eligibility

Health professionals from Indian tribes and tribal and Indian organizations under the authority of the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.] shall be given an equal opportunity to participate in the program under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §111, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §108, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4795; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §108, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4538; Pub. L. 103–435, §16(a), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4573.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–435, §16(a)(1), struck out "who have worked in an Indian health program (as defined in section 1616a(a)(2) of this title) for a substantial period of time" after "health professionals" and inserted at end "In selecting participants for a program established under this subsection, the Secretary, acting through the Service, shall give priority to applicants who are employed by the Indian Health Service, Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations, at the time of the submission of the applications."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–435, §16(a)(2), inserted "(as defined in section 1616a(a)(2) of this title)" after "Indian health program".

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §108(1), amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "The Secretary shall develop standards for appropriate recoupment for such remaining service."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–573, §108(2), struck out subsec. (d) which directed Secretary to prescribe regulations to carry out this section.

§1616e. Nursing program

(a) Grants

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall provide grants to—

(1) public or private schools of nursing,

(2) tribally controlled community colleges and tribally controlled postsecondary vocational institutions (as defined in section 2397h(2) 1 of title 20), and

(3) nurse midwife programs, and nurse practitioner programs, that are provided by any public or private institution,


for the purpose of increasing the number of nurses, nurse midwives, and nurse practitioners who deliver health care services to Indians.

(b) Purposes

Grants provided under subsection (a) may be used to—

(1) recruit individuals for programs which train individuals to be nurses, nurse midwives, or nurse practitioners,

(2) provide scholarships to individuals enrolled in such programs that may pay the tuition charged for such program and other expenses incurred in connection with such program, including books, fees, room and board, and stipends for living expenses,

(3) provide a program that encourages nurses, nurse midwives, and nurse practitioners to provide, or continue to provide, health care services to Indians,

(4) provide a program that increases the skills of, and provides continuing education to, nurses, nurse midwives, and nurse practitioners, or

(5) provide any program that is designed to achieve the purpose described in subsection (a).

(c) Application

Each application for a grant under subsection (a) shall include such information as the Secretary may require to establish the connection between the program of the applicant and a health care facility that primarily serves Indians.

(d) Preference

In providing grants under subsection (a), the Secretary shall extend a preference to—

(1) programs that provide a preference to Indians,

(2) programs that train nurse midwives or nurse practitioners,

(3) programs that are interdisciplinary, and

(4) programs that are conducted in cooperation with a center for gifted and talented Indian students established under section 2624(a) 1 of this title.

(e) Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Nursing Program

The Secretary shall provide one of the grants authorized under subsection (a) to establish and maintain a program at the University of North Dakota to be known as the "Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Nursing Program". Such program shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coordinate with the Quentin N. Burdick Indian Health Programs established under section 1616g(b) of this title and the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Psychology Program established under section 1621p(b) of this title.

(f) Service obligation

The active duty service obligation prescribed under section 254m of title 42 shall be met by each individual who receives training or assistance described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (b) that is funded by a grant provided under subsection (a). Such obligation shall be met by service—

(A) in the Indian Health Service;

(B) in a program conducted under a contract entered into under the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.];

(C) in a program assisted under subchapter IV of this chapter; or

(D) in the private practice of nursing if, as determined by the Secretary, in accordance with guidelines promulgated by the Secretary, such practice is situated in a physician or other health professional shortage area and addresses the health care needs of a substantial number of Indians.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

Beginning with fiscal year 1993, of the amounts appropriated under the authority of this subchapter for each fiscal year to be used to carry out this section, not less than $1,000,000 shall be used to provide grants under subsection (a) for the training of nurse midwives, nurse anesthetists, and nurse practitioners.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §112, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §108, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4795; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§104(b), (c), 114(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4533, 4543.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 2397h of title 20, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was omitted in the general amendment of chapter 44 (§2301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, by Pub. L. 105–332, §1(b), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3076.

Section 2624 of this title, referred to in subsec. (d)(4), was repealed by Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §367, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 3976.

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(B), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §114(a), inserted "and tribally controlled postsecondary vocational institutions (as defined in section 2397h(2) of title 20)" after "community colleges".

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 102–573, §104(b), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f). Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–573, §104(c), amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (g) read as follows:

"(1) There are authorized to be appropriated for each of the fiscal years 1990, 1991, and 1992, $5,000,000 for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this section.

"(2) Of the amounts appropriated under the authority of paragraph (1) for each fiscal year, the Secretary shall use at least $1,000,000 to provide grants under subsection (a) for the training of nurse midwives."

Pub. L. 102–573, §104(b)(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (g).

1 See References in Text note below.

§1616e–1. Nursing school clinics

(a) Grants

In addition to the authority of the Secretary under section 1616e(a)(1) of this title, the Secretary, acting through the Service, is authorized to provide grants to public or private schools of nursing for the purpose of establishing, developing, operating, and administering clinics to address the health care needs of Indians, and to provide primary health care services to Indians who reside on or within 50 miles of Indian country, as defined in section 1151 of title 18.

(b) Purposes

Grants provided under subsection (a) may be used to—

(1) establish clinics, to be run and staffed by the faculty and students of a grantee school, to provide primary care services in areas in or within 50 miles of Indian country (as defined in section 1151 of title 18);

(2) provide clinical training, program development, faculty enhancement, and student scholarships in a manner that would benefit such clinics; and

(3) carry out any other activities determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(c) Amount and conditions

The Secretary may award grants under this section in such amounts and subject to such conditions as the Secretary deems appropriate.

(d) Design

The clinics established under this section shall be designed to provide nursing students with a structured clinical experience that is similar in nature to that provided by residency training programs for physicians.

(e) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(f) Authorization to use amounts

Out of amounts appropriated to carry out this subchapter for each of the fiscal years 1993 through 2000 not more than $5,000,000 may be used to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §112A, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §104(f), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4534.)

§1616f. Tribal culture and history

(a) Program established

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall establish a program under which appropriate employees of the Service who serve particular Indian tribes shall receive educational instruction in the history and culture of such tribes and in the history of the Service.

(b) Tribally controlled institutions

To the extent feasible, the program established under subsection (a) shall—

(1) be carried out through tribally controlled colleges or universities (within the meaning of section 1801(a)(4) of this title) and tribally controlled postsecondary vocational institutions (as defined in section 2397h(2) 1 of title 20),

(2) be developed in consultation with the affected tribal government, and

(3) include instruction in Native American studies.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §113, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §109, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4796; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§114(b), 117(b)(5), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4543, 4544; Pub. L. 105–244, title IX, §901(d), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1828; Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §941(k)(2)(I)(i), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3467.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 2397h of title 20, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was omitted in the general amendment of chapter 44 (§2301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education, by Pub. L. 105–332, §1(b), Oct. 31, 1998, 112 Stat. 3076.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–315 substituted "tribally controlled colleges or universities (within the meaning of section 1801(a)(4) of this title)" for "tribally-controlled community colleges (within the meaning of section 1801(4) of this title)".

1998—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–244 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1801(4) of this title.

1992—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §114(b), inserted before comma at end "and tribally controlled postsecondary vocational institutions (as defined in section 2397h(2) of title 20)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §117(b)(5), struck out subsec. (c) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1990 to 1992.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1616g. INMED program

(a) Grants

The Secretary is authorized to provide grants to at least 3 colleges and universities for the purpose of maintaining and expanding the Native American health careers recruitment program known as the "Indians into Medicine Program" (hereinafter in this section referred to as "INMED") as a means of encouraging Indians to enter the health professions.

(b) University of North Dakota

The Secretary shall provide one of the grants authorized under subsection (a) to maintain the INMED program at the University of North Dakota, to be known as the "Quentin N. Burdick Indian Health Programs", unless the Secretary makes a determination, based upon program reviews, that the program is not meeting the purposes of this section. Such program shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coordinate with the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Psychology Program established under section 1621p(b) of this title and the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Nursing Program established under section 1616e(e) of this title.

(c) Regulations; contents of recruitment program

(1) The Secretary shall develop regulations for the competitive awarding of the grants provided under this section.

(2) Applicants for grants provided under this section shall agree to provide a program which—

(A) provides outreach and recruitment for health professions to Indian communities including elementary, secondary and community colleges located on Indian reservations which will be served by the program,

(B) incorporates a program advisory board comprised of representatives from the tribes and communities which will be served by the program,

(C) provides summer preparatory programs for Indian students who need enrichment in the subjects of math and science in order to pursue training in the health professions,

(D) provides tutoring, counseling and support to students who are enrolled in a health career program of study at the respective college or university, and

(E) to the maximum extent feasible, employs qualified Indians in the program.

(d) Report to Congress

By no later than the date that is 3 years after November 23, 1988, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress on the program established under this section including recommendations for expansion or changes to the program.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §114, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §109, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4796; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §§109, 117(b)(6), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4538, 4544.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §109, inserted "to be known as the 'Quentin N. Burdick Indian Health Programs'," after "North Dakota," and "Such program shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coordinate with the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Psychology Program established under section 1621p(b) of this title and the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Nursing Program established under section 1616e(e) of this title." at end.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §117(b)(6), struck out subsec. (e) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1990 to 1992.

§1616h. Health training programs of community colleges

(a) Grants

(1) The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall award grants to community colleges for the purpose of assisting the community college in the establishment of programs which provide education in a health profession leading to a degree or diploma in a health profession for individuals who desire to practice such profession on an Indian reservation or in a tribal clinic.

(2) The amount of any grant awarded to a community college under paragraph (1) for the first year in which such a grant is provided to the community college shall not exceed $100,000.

(b) Eligibility

(1) The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall award grants to community colleges that have established a program described in subsection (a)(1) for the purpose of maintaining the program and recruiting students for the program.

(2) Grants may only be made under this section to a community college which—

(A) is accredited,

(B) has access to a hospital facility, Service facility, or hospital that could provide training of nurses or health professionals,

(C) has entered into an agreement with an accredited college or university medical school, the terms of which—

(i) provide a program that enhances the transition and recruitment of students into advanced baccalaureate or graduate programs which train health professionals, and

(ii) stipulate certifications necessary to approve internship and field placement opportunities at service unit facilities of the Service or at tribal health facilities,


(D) has a qualified staff which has the appropriate certifications, and

(E) is capable of obtaining State or regional accreditation of the program described in subsection (a)(1).

(c) Agreements and technical assistance

The Secretary shall encourage community colleges described in subsection (b)(2) to establish and maintain programs described in subsection (a)(1) by—

(1) entering into agreements with such colleges for the provision of qualified personnel of the Service to teach courses of study in such programs, and

(2) providing technical assistance and support to such colleges.

(d) Advanced training

Any program receiving assistance under this section that is conducted with respect to a health profession shall also offer courses of study which provide advanced training for any health professional who—

(1) has already received a degree or diploma in such health profession, and

(2) provides clinical services on an Indian reservation, at a Service facility, or at a tribal clinic.


Such courses of study may be offered in conjunction with the college or university with which the community college has entered into the agreement required under subsection (b)(2)(C).

(e) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) The term "community college" means—

(A) a junior or community college that is a tribally controlled college or university, or

(B) a junior or community college.


(2) The term "tribally controlled college or university" has the meaning given to such term by section 1801(a)(4) of this title.

(3) The term "junior or community college" has the meaning given to such term by section 1058(e) 1 of title 20.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §115, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §109, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4797; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §117(b)(7), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4544; Pub. L. 105–244, title IX, §901(d), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1828; Pub. L. 110–315, title IX, §941(k)(2)(I)(ii), Aug. 14, 2008, 122 Stat. 3467.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1058 of title 20, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), was amended by Pub. L. 105–244, title III, §303(b)(1), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1639, which redesignated subsecs. (d) and (e) as (e) and (f), respectively.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 110–315, §941(k)(2)(I)(ii)(I), substituted "a junior or community college that is a tribally controlled college or university" for "a tribally controlled community college".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 110–315, §941(k)(2)(I)(ii)(II), added par. (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "The term 'tribally controlled community college' has the meaning given to such term by section 1801(4) of this title."

1998—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–244 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1801(4) of this title.

1992—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–573 struck out subsec. (f) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1990 to 1992.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–244 effective Oct. 1, 1998, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 105–244, see section 3 of Pub. L. 105–244, set out as a note under section 1001 of Title 20, Education.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1616i. Additional incentives for health professionals

(a) Incentive special pay

The Secretary may provide the incentive special pay authorized under section 302(b) or 335(b) of title 37 to civilian medical officers of the Indian Health Service who are assigned to, and serving in, positions included in the list established under subsection (b)(1) for which recruitment or retention of personnel is difficult.

(b) List of positions; bonus pay

(1) The Secretary shall establish and update on an annual basis a list of positions of health care professionals employed by, or assigned to, the Service for which recruitment or retention is difficult.

(2)(A) The Secretary may pay a bonus to any commissioned officer or civil service employee, other than a commissioned medical officer, dental officer, optometrist, and veterinarian, who is employed in or assigned to, and serving in, a position in the Service included in the list established by the Secretary under paragraph (1).

(B) The total amount of bonus payments made by the Secretary under this paragraph to any employee during any 1-year period shall not exceed $2,000.

(c) Work schedules

The Secretary may establish programs to allow the use of flexible work schedules, and compressed work schedules, in accordance with the provisions of subchapter II of chapter 61 of title 5, for health professionals employed by, or assigned to, the Service.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §116, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §109, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4798; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §117(b)(8), title IX, §901(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4544, 4590; Pub. L. 115–91, div. A, title VI, §618(f), Dec. 12, 2017, 131 Stat. 1427.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–91 inserted "or 335(b)" after "section 302(b)".

1992—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–573, §901(1), struck out subsec. (d) which required a report to Congress by the Secretary no later than 6 months after Nov. 23, 1988, relating to overtime pay for individuals employed by the Service.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §117(b)(8), struck out subsec. (e) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1990 to 1992.

§1616j. Retention bonus

(a) Eligibility

The Secretary may pay a retention bonus to any physician or nurse employed by, or assigned to, and serving in, the Service either as a civilian employee or as a commissioned officer in the Regular or Reserve Corps 1 of the Public Health Service who—

(1) is assigned to, and serving in, a position included in the list established under section 1616i(b)(1) of this title for which recruitment or retention of personnel is difficult,

(2) the Secretary determines is needed by the Service,

(3) has—

(A) completed 3 years of employment with the Service, or

(B) completed any service obligations incurred as a requirement of—

(i) any Federal scholarship program, or

(ii) any Federal education loan repayment program, and


(4) enters into an agreement with the Service for continued employment for a period of not less than 1 year.

(b) Minimum award percentage to nurses

Beginning with fiscal year 1993, not less than 25 percent of the retention bonuses awarded each year under subsection (a) shall be awarded to nurses.

(c) Rates; maximum rate

The Secretary may establish rates for the retention bonus which shall provide for a higher annual rate for multiyear agreements than for single year agreements referred to in subsection (a)(4), but in no event shall the annual rate be more than $25,000 per annum.

(d) Time of payment

The retention bonus for the entire period covered by the agreement described in subsection (a)(4) shall be paid at the beginning of the agreed upon term of service.

(e) Refund; interest

Any physician or nurse failing to complete the agreed upon term of service, except where such failure is through no fault of the individual, shall be obligated to refund to the Government the full amount of the retention bonus for the period covered by the agreement, plus interest as determined by the Secretary in accordance with section 1616a(l)(2)(B) of this title.

(f) Physicians and nurses employed under Indian Self-Determination Act

The Secretary may pay a retention bonus to any physician or nurse employed by an organization providing health care services to Indians pursuant to a contract under the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.] if such physician or nurse is serving in a position which the Secretary determines is—

(1) a position for which recruitment or retention is difficult; and

(2) necessary for providing health care services to Indians.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §117, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title I, §109, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4799; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §104(d), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4533.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1992—Subsecs. (b) to (f). Pub. L. 102–573 added subsec. (b), redesignated former subsecs. (b) to (e) as (c) to (f), respectively, and amended subsec. (f) generally, substituting provisions relating to physicians and nurses employed under the Indian Self-Determination Act for provisions which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1990 to 1992.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Change of Name

Reference to Reserve Corps of the Public Health Service deemed to be a reference to the Ready Reserve Corps, see section 402(c)(3) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

1 See Change of Name note below.

§1616k. Nursing residency program

(a) Establishment

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall establish a program to enable licensed practical nurses, licensed vocational nurses, and registered nurses who are working in an Indian health program (as defined in section 1616a(a)(2)(A) of this title), and have done so for a period of not less than one year, to pursue advanced training.

(b) Program components

Such program shall include a combination of education and work study in an Indian health program (as defined in section 1616a(a)(2)(A) of this title) leading to an associate or bachelor's degree (in the case of a licensed practical nurse or licensed vocational nurse) or a bachelor's degree (in the case of a registered nurse) or a Master's degree.

(c) Service obligation of program participant

An individual who participates in a program under subsection (a), where the educational costs are paid by the Service, shall incur an obligation to serve in an Indian health program for a period of obligated service equal to at least three times the period of time during which the individual participates in such program. In the event that the individual fails to complete such obligated service, the United States shall be entitled to recover from such individual an amount determined in accordance with the formula specified in subsection (l) of section 1616a of this title in the manner provided for in such subsection.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §118, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §104(e), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4534; amended Pub. L. 103–435, §16(b), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4573.)


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–435 inserted before period at end "or a Master's degree".

§1616l. Community health aide program

(a) General purposes of program

Pursuant to section 13 of this title, the Secretary, acting through the Service, shall develop and operate a Community Health Aide Program in the State of Alaska under which the Service—

(1) provides for the training of Alaska Natives as health aides or community health practitioners;

(2) uses those aides or practitioners in the provision of health care, health promotion, and disease prevention services to Alaska Natives living in villages in rural Alaska; and

(3) provides for the establishment of teleconferencing capacity in health clinics located in or near those villages for use by community health aides or community health practitioners.

(b) Specific program requirements

The Secretary, acting through the Community Health Aide Program of the Service, shall—

(1) using trainers accredited by the Program, provide a high standard of training to community health aides and community health practitioners to ensure that those aides and practitioners provide quality health care, health promotion, and disease prevention services to the villages served by the Program;

(2) in order to provide such training, develop a curriculum that—

(A) combines education regarding the theory of health care with supervised practical experience in the provision of health care;

(B) provides instruction and practical experience in the provision of acute care, emergency care, health promotion, disease prevention, and the efficient and effective management of clinic pharmacies, supplies, equipment, and facilities; and

(C) promotes the achievement of the health status objectives specified in section 1602(2) of this title;


(3) establish and maintain a Community Health Aide Certification Board to certify as community health aides or community health practitioners individuals who have successfully completed the training described in paragraph (1) or can demonstrate equivalent experience;

(4) develop and maintain a system that identifies the needs of community health aides and community health practitioners for continuing education in the provision of health care, including the areas described in paragraph (2)(B), and develop programs that meet the needs for such continuing education;

(5) develop and maintain a system that provides close supervision of community health aides and community health practitioners;

(6) develop a system under which the work of community health aides and community health practitioners is reviewed and evaluated to ensure the provision of quality health care, health promotion, and disease prevention services; and

(7) ensure that—

(A) pulpal therapy (not including pulpotomies on deciduous teeth) or extraction of adult teeth can be performed by a dental health aide therapist only after consultation with a licensed dentist who determines that the procedure is a medical emergency that cannot be resolved with palliative treatment; and

(B) dental health aide therapists are strictly prohibited from performing all other oral or jaw surgeries, subject to the condition that uncomplicated extractions shall not be considered oral surgery under this section.

(c) Program review

(1) Neutral panel

(A) Establishment

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall establish a neutral panel to carry out the study under paragraph (2).

(B) Membership

Members of the neutral panel shall be appointed by the Secretary from among clinicians, economists, community practitioners, oral epidemiologists, and Alaska Natives.

(2) Study

(A) In general

The neutral panel established under paragraph (1) shall conduct a study of the dental health aide therapist services provided by the Community Health Aide Program under this section to ensure that the quality of care provided through those services is adequate and appropriate.

(B) Parameters of study

The Secretary, in consultation with interested parties, including professional dental organizations, shall develop the parameters of the study.

(C) Inclusions

The study shall include a determination by the neutral panel with respect to—

(i) the ability of the dental health aide therapist services under this section to address the dental care needs of Alaska Natives;

(ii) the quality of care provided through those services, including any training, improvement, or additional oversight required to improve the quality of care; and

(iii) whether safer and less costly alternatives to the dental health aide therapist services exist.

(D) Consultation

In carrying out the study under this paragraph, the neutral panel shall consult with Alaska tribal organizations with respect to the adequacy and accuracy of the study.

(3) Report

The neutral panel shall submit to the Secretary, the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate, and the Committee on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives a report describing the results of the study under paragraph (2), including a description of—

(A) any determination of the neutral panel under paragraph (2)(C); and

(B) any comments received from Alaska tribal organizations under paragraph (2)(D).

(d) Nationalization of program

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary, acting through the Service, may establish a national Community Health Aide Program in accordance with the program under this section, as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(2) Requirement; exclusion

Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), in establishing a national program under paragraph (1), the Secretary—

(A) shall not reduce the amounts provided for the Community Health Aide Program described in subsections (a) and (b); and

(B) shall exclude dental health aide therapist services from services covered under the program.

(3) Election of Indian tribe or tribal organization

(A) In general

Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) shall not apply in the case of an election made by an Indian tribe or tribal organization located in a State (other than Alaska) in which the use of dental health aide therapist services or midlevel dental health provider services is authorized under State law to supply such services in accordance with State law.

(B) Action by Secretary

On an election by an Indian tribe or tribal organization under subparagraph (A), the Secretary, acting through the Service, shall facilitate implementation of the services elected.

(4) Vacancies

The Secretary shall not fill any vacancy for a certified dentist in a program operated by the Service with a dental health aide therapist.

(e) Effect of section

Nothing in this section shall restrict the ability of the Service, an Indian tribe, or a tribal organization to participate in any program or to provide any service authorized by any other Federal law.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §119, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §111, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4539; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), (b)(1), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Amendment by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 111 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148, except as provided in section 10221(b)(1) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148, §10221(a), amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to maintenance of Community Health Aide Program for Alaska and related training, curriculum, and establishment and maintenance of Certification Board.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 111–148, §10221(b)(1)(A)(i), substituted "Subject to paragraphs (3) and (4), in establishing" for "In establishing" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 111–148, §10221(b)(1)(A)(ii), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–148, §10221(b)(1)(B), added subsec. (e).

§1616m. Matching grants to tribes for scholarship programs

(a) In general

(1) The Secretary shall make grants to Indian tribes and tribal organizations for the purpose of assisting such tribes and tribal organizations in educating Indians to serve as health professionals in Indian communities.

(2) Amounts available for grants under paragraph (1) for any fiscal year shall not exceed 5 percent of amounts available for such fiscal year for Indian Health Scholarships under section 1613a of this title.

(3) An application for a grant under paragraph (1) shall be in such form and contain such agreements, assurances, and information as the Secretary determines are necessary to carry out this section.

(b) Compliance with requirements

(1) An Indian tribe or tribal organization receiving a grant under subsection (a) shall agree to provide scholarships to Indians pursuing education in the health professions in accordance with the requirements of this section.

(2) With respect to the costs of providing any scholarship pursuant to paragraph (1)—

(A) 80 percent of the costs of the scholarship shall be paid from the grant made under subsection (a) to the Indian tribe or tribal organization; and

(B) 20 percent of such costs shall be paid from non-Federal contributions by the Indian tribe or tribal organization through which the scholarship is provided.


(3) In determining the amount of non-Federal contributions that have been provided for purposes of subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2), any amounts provided by the Federal Government to the Indian tribe or tribal organization involved or to any other entity shall not be included.

(4) Non-Federal contributions required by subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2) may be provided directly by the Indian tribe or tribal organization involved or through donations from public and private entities.

(c) Course of study in health professions

An Indian tribe or tribal organization shall provide scholarships under subsection (b) only to Indians enrolled or accepted for enrollment in a course of study (approved by the Secretary) in one of the health professions described in section 1613a(a) of this title.

(d) Contract requirements

In providing scholarships under subsection (b), the Secretary and the Indian tribe or tribal organization shall enter into a written contract with each recipient of such scholarship. Such contract shall—

(1) obligate such recipient to provide service in an Indian health program (as defined in section 1616a(a)(2)(A) of this title), in the same service area where the Indian tribe or tribal organization providing the scholarship is located, for—

(A) a number of years equal to the number of years for which the scholarship is provided (or the part-time equivalent thereof, as determined by the Secretary), or for a period of 2 years, whichever period is greater; or

(B) such greater period of time as the recipient and the Indian tribe or tribal organization may agree;


(2) provide that the amount of such scholarship—

(A) may be expended only for—

(i) tuition expenses, other reasonable educational expenses, and reasonable living expenses incurred in attendance at the educational institution; and

(ii) payment to the recipient of a monthly stipend of not more than the amount authorized by section 254l(g)(1)(B) of title 42, such amount to be reduced pro rata (as determined by the Secretary) based on the number of hours such student is enrolled; and


(B) may not exceed, for any year of attendance for which the scholarship is provided, the total amount required for the year for the purposes authorized in subparagraph (A);


(3) require the recipient of such scholarship to maintain an acceptable level of academic standing (as determined by the educational institution in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary); and

(4) require the recipient of such scholarship to meet the educational and licensure requirements necessary to be a physician, certified nurse practitioner, certified nurse midwife, or physician assistant.

(e) Breach of contract

(1) An individual who has entered into a written contract with the Secretary and an Indian tribe or tribal organization under subsection (d) and who—

(A) fails to maintain an acceptable level of academic standing in the educational institution in which he is enrolled (such level determined by the educational institution under regulations of the Secretary),

(B) is dismissed from such educational institution for disciplinary reasons,

(C) voluntarily terminates the training in such an educational institution for which he is provided a scholarship under such contract before the completion of such training, or

(D) fails to accept payment, or instructs the educational institution in which he is enrolled not to accept payment, in whole or in part, of a scholarship under such contract,


in lieu of any service obligation arising under such contract, shall be liable to the United States for the Federal share of the amount which has been paid to him, or on his behalf, under the contract.

(2) If for any reason not specified in paragraph (1), an individual breaches his written contract by failing either to begin such individual's service obligation required under such contract or to complete such service obligation, the United States shall be entitled to recover from the individual an amount determined in accordance with the formula specified in subsection (l) of section 1616a of this title in the manner provided for in such subsection.

(3) The Secretary may carry out this subsection on the basis of information submitted by the tribes or tribal organizations involved, or on the basis of information collected through such other means as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(f) Nondiscriminatory practice

The recipient of a scholarship under subsection (b) shall agree, in providing health care pursuant to the requirements of subsection (d)(1)—

(1) not to discriminate against an individual seeking such care on the basis of the ability of the individual to pay for such care or on the basis that payment for such care will be made pursuant to the program established in title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq.] or pursuant to the program established in title XIX of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.]; and

(2) to accept assignment under section 1842(b)(3)(B)(ii) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395u(b)(3)(B)(ii)] for all services for which payment may be made under part B of title XVIII of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395j et seq.], and to enter into an appropriate agreement with the State agency that administers the State plan for medical assistance under title XIX of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.] to provide service to individuals entitled to medical assistance under the plan.

(g) Payments for subsequent fiscal years

The Secretary may not make any payments under subsection (a) to an Indian tribe or tribal organization for any fiscal year subsequent to the first fiscal year of such payments unless the Secretary determines that, for the immediately preceding fiscal year, the Indian tribe or tribal organization has complied with requirements of this section.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §120, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §112, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4540.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles XVIII and XIX of the Act are classified generally to subchapters XVIII (§1395 et seq.) and XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, respectively. Part B of title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to part B (§1395j et seq.) of subchapter XVIII of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

§1616n. Tribal health program administration

The Secretary shall, by contract or otherwise, provide training for individuals in the administration and planning of tribal health programs.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §121, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §113, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4542.)

§1616o. University of South Dakota pilot program

(a) Establishment

The Secretary may make a grant to the School of Medicine of the University of South Dakota (hereafter in this section referred to as "USDSM") to establish a pilot program on an Indian reservation at one or more service units in South Dakota to address the chronic manpower shortage in the Aberdeen Area of the Service.

(b) Purposes

The purposes of the program established pursuant to a grant provided under subsection (a) are—

(1) to provide direct clinical and practical experience at a service unit to medical students and residents from USDSM and other medical schools;

(2) to improve the quality of health care for Indians by assuring access to qualified health care professionals; and

(3) to provide academic and scholarly opportunities for physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, nurses, and other allied health professionals serving Indian people by identifying and utilizing all academic and scholarly resources of the region.

(c) Composition; designation

The pilot program established pursuant to a grant provided under subsection (a) shall—

(1) incorporate a program advisory board composed of representatives from the tribes and communities in the area which will be served by the program; and

(2) shall be designated as an extension of the USDSM campus and program participants shall be under the direct supervision and instruction of qualified medical staff serving at the service unit who shall be members of the USDSM faculty.

(d) Coordination with other schools

The USDSM shall coordinate the program established pursuant to a grant provided under subsection (a) with other medical schools in the region, nursing schools, tribal community colleges, and other health professional schools.

(e) Development of additional professional opportunities

The USDSM, in cooperation with the Service, shall develop additional professional opportunities for program participants on Indian reservations in order to improve the recruitment and retention of qualified health professionals in the Aberdeen Area of the Service.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §122, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §116, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4543.)

§1616p. Health professional chronic shortage demonstration programs

(a) Demonstration programs

The Secretary, acting through the Service, may fund demonstration programs for Indian health programs to address the chronic shortages of health professionals.

(b) Purposes of programs

The purposes of demonstration programs under subsection (a) shall be—

(1) to provide direct clinical and practical experience within an Indian health program to health profession students and residents from medical schools;

(2) to improve the quality of health care for Indians by ensuring access to qualified health professionals;

(3) to provide academic and scholarly opportunities for health professionals serving Indians by identifying all academic and scholarly resources of the region; and

(4) to provide training and support for alternative provider types, such as community health representatives, and community health aides.

(c) Advisory board

The demonstration programs established pursuant to subsection (a) shall incorporate a program advisory board, which may be composed of representatives of tribal governments, Indian health programs, and Indian communities in the areas to be served by the demonstration programs.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §123, as added Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section 123 of Pub. L. 94–437 is based on section 112 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1616p, Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §123, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title I, §117(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4544, authorized appropriations through fiscal year 2000 to carry out this subchapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935. The repeal is based on section 101(b)(1) of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

§1616q. Exemption from payment of certain fees

Employees of a tribal health program or urban Indian organization shall be exempt from payment of licensing, registration, and any other fees imposed by a Federal agency to the same extent that officers of the commissioned corps of the Public Health Service and other employees of the Service are exempt from those fees.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §124, as added Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Section 124 of Pub. L. 94–437 is based on section 113 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

§1616r. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(b)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 936

Section, Pub. L. 94–437, title I, §125, as added Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935, was based on section 134(b) of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009 which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148 and related to treatment of a scholarship provided to an individual under this subchapter as a qualified scholarship for purposes of section 117 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

SUBCHAPTER II—HEALTH SERVICES

§1621. Indian Health Care Improvement Fund

(a) Use of funds

The Secretary, acting through the Service, is authorized to expend funds, directly or under the authority of the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.),1 which are appropriated under the authority of this section, for the purposes of—

(1) eliminating the deficiencies in health status and health resources of all Indian tribes;

(2) eliminating backlogs in the provision of health care services to Indians;

(3) meeting the health needs of Indians in an efficient and equitable manner, including the use of telehealth and telemedicine when appropriate;

(4) eliminating inequities in funding for both direct care and contract health service programs; and

(5) augmenting the ability of the Service to meet the following health service responsibilities with respect to those Indian tribes with the highest levels of health status deficiencies and resource deficiencies:

(A) Clinical care, including inpatient care, outpatient care (including audiology, clinical eye, and vision care), primary care, secondary and tertiary care, and long-term care.

(B) Preventive health, including mammography and other cancer screening.

(C) Dental care.

(D) Mental health, including community mental health services, inpatient mental health services, dormitory mental health services, therapeutic and residential treatment centers, and training of traditional health care practitioners.

(E) Emergency medical services.

(F) Treatment and control of, and rehabilitative care related to, alcoholism and drug abuse (including fetal alcohol syndrome) among Indians.

(G) Injury prevention programs, including data collection and evaluation, demonstration projects, training, and capacity building.

(H) Home health care.

(I) Community health representatives.

(J) Maintenance and improvement.

(b) No offset or limitation

Any funds appropriated under the authority of this section shall not be used to offset or limit any other appropriations made to the Service under this chapter or section 13 of this title, or any other provision of law.

(c) Allocation; use

(1) In general

Funds appropriated under the authority of this section shall be allocated to Service units, Indian tribes, or tribal organizations. The funds allocated to each Indian tribe, tribal organization, or Service unit under this paragraph shall be used by the Indian tribe, tribal organization, or Service unit under this paragraph to improve the health status and reduce the resource deficiency of each Indian tribe served by such Service unit, Indian tribe, or tribal organization.

(2) Apportionment of allocated funds

The apportionment of funds allocated to a Service unit, Indian tribe, or tribal organization under paragraph (1) among the health service responsibilities described in subsection (a)(5) shall be determined by the Service in consultation with, and with the active participation of, the affected Indian tribes and tribal organizations.

(d) Provisions relating to health status and resource deficiencies

For the purposes of this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Definition

The term "health status and resource deficiency" means the extent to which—

(A) the health status objectives set forth in sections 1602(1) and 1602(2) of this title are not being achieved; and

(B) the Indian tribe or tribal organization does not have available to it the health resources it needs, taking into account the actual cost of providing health care services given local geographic, climatic, rural, or other circumstances.

(2) Available resources

The health resources available to an Indian tribe or tribal organization include health resources provided by the Service as well as health resources used by the Indian tribe or tribal organization, including services and financing systems provided by any Federal programs, private insurance, and programs of State or local governments.

(3) Process for review of determinations

The Secretary shall establish procedures which allow any Indian tribe or tribal organization to petition the Secretary for a review of any determination of the extent of the health status and resource deficiency of such Indian tribe or tribal organization.

(e) Eligibility for funds

Tribal health programs shall be eligible for funds appropriated under the authority of this section on an equal basis with programs that are administered directly by the Service.

(f) Report

By no later than the date that is 3 years after March 23, 2010, the Secretary shall submit to Congress the current health status and resource deficiency report of the Service for each Service unit, including newly recognized or acknowledged Indian tribes. Such report shall set out—

(1) the methodology then in use by the Service for determining tribal health status and resource deficiencies, as well as the most recent application of that methodology;

(2) the extent of the health status and resource deficiency of each Indian tribe served by the Service or a tribal health program;

(3) the amount of funds necessary to eliminate the health status and resource deficiencies of all Indian tribes served by the Service or a tribal health program; and

(4) an estimate of—

(A) the amount of health service funds appropriated under the authority of this chapter, or any other Act, including the amount of any funds transferred to the Service for the preceding fiscal year which is allocated to each Service unit, Indian tribe, or tribal organization;

(B) the number of Indians eligible for health services in each Service unit or Indian tribe or tribal organization; and

(C) the number of Indians using the Service resources made available to each Service unit, Indian tribe or tribal organization, and, to the extent available, information on the waiting lists and number of Indians turned away for services due to lack of resources.

(g) Inclusion in base budget

Funds appropriated under this section for any fiscal year shall be included in the base budget of the Service for the purpose of determining appropriations under this section in subsequent fiscal years.

(h) Clarification

Nothing in this section is intended to diminish the primary responsibility of the Service to eliminate existing backlogs in unmet health care needs, nor are the provisions of this section intended to discourage the Service from undertaking additional efforts to achieve equity among Indian tribes and tribal organizations.

(i) Funding designation

Any funds appropriated under the authority of this section shall be designated as the "Indian Health Care Improvement Fund".

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §201, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 96–537, §4, Dec. 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 3174; Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §201(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4800; Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §201(a), (c), 207(b), 217(b)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4544, 4546, 4551, 4559; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (f)(4)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 121 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (h) relating to the Indian Health Care Improvement Fund.

1992Pub. L. 102–573, §201(c), amended section catchline generally.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(1)(A), substituted "this section" for "subsection (h) of this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(1)(B), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "raising the health status of Indians to zero deficiency,".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(1)(C), in introductory provisions inserted ", either through direct or contract care or through contracts entered into pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination Act," after "responsibilities" and substituted "status and resource deficiencies" for "resources deficiency".

Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 102–573, §207(b), substituted "preventive health, including screening mammography in accordance with section 1621k of this title" for "preventive health".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(2)(A), substituted "this section" for "subsection (h) of this section".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Funds which are appropriated under the authority of subsection (h) of this section may be allocated to, or used for the benefit of, any Indian tribe which has a health resources deficiency level at level I or II only if a sufficient amount of funds have been appropriated under the authority of subsection (h) of this section to raise all Indian tribes to health resources deficiency level II."

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(2)(C), in first sentence, substituted "this section" for "subsection (h) of this section" and struck out "but such allocation shall be made in a manner which ensures that the requirement of paragraph (2) is met" after "service unit basis" and, in second sentence, struck out "(in accordance with paragraph (2))" after "the service unit" and substituted "reduce the health status and resource deficiency" for "raise the deficiency level".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(2)(D), inserted ", and with the active participation of," after "in consultation with".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (3) as (2).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(3)(B), amended par. (1) generally, substituting provisions defining "health status and resource deficiency" for former provisions defining "health resources deficiency".

Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (2) as (1) and struck out former par. (1) which specified the health resource deficiency levels of an Indian tribe.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (3) as (2). Former par. (2) redesignated (1).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(3)(A), (C), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and substituted "The" for "Under regulations, the" and "extent of the health status and resource deficiency" for "health resources deficiency level". Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(3)(A), redesignated par. (4) as (3).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(4), substituted "this section" for "subsection (h) of this section".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(5)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted "3 years after October 29, 1992, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress the current health status and resource deficiency report" for "60 days after November 23, 1988, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress the current health services priority system report".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(5)(B), substituted "health status and resource deficiencies" for "health resources deficiencies".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(5)(C), substituted "the extent of the health status and resource deficiency of" for "the level of health resources deficiency for".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(5)(D), substituted "eliminate the health status and resource deficiencies of all Indian tribes served by the Service; and" for "raise all Indian tribes served by the Service below health resources deficiency level II to health resources deficiency level II;".

Subsec. (e)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(5)(E), redesignated par. (6) as (4) and struck out former pars. (4) and (5) which read as follows:

"(4) the amount of funds necessary to raise all tribes served by the Service below health resources deficiency level I to health resources deficiency level I;

"(5) the amount of funds necessary to raise all tribes served by the Service to zero health resources deficiency; and".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–573, §201(a)(6), redesignated par. (2) as entire subsec. and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "The President shall include with the budget submitted to the Congress under section 1105 of title 31 for each fiscal year a separate statement which specifies the amount of funds requested to carry out the provisions of this section for such fiscal year."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–573, §217(b)(1), substituted "this section" for "this subsection" and struck out former first sentence which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1990 to 1992.

1988Pub. L. 100–713 amended section generally, substituting subsecs. (a) to (h) relating to improvement of Indian health status for former subsecs. (a) to (e) relating to direct patient care program.

1980—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(a)(1), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(a)(2), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(a)(3), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(b)(1), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(b)(2), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(4)(C). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(b)(3), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(4)(D). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(b)(4), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(b)(5), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(c)(1), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(c)(2), inserted provisions authorizing appropriation of specific amounts for fiscal years ending Sept. 30, 1981, Sept. 30, 1982, Sept. 30, 1983, and Sept. 30, 1984, and further authorizing additional positions as may be necessary for each such fiscal year.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 96–537, §4(c)(3), struck out par. (7) which authorized appropriation for the items referred to in subsecs. (c)(1) to (c)(6) of such sums as may be specifically authorized by an act enacted after Sept. 30, 1976, for fiscal years 1981, 1982, 1983, and 1984, and which further authorized positions for items referred to in subsecs. (c)(1) to (c)(6) other than subsecs. (c)(4)(E) and (c)(5), as may be specified in an act enacted after Sept. 30, 1976.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1992 Amendments

Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §201(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4546, provided that: "Except with respect to the amendments made by subsection (a)(5) [amending this section], the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect three years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 29, 1992]. The amendments made by subsection (a)(5) shall take effect upon the date of the enactment of this Act."

Contract Medical Care Funds

Pub. L. 108–7, div. F, title II, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 261, provided in part: "That contract medical care funds appropriated heretofore and hereafter for tribes recognized after January 1, 1995, may be used to provide medical services directly or through contract medical care".

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621a. Catastrophic Health Emergency Fund

(a) Establishment

There is established an Indian Catastrophic Health Emergency Fund (hereafter in this section referred to as the "CHEF") consisting of—

(1) the amounts deposited under subsection (f); and

(2) the amounts appropriated to CHEF under this section.

(b) Administration

CHEF shall be administered by the Secretary, acting through the headquarters of the Service, solely for the purpose of meeting the extraordinary medical costs associated with the treatment of victims of disasters or catastrophic illnesses who are within the responsibility of the Service.

(c) Conditions on use of Fund

No part of CHEF or its administration shall be subject to contract or grant under any law, including the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.),1 nor shall CHEF funds be allocated, apportioned, or delegated on an Area Office, Service Unit, or other similar basis.

(d) Regulations

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations consistent with the provisions of this section to—

(1) establish a definition of disasters and catastrophic illnesses for which the cost of the treatment provided under contract would qualify for payment from CHEF;

(2) provide that a Service Unit shall not be eligible for reimbursement for the cost of treatment from CHEF until its cost of treating any victim of such catastrophic illness or disaster has reached a certain threshold cost which the Secretary shall establish at—

(A) the 2000 level of $19,000; and

(B) for any subsequent year, not less than the threshold cost of the previous year increased by the percentage increase in the medical care expenditure category of the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending with December of the previous year;


(3) establish a procedure for the reimbursement of the portion of the costs that exceeds such threshold cost incurred by—

(A) Service Units; or

(B) whenever otherwise authorized by the Service, non-Service facilities or providers;


(4) establish a procedure for payment from CHEF in cases in which the exigencies of the medical circumstances warrant treatment prior to the authorization of such treatment by the Service; and

(5) establish a procedure that will ensure that no payment shall be made from CHEF to any provider of treatment to the extent that such provider is eligible to receive payment for the treatment from any other Federal, State, local, or private source of reimbursement for which the patient is eligible.

(e) No offset or limitation

Amounts appropriated to CHEF under this section shall not be used to offset or limit appropriations made to the Service under the authority of section 13 of this title, or any other law.

(f) Deposit of reimbursement funds

There shall be deposited into CHEF all reimbursements to which the Service is entitled from any Federal, State, local, or private source (including third party insurance) by reason of treatment rendered to any victim of a disaster or catastrophic illness the cost of which was paid from CHEF.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §202, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §202, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4803; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §§202(a), 217(b)(2), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4546, 4559; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 122 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to establishment of Indian Catastrophic Health Emergency Fund with provisions for its administration, promulgation of regulations, procedures for payment, effect of appropriated funds on other appropriations, and deposit of reimbursements.

1992—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–573, §202(a)(1), substituted "to the Fund under this section" for "under subsection (e) of this section".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 102–573, §202(a)(2), substituted "shall establish at—" and subpars. (A) and (B) for "shall establish at not less than $10,000 or not more than $20,000;".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §202(a)(3), substituted "Amounts appropriated to the Fund under this section" for "Funds appropriated under subsection (e) of this section".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §217(b)(2), struck out subsec. (e) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1989 to 1992.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §202(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4546, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall take effect January 1, 1993."

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621b. Health promotion and disease prevention services

(a) Authorization

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall provide health promotion and disease prevention services to Indians so as to achieve the health status objectives set forth in section 1602(b) 1 of this title.

(b) Evaluation statement for Presidential budget

The Secretary shall submit to the President for inclusion in each statement which is required to be submitted to the Congress under section 1671 of this title an evaluation of—

(1) the health promotion and disease prevention needs of Indians,

(2) the health promotion and disease prevention activities which would best meet such needs,

(3) the internal capacity of the Service to meet such needs, and

(4) the resources which would be required to enable the Service to undertake the health promotion and disease prevention activities necessary to meet such needs.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §203(c), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4805; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §203, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4546.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1602 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was amended generally by Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935, and, as so amended, no longer contains a subsec. (b).

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573, §203(1), inserted before period at end "so as to achieve the health status objectives set forth in section 1602(b) of this title".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §203(2), in introductory provisions, substituted "section 1671" for "section 1621(f)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §203(3), struck out subsec. (c) which directed establishment of between 1 and 4 health-related demonstration projects to terminate 30 months after Nov. 23, 1988.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Congressional Findings on Health Promotion and Disease Prevention

Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §203(a), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4804, provided that: "The Congress finds that health promotion and disease prevention activities will—

"(1) improve the health and well being of Indians, and

"(2) reduce the expenses for medical care of Indians."

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621c. Diabetes prevention, treatment, and control

(a) Determinations regarding diabetes

The Secretary, acting through the Service, and in consultation with Indian tribes and tribal organizations, shall determine—

(1) by Indian tribe and by Service unit, the incidence of, and the types of complications resulting from, diabetes among Indians; and

(2) based on the determinations made pursuant to paragraph (1), the measures (including patient education and effective ongoing monitoring of disease indicators) each Service unit should take to reduce the incidence of, and prevent, treat, and control the complications resulting from, diabetes among Indian tribes within that Service unit.

(b) Diabetes screening

To the extent medically indicated and with informed consent, the Secretary shall screen each Indian who receives services from the Service for diabetes and for conditions which indicate a high risk that the individual will become diabetic and establish a cost-effective approach to ensure ongoing monitoring of disease indicators. Such screening and monitoring may be conducted by a tribal health program and may be conducted through appropriate Internet-based health care management programs.

(c) Diabetes projects

The Secretary shall continue to maintain each model diabetes project in existence on March 23, 2010, any such other diabetes programs operated by the Service or tribal health programs, and any additional diabetes projects, such as the Medical Vanguard program provided for in title IV of Public Law 108–87, as implemented to serve Indian tribes. tribal 1 health programs shall receive recurring funding for the diabetes projects that they operate pursuant to this section, both at March 23, 2010, and for projects which are added and funded thereafter.

(d) Dialysis programs

The Secretary is authorized to provide, through the Service, Indian tribes, and tribal organizations, dialysis programs, including the purchase of dialysis equipment and the provision of necessary staffing.

(e) Other duties of the Secretary

(1) In general

The Secretary shall, to the extent funding is available—

(A) in each area office, consult with Indian tribes and tribal organizations regarding programs for the prevention, treatment, and control of diabetes;

(B) establish in each area office a registry of patients with diabetes to track the incidence of diabetes and the complications from diabetes in that area; and

(C) ensure that data collected in each area office regarding diabetes and related complications among Indians are disseminated to all other area offices, subject to applicable patient privacy laws.

(2) Diabetes control officers

(A) In general

The Secretary may establish and maintain in each area office a position of diabetes control officer to coordinate and manage any activity of that area office relating to the prevention, treatment, or control of diabetes to assist the Secretary in carrying out a program under this section or section 254c–3 of title 42.

(B) Certain activities

Any activity carried out by a diabetes control officer under subparagraph (A) that is the subject of a contract or compact under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.),2 and any funds made available to carry out such an activity, shall not be divisible for purposes of that Act.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §203(c), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4806; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §§204, 217(b)(3), title IX, §901(2), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4546, 4559, 4590; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Public Law 108–87, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 108–87, Sept. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 1054, known as the Department of Defense Appropriations Act, 2004. Title IV of the Act (117 Stat. 1067) is not classified to the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (e)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on sections 101(c)(1) and 123 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which were enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to determination of incidence of, and types of complications resulting from, diabetes among Indians, measures for treatment and control of diabetes among tribes, screening of each Indian receiving services from the Service, model diabetes projects, establishment by diabetes control officers of registry of patients with diabetes, and authorization of appropriations.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 111–148 struck out "through fiscal year 2000" before "each model diabetes project" in introductory provisions prior to general amendment of section. See above.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573, §901(2), redesignated par. (1) as entire subsec., redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, substituted "paragraph (1)" for "subparagraph (A)" in par. (2), and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows: "Within 18 months after November 23, 1988, the Secretary shall prepare and transmit to the President and the Congress a report describing the determinations made and measures taken under paragraph (1) and making recommendations for additional funding to prevent, treat, and control diabetes among Indians."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §204(1), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows:

"(1) The Secretary shall continue to maintain during fiscal years 1988 through 1991 each of the following model diabetes projects which are in existence on November 23, 1988:

"(A) Claremore Indian Hospital in Oklahoma;

"(B) Fort Totten Health Center in North Dakota;

"(C) Sacaton Indian Hospital in Arizona;

"(D) Winnebago Indian Hospital in Nebraska;

"(E) Albuquerque Indian Hospital in New Mexico;

"(F) Perry, Princeton, and Old Town Health Centers in Maine; and

"(G) Bellingham Health Center in Washington.

"(2) The Secretary shall establish in fiscal year 1989, and maintain during fiscal years 1989 through 1991, a model diabetes project in each of the following locations:

"(A) Fort Berthold Reservation;

"(B) the Navajo Reservation;

"(C) the Papago Reservation;

"(D) the Zuni Reservation; and

"(E) the States of Alaska, California, Minnesota, Montana, Oregon, and Utah."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 102–573, §204(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §217(b)(3), substituted "this section" for "subsection (c) of this section" and struck out at beginning "There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section."

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

2 See References in Text note below.

§1621d. Other authority for provision of services

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Assisted living service

The term "assisted living service" means any service provided by an assisted living facility (as defined in section 1715w(b) of title 12), except that such an assisted living facility—

(A) shall not be required to obtain a license; but

(B) shall meet all applicable standards for licensure.

(2) Home- and community-based service

The term "home- and community-based service" means 1 or more of the services specified in paragraphs (1) through (9) of section 1396t(a) of title 42 (whether provided by the Service or by an Indian tribe or tribal organization pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.)) 1 that are or will be provided in accordance with applicable standards.

(3) Hospice care

The term "hospice care" means—

(A) the items and services specified in subparagraphs (A) through (H) of section 1395x(dd)(1) of title 42; and

(B) such other services as an Indian tribe or tribal organization determines are necessary and appropriate to provide in furtherance of that care.

(4) Long-term care services

The term "long-term care services" has the meaning given the term "qualified long-term care services" in section 7702B(c) of title 26.

(b) Funding authorized

The Secretary, acting through the Service, Indian tribes, and tribal organizations, may provide funding under this chapter to meet the objectives set forth in section 1602 of this title through health care-related services and programs not otherwise described in this chapter for the following services:

(1) Hospice care.

(2) Assisted living services.

(3) Long-term care services.

(4) Home- and community-based services.

(c) Eligibility

The following individuals shall be eligible to receive long-term care services under this section:

(1) Individuals who are unable to perform a certain number of activities of daily living without assistance.

(2) Individuals with a mental impairment, such as dementia, Alzheimer's disease, or another disabling mental illness, who may be able to perform activities of daily living under supervision.

(3) Such other individuals as an applicable tribal health program determines to be appropriate.

(d) Authorization of convenient care services

The Secretary, acting through the Service, Indian tribes, and tribal organizations, may also provide funding under this chapter to meet the objectives set forth in section 1602 of this title for convenient care services programs pursuant to section 1637(c)(2)(A) of this title.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §205, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §206(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4548; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 124(a)(1) of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1621d, Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §205, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §203(c), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4807, related to Native Hawaiian health promotion and disease prevention, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 100–579, §14, formerly §10, Oct. 31, 1988, 102 Stat. 2923; Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2310, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4229; renumbered §14, Pub. L. 102–396, title IX, §9168, Oct. 6, 1992, 106 Stat. 1948. See section 11701 et seq. of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to hospice care feasibility study.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621e. Reimbursement from certain third parties of costs of health services

(a) Right of recovery

Except as provided in subsection (f), the United States, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization shall have the right to recover from an insurance company, health maintenance organization, employee benefit plan, third-party tortfeasor, or any other responsible or liable third party (including a political subdivision or local governmental entity of a State) the reasonable charges billed by the Secretary, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization in providing health services through the Service, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization, or, if higher, the highest amount the third party would pay for care and services furnished by providers other than governmental entities, to any individual to the same extent that such individual, or any nongovernmental provider of such services, would be eligible to receive damages, reimbursement, or indemnification for such charges or expenses if—

(1) such services had been provided by a nongovernmental provider; and

(2) such individual had been required to pay such charges or expenses and did pay such charges or expenses.

(b) Limitations on recoveries from States

Subsection (a) shall provide a right of recovery against any State, only if the injury, illness, or disability for which health services were provided is covered under—

(1) workers' compensation laws; or

(2) a no-fault automobile accident insurance plan or program.

(c) Nonapplicability of other laws

No law of any State, or of any political subdivision of a State and no provision of any contract, insurance or health maintenance organization policy, employee benefit plan, self-insurance plan, managed care plan, or other health care plan or program entered into or renewed after November 23, 1988, shall prevent or hinder the right of recovery of the United States, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization under subsection (a).

(d) No effect on private rights of action

No action taken by the United States, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization to enforce the right of recovery provided under this section shall operate to deny to the injured person the recovery for that portion of the person's damage not covered hereunder.

(e) Enforcement

(1) In general

The United States, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization may enforce the right of recovery provided under subsection (a) by—

(A) intervening or joining in any civil action or proceeding brought—

(i) by the individual for whom health services were provided by the Secretary, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization; or

(ii) by any representative or heirs of such individual, or


(B) instituting a separate civil action, including a civil action for injunctive relief and other relief and including, with respect to a political subdivision or local governmental entity of a State, such an action against an official thereof.

(2) Notice

All reasonable efforts shall be made to provide notice of action instituted under paragraph (1)(B) to the individual to whom health services were provided, either before or during the pendency of such action.

(3) Recovery from tortfeasors

(A) In general

In any case in which an Indian tribe or tribal organization that is authorized or required under a compact or contract issued pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.1 to furnish or pay for health services to a person who is injured or suffers a disease on or after March 23, 2010, under circumstances that establish grounds for a claim of liability against the tortfeasor with respect to the injury or disease, the Indian tribe or tribal organization shall have a right to recover from the tortfeasor (or an insurer of the tortfeasor) the reasonable value of the health services so furnished, paid for, or to be paid for, in accordance with the Federal Medical Care Recovery Act (42 U.S.C. 2651 et seq.), to the same extent and under the same circumstances as the United States may recover under that Act.

(B) Treatment

The right of an Indian tribe or tribal organization to recover under subparagraph (A) shall be independent of the rights of the injured or diseased person served by the Indian tribe or tribal organization.

(f) Limitation

Absent specific written authorization by the governing body of an Indian tribe for the period of such authorization (which may not be for a period of more than 1 year and which may be revoked at any time upon written notice by the governing body to the Service), the United States shall not have a right of recovery under this section if the injury, illness, or disability for which health services were provided is covered under a self-insurance plan funded by an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or urban Indian organization. Where such authorization is provided, the Service may receive and expend such amounts for the provision of additional health services consistent with such authorization.

(g) Costs and attorney's fees

In any action brought to enforce the provisions of this section, a prevailing plaintiff shall be awarded its reasonable attorney's fees and costs of litigation.

(h) Nonapplicability of claims filing requirements

An insurance company, health maintenance organization, self-insurance plan, managed care plan, or other health care plan or program (under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] or otherwise) may not deny a claim for benefits submitted by the Service or by an Indian tribe or tribal organization based on the format in which the claim is submitted if such format complies with the format required for submission of claims under title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq.] or recognized under section 1175 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1320d–4].

(i) Application to urban Indian organizations

The previous provisions of this section shall apply to urban Indian organizations with respect to populations served by such Organizations 1 in the same manner they apply to Indian tribes and tribal organizations with respect to populations served by such Indian tribes and tribal organizations.

(j) Statute of limitations

The provisions of section 2415 of title 28 shall apply to all actions commenced under this section, and the references therein to the United States are deemed to include Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations.

(k) Savings

Nothing in this section shall be construed to limit any right of recovery available to the United States, an Indian tribe, or tribal organization under the provisions of any applicable, Federal, State, or tribal law, including medical lien laws.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §206, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §204, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4811; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §209, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4551; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(A), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Medical Care Recovery Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3)(A), probably means Pub. L. 87–693, Sept. 25, 1962, 76 Stat. 593, which is classified generally to chapter 32 (§2651 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (h), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to subchapter XVIII (§1395 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 125 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to right of recovery of costs of health services by the United States, an Indian tribe, or a tribal organization from certain third parties.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573, §209(b)(1), substituted "Except as provided in subsection (f) of this section, the" for "The".

Pub. L. 102–573, §209(a)(1)–(3), inserted ", an Indian tribe, or a tribal organization" after "United States", after "Service", and after "Secretary".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §209(a)(4), struck out ", or any political subdivision of a State," after "against any State".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 102–573, §209(a)(1), inserted ", an Indian tribe, or a tribal organization" after "United States".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §209(a)(1), (3), inserted ", an Indian tribe, or a tribal organization" after "United States" in two places and after "Secretary".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–573, §209(b)(2), added subsec. (f).

1 See References in Text note below.

1 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§1621f. Crediting of reimbursements

(a) Use of amounts

(1) Retention by program

Except as provided in sections 1621a(a)(2) and 1680c of this title, all reimbursements received or recovered under any of the programs described in paragraph (2), including under section 1680c of this title, by reason of the provision of health services by the Service, by an Indian tribe or tribal organization, or by an urban Indian organization, shall be credited to the Service, such Indian tribe or tribal organization, or such urban Indian organization, respectively, and may be used as provided in section 1641 of this title. In the case of such a service provided by or through a Service Unit, such amounts shall be credited to such unit and used for such purposes.

(2) Programs covered

The programs referred to in paragraph (1) are the following:

(A) Titles XVIII, XIX, and XXI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395 et seq., 1396 et seq., 1397aa et seq.].

(B) This chapter, including section 1680c of this title.

(C) Public Law 87–693 [42 U.S.C. 2651 et seq.].

(D) Any other provision of law.

(b) No offset of amounts

The Service may not offset or limit any amount obligated to any Service Unit or entity receiving funding from the Service because of the receipt of reimbursements under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §207, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §204, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4812; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title VII, §701(c)(1), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4572; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Titles XVIII, XIX, and XXI of the Act are classified generally to subchapters XVIII (§1395 et seq.), XIX (§1396 et seq.), and XXI (§1397aa et seq.), respectively, of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(B), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

Public Law 87–693, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(C), is Pub. L. 87–693, Sept. 25, 1962, 76 Stat. 593, popularly known as the Federal Medical Care Recovery Act, which is classified generally to chapter 32 (§2651 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 126 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to crediting of reimbursements.

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–573 made technical amendment to reference to section 1680c of this title to reflect renumbering of corresponding section of original act.

§1621g. Health services research

Of the amounts appropriated for the Service in any fiscal year, other than amounts made available for the Indian Health Care Improvement Fund, not less than $200,000 shall be available only for research to further the performance of the health service responsibilities of the Service. Indian tribes and tribal organizations contracting with the Service under the authority of the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.] shall be given an equal opportunity to compete for, and receive, research funds under this section.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §208, as added Pub. L. 100–713, title II, §204, Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4812.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in text, is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

§1621h. Mental health prevention and treatment services

(a) National plan for Indian Mental Health Services

(1) Not later than 120 days after November 28, 1990, the Secretary, acting through the Service, shall develop and publish in the Federal Register a final national plan for Indian Mental Health Services. The plan shall include—

(A) an assessment of the scope of the problem of mental illness and dysfunctional and self-destructive behavior, including child abuse and family violence, among Indians, including—

(i) the number of Indians served by the Service who are directly or indirectly affected by such illness or behavior, and

(ii) an estimate of the financial and human cost attributable to such illness or behavior;


(B) an assessment of the existing and additional resources necessary for the prevention and treatment of such illness and behavior; and

(C) an estimate of the additional funding needed by the Service to meet its responsibilities under the plan.


(2) The Secretary shall submit a copy of the national plan to the Congress.

(b) Memorandum of agreement

Not later than 180 days after November 28, 1990, the Secretary and the Secretary of the Interior shall develop and enter into a memorandum of agreement under which the Secretaries shall, among other things—

(1) determine and define the scope and nature of mental illness and dysfunctional and self-destructive behavior, including child abuse and family violence, among Indians;

(2) make an assessment of the existing Federal, tribal, State, local, and private services, resources, and programs available to provide mental health services for Indians;

(3) make an initial determination of the unmet need for additional services, resources, and programs necessary to meet the needs identified pursuant to paragraph (1);

(4)(A) ensure that Indians, as citizens of the United States and of the States in which they reside, have access to mental health services to which all citizens have access;

(B) determine the right of Indians to participate in, and receive the benefit of, such services; and

(C) take actions necessary to protect the exercise of such right;

(5) delineate the responsibilities of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Service, including mental health identification, prevention, education, referral, and treatment services (including services through multidisciplinary resource teams), at the central, area, and agency and service unit levels to address the problems identified in paragraph (1);

(6) provide a strategy for the comprehensive coordination of the mental health services provided by the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Service to meet the needs identified pursuant to paragraph (1), including—

(A) the coordination of alcohol and substance abuse programs of the Service, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, and the various tribes (developed under the Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1986 [25 U.S.C. 2401 et seq.]) with the mental health initiatives pursuant to this chapter, particularly with respect to the referral and treatment of dually-diagnosed individuals requiring mental health and substance abuse treatment; and

(B) ensuring that Bureau of Indian Affairs and Service programs and services (including multidisciplinary resource teams) addressing child abuse and family violence are coordinated with such non-Federal programs and services;


(7) direct appropriate officials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Service, particularly at the agency and service unit levels, to cooperate fully with tribal requests made pursuant to subsection (d); and

(8) provide for an annual review of such agreement by the two Secretaries.

(c) Community mental health plan

(1) The governing body of any Indian tribe may, at its discretion, adopt a resolution for the establishment of a community mental health plan providing for the identification and coordination of available resources and programs to identify, prevent, or treat mental illness or dysfunctional and self-destructive behavior, including child abuse and family violence, among its members.

(2) In furtherance of a plan established pursuant to paragraph (1) and at the request of a tribe, the appropriate agency, service unit, or other officials of the Bureau of Indian Affairs and the Service shall cooperate with, and provide technical assistance to, the tribe in the development of such plan. Upon the establishment of such a plan and at the request of the tribe, such officials, as directed by the memorandum of agreement developed pursuant to subsection (c), shall cooperate with the tribe in the implementation of such plan.

(3) Two or more Indian tribes may form a coalition for the adoption of resolutions and the establishment and development of a joint community mental health plan under this subsection.

(4) The Secretary, acting through the Service, may make grants to Indian tribes adopting a resolution pursuant to paragraph (1) to obtain technical assistance for the development of a community mental health plan and to provide administrative support in the implementation of such plan.

(d) Behavioral health training and community education programs

(1) Study; list

The Secretary, acting through the Service, and the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with Indian tribes and tribal organizations, shall conduct a study and compile a list of the types of staff positions specified in paragraph (2) whose qualifications include, or should include, training in the identification, prevention, education, referral, or treatment of mental illness, or dysfunctional and self destructive behavior.

(2) Positions

The positions referred to in paragraph (1) are—

(A) staff positions within the Bureau of Indian Affairs, including existing positions, in the fields of—

(i) elementary and secondary education;

(ii) social services and family and child welfare;

(iii) law enforcement and judicial services; and

(iv) alcohol and substance abuse;


(B) staff positions within the Service; and

(C) staff positions similar to those identified in subparagraphs (A) and (B) established and maintained by Indian tribes and tribal organizations (without regard to the funding source).

(3) Training criteria

(A) In general

The appropriate Secretary shall provide training criteria appropriate to each type of position identified in paragraphs (2)(A) and (2)(B) and ensure that appropriate training has been, or shall be provided to any individual in any such position. With respect to any such individual in a position identified pursuant to paragraph (2)(C), the respective Secretaries shall provide appropriate training to, or provide funds to, an Indian tribe or tribal organization for training of appropriate individuals. In the case of positions funded under a contract or compact under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.),1 the appropriate Secretary shall ensure that such training costs are included in the contract or compact, as the Secretary determines necessary.

(B) Position specific training criteria

Position specific training criteria shall be culturally relevant to Indians and Indian tribes and shall ensure that appropriate information regarding traditional health care practices is provided.

(4) Community education on mental illness

The Service shall develop and implement, on request of an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or urban Indian organization, or assist the Indian tribe, tribal organization, or urban Indian organization to develop and implement, a program of community education on mental illness. In carrying out this paragraph, the Service shall, upon request of an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or urban Indian organization, provide technical assistance to the Indian tribe, tribal organization, or urban Indian organization to obtain and develop community educational materials on the identification, prevention, referral, and treatment of mental illness and dysfunctional and self-destructive behavior.

(5) Plan

Not later than 90 days after March 23, 2010, the Secretary shall develop a plan under which the Service will increase the health care staff providing behavioral health services by at least 500 positions within 5 years after March 23, 2010, with at least 200 of such positions devoted to child, adolescent, and family services. The plan developed under this paragraph shall be implemented under section 13 of this title.

(e) Staffing

(1) Within 90 days after November 28, 1990, the Secretary shall develop a plan under which the Service will increase the health care staff providing mental health services by at least 500 positions within five years after November 28, 1990, with at least 200 of such positions devoted to child, adolescent, and family services. Such additional staff shall be primarily assigned to the service unit level for services which shall include outpatient, emergency, aftercare and follow-up, and prevention and education services.

(2) The plan developed under paragraph (1) shall be implemented under section 13 of this title.

(f) Staff recruitment and retention

(1) The Secretary shall provide for the recruitment of the additional personnel required by subsection (f) and the retention of all Service personnel providing mental health services. In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall give priority to practitioners providing mental health services to children and adolescents with mental health problems.

(2) In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary shall develop a program providing for—

(A) the payment of bonuses (which shall not be more favorable than those provided for under sections 1616i and 1616j of this title) for service in hardship posts;

(B) the repayment of loans (for which the provisions of repayment contracts shall not be more favorable than the repayment contracts under section 1616a of this title) for health professions education as a recruitment incentive; and

(C) a system of postgraduate rotations as a retention incentive.


(3) This subsection shall be carried out in coordination with the recruitment and retention programs under subchapter I.

(g) Mental Health Technician program

(1) Under the authority of section 13 of this title, the Secretary shall establish and maintain a Mental Health Technician program within the Service which—

(A) provides for the training of Indians as mental health technicians; and

(B) employs such technicians in the provision of community-based mental health care that includes identification, prevention, education, referral, and treatment services.


(2) In carrying out paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall provide high standard paraprofessional training in mental health care necessary to provide quality care to the Indian communities to be served. Such training shall be based upon a curriculum developed or approved by the Secretary which combines education in the theory of mental health care with supervised practical experience in the provision of such care.

(3) The Secretary shall supervise and evaluate the mental health technicians in the training program.

(4) The Secretary shall ensure that the program established pursuant to this subsection involves the utilization and promotion of the traditional Indian health care and treatment practices of the Indian tribes to be served.

(h) Mental health research

The Secretary, acting through the Service and in consultation with the National Institute of Mental Health, shall enter into contracts with, or make grants to, appropriate institutions for the conduct of research on the incidence and prevalence of mental disorders among Indians on Indian reservations and in urban areas. Research priorities under this subsection shall include—

(1) the inter-relationship and inter-dependence of mental disorders with alcoholism, suicide, homicides, accidents, and the incidence of family violence, and

(2) the development of models of prevention techniques.


The effect of the inter-relationships and interdependencies referred to in paragraph (1) on children, and the development of prevention techniques under paragraph (2) applicable to children, shall be emphasized.

(i) Facilities assessment

Within one year after November 28, 1990, the Secretary, acting through the Service, shall make an assessment of the need for inpatient mental health care among Indians and the availability and cost of inpatient mental health facilities which can meet such need. In making such assessment, the Secretary shall consider the possible conversion of existing, under-utilized service hospital beds into psychiatric units to meet such need.

(j) Annual report

The Service shall develop methods for analyzing and evaluating the overall status of mental health programs and services for Indians and shall submit to the President, for inclusion in each report required to be transmitted to the Congress under section 1671 of this title, a report on the mental health status of Indians which shall describe the progress being made to address mental health problems of Indian communities.

(k) Mental health demonstration grant program

(1) The Secretary, acting through the Service, is authorized to make grants to Indian tribes and inter-tribal consortia to pay 75 percent of the cost of planning, developing, and implementing programs to deliver innovative community-based mental health services to Indians. The 25 percent tribal share of such cost may be provided in cash or through the provision of property or services.

(2) The Secretary may award a grant for a project under paragraph (1) to an Indian tribe or inter-tribal consortium which meets the following criteria:

(A) The project will address significant unmet mental health needs among Indians.

(B) The project will serve a significant number of Indians.

(C) The project has the potential to deliver services in an efficient and effective manner.

(D) The tribe or consortium has the administrative and financial capability to administer the project.

(E) The project will deliver services in a manner consistent with traditional Indian healing and treatment practices.

(F) The project is coordinated with, and avoids duplication of, existing services.


(3) For purposes of this subsection, the Secretary shall, in evaluating applications for grants for projects to be operated under any contract entered into with the Service under the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.], use the same criteria that the Secretary uses in evaluating any other application for such a grant.

(4) The Secretary may only award one grant under this subsection with respect to a service area until the Secretary has awarded grants for all service areas with respect to which the Secretary receives applications during the application period, as determined by the Secretary, which meet the criteria specified in paragraph (2).

(5) Not later than 180 days after the close of the term of the last grant awarded pursuant to this subsection, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report evaluating the effectiveness of the innovative community-based projects demonstrated pursuant to this subsection. Such report shall include findings and recommendations, if any, relating to the reorganization of the programs of the Service for delivery of mental health services to Indians.

(6) Grants made pursuant to this section may be expended over a period of three years and no grant may exceed $1,000,000 for the fiscal years involved.

(l) Licensing requirement for mental health care workers

Any person employed as a psychologist, social worker, or marriage and family therapist for the purpose of providing mental health care services to Indians in a clinical setting under the authority of this chapter or through a contract pursuant to the Indian Self-Determination Act [25 U.S.C. 5321 et seq.] shall—

(1) in the case of a person employed as a psychologist, be licensed as a clinical psychologist or working under the direct supervision of a licensed clinical psychologist;

(2) in the case of a person employed as a social worker, be licensed as a social worker or working under the direct supervision of a licensed social worker; or

(3) in the case of a person employed as a marriage and family therapist, be licensed as a marriage and family therapist or working under the direct supervision of a licensed marriage and family therapist.

(m) Intermediate adolescent mental health services

(1) The Secretary, acting through the Service, may make grants to Indian tribes and tribal organizations to provide intermediate mental health services to Indian children and adolescents, including—

(A) inpatient and outpatient services;

(B) emergency care;

(C) suicide prevention and crisis intervention; and

(D) prevention and treatment of mental illness, and dysfunctional and self-destructive behavior, including child abuse and family violence.


(2) Funds provided under this subsection may be used—

(A) to construct or renovate an existing health facility to provide intermediate mental health services;

(B) to hire mental health professionals;

(C) to staff, operate, and maintain an intermediate mental health facility, group home, or youth shelter where intermediate mental health services are being provided; and

(D) to make renovations and hire appropriate staff to convert existing hospital beds into adolescent psychiatric units.


(3) Funds provided under this subsection may not be used for the purposes described in section 1621o(b)(1) of this title.

(4) An Indian tribe or tribal organization receiving a grant under this subsection shall ensure that intermediate adolescent mental health services are coordinated with other tribal, Service, and Bureau of Indian Affairs mental health, alcohol and substance abuse, and social services programs on the reservation of such tribe or tribal organization.

(5) The Secretary shall establish criteria for the review and approval of applications for grants made pursuant to this subsection.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §209, as added Pub. L. 101–630, title V, §503(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4557; amended Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §§205, 217(b)(4), title IX, §902(3), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4547, 4559, 4591; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Alcohol and Substance Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act of 1986, referred to in subsec. (b)(6)(A), is subtitle C of title IV of Pub. L. 99–570, Oct. 27, 1986, 100 Stat. 3207–137, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 26 (§2401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of subtitle C to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2401 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b)(6)(A) and (l), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(A), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

The Indian Self-Determination Act, referred to in subsecs. (k)(3) and (l), is title I of Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2206, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§5321 et seq.) of chapter 46 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on sections 101(b)(2) and 127 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which were enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 111–148 added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which related to mental health training and community education programs.

Subsec. (m)(6). Pub. L. 111–148 struck out par. (6) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1993 to 2000.

1992Pub. L. 102–573, §902(3)(A), made technical amendment to section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–573, §902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b). Prior to amendment, no subsec. (b) had been enacted.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 102–573, §§217(b)(4)(A), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out par. (5) which authorized appropriations of $500,000 for fiscal year 1991 and $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1992 to carry out this subsec. Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–573, §§217(b)(4)(A), (D), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d), substituted "this section" for "this subsection" in par. (3)(B), and struck out par. (6) which authorized appropriations of $500,000 for fiscal year 1991 and $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1992 to carry out this subsec., with certain amounts to be allocated for community education. Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–573, §902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 102–573, §§217(b)(4)(A), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f) and struck out par. (4) which appropriated $1,200,000 for fiscal year 1992 to carry out this subsec. Former subsec. (f) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–573, §§217(b)(4)(A), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g) and struck out par. (5) which authorized appropriation of $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1992 for purposes of providing training required under this subsec. Former subsec. (g) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–573, §§217(b)(4)(B), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h), struck out par. (1) designation before "The Secretary, acting", redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, substituted "paragraph (1)" and "paragraph (2)" for "subparagraph (A)" and "subparagraph (B)", respectively, in closing provisions, and struck out former par. (2) which authorized appropriation of $2,000,000 for fiscal year 1992 to carry out this subsec., to remain available until expended. Former subsec. (h) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–573, §§217(b)(4)(C), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (j) as (i), struck out par. (1) designation before "Within one year", and struck out par. (2) which authorized appropriation of $500,000 for fiscal year 1992 to make the assessment required by this subsec. Former subsec. (i) redesignated (h).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 102–573, §§205(1), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (k) as (j) and substituted "submit to the President, for inclusion in each report required to be transmitted to the Congress under section 1671 of this title, a report" for "submit to the Congress an annual report". Former subsec. (j) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 102–573, §§217(b)(4)(E), 902(3)(B), redesignated subsec. (l) as (k), and in par. (6) substituted "section" for "subsection" in second sentence and struck out first sentence which authorized appropriations of $2,000,000 for fiscal year 1991 and $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1992 to carry out purposes of this subsec. Former subsec. (k) redesignated (j).

Subsecs. (l), (m). Pub. L. 102–573, §205(2), added subsecs. (l) and (m). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (k).


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Statement of Purposes

Pub. L. 101–630, title V, §503(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4556, provided that: "The purposes of this section [enacting this section] are to—

"(1) authorize and direct the Indian Health Service to develop a comprehensive mental health prevention and treatment program;

"(2) provide direction and guidance relating to mental illness and dysfunctional and self-destructive behavior, including child abuse and family violence, to those Federal, tribal, State, and local agencies responsible for programs in Indian communities in areas of health care, education, social services, child and family welfare, alcohol and substance abuse, law enforcement, and judicial services;

"(3) assist Indian tribes to identify services and resources available to address mental illness and dysfunctional and self-destructive behavior;

"(4) provide authority and opportunities for Indian tribes to develop and implement, and coordinate with, community-based mental health programs which include identification, prevention, education, referral, and treatment services, including through multidisciplinary resource teams;

"(5) ensure that Indians, as citizens of the United States and of the States in which they reside, have the same access to mental health services to which all such citizens have access; and

"(6) modify or supplement existing programs and authorities in the areas identified in paragraph (2)."

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621i. Managed care feasibility study

(a) The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall conduct a study to assess the feasibility of allowing an Indian tribe to purchase, directly or through the Service, managed care coverage for all members of the tribe from—

(1) a tribally owned and operated managed care plan; or

(2) a State licensed managed care plan.


(b) Not later than the date which is 12 months after October 29, 1992, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report containing—

(1) a detailed description of the study conducted pursuant to this section; and

(2) a discussion of the findings and conclusions of such study.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §210, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §206(b), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4549.)

§1621j. California contract health services demonstration program

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a demonstration program to evaluate the use of a contract care intermediary to improve the accessibility of health services to California Indians.

(b) Agreement with California Rural Indian Health Board

(1) In establishing such program, the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the California Rural Indian Health Board to reimburse the Board for costs (including reasonable administrative costs) incurred, during the period of the demonstration program, in providing medical treatment under contract to California Indians described in section 1679(b) 1 of this title throughout the California contract health services delivery area described in section 1680 of this title with respect to high-cost contract care cases.

(2) Not more than 5 percent of the amounts provided to the Board under this section for any fiscal year may be for reimbursement for administrative expenses incurred by the Board during such fiscal year.

(3) No payment may be made for treatment provided under the demonstration program to the extent payment may be made for such treatment under the Catastrophic Health Emergency Fund described in section 1621a of this title or from amounts appropriated or otherwise made available to the California contract health service delivery area for a fiscal year.

(c) Advisory board

There is hereby established an advisory board which shall advise the California Rural Indian Health Board in carrying out the demonstration pursuant to this section. The advisory board shall be composed of representatives, selected by the California Rural Indian Health Board, from not less than 8 tribal health programs serving California Indians covered under such demonstration, at least one half of whom are not affiliated with the California Rural Indian Health Board.

(d) Commencement and termination dates

The demonstration program described in this section shall begin on January 1, 1993, and shall terminate on September 30, 1997.

(e) Report

Not later than July 1, 1998, the California Rural Indian Health Board shall submit to the Secretary a report on the demonstration program carried out under this section, including a statement of its findings regarding the impact of using a contract care intermediary on—

(1) access to needed health services;

(2) waiting periods for receiving such services; and

(3) the efficient management of high-cost contract care cases.

(f) "High-cost contract care cases" defined

For the purposes of this section, the term "high-cost contract care cases" means those cases in which the cost of the medical treatment provided to an individual—

(1) would otherwise be eligible for reimbursement from the Catastrophic Health Emergency Fund established under section 1621a of this title, except that the cost of such treatment does not meet the threshold cost requirement established pursuant to section 1621a(b)(2) 1 of this title; and

(2) exceeds $1,000.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §211, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §206(c), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4549; amended Pub. L. 104–313, §2(c), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3822; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1679 of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was repealed and a new section 1679 was enacted by Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935. Provisions describing California Indians, similar to those that appeared in former section 1679(b) are now contained in new section 1679(a).

Section 1621a of this title, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), was amended generally by Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935, and, as so amended, no longer contains a subsec. (b)(2).

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 101(b)(3) of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–148 struck out subsec. (g) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1996 through 2000.

1996—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–313 substituted "1996 through 2000" for "1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Termination of Advisory Boards

Advisory boards established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a board established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such board is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a board established by Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621k. Coverage of screening mammography

The Secretary, through the Service, shall provide for screening mammography (as defined in section 1861(jj) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395x(jj)]) for Indian and urban Indian women 35 years of age or older at a frequency, determined by the Secretary (in consultation with the Director of the National Cancer Institute), appropriate to such women, and under such terms and conditions as are consistent with standards established by the Secretary to assure the safety and accuracy of screening mammography under part B of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395j et seq.] and other cancer screenings.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §212, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §207(a), Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4550; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in text, is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Part B of title XVIII of the Act is classified generally to part B (§1395j et seq.) of subchapter XVIII of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 128 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 inserted "and other cancer screenings" before period at end.

§1621l. Patient travel costs

(a) Definition of qualified escort

In this section, the term "qualified escort" means—

(1) an adult escort (including a parent, guardian, or other family member) who is required because of the physical or mental condition, or age, of the applicable patient;

(2) a health professional for the purpose of providing necessary medical care during travel by the applicable patient; or

(3) other escorts, as the Secretary or applicable Indian Health Program determines to be appropriate.

(b) Provision of funds

The Secretary, acting through the Service and Tribal Health Programs, is authorized to provide funds for the following patient travel costs, including qualified escorts, associated with receiving health care services provided (either through direct or contract care or through a contract or compact under the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.)) 1 under this chapter—

(1) emergency air transportation and non-emergency air transportation where ground transportation is infeasible;

(2) transportation by private vehicle (where no other means of transportation is available), specially equipped vehicle, and ambulance; and

(3) transportation by such other means as may be available and required when air or motor vehicle transportation is not available.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §213, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §208, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4551; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on sections 101(c)(2) and 129 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which were enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section directed Secretary to provide funds for patient travel costs for emergency air transportation and nonemergency air transportation where ground transportation was infeasible and authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1993 to 2000.

Pub. L. 111–148 substituted "The Secretary" for "(a) The Secretary" prior to general amendment of section. See above.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621m. Epidemiology centers

(a) Establishment of centers

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish an epidemiology center in each Service area to carry out the functions described in subsection (b).

(2) New centers

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), any new center established after March 23, 2010, may be operated under a grant authorized by subsection (d).

(B) Requirement

Funding provided in a grant described in subparagraph (A) shall not be divisible.

(3) Funds not divisible

An epidemiology center established under this subsection shall be subject to the Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.),1 but the funds for the center shall not be divisible.

(b) Functions of centers

In consultation with and on the request of Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations, each Service area epidemiology center established under this section shall, with respect to the applicable Service area—

(1) collect data relating to, and monitor progress made toward meeting, each of the health status objectives of the Service, the Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations in the Service area;

(2) evaluate existing delivery systems, data systems, and other systems that impact the improvement of Indian health;

(3) assist Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations in identifying highest-priority health status objectives and the services needed to achieve those objectives, based on epidemiological data;

(4) make recommendations for the targeting of services needed by the populations served;

(5) make recommendations to improve health care delivery systems for Indians and urban Indians;

(6) provide requested technical assistance to Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations in the development of local health service priorities and incidence and prevalence rates of disease and other illness in the community; and

(7) provide disease surveillance and assist Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian communities to promote public health.

(c) Technical assistance

The Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention shall provide technical assistance to the centers in carrying out this section.

(d) Grants for studies

(1) In general

The Secretary may make grants to Indian tribes, tribal organizations, Indian organizations, and eligible intertribal consortia to conduct epidemiological studies of Indian communities.

(2) Eligible intertribal consortia

An intertribal consortium or Indian organization shall be eligible to receive a grant under this subsection if the intertribal consortium is—

(A) incorporated for the primary purpose of improving Indian health; and

(B) representative of the Indian tribes or urban Indian communities residing in the area in which the intertribal consortium is located.

(3) Applications

An application for a grant under this subsection shall be submitted in such manner and at such time as the Secretary shall prescribe.

(4) Requirements

An applicant for a grant under this subsection shall—

(A) demonstrate the technical, administrative, and financial expertise necessary to carry out the functions described in paragraph (5);

(B) consult and cooperate with providers of related health and social services in order to avoid duplication of existing services; and

(C) demonstrate cooperation from Indian tribes or urban Indian organizations in the area to be served.

(5) Use of funds

A grant provided under paragraph (1) may be used—

(A) to carry out the functions described in subsection (b);

(B) to provide information to, and consult with, tribal leaders, urban Indian community leaders, and related health staff regarding health care and health service management issues; and

(C) in collaboration with Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations, to provide to the Service information regarding ways to improve the health status of Indians.

(e) Access to information

(1) In general

An epidemiology center operated by a grantee pursuant to a grant awarded under subsection (d) shall be treated as a public health authority (as defined in section 164.501 of title 45, Code of Federal Regulations (or a successor regulation)) for purposes of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–191; 110 Stat. 1936).

(2) Access to information

The Secretary shall grant to each epidemiology center described in paragraph (1) access to use of the data, data sets, monitoring systems, delivery systems, and other protected health information in the possession of the Secretary.

(3) Requirement

The activities of an epidemiology center described in paragraph (1) shall be for the purposes of research and for preventing and controlling disease, injury, or disability (as those activities are described in section 164.512 of title 45, Code of Federal Regulations (or a successor regulation)), for purposes of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–191; 110 Stat. 1936).

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §214, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §210, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4551; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Indian Self-Determination and Education Assistance Act (25 U.S.C. 450 et seq.), referred to in subsec. (a)(3), is Pub. L. 93–638, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2203, which was classified principally to subchapter II (§450 et seq.) of chapter 14 of this title prior to editorial reclassification as chapter 46 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), (3), is Pub. L. 104–191, Aug. 21, 1996, 110 Stat. 1936. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996 Amendments note set out under section 201 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 130 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to establishment and functions of epidemiology centers.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621n. Comprehensive school health education programs

(a) Award of grants

The Secretary, acting through the Service and in consultation with the Secretary of the Interior, may award grants to Indian tribes to develop comprehensive school health education programs for children from preschool through grade 12 in schools located on Indian reservations.

(b) Use of grants

Grants awarded under this section may be used to—

(1) develop health education curricula;

(2) train teachers in comprehensive school health education curricula;

(3) integrate school-based, community-based, and other public and private health promotion efforts;

(4) encourage healthy, tobacco-free school environments;

(5) coordinate school-based health programs with existing services and programs available in the community;

(6) develop school programs on nutrition education, personal health, and fitness;

(7) develop mental health wellness programs;

(8) develop chronic disease prevention programs;

(9) develop substance abuse prevention programs;

(10) develop accident prevention and safety education programs;

(11) develop activities for the prevention and control of communicable diseases; and

(12) develop community and environmental health education programs.

(c) Assistance

The Secretary shall provide technical assistance to Indian tribes in the development of health education plans, and the dissemination of health education materials and information on existing health programs and resources.

(d) Criteria for review and approval of applications

The Secretary shall establish criteria for the review and approval of applications for grants made pursuant to this section.

(e) Report of recipient

Recipients of grants under this section shall submit to the Secretary an annual report on activities undertaken with funds provided under this section. Such reports shall include a statement of—

(1) the number of preschools, elementary schools, and secondary schools served;

(2) the number of students served;

(3) any new curricula established with funds provided under this section;

(4) the number of teachers trained in the health curricula; and

(5) the involvement of parents, members of the community, and community health workers in programs established with funds provided under this section.

(f) Program development

(1) The Secretary of the Interior, acting through the Bureau of Indian Affairs and in cooperation with the Secretary, shall develop a comprehensive school health education program for children from preschool through grade 12 in schools operated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

(2) Such program shall include—

(A) school programs on nutrition education, personal health, and fitness;

(B) mental health wellness programs;

(C) chronic disease prevention programs;

(D) substance abuse prevention programs;

(E) accident prevention and safety education programs; and

(F) activities for the prevention and control of communicable diseases.


(3) The Secretary of the Interior shall—

(A) provide training to teachers in comprehensive school health education curricula;

(B) ensure the integration and coordination of school-based programs with existing services and health programs available in the community; and

(C) encourage healthy, tobacco-free school environments.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1993 and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, and 2000.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §215, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §211, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4553.)

§1621o. Indian youth grant program

(a) Grants

The Secretary, acting through the Service, is authorized to make grants to Indian tribes, tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations for innovative mental and physical disease prevention and health promotion and treatment programs for Indian preadolescent and adolescent youths.

(b) Use of funds

(1) Funds made available under this section may be used to—

(A) develop prevention and treatment programs for Indian youth which promote mental and physical health and incorporate cultural values, community and family involvement, and traditional healers; and

(B) develop and provide community training and education.


(2) Funds made available under this section may not be used to provide services described in section 1665g(c) of this title.

(c) Models for delivery of comprehensive health care services

The Secretary shall—

(1) disseminate to Indian tribes information regarding models for the delivery of comprehensive health care services to Indian and urban Indian adolescents;

(2) encourage the implementation of such models; and

(3) at the request of an Indian tribe, provide technical assistance in the implementation of such models.

(d) Criteria for review and approval of applications

The Secretary shall establish criteria for the review and approval of applications under this section.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §216, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §212, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4554; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on sections 101(b)(4) and 131 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which were enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 111–148 substituted "section 1665g(c) of this title" for "section 1621h(m) of this title".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 111–148 struck out subsec. (e) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1993 to 2000.

§1621p. American Indians Into Psychology Program

(a) Grants authorized

The Secretary, acting through the Service, shall make grants of not more than $300,000 to each of 9 colleges and universities for the purpose of developing and maintaining Indian psychology career recruitment programs as a means of encouraging Indians to enter the behavioral health field. These programs shall be located at various locations throughout the country to maximize their availability to Indian students and new programs shall be established in different locations from time to time.

(b) Quentin N. Burdick program grant

The Secretary shall provide a grant authorized under subsection (a) to develop and maintain a program at the University of North Dakota to be known as the "Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Psychology Program". Such program shall, to the maximum extent feasible, coordinate with the Quentin N. Burdick Indian health programs authorized under section 1616j(b) 1 of this title, the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Nursing Program authorized under section 1616h(e) 1 of this title, and existing university research and communications networks.

(c) Regulations

The Secretary shall issue regulations pursuant to this chapter for the competitive awarding of grants provided under this section.

(d) Conditions of grant

Applicants under this section shall agree to provide a program which, at a minimum—

(1) provides outreach and recruitment for health professions to Indian communities including elementary, secondary, and accredited and accessible community colleges that will be served by the program;

(2) incorporates a program advisory board comprised of representatives from the tribes and communities that will be served by the program;

(3) provides summer enrichment programs to expose Indian students to the various fields of psychology through research, clinical, and experimental activities;

(4) provides stipends to undergraduate and graduate students to pursue a career in psychology;

(5) develops affiliation agreements with tribal colleges and universities, the Service, university affiliated programs, and other appropriate accredited and accessible entities to enhance the education of Indian students;

(6) to the maximum extent feasible, uses existing university tutoring, counseling, and student support services; and

(7) to the maximum extent feasible, employs qualified Indians in the program.

(e) Active duty service requirement

The active duty service obligation prescribed under section 254m of title 42 shall be met by each graduate who receives a stipend described in subsection (d)(4) that is funded under this section. Such obligation shall be met by service—

(1) in an Indian health program;

(2) in a program assisted under subchapter IV; or

(3) in the private practice of psychology if, as determined by the Secretary, in accordance with guidelines promulgated by the Secretary, such practice is situated in a physician or other health professional shortage area and addresses the health care needs of a substantial number of Indians.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $2,700,000 for fiscal year 2010 and each fiscal year thereafter.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §217, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §213, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4555; amended Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Section 1616j(b) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), does not authorize the Quentin N. Burdick Indian health programs. For provisions authorizing the Quentin N. Burdick Indian Health Programs, see section 1616g(b) of this title.

Section 1616h(e) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), does not authorize the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Nursing Program. For provisions authorizing the Quentin N. Burdick American Indians Into Nursing Program, see section 1616e(e) of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 94–437, Sept. 30, 1976, 90 Stat. 1400, known as the Indian Health Care Improvement Act, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 132 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section authorized Secretary to provide grants to at least 3 colleges and universities for purpose of developing and maintaining American Indian psychology career recruitment programs to encourage Indians to enter mental health field.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1621q. Prevention, control, and elimination of communicable and infectious diseases

(a) Grants authorized

The Secretary, acting through the Service, and after consultation with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, may make grants available to Indian tribes and tribal organizations for the following:

(1) Projects for the prevention, control, and elimination of communicable and infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, hepatitis, HIV, respiratory syncytial virus, hanta virus, sexually transmitted diseases, and H. pylori.

(2) Public information and education programs for the prevention, control, and elimination of communicable and infectious diseases.

(3) Education, training, and clinical skills improvement activities in the prevention, control, and elimination of communicable and infectious diseases for health professionals, including allied health professionals.

(4) Demonstration projects for the screening, treatment, and prevention of hepatitis C virus (HCV).

(b) Application required

The Secretary may provide funding under subsection (a) only if an application or proposal for funding is submitted to the Secretary.

(c) Coordination with health agencies

Indian tribes and tribal organizations receiving funding under this section are encouraged to coordinate their activities with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and State and local health agencies.

(d) Technical assistance; report

In carrying out this section, the Secretary—

(1) may, at the request of an Indian tribe or tribal organization, provide technical assistance; and

(2) shall prepare and submit a report to Congress biennially on the use of funds under this section and on the progress made toward the prevention, control, and elimination of communicable and infectious diseases among Indians and urban Indians.

(Pub. L. 94–437, title II, §218, as added Pub. L. 102–573, title II, §214, Oct. 29, 1992, 106 Stat. 4556; amended Pub. L. 103–437, §10(e)(1), (2)(B), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4589; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10221(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 935.)


Editorial Notes

Codification

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 is based on section 133 of title I of S. 1790, One Hundred Eleventh Congress, as reported by the Committee on Indian Affairs of the Senate in Dec. 2009, which was enacted into law by section 10221(a) of Pub. L. 111–148.

Amendments

2010Pub. L. 111–148 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to grants to Indian tribes and tribal organizations for prevention, control, and elimination of tuberculosis.

1994—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Committee on Indian" for "Select Committee on Indian" and "Natural Resources" for "Interior and Insular Affairs".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Coverage of Testing for COVID–19 at No Cost Sharing for Indians Receiving Purchased/Referred Care

Pub. L. 116–127, div. F, §6007, Mar. 18, 2020, 134 Stat. 208, provided that: "The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall cover, without the imposition of any cost sharing requirements, the cost of providing any COVID–19 related items and services as described in paragraph (1) of section 6001(a) [of Pub. L. 116–127, 42 U.S.C. 1320b–5 note] (or the administration of such products) or visits described in paragraph (2) of such section furnished during any portion of the emergency period defined in paragraph (1)(B) of section 1135(g) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 320b–5(g) [1320b–5(g)]) beginning on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 18, 2020] to Indians (as defined in section 4 of the Indian Health Care Improvement Act (25 U.S.C. 1603)) receiving health services through the Indian Health Service, including through an Urban Indian Organization, regardless of whether such items or services have been authorized under the purchased/referred care system funded by the Indian Health Service or is covered as a health service of the Indian Health Service."