[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter A, PART IV: CREDITS AGAINST TAX
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter A, PART IV: CREDITS AGAINST TAX
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter A—Determination of Tax Liability

PART IV—CREDITS AGAINST TAX

Subpart
A.
Nonrefundable personal credits.
B.
Other credits.
C.
Refundable credits.
D.
Business-related credits.
E.
Rules for computing investment credit.
F.
Rules for computing work opportunity credit.
G.
Credit against regular tax for prior year minimum tax liability.1

        

[H to J.
Repealed.]

        

Amendments

2017Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13404(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2138, struck out items for subparts H "Nonrefundable credit to holders of clean renewable energy bonds", I "Qualified tax credit bonds", and J "Build America bonds".

2009Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1531(c)(6), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 360, added item for subpart J.

2008Pub. L. 110–234, title XV, §15316(c)(5), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1511, and Pub. L. 110–246, title XV, §15316(c)(5), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 2273, made identical amendments, adding items for subparts H and I and striking out item for former subpart H "Nonrefundable credit to holders of certain bonds". The amendment by Pub. L. 110–234 was repealed by Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664.

2005Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1303(c)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 996, added item for subpart H.

1996Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1201(e)(3), 1601(b)(2)(F)(ii), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1772, 1833, substituted "Other credits" for "Foreign tax credit, etc." in item for subpart B and "work opportunity credit" for "targeted jobs credit" in item for subpart F.

1990Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11813(b)(26), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–555, substituted "Rules for computing investment credit" for "Rules for computing credit for investment in certain depreciable property" in item for subpart E.

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(a), 474(n)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 825, 834, substituted "Nonrefundable personal credits" for "Credits allowable" in item for subpart A, "Foreign tax credit, etc" for "Rules for computing credit for investment in certain depreciable property" in item for subpart B, "Refundable credits" for "Rules for computing credit for expense of work incentive programs" in item for subpart C, and "Business-related credits" for "Rules for computing credit for employment of certain new employees" in item for subpart D, and added items for subparts E and F.

1977Pub. L. 95–30, title II, §202(d)(1)(B), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 147, added subpart D.

1971Pub. L. 92–178, title VI, §601(c)(1), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 557, added subpart C.

1 Editorially supplied. Subpart G of part IV added by Pub. L. 99–514 without corresponding amendment of part analysis.

Subpart A—Nonrefundable Personal Credits

Sec.
21.
Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment.
22.
Credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled.
23.
Adoption expenses.
24.
Child tax credit.
25.
Interest on certain home mortgages.
25A.
American Opportunity and Lifetime Learning credits.
25B.
Elective deferrals and IRA contributions by certain individuals.
25C.
Nonbusiness energy property.
25D.
Residential energy efficient property.
26.
Limitation based on tax liability; definition of tax liability.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(l)(10), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1165, substituted "American Opportunity and Lifetime Learning credits" for "Hope and Lifetime Learning credits" in item 25A.

2010Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(O), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023, as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298, temporarily struck out item 23 "Adoption expenses". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title.

2005Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §§1333(b)(2), 1335(b)(5), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1030, 1036, added items 25C and 25D.

2001Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §618(c), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 108, added item 25B.

1998Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6004(a)(1), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 792, substituted "Hope and Lifetime Learning credits" for "Higher education tuition and related expenses" in item 25A.

1997Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(d)(3), title II, §201(e), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799, 806, added items 24 and 25A.

1996Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(c)(6), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1902, added item 23.

1990Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–522, struck out item 23 "Residential energy credit".

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §112(b)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2109, struck out item 24 "Contributions to candidates for public office".

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(b), 612(f), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 913, substituted "Nonrefundable Personal Credits" for "Credits Allowable" as subpart A heading, struck out analysis of sections 31 through 45 formerly comprising subpart A, and inserted a new analysis of sections consisting of items 21 (formerly 44A), 22 (formerly 37), 23 (formerly 44C), 24 (formerly 41), and 25 and 26 (newly enacted).

1983Pub. L. 98–67 repealed amendments made by Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(c)(7), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87, inserted "and the permanently and totally disabled" to item 37.

Pub. L. 97–424, title V, §515(b)(6)(D), Jan. 6, 1983, 96 Stat. 2181, substituted "and special fuels" for ", special fuels, and lubricating oil" after "gasoline" in item 39.

Pub. L. 97–414, §4(c)(1), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2056, added item 44H.

1982Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§307(b)(3), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 590, 591, provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983, item 31 is amended to read "Tax withheld on wages, interest, dividends, and patronage dividends". Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1981Pub. L. 97–34, title II, §221(c)(2), title III, §331(e)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 247, 295, added items 44F and 44G.

1980Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §§231(b)(1), 232(b)(3)(B), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 272, 276, added items 44D and 44E.

1978Pub. L. 95–618, title I, §101(b)(1), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3179, added item 44C.

1977Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(e)(1), title II, §202(d)(1)(A), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134, 147, added item 44B and struck out item 36 "Credit not allowed to individuals taking standard deduction".

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(a)(2)(D), title V, §§501(c)(2), 503(b)(5), 504(a)(2), title XIX, §1901(b)(1)(Z), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1555, 1559, 1562, 1565, 1792, substituted in item 42 "General tax credit" for "Taxable income credit", struck out in item 36 "pay optional tax or", inserted in item 33 "possession tax credit", substituted in item 37 "Credit of the elderly" for "Retirement income", added item 44A, and struck out item 35 "Partially tax-exempt interest received by individuals".

1975Pub. L. 94–164, §3(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 973, substituted "Taxable income credit" for "Credit for personal exemptions" in item 42.

Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §§203(b)(1), 204(c), 208(d)(1), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 30, 32, 35, renumbered item 42 as 45 and added item 42 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, but to cease to apply to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1975, item 43 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1974, but before Jan. 1, 1976, and item 44.

1971Pub. L. 92–178, title VI, §601(c)(2), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 557, added items 40 and 41, and redesignated former item 40 as 42.

1970Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(d)(10), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 249, inserted ", special fuels," after "gasoline" in item 39.

1965Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, §809(d)(1), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167, added item 39 and redesignated former item 39 as 40.

1964Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(d)(1), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 32, struck out item 34.

1962Pub. L. 87–834, §2(g)(1), (2), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 972, 973, added headings of subparts A and B and item 38, and redesignated former item 38 as 39.

§21. Expenses for household and dependent care services necessary for gainful employment

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

In the case of an individual for which there are 1 or more qualifying individuals (as defined in subsection (b)(1)) with respect to such individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the applicable percentage of the employment-related expenses (as defined in subsection (b)(2)) paid by such individual during the taxable year.

(2) Applicable percentage defined

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "applicable percentage" means 35 percent reduced (but not below 20 percent) by 1 percentage point for each $2,000 (or fraction thereof) by which the taxpayer's adjusted gross income for the taxable year exceeds $15,000.

(b) Definitions of qualifying individual and employment-related expenses

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualifying individual

The term "qualifying individual" means—

(A) a dependent of the taxpayer (as defined in section 152(a)(1)) who has not attained age 13,

(B) a dependent of the taxpayer (as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B)) who is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself or herself and who has the same principal place of abode as the taxpayer for more than one-half of such taxable year, or

(C) the spouse of the taxpayer, if the spouse is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself or herself and who has the same principal place of abode as the taxpayer for more than one-half of such taxable year.

(2) Employment-related expenses

(A) In general

The term "employment-related expenses" means amounts paid for the following expenses, but only if such expenses are incurred to enable the taxpayer to be gainfully employed for any period for which there are 1 or more qualifying individuals with respect to the taxpayer:

(i) expenses for household services, and

(ii) expenses for the care of a qualifying individual.


Such term shall not include any amount paid for services outside the taxpayer's household at a camp where the qualifying individual stays overnight.

(B) Exception

Employment-related expenses described in subparagraph (A) which are incurred for services outside the taxpayer's household shall be taken into account only if incurred for the care of—

(i) a qualifying individual described in paragraph (1)(A), or

(ii) a qualifying individual (not described in paragraph (1)(A)) who regularly spends at least 8 hours each day in the taxpayer's household.

(C) Dependent care centers

Employment-related expenses described in subparagraph (A) which are incurred for services provided outside the taxpayer's household by a dependent care center (as defined in subparagraph (D)) shall be taken into account only if—

(i) such center complies with all applicable laws and regulations of a State or unit of local government, and

(ii) the requirements of subparagraph (B) are met.

(D) Dependent care center defined

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "dependent care center" means any facility which—

(i) provides care for more than six individuals (other than individuals who reside at the facility), and

(ii) receives a fee, payment, or grant for providing services for any of the individuals (regardless of whether such facility is operated for profit).

(c) Dollar limit on amount creditable

The amount of the employment-related expenses incurred during any taxable year which may be taken into account under subsection (a) shall not exceed—

(1) $3,000 if there is 1 qualifying individual with respect to the taxpayer for such taxable year, or

(2) $6,000 if there are 2 or more qualifying individuals with respect to the taxpayer for such taxable year.


The amount determined under paragraph (1) or (2) (whichever is applicable) shall be reduced by the aggregate amount excludable from gross income under section 129 for the taxable year.

(d) Earned income limitation

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amount of the employment-related expenses incurred during any taxable year which may be taken into account under subsection (a) shall not exceed—

(A) in the case of an individual who is not married at the close of such year, such individual's earned income for such year, or

(B) in the case of an individual who is married at the close of such year, the lesser of such individual's earned income or the earned income of his spouse for such year.

(2) Special rule for spouse who is a student or incapable of caring for himself

In the case of a spouse who is a student or a qualifying individual described in subsection (b)(1)(C), for purposes of paragraph (1), such spouse shall be deemed for each month during which such spouse is a full-time student at an educational institution, or is such a qualifying individual, to be gainfully employed and to have earned income of not less than—

(A) $250 if subsection (c)(1) applies for the taxable year, or

(B) $500 if subsection (c)(2) applies for the taxable year.


In the case of any husband and wife, this paragraph shall apply with respect to only one spouse for any one month.

(e) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Place of abode

An individual shall not be treated as having the same principal place of abode of the taxpayer if at any time during the taxable year of the taxpayer the relationship between the individual and the taxpayer is in violation of local law.

(2) Married couples must file joint return

If the taxpayer is married at the close of the taxable year, the credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(3) Marital status

An individual legally separated from his spouse under a decree of divorce or of separate maintenance shall not be considered as married.

(4) Certain married individuals living apart

If—

(A) an individual who is married and who files a separate return—

(i) maintains as his home a household which constitutes for more than one-half of the taxable year the principal place of abode of a qualifying individual, and

(ii) furnishes over half of the cost of maintaining such household during the taxable year, and


(B) during the last 6 months of such taxable year such individual's spouse is not a member of such household,


such individual shall not be considered as married.

(5) Special dependency test in case of divorced parents, etc.

If—

(A) section 152(e) applies to any child with respect to any calendar year, and

(B) such child is under the age of 13 or is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself,


in the case of any taxable year beginning in such calendar year, such child shall be treated as a qualifying individual described in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(1) (whichever is appropriate) with respect to the custodial parent (as defined in section 152(e)(4)(A)), and shall not be treated as a qualifying individual with respect to the noncustodial parent.

(6) Payments to related individuals

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any amount paid by the taxpayer to an individual—

(A) with respect to whom, for the taxable year, a deduction under section 151(c) (relating to deduction for personal exemptions for dependents) is allowable either to the taxpayer or his spouse, or

(B) who is a child of the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 152(f)(1)) who has not attained the age of 19 at the close of the taxable year.


For purposes of this paragraph, the term "taxable year" means the taxable year of the taxpayer in which the service is performed.

(7) Student

The term "student" means an individual who during each of 5 calendar months during the taxable year is a full-time student at an educational organization.

(8) Educational organization

The term "educational organization" means an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii).

(9) Identifying information required with respect to service provider

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any amount paid to any person unless—

(A) the name, address, and taxpayer identification number of such person are included on the return claiming the credit, or

(B) if such person is an organization described in section 501(c)(3) and exempt from tax under section 501(a), the name and address of such person are included on the return claiming the credit.


In the case of a failure to provide the information required under the preceding sentence, the preceding sentence shall not apply if it is shown that the taxpayer exercised due diligence in attempting to provide the information so required.

(10) Identifying information required with respect to qualifying individuals

No credit shall be allowed under this section with respect to any qualifying individual unless the TIN of such individual is included on the return claiming the credit.

(f) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §504(a)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1563, §44A; amended Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §121(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2779; Pub. L. 97–34, title I §124 (a)–(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 197, 198; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(c)(1), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87; renumbered §21 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§423(c)(4), 471(c), 474(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 801, 826, 830; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2104; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10101(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–384; Pub. L. 100–485, title VII, §703(a)–(c)(1), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2426, 2427; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1615(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1853; Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §204(a), (b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 49; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §418(b), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 57; Pub. L. 108–311, title II, §§203, 207(2), (3), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1175, 1177; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §404(b), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2634; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(1), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2484.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 21 was renumbered section 15 of this title.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 110–172 substituted "section 152(e)(4)(A)" for "section 152(e)(3)(A)" in concluding provisions.

2005—Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–135 inserted "(as defined in section 152, determined without regard to subsections (b)(1), (b)(2), and (d)(1)(B))" after "dependent of the taxpayer".

2004—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 108–311, §203(a), substituted "In the case of an individual for which there are 1 or more qualifying individuals (as defined in subsection (b)(1)) with respect to such individual" for "In the case of an individual who maintains a household which includes as a member one or more qualifying individuals (as defined in subsection (b)(1))".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 108–311, §203(b), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'qualifying individual' means—

"(A) a dependent of the taxpayer who is under the age of 13 and with respect to whom the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction under section 151(c),

"(B) a dependent of the taxpayer who is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself, or

"(C) the spouse of the taxpayer, if he is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself."

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 108–311, §203(c), amended heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "An individual shall be treated as maintaining a household for any period only if over half the cost of maintaining the household for such period is furnished by such individual (or, if such individual is married during such period, is furnished by such individual and his spouse)."

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 108–311, §207(2), struck out "paragraph (2) or (4) of" before "section 152(e)" in subpar. (A) and substituted "as defined in section 152(e)(3)(A)" for "within the meaning of section 152(e)(1)" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (e)(6)(B). Pub. L. 108–311, §207(3), substituted "section 152(f)(1)" for "section 151(c)(3)".

2002—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–147, §418(b)(1), substituted "$250" for "$200".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §418(b)(2), substituted "$500" for "$400".

2001—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §204(b), substituted "35 percent" for "30 percent" and "$15,000" for "$10,000".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–16, §204(a)(1), substituted "$3,000" for "$2,400".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §204(a)(2), substituted "$6,000" for "$4,800".

1996—Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 104–188 added par. (10).

1988—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(a), substituted "age of 13" for "age of 15".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(b), inserted at end: "The amount determined under paragraph (1) or (2) (whichever is applicable) shall be reduced by the aggregate amount excludable from gross income under section 129 for the taxable year."

Subsec. (e)(5)(B). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(a), substituted "age of 13" for "age of 15".

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 100–485, §703(c)(1), added par. (9).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–203 inserted at end "Such term shall not include any amount paid for services outside the taxpayer's household at a camp where the qualifying individual stays overnight."

1986—Subsecs. (b)(1)(A), (e)(6)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(1)(A), substituted "section 151(c)" for "section 151(e)".

Subsec. (e)(6)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(1)(B), substituted "section 151(c)(3)" for "section 151(e)(3)".

1984Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 44A of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(2), (3), substituted "subsection (b)(1)" for "subsection (c)(1)" and "subsection (b)(2)" for "subsection (c)(2)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b). Former subsec. (b), which provided that the credit allowed by subsec. (a) could not exceed the amount of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under sections 33, 37, 38, 40, 41, 42, and 44, was struck out.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (b).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(4), substituted "subsection (b)(1)(C)" for "subsection (c)(1)(C)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(5), substituted "subsection (c)(1)" for "subsection (d)(1)".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(6), substituted "subsection (c)(2)" for "subsection (d)(2).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (e)(5). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(7), substituted "subsection (b)(1)" for "subsection (c)(1)" in provisions following subpar. (B).

Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(4), amended par. (5) generally, substituting subpars. (A) and (B) reading:

"(A) paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e) applies to any child with respect to any calendar year, and

"(B) such child is under the age of 15 or is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself,"

for former provisions:

"(A) a child (as defined in section 151(e)(3)) who is under the age of 15 or who is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself receives over half of his support during the calendar year from his parents who are divorced or legally separated under a decree of divorce or separate maintenance or who are separated under a written separation agreement, and

"(B) such child is in the custody of one or both of his parents for more than one-half of the calendar year."

and substituted in concluding text "(whichever is appropriate) with respect to the custodial parent (within the meaning of section 152(e)(1)), and shall not be treated as a qualifying individual with respect to the noncustodial parent" for ", as the case may be, with respect to that parent who has custody for a longer period during such calendar year than the other parent, and shall not be treated as being a qualifying individual with respect to such other parent."

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(c)(1), redesignated subsecs. (f) and (g) as (e) and (f), respectively.

1983—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–21 substituted "relating to credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled" for "relating to credit for the elderly".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "the applicable percentage" for "20 percent" in par. (1) as so designated, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(c), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(d), added subpars. (C) and (D).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(1)(A), substituted "$2,400" for "$2,000".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(1)(B), substituted "$4,800" for "$4,000".

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(2)(A), substituted "$200" for "$166".

Subsec. (e)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–34, §124(b)(2)(B), substituted "$400" for "$333".

1978—Subsec. (f)(6). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted provision disallowing a credit for any amount paid by a taxpayer to an individual with respect to whom, for the taxable year, a deduction under section 151(e) is allowable either to the taxpayer or his spouse or who is a child of the taxpayer who has not attained the age of 19 at the close of the taxpayer year and defining "taxpayer year" for provision disallowing a credit for any amount paid by the taxpayer to an individual bearing a relationship described in section 152(a)(1) through (8), or a dependent described in section 152(a)(9), except that a credit was allowed for an amount paid by a taxpayer to an individual with respect to whom, for the taxable year of the taxpayer in which the service was performed, neither the taxpayer nor his spouse was entitled to a deduction under section 151(e), provided the service constituted employment within the meaning of section 3121(b).

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §404(d), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2634, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 152 and 223 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004 [Pub. L. 108–311] to which they relate."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §418(c), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 58, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 23 and 137 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16] to which they relate."

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §204(c), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 50, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1615(d), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1853, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 151, 6109, 6213, and 6724 of this title] shall apply with respect to returns the due date for which (without regard to extensions) is on or after the 30th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996].

"(2) Special rule for 1995 and 1996.—In the case of returns for taxable years beginning in 1995 or 1996, a taxpayer shall not be required by the amendments made by this section to provide a taxpayer identification number for a child who is born after October 31, 1995, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1995 or November 30, 1996, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1996."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–485, title VII, §703(d), Oct. 13, 1988, 102 Stat. 2427, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 129 and 6109 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1988."

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10101(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–384, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title II, §2004(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3598, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to expenses paid in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1987.

"(2) Special rule for cafeteria plans.—For purposes of section 125 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a plan shall not be treated as failing to be a cafeteria plan solely because under the plan a participant elected before January 1, 1988, to receive reimbursement under the plan for dependent care assistance for periods after December 31, 1987, and such assistance included reimbursement for expenses at a camp where the dependent stays overnight."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 423(c)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 423(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, title IV, §475(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 847, provided that: "The amendments made by this title [probably means subtitle F (§§471–475) of title IV of Pub. L. 98–369, which enacted sections 25, 38, and 39 of this title, amended this section and sections 12, 15, 22 to 24, 27 to 35, 37, 39 to 41, 44A, 44C to 44H, 45 to 48, 51, 52, 55, 56, 86, 87, 103, 108, 129, 168, 196, 213, 280C, 381, 383, 401, 404, 409, 441, 527, 642, 691, 874, 882, 901, 904, 936, 1016, 1033, 1351, 1366, 1374, 1375, 1441, 1442, 1451, 3507, 6013, 6096, 6201, 6211, 6213, 6362, 6401, 6411, 6420, 6421, 6427, 6501, 6511, 7701, 7871, 9502, and 9503 of this title, repealed sections 38, 40, 44, 44B, 50A, 50B, and 53 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under sections 30, 33, 46, and 48 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, except that if an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under section 105(d)(6) of this title as in effect on the day before Apr. 20, 1983, such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 122(d) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §124(f), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 201, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and enacting section 129 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1981.

"(2) The amendments made by subsection (e)(2) [amending sections 3121, 3306, and 3401 of this title and section 409 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to remuneration paid after December 31, 1981."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §121(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2779, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978."

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note under section 3 of this title.

Program To Increase Public Awareness

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11114, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–414, provided that: "Not later than the first calendar year following the date of the enactment of this subtitle [Nov. 5, 1990], the Secretary of the Treasury, or the Secretary's delegate, shall establish a taxpayer awareness program to inform the taxpaying public of the availability of the credit for dependent care allowed under section 21 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 and the earned income credit and child health insurance under section 32 of such Code. Such public awareness program shall be designed to assure that individuals who may be eligible are informed of the availability of such credit and filing procedures. The Secretary shall use appropriate means of communication to carry out the provisions of this section."

§22. Credit for the elderly and the permanently and totally disabled

(a) General rule

In the case of a qualified individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to 15 percent of such individual's section 22 amount for such taxable year.

(b) Qualified individual

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified individual" means any individual—

(1) who has attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, or

(2) who retired on disability before the close of the taxable year and who, when he retired, was permanently and totally disabled.

(c) Section 22 amount

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) In general

An individual's section 22 amount for the taxable year shall be the applicable initial amount determined under paragraph (2), reduced as provided in paragraph (3) and in subsection (d).

(2) Initial amount

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the initial amount shall be—

(i) $5,000 in the case of a single individual, or a joint return where only one spouse is a qualified individual,

(ii) $7,500 in the case of a joint return where both spouses are qualified individuals, or

(iii) $3,750 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.

(B) Limitation in case of individuals who have not attained age 65

(i) In general

In the case of a qualified individual who has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, except as provided in clause (ii), the initial amount shall not exceed the disability income for the taxable year.

(ii) Special rules in case of joint return

In the case of a joint return where both spouses are qualified individuals and at least one spouse has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year—

(I) if both spouses have not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, the initial amount shall not exceed the sum of such spouses' disability income, or

(II) if one spouse has attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, the initial amount shall not exceed the sum of $5,000 plus the disability income for the taxable year of the spouse who has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year.

(iii) Disability income

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "disability income" means the aggregate amount includable in the gross income of the individual for the taxable year under section 72 or 105(a) to the extent such amount constitutes wages (or payments in lieu of wages) for the period during which the individual is absent from work on account of permanent and total disability.

(3) Reduction

(A) In general

The reduction under this paragraph is an amount equal to the sum of the amounts received by the individual (or, in the case of a joint return, by either spouse) as a pension or annuity or as a disability benefit—

(i) which is excluded from gross income and payable under—

(I) title II of the Social Security Act,

(II) the Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, or

(III) a law administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs, or


(ii) which is excluded from gross income under any provision of law not contained in this title.


No reduction shall be made under clause (i)(III) for any amount described in section 104(a)(4).

(B) Treatment of certain workmen's compensation benefits

For purposes of subparagraph (A), any amount treated as a social security benefit under section 86(d)(3) shall be treated as a disability benefit received under title II of the Social Security Act.

(d) Adjusted gross income limitation

If the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer exceeds—

(1) $7,500 in the case of a single individual,

(2) $10,000 in the case of a joint return, or

(3) $5,000 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return,


the section 22 amount shall be reduced by one-half of the excess of the adjusted gross income over $7,500, $10,000, or $5,000, as the case may be.

(e) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Married couple must file joint return

Except in the case of a husband and wife who live apart at all times during the taxable year, if the taxpayer is married at the close of the taxable year, the credit provided by this section shall be allowed only if the taxpayer and his spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(2) Marital status

Marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(3) Permanent and total disability defined

An individual is permanently and totally disabled if he is unable to engage in any substantial gainful activity by reason of any medically determinable physical or mental impairment which can be expected to result in death or which has lasted or can be expected to last for a continuous period of not less than 12 months. An individual shall not be considered to be permanently and totally disabled unless he furnishes proof of the existence thereof in such form and manner, and at such times, as the Secretary may require.

(f) Nonresident alien ineligible for credit

No credit shall be allowed under this section to any nonresident alien.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 15, §37; Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 659, §1, 69 Stat. 591; Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 17, §1, 70 Stat. 8; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(a), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 828; Pub. L. 87–876, §1, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1199; Pub. L. 88–272, title I, §113(a), title II, §§201(d)(3), 202(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 24, 32, 33; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §2002(g)(1), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 968; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §503(a), title XIX, §1901(c)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1559, 1803; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §§701(a)(1)–(3), 703(j)(11), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2897, 2942; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 222; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §111(b)(4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 194; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(a), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 85; renumbered §22 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 830; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(j)(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2658; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(2)(A), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1184.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i)(I), (B), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Railroad Retirement Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i)(II), is act Aug. 29, 1935, ch. 812, as amended generally by Pub. L. 93–445, title I, §101, Oct. 16, 1974, 88 Stat. 1305, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§231 et seq.) of chapter 9 of Title 45, Railroads. For further details and complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Codification note set out preceding section 231 of Title 45, section 231t of Title 45, and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(i)(III). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "Department of Veterans Affairs" for "Veterans' Administration".

1986—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "section 7703" for "section 143".

1984Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 37 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(1), substituted "section 22 amount" for "section 37 amount".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(2), substituted "Section 22 amount" for "Section 37 amount" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(1), substituted "section 22 amount" for "section 37 amount".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(d)(3), amended subsec. (d) generally, striking out heading "Limitations" and designation "(1)" before "Adjusted gross income limitation" thereby making existing par. (1) the entire subsec. (d), redesignating existing subpars. (A), (B), and (C) as pars. (1), (2), and (3), respectively, and striking out provisions, formerly comprising par. (2), which had limited the amount of the credit allowed by this section for the taxable year to the amount of the tax imposed by this chapter for such taxable year.

1983Pub. L. 98–21 inserted reference to permanently and totally disabled in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–21 amended subsec. (a) generally, substituting reference to a qualified individual for reference to an individual who has attained the age of 65 before the close of the taxable year.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally, redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c) and, in (c) as so redesignated, added par. (2) and struck out former (2), which had provided that the initial amount was $2,500 in the case of a single individual, $2,500 in the case of a joint return where only one spouse was eligible for the credit under subsection (a), $3,750 in the case of a joint return where both spouses were eligible for the credit under subsection (a), or $1,875 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return, redesignated existing provisions as par. (3)(A), inserted "benefit" after "disability" therein, struck out former subpars. (A) to (C), which had specified sources of amounts received under title II of the Social Security Act, under the Railroad Retirement Act of 1935 or 1937, or otherwise excluded from gross income, added cls. (i) and (ii), substituted provision that no reduction would be made under cl. (i)(III) for any amount described in section 104(a)(4) for provision that no reduction would be made under former par. (3) for any amount excluded from gross income under section 72 (relating to annuities), 101 (relating to life insurance proceeds), 104 (relating to compensation for injuries or sickness), 105 (relating to amounts received under accident and health plans), 120 (relating to amounts received under qualified group legal services plans), 402 (relating to taxability of beneficiary of employees' trust), 403 (relating to taxation of employee annuities), or 405 (relating to qualified bond purchase plans), and added subpar. (B). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–21 in amending section generally, redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e) and struck out provision that "joint return" meant the joint return of a husband and wife made under section 6013 and inserted provisions defining permanent and total disability. Former subsec. (e), which provided for an election of prior law with respect to public retirement system income, was struck out.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–21 reenacted subsec. (f) without change.

1981—Subsec. (e)(9)(B). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted "section 911(d)(2)" for "section 911(b)".

1978—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(1), inserted "(and whose gross income includes income described in paragraph (4)(B))" after "who has not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year".

Subsec. (e)(4)(B). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(2), (3)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), inserted "and who performed the services giving rise to the pension or annuity (or is the spouse of the individual who performed the services)" after "before the close of the taxable year" and substituted reference to paragraph (9)(A) for reference to paragraph (8)(A).

Subsec. (e)(5)(B). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(3)(C), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), substituted reference to paragraph (9)(A) for reference to paragraph (8)(A).

Subsec. (e)(8), (9). Pub. L. 95–600, §701(a)(3)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 96–222, §107(a)(1)(E)(i), added par. (8) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

1976Pub. L. 94–455, §503(a), among other changes, substituted "Credits for the elderly" for "Retirement income" in section catchline and in text substituted provisions permitting taxpayers who have all types of income to be eligible for the tax credit for provisions permitting taxpayers who have only retirement income to be eligible for the tax credit, eliminated provisions requiring taxpayers to earn $600 for the previous ten years for tax credit eligibility and provisions relating variations in treatment of married couples, and inserted provisions broadening coverage of the tax credit relief to low and middle income taxpayers.

Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(c)(1), purported to amend subsec. (f) of this section by striking out "a Territory". The amendment could not be executed in view of the prior general amendment of this section by section 503(a) of Pub. L. 94–455. Section 1901(c)(1) was repealed by section 703(j)(11) of Pub. L. 95–600.

1974—Subsec. (c)(1)(E), (F). Pub. L. 93–406 inserted reference in subpar. (E) to retirement bonds described in section 409 and added subpar. (F).

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–272, §§113(a), 201(d)(3), substituted "an amount equal to 17 percent, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1964, or 15 percent, in the case of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1964, of the amount received by such individual as retirement income (as defined in subsection (c) and as limited by subsection (d));" for "an amount equal to the amount received by such individual as retirement income (as defined in subsection (c) and as limited by subsection (d)), multiplied by the rate provided in section 1 for the first $2,000 of taxable income;", and struck out "section 34 (relating to credit for dividends received by individuals)", before "and section 35".

Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 88–272, §202(a), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

1962—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 87–792 inserted provisions in subpar. (A) requiring inclusion, in the case of an individual who is, or has been, an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1), distributions by a trust described in section 401(a) which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), and added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 87–876 increased the limit on retirement income from $1,200 to $1,524, lowered the age requirement in par. (2)(A) from 65 to 62, and substituted provisions in par. (2)(B) which reduce the amount of retirement income for individuals who reach age 62, by one-half the amount of earned income in excess of $1,200 but not in excess of $1,700, and by the amount received over $1,700, for provisions which reduced such income by the amount earned over $1,200 by persons having reached age 65, and which defined income as in subsec. (g) of this section.

1956—Subsec. (d)(2). Act Jan. 28, 1956, reduced from 75 to 72 the age at which there will be no limitation on earned income and increased from $900 to $1,200 the amount that an individual over 65 can earn without reducing the $1,200 on which the retirement credit is computed.

1955—Subsec. (f). Act Aug. 9, 1955, extended the retirement income tax credit to members of the Armed Forces.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(d) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(d), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending sections 37 [now 22], 41 [now 24], 44A [now 21], 46, 53, 85, 105, 128, 403, 415, 904, and 7871 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1983.

"(2) Transitional rule.—If an individual's annuity starting date was deferred under section 105(d)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this section [Apr. 20, 1983]), such deferral shall end on the first day of such individual's first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1983."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(a)(4), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2898, provided that:

"(A) The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.

"(B) The amendments made by paragraph (3) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1977."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 508 of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 3 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 effective Jan. 1, 1974, see section 2002(i)(2) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4973 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by section 113(a) of Pub. L. 88–272, except for purposes of section 21 [now 15] of this title, effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1963, see section 131 of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(e), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 32, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending section 34 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1963. The amendment made by subsection (b) [repealing section 34 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years ending after December 31, 1964. The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 116 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963. The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending sections 35, 37 [now 22], 46, 116, 584, 642, 702, 854, 857, 871, 1375, and 6014 of this title] shall apply with respect to dividends received after December 31, 1964, in taxable years ending after such date".

Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §202(b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 33, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–876, §2, Oct. 24, 1962, 76 Stat. 1199, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply only to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1962]."

Pub. L. 87–792, §8, Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 831, provided that: "The amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 405 and 6047 of this title and amending sections 37 [now 22], 62, 72, 101, 104, 105, 172, 401 to 404, 503, 805, 1361, 2039, 2517, 3306, 3401 and 7207 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962."

Effective Date of 1956 Amendment

Act Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 18, §2, 70 Stat. 9, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1955."

Effective Date of 1955 Amendment

Act Aug. 9, 1955, ch. 659, §2, 69 Stat. 591, provided that: "The amendment made by this Act [amending this section] shall be applicable to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1954."

Determination of Retirement Income Credit Under Provisions as They Existed Prior to Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 Election

Pub. L. 95–30, title IV, §403, May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 155, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "A taxpayer may elect (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe) to determine the amount of his credit under section 37 [now 22] of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] for his first taxable year beginning in 1976 under the provisions of such section as they existed before the amendment made by section 503 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [Pub. L. 94–455]."

§23. Adoption expenses

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter the amount of the qualified adoption expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer.

(2) Year credit allowed

The credit under paragraph (1) with respect to any expense shall be allowed—

(A) in the case of any expense paid or incurred before the taxable year in which such adoption becomes final, for the taxable year following the taxable year during which such expense is paid or incurred, and

(B) in the case of an expense paid or incurred during or after the taxable year in which such adoption becomes final, for the taxable year in which such expense is paid or incurred.

(3) $10,000 credit for adoption of child with special needs regardless of expenses

In the case of an adoption of a child with special needs which becomes final during a taxable year, the taxpayer shall be treated as having paid during such year qualified adoption expenses with respect to such adoption in an amount equal to the excess (if any) of $10,000 over the aggregate qualified adoption expenses actually paid or incurred by the taxpayer with respect to such adoption during such taxable year and all prior taxable years.

(b) Limitations

(1) Dollar limitation

The aggregate amount of qualified adoption expenses which may be taken into account under subsection (a) for all taxable years with respect to the adoption of a child by the taxpayer shall not exceed $10,000.

(2) Income limitation

(A) In general

The amount allowable as a credit under subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (c)) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount so allowable (determined without regard to this paragraph but with regard to paragraph (1)) as—

(i) the amount (if any) by which the taxpayer's adjusted gross income exceeds $150,000, bears to

(ii) $40,000.

(B) Determination of adjusted gross income

For purposes of subparagraph (A), adjusted gross income shall be determined without regard to sections 911, 931, and 933.

(3) Denial of double benefit

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any expense for which a deduction or credit is allowed under any other provision of this chapter.

(B) Grants

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any expense to the extent that funds for such expense are received under any Federal, State, or local program.

(c) Carryforwards of unused credit

(1) In general

If the credit allowable under subsection (a) for any taxable year exceeds the limitation imposed by section 26(a) for such taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and section 25D), such excess shall be carried to the succeeding taxable year and added to the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such taxable year.

(2) Limitation

No credit may be carried forward under this subsection to any taxable year following the fifth taxable year after the taxable year in which the credit arose. For purposes of the preceding sentence, credits shall be treated as used on a first-in first-out basis.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified adoption expenses

The term "qualified adoption expenses" means reasonable and necessary adoption fees, court costs, attorney fees, and other expenses—

(A) which are directly related to, and the principal purpose of which is for, the legal adoption of an eligible child by the taxpayer,

(B) which are not incurred in violation of State or Federal law or in carrying out any surrogate parenting arrangement,

(C) which are not expenses in connection with the adoption by an individual of a child who is the child of such individual's spouse, and

(D) which are not reimbursed under an employer program or otherwise.

(2) Eligible child

The term "eligible child" means any individual who—

(A) has not attained age 18, or

(B) is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself.

(3) Child with special needs

The term "child with special needs" means any child if—

(A) a State has determined that the child cannot or should not be returned to the home of his parents,

(B) such State has determined that there exists with respect to the child a specific factor or condition (such as his ethnic background, age, or membership in a minority or sibling group, or the presence of factors such as medical conditions or physical, mental, or emotional handicaps) because of which it is reasonable to conclude that such child cannot be placed with adoptive parents without providing adoption assistance, and

(C) such child is a citizen or resident of the United States (as defined in section 217(h)(3)).

(e) Special rules for foreign adoptions

In the case of an adoption of a child who is not a citizen or resident of the United States (as defined in section 217(h)(3))—

(1) subsection (a) shall not apply to any qualified adoption expense with respect to such adoption unless such adoption becomes final, and

(2) any such expense which is paid or incurred before the taxable year in which such adoption becomes final shall be taken into account under this section as if such expense were paid or incurred during such year.

(f) Filing requirements

(1) Married couples must file joint returns

Rules similar to the rules of paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) of section 21(e) shall apply for purposes of this section.

(2) Taxpayer must include TIN

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under this section with respect to any eligible child unless the taxpayer includes (if known) the name, age, and TIN of such child on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(B) Other methods

The Secretary may, in lieu of the information referred to in subparagraph (A), require other information meeting the purposes of subparagraph (A), including identification of an agent assisting with the adoption.

(g) Basis adjustments

For purposes of this subtitle, if a credit is allowed under this section for any expenditure with respect to any property, the increase in the basis of such property which would (but for this subsection) result from such expenditure shall be reduced by the amount of the credit so allowed.

(h) Adjustments for inflation

In the case of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2002, each of the dollar amounts in subsection (a)(3) and paragraphs (1) and (2)(A)(i) of subsection (b) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(1) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(2) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting "calendar year 2001" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.


If any amount as increased under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $10, such amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10.

(i) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be appropriate to carry out this section and section 137, including regulations which treat unmarried individuals who pay or incur qualified adoption expenses with respect to the same child as 1 taxpayer for purposes of applying the dollar amounts in subsections (a)(3) and (b)(1) of this section and in section 137(b)(1).

(Added Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1899, §23; amended Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1601(h)(2)(A), (B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1092; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §§6008(d)(6), 6018(f)(1), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 812, 823; Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §§201(b)(2)(E), 202(a)(1), (b)(1)(A), (2)(A), (c), (d)(1), (e)(1), (f)(1), (2)(A), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 46–49; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §§411(c)(1)(A)–(E), 418(a)(1), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 45, 57; Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1335(b)(1), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1036; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(i)(3)(A), (4), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2612, 2615; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title I, §106(e)(2)(A), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3817; renumbered §36C, amended, and renumbered §23, Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(a)(1), (b)(1), (2)(I), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1021, 1022, 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(A), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2321; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11002(d)(1)(A), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2060; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(4)(B)(i), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1209.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 23, added Pub. L. 95–618, title I, §101(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3175, §44C; amended Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §§201, 202(a)–(d), 203(a), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 256, 258; renumbered §23 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(e), title VI, §612(e)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 831, 912, related to residential energy credit, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–520.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "section 25D" for "sections 25D and 1400C".

2017—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2013—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 112–240, §104(c)(2)(A)(i), struck out par. (4). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess of—

"(A) the sum of the regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)) plus the tax imposed by section 55, over

"(B) the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and section 25D) and section 27 for the taxable year."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–240, §104(c)(2)(A)(ii), (iii), added par. (1), redesignated par. (3) as (2), and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which related to rule for years in which all personal credits allowed against regular and alternative minimum tax and rule for other years, respectively.

2010—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(a)(1)(B), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily substituted "$13,170" for "$10,000" in heading and text. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(a)(1)(A), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily substituted "$13,170" for "$10,000". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(I)(i), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily struck out par. (4). Text read as follows: "In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess of—

"(A) the sum of the regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)) plus the tax imposed by section 55, over

"(B) the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and section 25D) and section 27 for the taxable year."

See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(I)(ii), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily struck out subsec. (c) which related to carryforwards of unused credit. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(a)(1)(C), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) related to adjustments for inflation. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2008—Subsec. (b)(4)(B). Pub. L. 110–343 inserted "and section 25D" after "this section".

2005—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(3)(A)(i), substituted "In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit" for "The credit" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(3)(A)(ii), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If the credit allowable under subsection (a) for any taxable year exceeds the limitation imposed by subsection (b)(4) for such taxable year, such excess shall be carried to the succeeding taxable year and added to the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such taxable year. No credit may be carried forward under this subsection to any taxable year following the fifth taxable year after the taxable year in which the credit arose. For purposes of the preceding sentence, credits shall be treated as used on a first-in first-out basis."

Pub. L. 109–58, §1335(b)(1), which directed amendment of subsec. (c) by substituting "this section, section 25D, and section 1400C" for "this section and section 1400C", was repealed by Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(4). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment notes below.

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(c)(1)(A), reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter—

"(A) in the case of an adoption of a child other than a child with special needs, the amount of the qualified adoption expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer, and

"(B) in the case of an adoption of a child with special needs, $10,000."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(c)(1)(C), struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: "In the case of the adoption of a child with special needs, the credit allowed under paragraph (1) shall be allowed for the taxable year in which the adoption becomes final."

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(c)(1)(B), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(c)(1)(D), substituted "subsection (a)" for "subsection (a)(1)(A)".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–147, §418(a)(1), substituted "subsection (a)(3)" for "subsection (a)(1)(B)" in introductory provisions and inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(c)(1)(E), substituted "the dollar amounts in subsections (a)(3) and (b)(1)" for "the dollar limitation in subsection (b)(1)".

2001—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(a)(1), amended heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter the amount of the qualified adoption expenses paid or incurred by the taxpayer."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(c), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(b)(1)(A), substituted "subsection (a)(1)(A)" for "subsection (a)" and "$10,000" for "$5,000" and struck out "($6,000, in the case of a child with special needs)" before period at end.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(b)(2)(A), substituted "$150,000" for "$75,000".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(f)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(f)(2)(A), substituted "subsection (b)(4)" for "section 26(a)" and struck out "reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 24 and 1400C)" before ", such excess".

Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(2)(E), substituted "and sections 24 and 1400C" for "and section 1400C".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(d)(1), amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'eligible child' means any individual—

"(A) who—

"(i) has not attained age 18, or

"(ii) is physically or mentally incapable of caring for himself, and

"(B) in the case of qualified adoption expenses paid or incurred after December 31, 2001, who is a child with special needs."

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 107–16, §202(e)(1), added subsec. (h) and redesignated former subsec. (h) as (i).

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §6018(f)(1), inserted "(determined without regard to subsection (c))" after "for any taxable year" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–206, §6008(d)(6), inserted "and section 1400C" after "other than this section".

1997—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(h)(2)(A), amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The credit under paragraph (1) with respect to any expense shall be allowed—

"(A) for the taxable year following the taxable year during which such expense is paid or incurred, or

"(B) in the case of an expense which is paid or incurred during the taxable year in which the adoption becomes final, for such taxable year."

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(h)(2)(B), substituted "determined without regard to sections 911, 931, and 933." for "determined—

"(i) without regard to sections 911, 931, and 933, and

"(ii) after the application of sections 86, 135, 137, 219, and 469."

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(d), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2323, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 24, 25, 25A, 25B, 25D, 26, 30, 30B, 30D, 55, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2011."

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title I, §106(f), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3817, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 24, 25B, 25D, 26, and 45 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007.

"(2) Solar electric property limitation.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 25D of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.

"(3) Application of egtrra sunset.—The amendments made by subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (e)(2) [amending this section and section 24 of this title] shall be subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, §901, which was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315, was formerly set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendments relate."

Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(i)(3)(H), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2615, provided that: "The amendments made by this paragraph [amending this section and sections 24, 25, 25B, 25D, 904, and 1400C of this title] (and each part thereof) shall be subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, §901, which was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315, was formerly set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendment (or part thereof) relates."

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(i)(4), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2615, struck out Pub. L. 109–58, §1335(b)(1)–(3), and provided in part that: "The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be applied and administered as if the amendments made [by] such paragraphs [amending this section and sections 25 and 1400C of this title] had never been enacted."

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(m), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2615, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–58] to which they relate.

"(2) Repeal of public utility holding company act of 1935.—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending sections 121, 246, 247, 1223, 1245, and 1250 of this title and repealing sections 1081 to 1083 of this title] shall not apply with respect to any transaction ordered in compliance with the Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 [15 U.S.C. 79 et seq.] before its repeal.

"(3) Coordination of personal credits.—The amendments made by subsection (i)(3) [amending this section and sections 24, 25, 25B, 25D, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005."

Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1335(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1036, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 25D of this title and amending this section and sections 25, 1016, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2005, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(c)(3), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 46, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 137 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002; except that the amendments made by paragraphs (1)(C), (1)(D) [amending this section], and (2)(B) [amending section 137 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Amendment by section 418(a)(1) of Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 418(c) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §312(b)(2), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1181, provided that: "The amendments made by sections 201(b), 202(f), and 618(b) of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, amending this section and sections 24, 25, 25B, 26, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall not apply to taxable years beginning during 2004 or 2005."

Pub. L. 107–147, title VI, §601(b)(2), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 59, provided that: "The amendments made by sections 201(b), 202(f), and 618(b) of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, amending this section and sections 24, 25, 25B, 26, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall not apply to taxable years beginning during 2002 and 2003."

Amendment by section 201(b)(2)(E) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 201(e)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §202(g), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 49, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 24, 26, 137, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.

"(2) Subsection (a).—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 137 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6018(h), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 823, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 219, 408, 414, and 679 of this title and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 167 and 4091 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–188] to which they relate."

Amendment by section 6008(d)(6) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1601(j), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1093, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 30A, 52, 55, 137, 401, 403, 404, 408, 414, 512, 529, 593, 641, 679, 860L, 956, 1361, 1374, 4001, 4041, 4092, 4261, 6039D, 6048, 6050R, 6501, 6693, 7701, and 9503 of this title, section 1055 of Title 29, Labor, and provisions set out as notes under sections 529 and 4091 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–188] to which they relate.

"(2) Certain administrative requirements with respect to certain pension plans.—The amendment made by subsection (d)(2)(D) [amending section 401 of this title] shall apply to calendar years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(e), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1903, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 137 of this title, renumbering former section 137 of this title as section 138, and amending sections 25, 86, 135, 219, 469, and 1016 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996."

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 not applicable to certain obligations issued, DC Zone assets acquired, or principal residences acquired before Jan. 1, 2012, see section 401(d)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under former section 1400 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(e), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1212, provided that: "If—

"(1) any provision amended or repealed by the amendments made by subsection (b) or (d) [see Tables for classification] applied to—

"(A) any transaction occurring before the date of the enactment of this Act [Mar. 23, 2018],

"(B) any property acquired before such date of enactment, or

"(C) any item of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account before such date of enactment, and

"(2) the treatment of such transaction, property, or item under such provision would (without regard to the amendments or repeals made by such subsection) affect the liability for tax for periods ending after such date of enactment,

nothing in the amendments or repeals made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall be construed to affect the treatment of such transaction, property, or item for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after such date of enactment."

Expenses Paid or Incurred Before 2002

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(c)(1)(F), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 45, provided that: "Expenses paid or incurred during any taxable year beginning before January 1, 2002, may be taken into account in determining the credit under section 23 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 only to the extent the aggregate of such expenses does not exceed the applicable limitation under section 23(b)(1) of such Code as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [June 7, 2001]."

Tax Credit and Gross Income Exclusion Study and Report

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(d), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1903, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury shall study the effect on adoptions of the tax credit and gross income exclusion established by the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 137 of this title, renumbering former section 137 of this title as section 138, and amending sections 25, 86, 135, 219, 469, and 1016 of this title] and shall submit a report regarding the study to the Committee on Finance of the Senate and the Committee on Ways and Means of the House of Representatives not later than January 1, 2000."

§24. Child tax credit

(a) Allowance of credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year with respect to each qualifying child of the taxpayer for which the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151 an amount equal to $1,000.

(b) Limitations

(1) Limitation based on adjusted gross income

The amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by $50 for each $1,000 (or fraction thereof) by which the taxpayer's modified adjusted gross income exceeds the threshold amount. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "modified adjusted gross income" means adjusted gross income increased by any amount excluded from gross income under section 911, 931, or 933.

(2) Threshold amount

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "threshold amount" means—

(A) $110,000 in the case of a joint return,

(B) $75,000 in the case of an individual who is not married, and

(C) $55,000 in the case of a married individual filing a separate return.


For purposes of this paragraph, marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(c) Qualifying child

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "qualifying child" means a qualifying child of the taxpayer (as defined in section 152(c)) who has not attained age 17.

(2) Exception for certain noncitizens

The term "qualifying child" shall not include any individual who would not be a dependent if subparagraph (A) of section 152(b)(3) were applied without regard to all that follows "resident of the United States".

(d) Portion of credit refundable

(1) In general

The aggregate credits allowed to a taxpayer under subpart C shall be increased by the lesser of—

(A) the credit which would be allowed under this section without regard to this subsection and the limitation under section 26(a) or

(B) the amount by which the aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart (determined without regard to this subsection) would increase if the limitation imposed by section 26(a) were increased by the greater of—

(i) 15 percent of so much of the taxpayer's earned income (within the meaning of section 32) which is taken into account in computing taxable income for the taxable year as exceeds $3,000, or

(ii) in the case of a taxpayer with 3 or more qualifying children, the excess (if any) of—

(I) the taxpayer's social security taxes for the taxable year, over

(II) the credit allowed under section 32 for the taxable year.


The amount of the credit allowed under this subsection shall not be treated as a credit allowed under this subpart and shall reduce the amount of credit otherwise allowable under subsection (a) without regard to section 26(a). For purposes of subparagraph (B), any amount excluded from gross income by reason of section 112 shall be treated as earned income which is taken into account in computing taxable income for the taxable year.

(2) Social security taxes

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(A) In general

The term "social security taxes" means, with respect to any taxpayer for any taxable year—

(i) the amount of the taxes imposed by sections 3101 and 3201(a) on amounts received by the taxpayer during the calendar year in which the taxable year begins,

(ii) 50 percent of the taxes imposed by section 1401 on the self-employment income of the taxpayer for the taxable year, and

(iii) 50 percent of the taxes imposed by section 3211(a) on amounts received by the taxpayer during the calendar year in which the taxable year begins.

(B) Coordination with special refund of social security taxes

The term "social security taxes" shall not include any taxes to the extent the taxpayer is entitled to a special refund of such taxes under section 6413(c).

(C) Special rule

Any amounts paid pursuant to an agreement under section 3121(l) (relating to agreements entered into by American employers with respect to foreign affiliates) which are equivalent to the taxes referred to in subparagraph (A)(i) shall be treated as taxes referred to in such subparagraph.

(3) Exception for taxpayers excluding foreign earned income

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any taxpayer for any taxable year if such taxpayer elects to exclude any amount from gross income under section 911 for such taxable year.

(e) Identification requirements

(1) Qualifying child identification requirement

No credit shall be allowed under this section to a taxpayer with respect to any qualifying child unless the taxpayer includes the name and taxpayer identification number of such qualifying child on the return of tax for the taxable year and such taxpayer identification number was issued on or before the due date for filing such return.

(2) Taxpayer identification requirement

No credit shall be allowed under this section if the taxpayer identification number of the taxpayer was issued after the due date for filing the return for the taxable year.

(f) Taxable year must be full taxable year

Except in the case of a taxable year closed by reason of the death of the taxpayer, no credit shall be allowable under this section in the case of a taxable year covering a period of less than 12 months.

(g) Restrictions on taxpayers who improperly claimed credit in prior year

(1) Taxpayers making prior fraudulent or reckless claims

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under this section for any taxable year in the disallowance period.

(B) Disallowance period

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the disallowance period is—

(i) the period of 10 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of credit under this section was due to fraud, and

(ii) the period of 2 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of credit under this section was due to reckless or intentional disregard of rules and regulations (but not due to fraud).

(2) Taxpayers making improper prior claims

In the case of a taxpayer who is denied credit under this section for any taxable year as a result of the deficiency procedures under subchapter B of chapter 63, no credit shall be allowed under this section for any subsequent taxable year unless the taxpayer provides such information as the Secretary may require to demonstrate eligibility for such credit.

(h) Special rules for taxable years 2018 through 2025

(1) In general

In the case of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2017, and before January 1, 2026, this section shall be applied as provided in paragraphs (2) through (7).

(2) Credit amount

Subsection (a) shall be applied by substituting "$2,000" for "$1,000".

(3) Limitation

In lieu of the amount determined under subsection (b)(2), the threshold amount shall be $400,000 in the case of a joint return ($200,000 in any other case).

(4) Partial credit allowed for certain other dependents

(A) In general

The credit determined under subsection (a) (after the application of paragraph (2)) shall be increased by $500 for each dependent of the taxpayer (as defined in section 152) other than a qualifying child described in subsection (c).

(B) Exception for certain noncitizens

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to any individual who would not be a dependent if subparagraph (A) of section 152(b)(3) were applied without regard to all that follows "resident of the United States".

(C) Certain qualifying children

In the case of any qualifying child with respect to whom a credit is not allowed under this section by reason of paragraph (7), such child shall be treated as a dependent to whom subparagraph (A) applies.

(5) Maximum amount of refundable credit

(A) In general

The amount determined under subsection (d)(1)(A) with respect to any qualifying child shall not exceed $1,400, and such subsection shall be applied without regard to paragraph (4) of this subsection.

(B) Adjustment for inflation

In the case of a taxable year beginning after 2018, the $1,400 amount in subparagraph (A) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(i) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(ii) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting "2017" for "2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.


If any increase under this clause is not a multiple of $100, such increase shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $100.

(6) Earned income threshold for refundable credit

Subsection (d)(1)(B)(i) shall be applied by substituting "$2,500" for "$3,000".

(7) Social security number required

No credit shall be allowed under this section to a taxpayer with respect to any qualifying child unless the taxpayer includes the social security number of such child on the return of tax for the taxable year. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "social security number" means a social security number issued to an individual by the Social Security Administration, but only if the social security number is issued—

(A) to a citizen of the United States or pursuant to subclause (I) (or that portion of subclause (III) that relates to subclause (I)) of section 205(c)(2)(B)(i) of the Social Security Act, and

(B) before the due date for such return.

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 796; amended Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6003(a), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 790; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title II, §2001(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–901; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §501(b)(1), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1919; Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §§201(a)–(b)(2)(C), (c)(1), (2), (d), 202(f)(2)(B), title VI, §618(b)(2)(A), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 45–47, 49, 108; Pub. L. 107–90, title II, §204(e)(1), Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 893; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §§411(b), 417(23)(A), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 45, 57; Pub. L. 108–27, title I, §101(a), May 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 753; Pub. L. 108–311, title I, §§101(a), 102(a), 104(a), title II, §204, title IV, §408(b)(4), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1167, 1168, 1176, 1192; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(i)(3)(B), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2613; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(c)(1), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2488; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title I, §106(e)(2)(B), title II, §205(d)(1)(A), div. C, title V, §501(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3817, 3838, 3876; Pub. L. 110–351, title V, §501(c)(1), Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3979; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1003(a), 1004(b)(1), 1142(b)(1)(A), 1144(b)(1)(A), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 313, 314, 330, 332; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(A), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §§101(b)(1), 103(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298, 3299; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §§103(b), 104(c)(2)(B), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2319, 2321; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §209(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4028; Pub. L. 114–27, title VIII, §807(a), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 418; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §101(a), (b), title II, §§205(a), (b), 208(a)(1), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3044, 3081, 3083; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11022(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2073; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(i)(1), title IV, §401(a)(3), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1162, 1184.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

References in Text

Section 205(c)(2)(B)(i) of the Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (h)(7)(A), is classified to section 405(c)(2)(B)(i) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 24, added Pub. L. 92–178, title VII, §701(a), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 560, §41; amended Pub. L. 93–625, §§11(a)–(c), (e), 12(a), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2119, 2120; Pub. L. 94–455, title V, §503(b)(4), title XIX, §§1901(b)(1)(B), (H)(ii), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1562, 1790, 1791, 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §113(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2778; Pub. L. 97–473, title II, §202(b)(1), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2609; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §122(c)(1), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 87; renumbered §24 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(f), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 831, related to contributions to candidates for public office, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§112(a), 151(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2108, 2121, applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d)(3), (5). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(3), redesignated par. (5) as (3).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(i)(1), substituted "taxpayer identification number" for "identifying number".

2017—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–97 added subsec. (h).

2015—Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 114–113, §101(a), substituted "$3,000" for "$10,000".

Subsec. (d)(3), (4). Pub. L. 114–113, §101(b), struck out pars. (3) and (4) which related to inflation adjustment and special rule for certain years, respectively.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 114–27 added par. (5).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–113, §205(a), (b), substituted "requirements" for "requirement" in subsec. heading, designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted par. heading and "and such taxpayer identification number was issued on or before the due date for filing such return" before period at end, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–113, §208(a)(1), added subsec. (g).

2014—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 113–295 amended par. (4) generally. The amendment was effective as if included in the provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I) to which the amendment related. As amended by Pub. L. 111–5, §1003(a), par. (4) read as follows: "Special rule for 2009 and 2010.—Notwithstanding paragraph (3), in the case of any taxable year beginning in 2009 or 2010, the dollar amount in effect for such taxable year under paragraph (1)(B)(i) shall be $3,000." See 2009 Amendment and Effective Date of 2014 Amendment notes below.

2013—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 112–240, §104(c)(2)(B)(i), struck out par. (3). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess of—

"(A) the sum of the regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)) plus the tax imposed by section 55, over

"(B) the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 23, 25A(i), 25B, 25D, 30, 30B, and 30D) and section 27 for the taxable year."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 112–240, §104(c)(2)(B)(ii)(II), substituted "section 26(a)" for "section 26(a)(2) or subsection (b)(3), as the case may be" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 112–240, §104(c)(2)(B)(ii)(I), substituted "section 26(a)" for "section 26(a)(2) or subsection (b)(3), as the case may be," in subpar. (A) and in introductory provisions in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 112–240, §103(b), which directed substitution of "for certain years" for "2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012" in heading and "after 2008 and before 2018" for "in 2009, 2010, 2011, or 2012" in text, could not be executed because of the subsequent general amendment of subsec. (d)(4) by Pub. L. 113–295, which was effective as if included in the provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I) to which the amendment related. See 2014 Amendment note above and Effective Date of 2014 Amendment note below.

2010—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(A), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, §101(b)(1), temporarily struck out "23," before "25A(i),". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 111–312, §103(b), which directed substitution of "2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012" for "2009 and 2010" in heading and ", 2010, 2011, or 2012" for "or 2010" in text, could not be executed because of the subsequent general amendment of subsec. (d)(4) by Pub. L. 113–295, which was effective as if included in the provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I) to which the amendment related. See 2014 Amendment note above and Effective Date of 2014 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 111–5, §1144(b)(1)(A), inserted "30B," after "30,".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1142(b)(1)(A), inserted "30," after "25D,".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1004(b)(1), inserted "25A(i)," after "23,".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 111–5, §1003(a), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Notwithstanding paragraph (3), in the case of any taxable year beginning in 2008, the dollar amount in effect for such taxable year under paragraph (1)(B)(i) shall be $8,500." Par. (4) was subsequently generally amended by Pub. L. 113–295, effective as if included in the provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009 (Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I) to which the amendment related. See 2014 Amendment note above and Effective Date of 2014 Amendment note below.

2008—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–351 inserted "for which the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151" after "of the taxpayer".

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 110–343, §205(d)(1)(A), substituted "25D, and 30D" for "and 25D".

Pub. L. 110–343, §106(e)(2)(B), substituted ", 25B, and 25D" for "and 25B".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 110–343, §501(a), added par. (4).

2007—Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(c)(1)(A), substituted "the greater of" for "the excess (if any) of" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 110–172, §11(c)(1)(B), substituted "section 32" for "section".

2005—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(3)(B)(i), substituted "In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit" for "The credit" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(3)(B)(ii), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The aggregate credits allowed to a taxpayer under subpart C shall be increased by the lesser of—

"(A) the credit which would be allowed under this section without regard to this subsection and the limitation under subsection (b)(3), or

"(B) the amount by which the amount of credit allowed by this section (determined without regard to this subsection) would increase if the limitation imposed by subsection (b)(3) were increased by the greater of—

"(i) 15 percent of so much of the taxpayer's earned income (within the meaning of section 32) which is taken into account in computing taxable income for the taxable year as exceeds $10,000, or

"(ii) in the case of a taxpayer with 3 or more qualifying children, the excess (if any) of—

"(I) the taxpayer's social security taxes for the taxable year, over

"(II) the credit allowed under section 32 for the taxable year.

The amount of the credit allowed under this subsection shall not be treated as a credit allowed under this subpart and shall reduce the amount of credit otherwise allowable under subsection (a) without regard to subsection (b)(3). For purposes of subparagraph (B), any amount excluded from gross income by reason of section 112 shall be treated as earned income which is taken into account in computing taxable income for the taxable year."

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–311, §101(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally, substituting provisions relating to $1,000 per year credit per qualifying child for provisions relating to different credit amounts for calendar years 2003 through 2010 or thereafter.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–311, §204(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'qualifying child' means any individual if—

"(A) the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151 with respect to such individual for the taxable year,

"(B) such individual has not attained the age of 17 as of the close of the calendar year in which the taxable year of the taxpayer begins, and

"(C) such individual bears a relationship to the taxpayer described in section 32(c)(3)(B)."

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–311, §204(b), substituted "subparagraph (A) of section 152(b)(3)" for "the first sentence of section 152(b)(3)".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 108–311, §104(a), inserted at end of concluding provisions "For purposes of subparagraph (B), any amount excluded from gross income by reason of section 112 shall be treated as earned income which is taken into account in computing taxable income for the taxable year."

Subsec. (d)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 108–311, §102(a), struck out "(10 percent in the case of taxable years beginning before January 1, 2005)" after "15 percent".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 108–311, §408(b)(4), amended directory language of Pub. L. 107–90. See 2001 Amendment note below.

2003—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–27 amended table by deleting items relating to calendar years 2001 and 2002 and increasing per child amount from $600 to $1,000 for calendar years 2003 or 2004.

2002—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §417(23)(A), amended directory language of Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(2)(A). See 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(b), substituted "aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart" for "amount of credit allowed by this section" in introductory provisions.

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year with respect to each qualifying child of the taxpayer an amount equal to $500 ($400 in the case of taxable years beginning in 1998)."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(2)(A), amended heading generally, substituting "Limitations" for "Limitation based on adjusted gross income".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(2)(B), amended heading generally, substituting "Limitation based on adjusted gross income" for "In general".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(2)(A), as amended by Pub. L. 107–147, §417(23)(A), substituted "sections 23 and 25B" for "section 23".

Pub. L. 107–16, §202(f)(2)(B), substituted "this section and section 23" for "this section".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(c)(1), amended subsec. heading and heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of a taxpayer with three or more qualifying children for any taxable year, the aggregate credits allowed under subpart C shall be increased by the lesser of—

"(A) the credit which would be allowed under this section without regard to this subsection and the limitation under section 26(a); or

"(B) the amount by which the aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart (without regard to this subsection) would increase if the limitation imposed by section 26(a) were increased by the excess (if any) of—

"(i) the taxpayer's Social Security taxes for the taxable year, over

"(ii) the credit allowed under section 32 (determined without regard to subsection (n)) for the taxable year.

The amount of the credit allowed under this subsection shall not be treated as a credit allowed under this subpart and shall reduce the amount of credit otherwise allowable under subsection (a) without regard to section 26(a)."

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(2)(C)(i), substituted "subsection (b)(3)" for "section 26(a)" wherever appearing in subsec. (d), as amended by Pub. L. 107–16, §201(c).

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(2)(C)(ii), substituted "amount of credit allowed by this section" for "aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart" in subpar. (B) as amended by Pub. L. 107–16, §201(c).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(d), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: "For taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001, the credit determined under this subsection for the taxable year shall be reduced by the excess (if any) of—

"(A) the amount of tax imposed by section 55 (relating to alternative minimum tax) with respect to such taxpayer for such taxable year, over

"(B) the amount of the reduction under section 32(h) with respect to such taxpayer for such taxable year."

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 107–90, as amended by Pub. L. 108–311, §408(b)(4), substituted "section 3211(a)" for "section 3211(a)(1)".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(d)(2), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(c)(2), added par. (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

1999—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted "2001" for "1998" in introductory provisions.

1998—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(C), added par. (1) and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: "In the case of a taxpayer with 3 or more qualifying children for any taxable year, the amount of the credit allowed under this section shall be equal to the greater of—

"(A) the amount of the credit allowed under this section (without regard to this subsection and after application of the limitation under section 26), or

"(B) the alternative credit amount determined under paragraph (2)."

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–277 substituted "For taxable years beginning after December 31, 1998, the credit" for "The credit".

Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(C), added par. (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: "For purposes of this subsection, the alternative credit amount is the amount of the credit which would be allowed under this section if the limitation under paragraph (3) were applied in lieu of the limitation under section 26."

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(A), (B), (2), redesignated par. (5) as (3), substituted "paragraph (1)" for "paragraph (3)" in introductory provisions, and struck out heading and text of former par. (3). Text read as follows: "The limitation under this paragraph for any taxable year is the limitation under section 26 (without regard to this subsection)—

"(A) increased by the taxpayer's social security taxes for such taxable year, and

"(B) reduced by the sum of—

"(i) the credits allowed under this part other than under subpart C or this section, and

"(ii) the credit allowed under section 32 without regard to subsection (m) thereof."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(A), struck out heading and text of par. (4). Text read as follows: "If the amount of the credit under paragraph (1)(B) exceeds the amount of the credit under paragraph (1)(A), such excess shall be treated as a credit to which subpart C applies. The rule of section 32(h) shall apply to such excess."

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(a)(1)(B), redesignated par. (5) as (3).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(s), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1169, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015 [Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q] to which they relate."

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11022(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2074, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §101(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3044, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §205(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3081, as amended by Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(i)(2), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1162, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any return of tax, and any amendment or supplement to any return of tax, which is filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §208(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3084, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 25A and 6213 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–27, title VIII, §807(b), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 418, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §209(k), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4031, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 25A, 30, 30D, 35, 38, 45Q, 48, 48C, 164, 853A, and 1016 of this title, and provisions set out as notes under sections 6428 and 6432 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009 [Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I] to which they relate."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §103(e), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2320, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 25A, 32, and 6409 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under section 25A of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2012.

"(2) Rule regarding disregard of refunds.—The amendment made by subsection (d) [amending section 6409 of this title] shall apply to amounts received after December 31, 2012."

Amendment by section 104(c)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §103(d), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3299, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 25A and 32 of this title and amending provisions set out as a note under section 25A of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010."

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1003(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 313, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1004(d), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 315, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 25 to 25B, 26, 904, 1400C, and 6211 of this title, and section 1324 of Title 31, Money and Finance] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1004(e), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 315, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b)(1) [amending this section] shall be subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, §901, which was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315, was formerly set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] in the same manner as the provision of such Act to which such amendment relates."

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1142(c), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 331, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 25, 25B, 26, 30, 30B, 30C, 53, 55, 904, 1016, 1400C, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to vehicles acquired after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 17, 2009]."

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1142(e), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 331, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b)(1)(A) [amending this section] shall be subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, §901, which was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315, was formerly set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] in the same manner as the provision of such Act to which such amendment relates."

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1144(c), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 333, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 25, 25B, 26, 30B, 30C, 55, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1144(d), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 333, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b)(1)(A) [amending this section] shall be subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, §901, which was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315, was formerly set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] in the same manner as the provision of such Act to which such amendment relates."

Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–351, title V, §501(d), Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3980, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 152 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Amendment by section 106(e)(2)(B) of title I of div. B of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, and subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendment relates, see section 106(f)(1), (3) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as a note under section 23 of this title. Title IX of Pub. L. 107–16 was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315.

Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title II, §205(e), (f), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3839, provided that:

"(e) Effective Date.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 30D of this title and amending this section and sections 25, 25B, 26, 30B, 38, 1016, 1400C, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.

"(f) Application of EGTRRA Sunset.—The amendment made by subsection (d)(1)(A) [amending this section] shall be subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16, §901, which was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315, was formerly set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2001 Amendment note under section 1 of this title] in the same manner as the provision of such Act to which such amendment relates."

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title V, §501(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3876, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–172, §11(c)(2), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2489, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Gulf Opportunity Zone Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–135] to which they relate."

Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendment relates, see section 402(i)(3)(H) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title. Title IX of Pub. L. 107–16 was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315.

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which it relates and applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2005, see section 402(m) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(a) of Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2003, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–311, title I, §102(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1168, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003."

Pub. L. 108–311, title I, §104(c)(1), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1169, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003."

Amendment by title I of Pub. L. 108–311 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, to the same extent and in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendments relate, see section 105 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 1 of this title. Title IX of Pub. L. 107–16 was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315.

Amendment by section 204 of Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–27, title I, §101(c), May 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 754, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 6429 of this title and amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2002.

"(2) Subsection (b).—The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting section 6429 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [May 28, 2003]."

Amendments by title I of Pub. L. 108–27 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, to the same extent and in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendments relate, see section 107 of Pub. L. 108–27, set out as a note under section 1 of this title. Title IX of Pub. L. 107–16 was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by section 411(b) of Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by sections 201(b), 202(f), and 618(b) of Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2004 or 2005, see section 312(b)(2) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by sections 201(b), 202(f), and 618(b) of Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2002 and 2003, see section 601(b)(2) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Pub. L. 107–90, title II, §204(f), Dec. 21, 2001, 115 Stat. 893, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting subchapter E of chapter 22 of this title and amending this section and sections 72, 3201, 3211, 3221, and 3231 of this title] shall apply to calendar years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §201(e), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 47, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 23, 25, 26, 32, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2000.

"(2) Subsection (b).—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section and sections 23, 25, 26, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Amendment by section 202(f)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 202(g)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §618(d), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 108, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 25B of this title and amending this section and sections 25, 25B, 26, 904, and 1400C of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §501(c), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1919, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 26 and 904 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1998."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title II, §2001(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–901, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 26 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(e), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 32, 501, and 6213 of this title and section 1324 of Title 31, Money and Finance] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Refunds Disregarded in Administration of Federal and Federally Assisted Programs

Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §203, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 49, provided that: "Any payment considered to have been made to any individual by reason of section 24 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended by section 201, shall not be taken into account as income and shall not be taken into account as resources for the month of receipt and the following month, for purposes of determining the eligibility of such individual or any other individual for benefits or assistance, or the amount or extent of benefits or assistance, under any Federal program or under any State or local program financed in whole or in part with Federal funds."

§25. Interest on certain home mortgages

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the product of—

(A) the certificate credit rate, and

(B) the interest paid or accrued by the taxpayer during the taxable year on the remaining principal of the certified indebtedness amount.

(2) Limitation where credit rate exceeds 20 percent

(A) In general

If the certificate credit rate exceeds 20 percent, the amount of the credit allowed to the taxpayer under paragraph (1) for any taxable year shall not exceed $2,000.

(B) Special rule where 2 or more persons hold interests in residence

If 2 or more persons hold interests in any residence, the limitation of subparagraph (A) shall be allocated among such persons in proportion to their respective interests in the residence.

(b) Certificate credit rate; certified indebtedness amount

For purposes of this section—

(1) Certificate credit rate

The term "certificate credit rate" means the rate of the credit allowable by this section which is specified in the mortgage credit certificate.

(2) Certified indebtedness amount

The term "certified indebtedness amount" means the amount of indebtedness which is—

(A) incurred by the taxpayer—

(i) to acquire the principal residence of the taxpayer,

(ii) as a qualified home improvement loan (as defined in section 143(k)(4)) with respect to such residence, or

(iii) as a qualified rehabilitation loan (as defined in section 143(k)(5)) with respect to such residence, and


(B) specified in the mortgage credit certificate.

(c) Mortgage credit certificate; qualified mortgage credit certificate program

For purposes of this section—

(1) Mortgage credit certificate

The term "mortgage credit certificate" means any certificate which—

(A) is issued under a qualified mortgage credit certificate program by the State or political subdivision having the authority to issue a qualified mortgage bond to provide financing on the principal residence of the taxpayer,

(B) is issued to the taxpayer in connection with the acquisition, qualified rehabilitation, or qualified home improvement of the taxpayer's principal residence,

(C) specifies—

(i) the certificate credit rate, and

(ii) the certified indebtedness amount, and


(D) is in such form as the Secretary may prescribe.

(2) Qualified mortgage credit certificate program

(A) In general

The term "qualified mortgage credit certificate program" means any program—

(i) which is established by a State or political subdivision thereof for any calendar year for which it is authorized to issue qualified mortgage bonds,

(ii) under which the issuing authority elects (in such manner and form as the Secretary may prescribe) not to issue an amount of private activity bonds which it may otherwise issue during such calendar year under section 146,

(iii) under which the indebtedness certified by mortgage credit certificates meets the requirements of the following subsections of section 143 (as modified by subparagraph (B) of this paragraph):

(I) subsection (c) (relating to residence requirements),

(II) subsection (d) (relating to 3-year requirement),

(III) subsection (e) (relating to purchase price requirement),

(IV) subsection (f) (relating to income requirements),

(V) subsection (h) (relating to portion of loans required to be placed in targeted areas), and

(VI) paragraph (1) of subsection (i) (relating to other requirements),


(iv) under which no mortgage credit certificate may be issued with respect to any residence any of the financing of which is provided from the proceeds of a qualified mortgage bond or a qualified veterans' mortgage bond,

(v) except to the extent provided in regulations, which is not limited to indebtedness incurred from particular lenders,

(vi) except to the extent provided in regulations, which provides that a mortgage credit certificate is not transferrable, and

(vii) if the issuing authority allocates a block of mortgage credit certificates for use in connection with a particular development, which requires the developer to furnish to the issuing authority and the homebuyer a certificate that the price for the residence is no higher than it would be without the use of a mortgage credit certificate.


Under regulations, rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 143(a)(2) shall apply to the requirements of this subparagraph.

(B) Modifications of section 143

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, in applying section 143 for purposes of subclauses (II), (IV), and (V) of subparagraph (A)(iii)—

(i) each qualified mortgage certificate credit program shall be treated as a separate issue,

(ii) the product determined by multiplying—

(I) the certified indebtedness amount of each mortgage credit certificate issued under such program, by

(II) the certificate credit rate specified in such certificate,


 shall be treated as proceeds of such issue and the sum of such products shall be treated as the total proceeds of such issue, and

(iii) paragraph (1) of section 143(d) shall be applied by substituting "100 percent" for "95 percent or more".


Clause (iii) shall not apply if the issuing authority submits a plan to the Secretary for administering the 95-percent requirement of section 143(d)(1) and the Secretary is satisfied that such requirement will be met under such plan.

(d) Determination of certificate credit rate

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The certificate credit rate specified in any mortgage credit certificate shall not be less than 10 percent or more than 50 percent.

(2) Aggregate limit on certificate credit rates

(A) In general

In the case of each qualified mortgage credit certificate program, the sum of the products determined by multiplying—

(i) the certified indebtedness amount of each mortgage credit certificate issued under such program, by

(ii) the certificate credit rate with respect to such certificate,


shall not exceed 25 percent of the nonissued bond amount.

(B) Nonissued bond amount

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "nonissued bond amount" means, with respect to any qualified mortgage credit certificate program, the amount of qualified mortgage bonds which the issuing authority is otherwise authorized to issue and elects not to issue under subsection (c)(2)(A)(ii).

(e) Special rules and definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Carryforward of unused credit

(A) In general

If the credit allowable under subsection (a) for any taxable year exceeds the applicable tax limit for such taxable year, such excess shall be a carryover to each of the 3 succeeding taxable years and, subject to the limitations of subparagraph (B), shall be added to the credit allowable by subsection (a) for such succeeding taxable year.

(B) Limitation

The amount of the unused credit which may be taken into account under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall not exceed the amount (if any) by which the applicable tax limit for such taxable year exceeds the sum of—

(i) the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such taxable year determined without regard to this paragraph, and

(ii) the amounts which, by reason of this paragraph, are carried to such taxable year and are attributable to taxable years before the unused credit year.

(C) Applicable tax limit

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "applicable tax limit" means the limitation imposed by section 26(a) for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 23 and 25D).

(2) Indebtedness not treated as certified where certain requirements not in fact met

Subsection (a) shall not apply to any indebtedness if all the requirements of subsection (c)(1), (d), (e), (f), and (i) of section 143 and clauses (iv), (v), and (vii) of subsection (c)(2)(A), were not in fact met with respect to such indebtedness. Except to the extent provided in regulations, the requirements described in the preceding sentence shall be treated as met if there is a certification, under penalty of perjury, that such requirements are met.

(3) Period for which certificate in effect

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a mortgage credit certificate shall be treated as in effect with respect to interest attributable to the period—

(i) beginning on the date such certificate is issued, and

(ii) ending on the earlier of the date on which—

(I) the certificate is revoked by the issuing authority, or

(II) the residence to which such certificate relates ceases to be the principal residence of the individual to whom the certificate relates.

(B) Certificate invalid unless indebtedness incurred within certain period

A certificate shall not apply to any indebtedness which is incurred after the close of the second calendar year following the calendar year for which the issuing authority made the applicable election under subsection (c)(2)(A)(ii).

(C) Notice to Secretary when certificate revoked

Any issuing authority which revokes any mortgage credit certificate shall notify the Secretary of such revocation at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe by regulations.

(4) Reissuance of mortgage credit certificates

The Secretary may prescribe regulations which allow the administrator of a mortgage credit certificate program to reissue a mortgage credit certificate specifying a certified mortgage indebtedness that replaces the outstanding balance of the certified mortgage indebtedness specified on the original certificate to any taxpayer to whom the original certificate was issued, under such terms and conditions as the Secretary determines are necessary to ensure that the amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to such reissued certificate is equal to or less than the amount of credit which would be allowable under subsection (a) with respect to the original certificate for any taxable year ending after such reissuance.

(5) Public notice that certificates will be issued

At least 90 days before any mortgage credit certificate is to be issued after a qualified mortgage credit certificate program, the issuing authority shall provide reasonable public notice of—

(A) the eligibility requirements for such certificate,

(B) the methods by which such certificates are to be issued, and

(C) such other information as the Secretary may require.

(6) Interest paid or accrued to related persons

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any interest paid or accrued to a person who is a related person to the taxpayer (within the meaning of section 144(a)(3)(A)).

(7) Principal residence

The term "principal residence" has the same meaning as when used in section 121.

(8) Qualified rehabilitation and home improvement

(A) Qualified rehabilitation

The term "qualified rehabilitation" has the meaning given such term by section 143(k)(5)(B).

(B) Qualified home improvement

The term "qualified home improvement" means an alteration, repair, or improvement described in section 143(k)(4).

(9) Qualified mortgage bond

The term "qualified mortgage bond" has the meaning given such term by section 143(a)(1).

(10) Manufactured housing

For purposes of this section, the term "single family residence" includes any manufactured home which has a minimum of 400 square feet of living space and a minimum width in excess of 102 inches and which is of a kind customarily used at a fixed location. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall be construed as providing that such a home will be taken into account in making determinations under section 143.

(f) Reduction in aggregate amount of qualified mortgage bonds which may be issued where certain requirements not met

(1) In general

If for any calendar year any mortgage credit certificate program which satisfies procedural requirements with respect to volume limitations prescribed by the Secretary fails to meet the requirements of paragraph (2) of subsection (d), such requirements shall be treated as satisfied with respect to any certified indebtedness of such program, but the applicable State ceiling under subsection (d) of section 146 for the State in which such program operates shall be reduced by 1.25 times the correction amount with respect to such failure. Such reduction shall be applied to such State ceiling for the calendar year following the calendar year in which the Secretary determines the correction amount with respect to such failure.

(2) Correction amount

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "correction amount" means an amount equal to the excess credit amount divided by 0.25.

(B) Excess credit amount

(i) In general

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(ii), the term "excess credit amount" means the excess of—

(I) the credit amount for any mortgage credit certificate program, over

(II) the amount which would have been the credit amount for such program had such program met the requirements of paragraph (2) of subsection (d).

(ii) Credit amount

For purposes of clause (i), the term "credit amount" means the sum of the products determined under clauses (i) and (ii) of subsection (d)(2)(A).

(3) Special rule for States having constitutional home rule cities

In the case of a State having one or more constitutional home rule cities (within the meaning of section 146(d)(3)(C)), the reduction in the State ceiling by reason of paragraph (1) shall be allocated to the constitutional home rule city, or to the portion of the State not within such city, whichever caused the reduction.

(4) Exception where certification program

The provisions of this subsection shall not apply in any case in which there is a certification program which is designed to ensure that the requirements of this section are met and which meets such requirements as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

(5) Waiver

The Secretary may waive the application of paragraph (1) in any case in which he determines that the failure is due to reasonable cause.

(g) Reporting requirements

Each person who makes a loan which is a certified indebtedness amount under any mortgage credit certificate shall file a report with the Secretary containing—

(1) the name, address, and social security account number of the individual to which the certificate was issued,

(2) the certificate's issuer, date of issue, certified indebtedness amount, and certificate credit rate, and

(3) such other information as the Secretary may require by regulations.


Each person who issues a mortgage credit certificate shall file a report showing such information as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. Any such report shall be filed at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may require by regulations.

(h) Regulations; contracts

(1) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations which may require recipients of mortgage credit certificates to pay a reasonable processing fee to defray the expenses incurred in administering the program.

(2) Contracts

The Secretary is authorized to enter into contracts with any person to provide services in connection with the administration of this section.

(i) Recapture of portion of Federal subsidy from use of mortgage credit certificates

For provisions increasing the tax imposed by this chapter to recapture a portion of the Federal subsidy from the use of mortgage credit certificates, see section 143(m).

(Added Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §612(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 905; amended Pub. L. 99–514, title XIII, §1301(f), title XVIII, §§1862(a)–(d)(1), 1899A(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2655, 2883, 2884, 2958; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1013(a)(25), (26), title IV, §4005(a)(2), (g)(7), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3543, 3645, 3651; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7104(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2305; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11408(b), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–477; Pub. L. 102–227, title I, §108(b), Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1688; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13141(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 436; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1807(c)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1902; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(d)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 839; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6008(d)(7), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 812; Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §201(b)(2)(F), title VI, §618(b)(2)(B), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 46, 108; Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1335(b)(2), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1036; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(i)(3)(C), (4), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2613, 2615; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title II, §205(d)(1)(B), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3838; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1004(b)(2), 1142(b)(1)(B), 1144(b)(1)(B), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 314, 330, 332; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(B), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(C), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(4)(B)(ii), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1209.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 25 was renumbered section 26 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "sections 23 and 25D" for "sections 23, 25D, and 1400C".

2013—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 112–240 amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'applicable tax limit' means—

"(i) in the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) applies, the limitation imposed by section 26(a)(2) for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 23, 25D, and 1400C), and

"(ii) in the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the limitation imposed by section 26(a)(1) for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 23, 24, 25A(i), 25B, 25D, 30, 30B, 30D, and 1400C)."

2010—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(B), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily struck out "23," after "and sections" in cls. (i) and (ii). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsec. (e)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 111–5, §1144(b)(1)(B), inserted "30B," after "30,".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1142(b)(1)(B), inserted "30," after "25D,".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1004(b)(2), inserted "25A(i)," after "24,".

2008—Subsec. (e)(1)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 110–343 inserted "30D," after "25D,".

2005—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(3)(C), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'applicable tax limit' means the limitation imposed by section 26(a) for the taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 23, 24, 25B, and 1400C)."

Pub. L. 109–58, §1335(b)(2), which directed amendment of subpar. (C) by substituting "other than this section, section 23, section 25D, and section 1400C" for "this section and sections 23 and 1400C", was repealed by Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(4). See Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendments notes below.

2001—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(2)(B), inserted "25B," after "24,".

Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(2)(F), inserted ", 24," after "sections 23".

1998—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 105–206 substituted "sections 23 and 1400C" for "section 23".

1997—Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 105–34 substituted "section 121" for "section 1034".

1996—Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–188 inserted "and section 23" after "other than this section".

1993—Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 103–66 redesignated subsecs. (i) and (j) as (h) and (i), respectively, and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (h). Text read as follows: "No election may be made under subsection (c)(2)(A)(ii) for any period after June 30, 1992."

1991—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 102–227 substituted "June 30, 1992" for "December 31, 1991".

1990—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted "December 31, 1991" for "September 30, 1990".

1989—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "for any period after September 30, 1990" for "for any calendar year after 1989".

1988—Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(25), amended Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(ii), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–647, §4005(a)(2), substituted "1989" for "1988".

Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(26), substituted "1988" for "1987".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 100–647, §4005(g)(7), added subsec. (j).

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(d)(1), substituted "paid or accrued" for "paid or incurred".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(A), substituted "section 143(k)(4)" for "section 103A(l)(6)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(B), substituted "section 143(k)(5)" for "section 103A(l)(7)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(E), substituted "section 143(a)(2)" for "section 103A(c)(2)" in provision following cl. (vii).

Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(b), inserted "Under regulations, rules similar to the rules of subparagraphs (B) and (C) of section 103A(c)(2) shall apply to the requirements of this subparagraph."

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(ii), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1013(a)(25), substituted "private activity bonds which it may otherwise issue during such calendar year under section 146" for "qualified mortgage bonds which it may otherwise issue during such calendar year under section 103A".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(i), substituted "section 143" for "section 103A" in introductory provisions, added subcls. (I) to (VI), and struck out former subcls. (I) to (V) which read as follows:

"(I) subsection (d) (relating to residence requirements),

"(II) subsection (e) (relating to 3-year requirement),

"(III) subsection (f) (relating to purchase price requirement),

"(IV) subsection (h) (relating to portion of loans required to be placed in targeted areas), and

"(V) subsection (j), other than paragraph (2) thereof (relating to other requirements),".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(iii)(V). Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(a), substituted "subsection (j), other than paragraph (2) thereof" for "paragraph (1) of subsection (j)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(C)(i), substituted in heading and introductory provisions "section 143" for "section 103A".

Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(F), inserted in introductory provisions reference to subcl. (V), added cl. (iii) and closing provisions, and struck out former cl. (iii) and closing provisions which read as follows:

"(iii) paragraph (1) of section 103A(e) shall be applied by substituting '100 percent' for '90 percent or more'.

Clause (iii) shall not apply if the issuing authority submits a plan to the Secretary for administering the 90-percent requirement of section 103A(e)(1) and the Secretary is satisfied that such requirement will be met under such plan."

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(1)(A), substituted "25 percent" for "20 percent" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(G), struck out par. (3) "Additional limit in certain cases" which read as follows: "In the case of a qualified mortgage credit certificate program in a State which—

"(A) has a State ceiling (as defined in section 103A(g)(4)) for the year an election is made that exceeds 20 percent of the average annual aggregate principal amount of mortgages executed during the immediately preceding 3 calendar years for single family owner-occupied residences located within the jurisdiction of such State, or

"(B) issued qualified mortgage bonds in an aggregate amount less than $150,000,000 for calendar year 1983,

the certificate credit rate for any mortgage credit certificate shall not exceed 20 percent unless the issuing authority submits a plan to the Secretary to ensure that the weighted average of the certificate credit rates in such mortgage credit certificate program does not exceed 20 percent and the Secretary approves such plan."

Subsec. (e)(1)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1862(c), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) "Limitations" read as follows: "The amount of the unused credit which may be taken into account under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year shall not exceed the amount by which the applicable tax limit for such taxable year exceeds the sum of the amounts which, by reason of this paragraph, are carried to such taxable year and are attributable to taxable years before the unused credit year."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(H), substituted "subsections (c)(1), (d), (e), (f), and (i) of section 143" for "subsection (d)(1), (e), (f), and (j) of section 103A".

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(I), substituted "section 144(a)(3)(A)" for "section 103(b)(6)(C)(i)".

Subsec. (e)(8)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(J), substituted "section 143(k)(5)(B)" for "section 103A(l)(7)(B)".

Subsec. (e)(8)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(K), substituted "section 143(k)(4)" for "section 103A(l)(6)".

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(L), substituted "section 143(a)(1)" for "section 103A(c)(1)".

Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(M), substituted "section 143" for "section 103A".

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(N), substituted "subsection (d) of section 146" for "paragraph (4) of section 103A(g)".

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(1)(B), substituted "0.25" for "0.20".

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(f)(2)(O), substituted "section 146(d)(3)(C)" for "section 103A(g)(5)(C)".

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §1899A(1), substituted "ensure" for "insure".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by section 1004(b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1142(b)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to vehicles acquired after Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1142(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1144(b)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1144(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 205(e) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(i)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 109–135 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendment relates, see section 402(i)(3)(H) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title. Title IX of Pub. L. 107–16 was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315.

The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to be applied and administered as if the amendments made by section 1335(b)(1)–(3) of Pub. L. 109–58 had never been enacted, see section 402(i)(4) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendments by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which they relate, except that amendment by section 402(i)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 109–135 is applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2005, see section 402(m) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–58 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 2005, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 1335(c) of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2004 or 2005, see section 312(b)(2) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2002 and 2003, see section 601(b)(2) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 201(b)(2)(F) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 201(e)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 618(b)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 618(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1807(e) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as an Effective Date note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13141(f)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 437, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to elections for periods after June 30, 1992."

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–227, title I, §108(c)(2), Dec. 11, 1991, 105 Stat. 1688, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to elections for periods after December 31, 1991."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to elections for periods after Sept. 30, 1990, see section 11408(d)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1013(a)(25), (26) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 4005(a)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to bonds issued, and nonissued bond amounts elected, after Dec. 31, 1988, see section 4005(h)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Amendment by section 4005(g)(7) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to financing provided, and mortgage credit certificates issued, after Dec. 31, 1990, with certain exceptions, see section 4005(h)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1301(f)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to nonissued bond amounts elected after Aug. 15, 1986, and amendment by section 1301(f)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to certificates issued with respect to nonissued bond amounts elected after Aug. 15, 1986, see section 1311(b) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Amendment by section 1862(a)–(d)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VI, §612(g), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 913, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6708 of this title, redesignating former section 25 as 26, and amending sections 23, 28 to 30, 38, 55, 103A, 163, 168, and 901 of this title] shall apply to interest paid or accrued after December 31, 1984, on indebtedness incurred after December 31, 1984.

"(2) Elections.—The amendments made by this section shall apply to elections under section 25(c)(2)(A)(ii) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by this section) for calendar years after 1983."

Savings Provision

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 not applicable to certain obligations issued, DC Zone assets acquired, or principal residences acquired before Jan. 1, 2012, see section 401(d)(4)(C) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under former section 1400 of this title.

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§25A. American Opportunity and Lifetime Learning credits

(a) Allowance of credit

In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year the amount equal to the sum of—

(1) the American Opportunity Tax Credit, plus

(2) the Lifetime Learning Credit.

(b) American Opportunity Tax Credit

(1) Per student credit

In the case of any eligible student for whom an election is in effect under this section for any taxable year, the American Opportunity Tax Credit is an amount equal to the sum of—

(A) 100 percent of so much of the qualified tuition and related expenses paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year (for education furnished to the eligible student during any academic period beginning in such taxable year) as does not exceed $2,000, plus

(B) 25 percent of such expenses so paid as exceeds $2,000 but does not exceed $4,000.

(2) Limitations applicable to American Opportunity Tax Credit

(A) Credit allowed only for 4 taxable years

An election to have this section apply with respect to any eligible student for purposes of the American Opportunity Tax Credit under subsection (a)(1) may not be made for any taxable year if such an election (by the taxpayer or any other individual) is in effect with respect to such student for any 4 prior taxable years.

(B) Credit allowed for year only if individual is at least ½ time student for portion of year

The American Opportunity Tax Credit under subsection (a)(1) shall not be allowed for a taxable year with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual unless such individual is an eligible student for at least one academic period which begins during such year.

(C) Credit allowed only for first 4 years of postsecondary education

The American Opportunity Tax Credit under subsection (a)(1) shall not be allowed for a taxable year with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an eligible student if the student has completed (before the beginning of such taxable year) the first 4 years of postsecondary education at an eligible educational institution.

(D) Denial of credit if student convicted of a felony drug offense

The American Opportunity Tax Credit under subsection (a)(1) shall not be allowed for qualified tuition and related expenses for the enrollment or attendance of a student for any academic period if such student has been convicted of a Federal or State felony offense consisting of the possession or distribution of a controlled substance before the end of the taxable year with or within which such period ends.

(3) Eligible student

For purposes of this subsection, the term "eligible student" means, with respect to any academic period, a student who—

(A) meets the requirements of section 484(a)(1) of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1091(a)(1)), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, and

(B) is carrying at least ½ the normal full-time work load for the course of study the student is pursuing.

(4) Restrictions on taxpayers who improperly claimed American Opportunity Tax Credit in prior years

(A) Taxpayers making prior fraudulent or reckless claims

(i) In general

No American Opportunity Tax Credit shall be allowed under this section for any taxable year in the disallowance period.

(ii) Disallowance period

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the disallowance period is—

(I) the period of 10 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of the American Opportunity Tax Credit under this section was due to fraud, and

(II) the period of 2 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of the American Opportunity Tax Credit under this section was due to reckless or intentional disregard of rules and regulations (but not due to fraud).

(B) Taxpayers making improper prior claims

In the case of a taxpayer who is denied the American Opportunity Tax Credit under this section for any taxable year as a result of the deficiency procedures under subchapter B of chapter 63, no American Opportunity Tax Credit shall be allowed under this section for any subsequent taxable year unless the taxpayer provides such information as the Secretary may require to demonstrate eligibility for such credit.

(c) Lifetime Learning Credit

(1) Per taxpayer credit

The Lifetime Learning Credit for any taxpayer for any taxable year is an amount equal to 20 percent of so much of the qualified tuition and related expenses paid by the taxpayer during the taxable year (for education furnished during any academic period beginning in such taxable year) as does not exceed $10,000.

(2) Special rules for determining expenses

(A) Coordination with American Opportunity Tax Credit

The qualified tuition and related expenses with respect to an individual who is an eligible student for whom a 1 American Opportunity Tax Credit under subsection (a)(1) is allowed for the taxable year shall not be taken into account under this subsection.

(B) Expenses eligible for Lifetime Learning Credit

For purposes of paragraph (1), qualified tuition and related expenses shall include expenses described in subsection (f)(1) with respect to any course of instruction at an eligible educational institution to acquire or improve job skills of the individual.

(d) Limitations based on modified adjusted gross income

(1) American Opportunity Tax Credit

The American Opportunity Tax Credit (determined without regard to this paragraph) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount which bears the same ratio to such credit (as so determined) as—

(A) the excess of—

(i) the taxpayer's modified adjusted gross income for such taxable year, over

(ii) $80,000 ($160,000 in the case of a joint return), bears to


(B) $10,000 ($20,000 in the case of a joint return).

(2) Lifetime Learning Credit

The Lifetime Learning Credit (determined without regard to this paragraph) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the amount which bears the same ratio to such credit (as so determined) as—

(A) the excess of—

(i) the taxpayer's modified adjusted gross income for such taxable year, over

(ii) $40,000 ($80,000 in the case of a joint return), bears to


(B) $10,000 ($20,000 in the case of a joint return).

(3) Modified adjusted gross income

For purposes of this subsection, the term "modified adjusted gross income" means the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year increased by any amount excluded from gross income under section 911, 931, or 933.

(e) Election not to have section apply

A taxpayer may elect not to have this section apply with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual for any taxable year.

(f) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified tuition and related expenses

(A) In general

The term "qualified tuition and related expenses" means tuition and fees required for the enrollment or attendance of—

(i) the taxpayer,

(ii) the taxpayer's spouse, or

(iii) any dependent of the taxpayer with respect to whom the taxpayer is allowed a deduction under section 151,


at an eligible educational institution for courses of instruction of such individual at such institution.

(B) Exception for education involving sports, etc.

Such term does not include expenses with respect to any course or other education involving sports, games, or hobbies, unless such course or other education is part of the individual's degree program.

(C) Exception for nonacademic fees

Such term does not include student activity fees, athletic fees, insurance expenses, or other expenses unrelated to an individual's academic course of instruction.

(D) Required course materials taken into account for American Opportunity Tax Credit

For purposes of determining the American Opportunity Tax Credit, subparagraph (A) shall be applied by substituting "tuition, fees, and course materials" for "tuition and fees".

(2) Eligible educational institution

The term "eligible educational institution" means an institution—

(A) which is described in section 481 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1088), as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, and

(B) which is eligible to participate in a program under title IV of such Act.

(g) Special rules

(1) Identification requirement

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) to a taxpayer with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual unless the taxpayer includes the name and taxpayer identification number of such individual on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(B) Additional identification requirements with respect to American Opportunity Tax Credit

(i) Student

The requirements of subparagraph (A) shall not be treated as met with respect to the American Opportunity Tax Credit unless the individual's taxpayer identification number was issued on or before the due date for filing the return of tax for the taxable year.

(ii) Taxpayer

No American Opportunity Tax Credit shall be allowed under this section if the taxpayer identification number of the taxpayer was issued after the due date for filing the return for the taxable year.

(iii) Institution

No American Opportunity Tax Credit shall be allowed under this section unless the taxpayer includes the employer identification number of any institution to which qualified tuition and related expenses were paid with respect to the individual.

(2) Adjustment for certain scholarships, etc.

The amount of qualified tuition and related expenses otherwise taken into account under subsection (a) with respect to an individual for an academic period shall be reduced (before the application of subsections (b), (c), and (d)) by the sum of any amounts paid for the benefit of such individual which are allocable to such period as—

(A) a qualified scholarship which is excludable from gross income under section 117,

(B) an educational assistance allowance under chapter 30, 31, 32, 34, or 35 of title 38, United States Code, or under chapter 1606 of title 10, United States Code, and

(C) a payment (other than a gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance within the meaning of section 102(a)) for such individual's educational expenses, or attributable to such individual's enrollment at an eligible educational institution, which is excludable from gross income under any law of the United States.

(3) Treatment of expenses paid by dependent

If a deduction under section 151 with respect to an individual is allowed to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which such individual's taxable year begins—

(A) no credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) to such individual for such individual's taxable year,

(B) qualified tuition and related expenses paid by such individual during such individual's taxable year shall be treated for purposes of this section as paid by such other taxpayer, and

(C) a statement described in paragraph (8) and received by such individual shall be treated as received by the taxpayer.

(4) Treatment of certain prepayments

If qualified tuition and related expenses are paid by the taxpayer during a taxable year for an academic period which begins during the first 3 months following such taxable year, such academic period shall be treated for purposes of this section as beginning during such taxable year.

(5) Denial of double benefit

No credit shall be allowed under this section for any expense for which a deduction is allowed under any other provision of this chapter.

(6) No credit for married individuals filing separate returns

If the taxpayer is a married individual (within the meaning of section 7703), this section shall apply only if the taxpayer and the taxpayer's spouse file a joint return for the taxable year.

(7) Nonresident aliens

If the taxpayer is a nonresident alien individual for any portion of the taxable year, this section shall apply only if such individual is treated as a resident alien of the United States for purposes of this chapter by reason of an election under subsection (g) or (h) of section 6013.

(8) Payee statement requirement

Except as otherwise provided by the Secretary, no credit shall be allowed under this section unless the taxpayer receives a statement furnished under section 6050S(d) which contains all of the information required by paragraph (2) thereof.

(h) Inflation adjustment

(1) In general

In the case of a taxable year beginning after 2001, the $40,000 and $80,000 amounts in subsection (d)(2) shall each be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting "calendar year 2000" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.

(2) Rounding

If any amount as adjusted under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $1,000, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $1,000.

(i) Portion of American Opportunity Tax Credit made refundable

Forty percent of so much of the credit allowed under subsection (a) as is attributable to the American Opportunity Tax Credit (determined after application of subsection (d) and without regard to this paragraph 2 and section 26(a)) shall be treated as a credit allowable under subpart C (and not allowed under subsection (a)). The preceding sentence shall not apply to any taxpayer for any taxable year if such taxpayer is a child to whom subsection (g) of section 1 applies for such taxable year.

(j) Regulations

The Secretary may prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out this section, including regulations providing for a recapture of the credit allowed under this section in cases where there is a refund in a subsequent taxable year of any amount which was taken into account in determining the amount of such credit.

(Added Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §201(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 799; amended Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §401(g)(2)(A), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1004(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 313; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(C), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §§101(b)(1), 103(a)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298, 3299; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §§103(a)(1), 104(c)(2)(D), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2319, 2322; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §209(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4028; Pub. L. 114–27, title VIII, §804(a), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 415; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §102(a), title II, §§206(a), 208(a)(2), 211(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3044, 3082, 3083, 3085; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11002(d)(1)(B), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2060; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(l)(1)–(9), (11)–(14), title IV, §401(b)(1), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1162–1165, 1201.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3)(A) and (f)(2)(A), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–34 which was approved Aug. 5, 1997.

The Higher Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(B), is Pub. L. 89–329, Nov. 8, 1965, 79 Stat. 1219. Title IV of the Act is classified generally to subchapter IV (§1070 et seq.) of chapter 28 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1001 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(14), substituted "American Opportunity Tax Credit" for "Hope Scholarship Credit" wherever appearing in text.

Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(9), substituted "American Opportunity" for "Hope" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(11), substituted "American Opportunity Tax Credit" for "Hope Scholarship Credit" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(1)(A), substituted "$2,000" for "$1,000".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(1)(B), substituted "25 percent" for "50 percent", "$2,000" for "$1,000", and "$4,000" for "the applicable limit".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(12), substituted "American Opportunity Tax Credit" for "Hope Scholarship Credit" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A), (C). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(2), substituted "4" for "2" in heading and text.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(3), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of paragraph (1)(B), the applicable limit for any taxable year is an amount equal to 2 times the dollar amount in effect under paragraph (1)(A) for such taxable year."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(1), struck out "($5,000 in the case of taxable years beginning before January 1, 2003)" after "$10,000".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(13), substituted "American Opportunity Tax Credit" for "Hope Scholarship" in heading.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(4), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) related to limitation based on modified adjusted gross income.

Subsec. (f)(1)(D). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(5), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(6), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(7), amended subsec. (h) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (h) related to inflation adjustments.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(l)(8), amended subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (i) related to the American Opportunity Tax Credit in any taxable year beginning after 2008.

2017—Subsec. (h)(1)(A)(ii), (2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2015—Subsec. (g)(3)(C). Pub. L. 114–27, §804(a)(2), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (g)(8). Pub. L. 114–27, §804(a)(1), added par. (8).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 114–113, §102(a), struck out "and before 2018" after "2008" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i)(6). Pub. L. 114–113, §206(a)(2), added par. (6).

Pub. L. 114–113, §206(a)(1), struck out par. (6). Text read as follows: "In the case of a taxpayer with respect to whom section 702(a)(1)(B) of the Heartland Disaster Tax Relief Act of 2008 applies for any taxable year, such taxpayer may elect to waive the application of this subsection to such taxpayer for such taxable year."

Subsec. (i)(6)(C). Pub. L. 114–113, §211(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (i)(7). Pub. L. 114–113, §208(a)(2), added par. (7).

2014—Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 113–295 substituted "For purposes of determining the Hope Scholarship Credit, subsection (f)(1)(A) shall be applied" for "Subsection (f)(1)(A) shall be applied".

2013—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 112–240, §103(a)(1), substituted "after 2008 and before 2018" for "in 2009, 2010, 2011, or 2012" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 112–240, §104(c)(2)(D), redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (5) and (6), respectively, substituted "section 26(a)" for "section 26(a)(2) or paragraph (5), as the case may be" in par. (5), and struck out former par. (5) which related to credit allowed against alternative minimum tax.

2010—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 111–312, §103(a)(1), substituted ", 2010, 2011, or 2012" for "or 2010" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i)(5)(B). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(C), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, §101(b)(1), temporarily substituted "25D" for "23, 25D,". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsecs. (i), (j). Pub. L. 111–5 added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsec. (i) as (j).

2001—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–16, §401(g)(2)(A), amended heading and text of subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) In general.—No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for a taxable year with respect to the qualified tuition and related expenses of an individual unless the taxpayer elects to have this section apply with respect to such individual for such year.

"(2) Coordination with exclusions.—An election under this subsection shall not take effect with respect to an individual for any taxable year if any portion of any distribution during such taxable year from an education individual retirement account is excluded from gross income under section 530(d)(2)."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(l)(1) to (9), (11) to (14) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in the provision of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, div. Q of Pub. L. 114–113, to which such amendment relates, see section 101(s) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §102(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3044, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and provisions set out as a note below] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §206(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3082, as amended by Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(j), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1162, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall apply to any return of tax, and any amendment or supplement to any return of tax, which is filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015].

"(2) Repeal of deadwood.—The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act."

Amendment by section 208(a)(2) of Pub. L. 114–113 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2015, see section 208(c) of Pub. L. 114–113, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §211(c)(1), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3085, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–27, title VIII, §804(d), June 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 416, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 222 and 6050S of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 29, 2015]."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective as if included in the provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, to which such amendment relates, see section 209(k) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(a)(1) of Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, see section 103(e)(1) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 104(c)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(a)(1) of Pub. L. 111–312 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, see section 103(d) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title IV, §401(h), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 60, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 135, 530, and 4973 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §201(f), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 806, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6050S of this title and amending sections 135, 6213, and 6724 of this title] shall apply to expenses paid after December 31, 1997 (in taxable years ending after such date), for education furnished in academic periods beginning after such date.

"(2) Lifetime learning credit.—Section 25A(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall apply to expenses paid after June 30, 1998 (in taxable years ending after such date), for education furnished in academic periods beginning after such dates."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 401(b)(1) of Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Treatment of Possessions

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1004(c), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 314, as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §103(a)(2), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3299; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §103(a)(2), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2319; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §102(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3044, provided that:

"(1) Payments to possessions.—

"(A) Mirror code possession.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to each possession of the United States with a mirror code tax system amounts equal to the loss to that possession by reason of the application of section 25A(i)(6) [now 25A(i)] of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) with respect to taxable years beginning after 2008. Such amounts shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury based on information provided by the government of the respective possession.

"(B) Other possessions.—The Secretary of the Treasury shall pay to each possession of the United States which does not have a mirror code tax system amounts estimated by the Secretary of the Treasury as being equal to the aggregate benefits that would have been provided to residents of such possession by reason of the application of section 25A(i)(6) [now 25A(i)] of such Code (as so added) for taxable years beginning after 2008 if a mirror code tax system had been in effect in such possession. The preceding sentence shall not apply with respect to any possession of the United States unless such possession has a plan, which has been approved by the Secretary of the Treasury, under which such possession will promptly distribute such payments to the residents of such possession.

"(2) Coordination with credit allowed against united states income taxes.—Section 25A(i)(6) [now 25A(i)] of such Code (as added by this section) shall not apply to a bona fide resident of any possession of the United States.

"(3) Definitions and special rules.—

"(A) Possession of the united states.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'possession of the United States' includes the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

"(B) Mirror code tax system.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'mirror code tax system' means, with respect to any possession of the United States, the income tax system of such possession if the income tax liability of the residents of such possession under such system is determined by reference to the income tax laws of the United States as if such possession were the United States.

"(C) Treatment of payments.—For purposes of section 1324(b)(2) of title 31, United States Code, the payments under this subsection shall be treated in the same manner as a refund due from the credit allowed under section 25A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by reason of subsection (i)(6) [now (i)(5)] of such section (as added by this section)."

[Amendments by Pub. L. 112–240, §103(a)(2), and Pub. L. 114–113, §102(b), were executed as the probable intent of Congress to section 1004(c)(1) of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009, set out above, which act is title I of div. B of Pub. L. 111–5, notwithstanding directory language amending section 1004(c)(1) of division B of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009.]

1 So in original. Probably should be "an".

2 So in original. Probably should be "this subsection".

§25B. Elective deferrals and IRA contributions by certain individuals

(a) Allowance of credit

In the case of an eligible individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to the applicable percentage of so much of the qualified retirement savings contributions of the eligible individual for the taxable year as do not exceed $2,000.

(b) Applicable percentage

For purposes of this section—

(1) Joint returns

In the case of a joint return, the applicable percentage is—

(A) if the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer is not over $30,000, 50 percent,

(B) if the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer is over $30,000 but not over $32,500, 20 percent,

(C) if the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer is over $32,500 but not over $50,000, 10 percent, and

(D) if the adjusted gross income of the taxpayer is over $50,000, zero percent.

(2) Other returns

In the case of—

(A) a head of household, the applicable percentage shall be determined under paragraph (1) except that such paragraph shall be applied by substituting for each dollar amount therein (as adjusted under paragraph (3)) a dollar amount equal to 75 percent of such dollar amount, and

(B) any taxpayer not described in paragraph (1) or subparagraph (A), the applicable percentage shall be determined under paragraph (1) except that such paragraph shall be applied by substituting for each dollar amount therein (as adjusted under paragraph (3)) a dollar amount equal to 50 percent of such dollar amount.

(3) Inflation adjustment

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 2006, each of the dollar amounts in paragraph (1) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting "calendar year 2005" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.


Any increase determined under the preceding sentence shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $500.

(c) Eligible individual

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "eligible individual" means any individual if such individual has attained the age of 18 as of the close of the taxable year.

(2) Dependents and full-time students not eligible

The term "eligible individual" shall not include—

(A) any individual with respect to whom a deduction under section 151 is allowed to another taxpayer for a taxable year beginning in the calendar year in which such individual's taxable year begins, and

(B) any individual who is a student (as defined in section 152(f)(2)).

(d) Qualified retirement savings contributions

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "qualified retirement savings contributions" means, with respect to any taxable year, the sum of—

(A) the amount of the qualified retirement contributions (as defined in section 219(e)) made by the eligible individual,

(B) the amount of—

(i) any elective deferrals (as defined in section 402(g)(3)) of such individual, and

(ii) any elective deferral of compensation by such individual under an eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)) of an eligible employer described in section 457(e)(1)(A),


(C) the amount of voluntary employee contributions by such individual to any qualified retirement plan (as defined in section 4974(c)), and

(D) the amount of contributions made before January 1, 2026, by such individual to the ABLE account (within the meaning of section 529A) of which such individual is the designated beneficiary.

(2) Reduction for certain distributions

(A) In general

The qualified retirement savings contributions determined under paragraph (1) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the aggregate distributions received by the individual during the testing period from any entity of a type to which contributions under paragraph (1) may be made. The preceding sentence shall not apply to the portion of any distribution which is not includible in gross income by reason of a trustee-to-trustee transfer or a rollover distribution.

(B) Testing period

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the testing period, with respect to a taxable year, is the period which includes—

(i) such taxable year,

(ii) the 2 preceding taxable years, and

(iii) the period after such taxable year and before the due date (including extensions) for filing the return of tax for such taxable year.

(C) Excepted distributions

There shall not be taken into account under subparagraph (A)—

(i) any distribution referred to in section 72(p), 401(k)(8), 401(m)(6), 402(g)(2), 404(k), or 408(d)(4), and

(ii) any distribution to which section 408A(d)(3) applies.

(D) Treatment of distributions received by spouse of individual

For purposes of determining distributions received by an individual under subparagraph (A) for any taxable year, any distribution received by the spouse of such individual shall be treated as received by such individual if such individual and spouse file a joint return for such taxable year and for the taxable year during which the spouse receives the distribution.

(e) Adjusted gross income

For purposes of this section, adjusted gross income shall be determined without regard to sections 911, 931, and 933.

(f) Investment in the contract

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a qualified retirement savings contribution shall not fail to be included in determining the investment in the contract for purposes of section 72 by reason of the credit under this section.

(Added and amended Pub. L. 107–16, title VI, §618(a), (b)(1), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 106, 108; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §§411(m), 417(1), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 48, 56; Pub. L. 108–311, title II, §207(4), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1177; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(i)(3)(D), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2614; Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §§812, 833(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 997, 1003; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title I, §106(e)(2)(C), title II, §205(d)(1)(C), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3817, 3838; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1004(b)(4), 1142(b)(1)(C), 1144(b)(1)(C), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 314, 330, 332; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(D), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(E), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §§11002(d)(1)(C), 11024(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2060, 2076.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title and Revenue Notices listed in a table under section 401 of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 115–97, §11002(d)(1)(C), substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

Subsec. (d)(1)(D). Pub. L. 115–97, §11024(b), added subpar. (D).

2013—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 112–240 struck out subsec. (g). Text read as follows: "In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit allowed under subsection (a) for the taxable year shall not exceed the excess of—

"(1) the sum of the regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)) plus the tax imposed by section 55, over

"(2) the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section and sections 23, 25A(i), 25D, 30, 30B, and 30D) and section 27 for the taxable year."

2010—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(D), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily struck out "23," before "25A(i),". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 111–5, §1144(b)(1)(C), inserted "30B," after "30,".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1142(b)(1)(C), inserted "30," after "25D,".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1004(b)(4), inserted "25A(i)," after "23,".

2008—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 110–343, §205(d)(1)(C), substituted ", 25D, and 30D" for "and 25D".

Pub. L. 110–343, §106(e)(2)(C), substituted "sections 23 and 25D" for "section 23".

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–280, §833(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text of subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions consisting of introductory provisions and pars. (1) to (3) for former provisions consisting of introductory provisions and a table of applicable percentages for amounts of adjusted gross income for a joint return, a head of household, and all other cases.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 109–280, §812, struck out heading and text of subsec. (h). Text read as follows: "This section shall not apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006."

2005—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–135 substituted "In the case of a taxable year to which section 26(a)(2) does not apply, the credit" for "The credit" in introductory provisions.

2004—Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–311 substituted "152(f)(2)" for "151(c)(4)".

2002—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–147, §411(m), reenacted heading without change and amended text of subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The qualified retirement savings contributions determined under paragraph (1) shall be reduced (but not below zero) by the sum of—

"(i) any distribution from a qualified retirement plan (as defined in section 4974(c)), or from an eligible deferred compensation plan (as defined in section 457(b)), received by the individual during the testing period which is includible in gross income, and

"(ii) any distribution from a Roth IRA or a Roth account received by the individual during the testing period which is not a qualified rollover contribution (as defined in section 408A(e)) to a Roth IRA or a rollover under section 402(c)(8)(B) to a Roth account."

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 107–147, §417(1), redesignated subsec. (g), relating to termination, as (h).

2001—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(1), added subsec. (g) relating to limitation based on amount of tax.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by section 11002(d)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11024(c), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2076, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 529A of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 22, 2017]."

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by section 1004(b)(4) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1142(b)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to vehicles acquired after Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1142(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1144(b)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1144(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by section 106(e)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 106(f)(1) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 205(d)(1)(C) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 205(e) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §833(d), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1004, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 219 and 408A of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after 2006."

Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendment relates, see section 402(i)(3)(H) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title. Title IX of Pub. L. 107–16 was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315.

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which it relates and applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2005, see section 402(m) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(x), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 53, provided that: "Except as provided in subsection (c) [amending sections 23 and 137 of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 23 of this title], the amendments made by this section [amending this section, sections 23, 24, 38, 45E, 45F, 63, 137, 401 to 404, 408, 409, 412, 414 to 417, 457, 530, 2016, 2101, 2511, 4980F, and 6428 of this title, sections 1003, 1054, 1055, 1082, and 1104 of Title 29, Labor, and provisions set out as notes under sections 38, 415, and 4980F of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001 [Pub. L. 107–16] to which they relate."

Effective Date

Amendment by section 618(b)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2004 or 2005, see section 312(b)(2) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as an Effective Date of 2001 Amendment note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 618(b)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2002 and 2003, see section 601(b)(2) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as an Effective Date of 2001 Amendment note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 618(b)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 618(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as an Effective Date of 2001 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

§25C. Nonbusiness energy property

(a) Allowance of credit

In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of—

(1) 10 percent of the amount paid or incurred by the taxpayer for qualified energy efficiency improvements installed during such taxable year, and

(2) the amount of the residential energy property expenditures paid or incurred by the taxpayer during such taxable year.

(b) Limitations

(1) Lifetime limitation

The credit allowed under this section with respect to any taxpayer for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of $500 over the aggregate credits allowed under this section with respect to such taxpayer for all prior taxable years ending after December 31, 2005.

(2) Windows

In the case of amounts paid or incurred for components described in subsection (c)(3)(B) by any taxpayer for any taxable year, the credit allowed under this section with respect to such amounts for such year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of $200 over the aggregate credits allowed under this section with respect to such amounts for all prior taxable years ending after December 31, 2005.

(3) Limitation on residential energy property expenditures

The amount of the credit allowed under this section by reason of subsection (a)(2) shall not exceed—

(A) $50 for any advanced main air circulating fan,

(B) $150 for any qualified natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler, and

(C) $300 for any item of energy-efficient building property.

(c) Qualified energy efficiency improvements

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "qualified energy efficiency improvements" means any energy efficient building envelope component, if—

(A) such component is installed in or on a dwelling unit located in the United States and owned and used by the taxpayer as the taxpayer's principal residence (within the meaning of section 121),

(B) the original use of such component commences with the taxpayer, and

(C) such component reasonably can be expected to remain in use for at least 5 years.

(2) Energy efficient building envelope component

The term "energy efficient building envelope component" means a building envelope component which meets—

(A) applicable Energy Star program requirements, in the case of a roof or roof products,

(B) version 6.0 Energy Star program requirements, in the case of an exterior window, a skylight, or an exterior door, and

(C) the prescriptive criteria for such component established by the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code, as such Code (including supplements) is in effect on the date of the enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009, in the case of any other component.

(3) Building envelope component

The term "building envelope component" means—

(A) any insulation material or system which is specifically and primarily designed to reduce the heat loss or gain of a dwelling unit when installed in or on such dwelling unit,

(B) exterior windows (including skylights),

(C) exterior doors, and

(D) any metal roof or asphalt roof installed on a dwelling unit, but only if such roof has appropriate pigmented coatings or cooling granules which are specifically and primarily designed to reduce the heat gain of such dwelling unit.

(4) Manufactured homes included

The term "dwelling unit" includes a manufactured home which conforms to Federal Manufactured Home Construction and Safety Standards (part 3280 of title 24, Code of Federal Regulations).

(d) Residential energy property expenditures

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "residential energy property expenditures" means expenditures made by the taxpayer for qualified energy property which is—

(A) installed on or in connection with a dwelling unit located in the United States and owned and used by the taxpayer as the taxpayer's principal residence (within the meaning of section 121), and

(B) originally placed in service by the taxpayer.


Such term includes expenditures for labor costs properly allocable to the onsite preparation, assembly, or original installation of the property.

(2) Qualified energy property

(A) In general

The term "qualified energy property" means—

(i) energy-efficient building property,

(ii) a qualified natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler, or

(iii) an advanced main air circulating fan.

(B) Performance and quality standards

Property described under subparagraph (A) shall meet the performance and quality standards, and the certification requirements (if any), which—

(i) have been prescribed by the Secretary by regulations (after consultation with the Secretary of Energy or the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, as appropriate), and

(ii) are in effect at the time of the acquisition of the property, or at the time of the completion of the construction, reconstruction, or erection of the property, as the case may be.

(C) Requirements and standards for air conditioners and heat pumps

The standards and requirements prescribed by the Secretary under subparagraph (B) with respect to the energy efficiency ratio (EER) for central air conditioners and electric heat pumps—

(i) shall require measurements to be based on published data which is tested by manufacturers at 95 degrees Fahrenheit, and

(ii) may be based on the certified data of the Air Conditioning and Refrigeration Institute that are prepared in partnership with the Consortium for Energy Efficiency.

(3) Energy-efficient building property

The term "energy-efficient building property" means—

(A) an electric heat pump water heater which yields an energy factor of at least 2.0 in the standard Department of Energy test procedure,

(B) an electric heat pump which achieves the highest efficiency tier established by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, as in effect on January 1, 2009,

(C) a central air conditioner which achieves the highest efficiency tier established by the Consortium for Energy Efficiency, as in effect on January 1, 2009,

(D) a natural gas, propane, or oil water heater which has either an energy factor of at least 0.82 or a thermal efficiency of at least 90 percent, and

(E) a stove which uses the burning of biomass fuel to heat a dwelling unit located in the United States and used as a residence by the taxpayer, or to heat water for use in such a dwelling unit, and which has a thermal efficiency rating of at least 75 percent.

(4) Qualified natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler

The term "qualified natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler" means a natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler which achieves an annual fuel utilization efficiency rate of not less than 95.

(5) Advanced main air circulating fan

The term "advanced main air circulating fan" means a fan used in a natural gas, propane, or oil furnace and which has an annual electricity use of no more than 2 percent of the total annual energy use of the furnace (as determined in the standard Department of Energy test procedures).

(6) Biomass fuel

The term "biomass fuel" means any plant-derived fuel available on a renewable or recurring basis, including agricultural crops and trees, wood and wood waste and residues (including wood pellets), plants (including aquatic plants), grasses, residues, and fibers.

(e) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Application of rules

Rules similar to the rules under paragraphs (4), (5), (6), (7), and (8) of section 25D(e) shall apply.

(2) Joint ownership of energy items

(A) In general

Any expenditure otherwise qualifying as an expenditure under this section shall not be treated as failing to so qualify merely because such expenditure was made with respect to two or more dwelling units.

(B) Limits applied separately

In the case of any expenditure described in subparagraph (A), the amount of the credit allowable under subsection (a) shall (subject to paragraph (1)) be computed separately with respect to the amount of the expenditure made for each dwelling unit.

(3) Property financed by subsidized energy financing

For purposes of determining the amount of expenditures made by any individual with respect to any property, there shall not be taken into account expenditures which are made from subsidized energy financing (as defined in section 48(a)(4)(C)).

(f) Basis adjustments

For purposes of this subtitle, if a credit is allowed under this section for any expenditure with respect to any property, the increase in the basis of such property which would (but for this subsection) result from such expenditure shall be reduced by the amount of the credit so allowed.

(g) Termination

This section shall not apply with respect to any property placed in service—

(1) after December 31, 2007, and before January 1, 2009, or

(2) after December 31, 2017.

(Added Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1333(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1026; amended Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(b), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2636; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(2), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2484; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title III, §302(a)–(e), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3844, 3845; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1103(b)(2)(A), 1121(a)–(e), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 320, 322-324; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §710(a), (b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3314; Pub. L. 112–240, title IV, §401(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2337; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §151(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4021; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §181(a), (b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3072; Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40401(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(4)–(6), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1184.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(C), is the date of enactment of title I of div. B of Pub. L. 111–5, which was approved Feb. 17, 2009.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(4), substituted "subsection (c)(3)(B)" for "subsection (c)(2)(B)".

Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(5)(A), substituted comma for period at end.

Subsec. (d)(3)(D). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(5)(B), substituted ", and" for period at end.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(6), substituted "2017." for "2017.."

Pub. L. 115–123 substituted "December 31, 2017" for "December 31, 2016".

2015—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–113, §181(b)(1), struck out "which meets the prescriptive criteria for such component established by the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code, as such Code (including supplements) is in effect on the date of the enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009 (or, in the case of an exterior window, a skylight, an exterior door, a metal roof with appropriate pigmented coatings, or an asphalt roof with appropriate cooling granules, which meet the Energy Star program requirements)" after "envelope component" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 114–113, §181(b)(2), added par. (2) and redesignated former pars. (2) and (3) as (3) and (4), respectively.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 114–113, §181(a), substituted "December 31, 2016" for "December 31, 2014".

2014—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 113–295 substituted "December 31, 2014" for "December 31, 2013".

2013—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "December 31, 2013" for "December 31, 2011".

2010—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(1), amended subsecs. (a) and (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsecs. (a) and (b) read as follows:

"(a) Allowance of credit.—In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to 30 percent of the sum of—

"(1) the amount paid or incurred by the taxpayer during such taxable year for qualified energy efficiency improvements, and

"(2) the amount of the residential energy property expenditures paid or incurred by the taxpayer during such taxable year.

"(b) Limitation.—The aggregate amount of the credits allowed under this section for taxable years beginning in 2009 and 2010 with respect to any taxpayer shall not exceed $1,500."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(2)(D)(ii), inserted "an exterior window, a skylight, an exterior door," after "in the case of" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(2)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted "2009 International Energy Conservation Code, as such Code (including supplements) is in effect on the date of the enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009" for "2000 International Energy Conservation Code, as such Code (including supplements) is in effect on the date of the enactment of this section".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(2)(E), struck out "and meets the prescriptive criteria for such material or system established by the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code, as such Code (including supplements) is in effect on the date of the enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009" after "on such dwelling unit".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(2)(D)(i), struck out par. (4). Text read as follows: "Such term shall not include any component described in subparagraph (B) or (C) of paragraph (2) unless such component is equal to or below a U factor of 0.30 and SHGC of 0.30."

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(2)(C)(ii), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "any qualified natural gas furnace, qualified propane furnace, qualified oil furnace, qualified natural gas hot water boiler, qualified propane hot water boiler, or qualified oil hot water boiler, or".

Subsec. (d)(3)(E). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(2)(B), struck out ", as measured using a lower heating value" after "75 percent".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(2)(C)(i), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) defined the terms "qualified natural gas furnace", "qualified natural gas hot water boiler", "qualified propane furnace", "qualified propane hot water boiler", "qualified oil furnace", and "qualified oil hot water boiler".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(b)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 111–312, §710(a), substituted "2011" for "2010".

2009—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(a), added subsecs. (a) and (b) and struck out former subsecs. (a) and (b) which related to credit equal to the sum of 10 percent of the amount paid for qualified energy efficiency improvements and the amount of energy property expenditures and provided limits on credits and expenditures.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(d)(2), inserted "and meets the prescriptive criteria for such material or system established by the 2009 International Energy Conservation Code, as such Code (including supplements) is in effect on the date of the enactment of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009" after "such dwelling unit".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(d)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(c)(2), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "a qualified natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler, or".

Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(b)(1), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "an electric heat pump which has a heating seasonal performance factor (HSPF) of at least 9, a seasonal energy efficiency ratio (SEER) of at least 15, and an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of at least 13,".

Subsec. (d)(3)(C). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(b)(2), substituted "2009" for "2006".

Subsec. (d)(3)(D). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(b)(3), amended subpar. (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: "a natural gas, propane, or oil water heater which has an energy factor of at least 0.80 or a thermal efficiency of at least 90 percent, and".

Subsec. (d)(3)(E). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(b)(4), inserted ", as measured using a lower heating value" after "75 percent".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(c)(1), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'qualified natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler' means a natural gas, propane, or oil furnace or hot water boiler which achieves an annual fuel utilization efficiency rate of not less than 95."

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 111–5, §1103(b)(2)(A), substituted "and (8)" for "(8), and (9)".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 111–5, §1121(e), substituted "December 31, 2010" for "December 31, 2009".

2008—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(e)(1), in introductory provisions, inserted ", or an asphalt roof with appropriate cooling granules," before "which meet the Energy Star program requirements".

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(e)(2), inserted "or asphalt roof" after "metal roof" and "or cooling granules" after "pigmented coatings".

Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(d)(2), amended heading and text of subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) related to requirements for standards for central air conditioners, electric heat pumps, and geothermal heat pumps.

Subsec. (d)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(d)(1), redesignated subpars. (D) and (E) as (C) and (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "a geothermal heat pump which—

"(i) in the case of a closed loop product, has an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of at least 14.1 and a heating coefficient of performance (COP) of at least 3.3,

"(ii) in the case of an open loop product, has an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of at least 16.2 and a heating coefficient of performance (COP) of at least 3.6, and

"(iii) in the case of a direct expansion (DX) product, has an energy efficiency ratio (EER) of at least 15 and a heating coefficient of performance (COP) of at least 3.5,".

Subsec. (d)(3)(E). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(d)(1), redesignated subpar. (F) as (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (D).

Pub. L. 110–343, §302(c), inserted "or a thermal efficiency of at least 90 percent" after "0.80".

Subsec. (d)(3)(F). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(d)(1), redesignated subpar. (F) as (E).

Pub. L. 110–343, §302(b)(1), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(b)(2), added par. (6).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–343, §302(a), substituted "placed in service—" for "placed in service after December 31, 2007" and added pars. (1) and (2).

2007—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 110–172 substituted "part 3280" for "section 3280".

2005—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–135 substituted "subsection (c)(2)(B)" for "subsection (c)(3)(B)".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40401(b), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2016."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §181(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3072, provided that:

"(1) Extension.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2014.

"(2) Modification.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2015."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §151(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4021, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2013."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title IV, §401(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2337, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2011."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §710(c), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3315, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2010."

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1103(c), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 321, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by this section [amending this section and sections 25D and 48 to 48B of this title] shall apply to periods after December 31, 2008, under rules similar to the rules of section 48(m) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 [Nov. 5, 1990]).

"(2) Conforming amendments.—The amendments made by subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (b)(2) [amending this section and section 25D of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1121(f), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 324, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008.

"(2) Efficiency standards.—The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (b) and subsections (c) and (d) shall apply to property placed in service after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 17, 2009]."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title III, §302(f), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3845, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made [by] this section [amending this section] shall apply to expenditures made after December 31, 2008.

"(2) Modification of qualified energy efficiency improvements.—The amendments made by subsection (e) [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 3, 2008]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1333(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1030, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 1016 of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2005."

§25D. Residential energy efficient property

(a) Allowance of credit

In the case of an individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of the applicable percentages of—

(1) the qualified solar electric property expenditures,

(2) the qualified solar water heating property expenditures,

(3) the qualified fuel cell property expenditures,

(4) the qualified small wind energy property expenditures, and

(5) the qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditures,


made by the taxpayer during such year.

(b) Limitations

(1) Maximum credit for fuel cells

In the case of any qualified fuel cell property expenditure, the credit allowed under subsection (a) (determined without regard to subsection (c)) for any taxable year shall not exceed $500 with respect to each half kilowatt of capacity of the qualified fuel cell property (as defined in section 48(c)(1)) to which such expenditure relates.

(2) Certification of solar water heating property

No credit shall be allowed under this section for an item of property described in subsection (d)(1) unless such property is certified for performance by the non-profit Solar Rating Certification Corporation or a comparable entity endorsed by the government of the State in which such property is installed.

(c) Carryforward of unused credit

If the credit allowable under subsection (a) exceeds the limitation imposed by section 26(a) for such taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section), such excess shall be carried to the succeeding taxable year and added to the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such succeeding taxable year.

(d) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified solar water heating property expenditure

The term "qualified solar water heating property expenditure" means an expenditure for property to heat water for use in a dwelling unit located in the United States and used as a residence by the taxpayer if at least half of the energy used by such property for such purpose is derived from the sun.

(2) Qualified solar electric property expenditure

The term "qualified solar electric property expenditure" means an expenditure for property which uses solar energy to generate electricity for use in a dwelling unit located in the United States and used as a residence by the taxpayer.

(3) Qualified fuel cell property expenditure

The term "qualified fuel cell property expenditure" means an expenditure for qualified fuel cell property (as defined in section 48(c)(1)) installed on or in connection with a dwelling unit located in the United States and used as a principal residence (within the meaning of section 121) by the taxpayer.

(4) Qualified small wind energy property expenditure

The term "qualified small wind energy property expenditure" means an expenditure for property which uses a wind turbine to generate electricity for use in connection with a dwelling unit located in the United States and used as a residence by the taxpayer.

(5) Qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditure

(A) In general

The term "qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditure" means an expenditure for qualified geothermal heat pump property installed on or in connection with a dwelling unit located in the United States and used as a residence by the taxpayer.

(B) Qualified geothermal heat pump property

The term "qualified geothermal heat pump property" means any equipment which—

(i) uses the ground or ground water as a thermal energy source to heat the dwelling unit referred to in subparagraph (A) or as a thermal energy sink to cool such dwelling unit, and

(ii) meets the requirements of the Energy Star program which are in effect at the time that the expenditure for such equipment is made.

(e) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Labor costs

Expenditures for labor costs properly allocable to the onsite preparation, assembly, or original installation of the property described in subsection (d) and for piping or wiring to interconnect such property to the dwelling unit shall be taken into account for purposes of this section.

(2) Solar panels

No expenditure relating to a solar panel or other property installed as a roof (or portion thereof) shall fail to be treated as property described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (d) solely because it constitutes a structural component of the structure on which it is installed.

(3) Swimming pools, etc., used as storage medium

Expenditures which are properly allocable to a swimming pool, hot tub, or any other energy storage medium which has a function other than the function of such storage shall not be taken into account for purposes of this section.

(4) Fuel cell expenditure limitations in case of joint occupancy

In the case of any dwelling unit with respect to which qualified fuel cell property expenditures are made and which is jointly occupied and used during any calendar year as a residence by two or more individuals, the following rules shall apply:

(A) Maximum expenditures for fuel cells

The maximum amount of such expenditures which may be taken into account under subsection (a) by all such individuals with respect to such dwelling unit during such calendar year shall be $1,667 in the case of each half kilowatt of capacity of qualified fuel cell property (as defined in section 48(c)(1)) with respect to which such expenditures relate.

(B) Allocation of expenditures

The expenditures allocated to any individual for the taxable year in which such calendar year ends shall be an amount equal to the lesser of—

(i) the amount of expenditures made by such individual with respect to such dwelling during such calendar year, or

(ii) the maximum amount of such expenditures set forth in subparagraph (A) multiplied by a fraction—

(I) the numerator of which is the amount of such expenditures with respect to such dwelling made by such individual during such calendar year, and

(II) the denominator of which is the total expenditures made by all such individuals with respect to such dwelling during such calendar year.

(5) Tenant-stockholder in cooperative housing corporation

In the case of an individual who is a tenant-stockholder (as defined in section 216) in a cooperative housing corporation (as defined in such section), such individual shall be treated as having made his tenant-stockholder's proportionate share (as defined in section 216(b)(3)) of any expenditures of such corporation.

(6) Condominiums

(A) In general

In the case of an individual who is a member of a condominium management association with respect to a condominium which the individual owns, such individual shall be treated as having made the individual's proportionate share of any expenditures of such association.

(B) Condominium management association

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "condominium management association" means an organization which meets the requirements of paragraph (1) of section 528(c) (other than subparagraph (E) thereof) with respect to a condominium project substantially all of the units of which are used as residences.

(7) Allocation in certain cases

If less than 80 percent of the use of an item is for nonbusiness purposes, only that portion of the expenditures for such item which is properly allocable to use for nonbusiness purposes shall be taken into account.

(8) When expenditure made; amount of expenditure

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), an expenditure with respect to an item shall be treated as made when the original installation of the item is completed.

(B) Expenditures part of building construction

In the case of an expenditure in connection with the construction or reconstruction of a structure, such expenditure shall be treated as made when the original use of the constructed or reconstructed structure by the taxpayer begins.

(f) Basis adjustments

For purposes of this subtitle, if a credit is allowed under this section for any expenditure with respect to any property, the increase in the basis of such property which would (but for this subsection) result from such expenditure shall be reduced by the amount of the credit so allowed.

(g) Applicable percentage

For purposes of subsection (a), the applicable percentage shall be—

(1) in the case of property placed in service after December 31, 2016, and before January 1, 2020, 30 percent,

(2) in the case of property placed in service after December 31, 2019, and before January 1, 2021, 26 percent, and

(3) in the case of property placed in service after December 31, 2020, and before January 1, 2022, 22 percent.

(h) Termination

The credit allowed under this section shall not apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2021.

(Added Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1335(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1033; amended Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §402(i)(1), (2), (3)(E), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2612, 2614; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title II, §206, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2945; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title I, §106(a)–(c)(3)(A), (c)(4)–(e)(1), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3814–3816; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1103(b)(2)(B), 1122(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 320, 324; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(F), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 114–113, div. P, title III, §304(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3039; Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40402(a), (b), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–123, §40402(b)(1), substituted "the sum of the applicable percentages of—", pars. (1) to (5), and concluding provisions for "the sum of—

"(1) the applicable percentage of the qualified solar electric property expenditures made by the taxpayer during such year,

"(2) the applicable percentage of the qualified solar water heating property expenditures made by the taxpayer during such year,

"(3) 30 percent of the qualified fuel cell property expenditures made by the taxpayer during such year,

"(4) 30 percent of the qualified small wind energy property expenditures made by the taxpayer during such year, and

"(5) 30 percent of the qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditures made by the taxpayer during such year."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–123, §40402(b)(2), struck out "paragraphs (1) and (2) of" before "subsection (a)," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–123, §40402(a), substituted "December 31, 2021." for "December 31, 2016 (December 31, 2021, in the case of any qualified solar electric property expenditures and qualified solar water heating property expenditures)."

2015—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 114–113, §304(a)(1), substituted "the applicable percentage" for "30 percent".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–113, §304(a)(4), added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g) redesignated (h).

Pub. L. 114–113, §304(a)(2), inserted "(December 31, 2021, in the case of any qualified solar electric property expenditures and qualified solar water heating property expenditures)" before period at end.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–113, §304(a)(3), redesignated subsec. (g) as (h).

2013—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–240 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to limitation based on amount of tax and carryforward of unused credit.

2009—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 111–5, §1122(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) related to maximum credit with respect to qualified solar water heating property expenditures, qualified fuel cell property, qualified small wind energy property expenditures, and qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditures.

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 111–5, §1122(a)(2)(A), added par. heading and introductory provisions and struck out former heading and introductory provisions. Former introductory provisions read as follows: "In the case of any dwelling unit which is jointly occupied and used during any calendar year as a residence by two or more individuals the following rules shall apply:".

Subsec. (e)(4)(A). Pub. L. 111–5, §1122(a)(2)(A), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which related to maximum amount of expenditures allowed for credit in jointly occupied dwelling units with respect to qualified solar water heating property expenditures, qualified fuel cell property, qualified small wind energy property expenditures, and qualified geothermal heat pump property expenditures.

Subsec. (e)(4)(C). Pub. L. 111–5, §1122(a)(2)(B), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: "Subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be applied separately with respect to expenditures described in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (d)."

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 111–5, §1103(b)(2)(B), struck out par. (9). Text read as follows: "For purposes of determining the amount of expenditures made by any individual with respect to any dwelling unit, there shall not be taken into account expenditures which are made from subsidized energy financing (as defined in section 48(a)(4)(C))."

2008—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(c)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(d)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(b)(1), amended par. (1) as amended by Pub. L. 110–343, §106(c)(2) and (d)(2), by redesignating subpars. (B) to (E) as (A) to (D), respectively, and striking out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "$2,000 with respect to any qualified solar electric property expenditures,".

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(c)(2), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(d)(2), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(e)(1), amended heading and text of subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to carryforward of unused credit.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(c)(3)(A), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(d)(3), added par. (5).

Subsec. (e)(4)(A). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(b)(2), amended subpar. (A) as amended by Pub. L. 110–343, §106(c)(4) and (d)(4), by redesignating cls. (ii) to (v) as (i) to (iv), respectively, and striking out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "$6,667 in the case of any qualified solar electric property expenditures,".

Subsec. (e)(4)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(c)(4), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (e)(4)(A)(v). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(d)(4), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–343, §106(a), substituted "December 31, 2016" for "December 31, 2008".

2006—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–432, §206(b)(1), substituted "solar electric property expenditures" for "photovoltaic property expenditures".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–432, §206(b)(2), substituted "solar electric property expenditure" for "photovoltaic property expenditure" in heading and text.

Subsec. (e)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 109–432, §206(b)(1), substituted "solar electric property expenditures" for "photovoltaic property expenditures".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–432, §206(a), substituted "2008" for "2007".

2005—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(1), inserted "(determined without regard to subsection (c))" after "subsection (a)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(3)(E), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If the credit allowable under subsection (a) exceeds the limitation imposed by section 26(a) for such taxable year reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under this subpart (other than this section), such excess shall be carried to the succeeding taxable year and added to the credit allowable under subsection (a) for such succeeding taxable year."

Subsec. (e)(4)(A), (B). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(i)(2), amended subpars. (A) and (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (A) and (B) read as follows:

"(A) The amount of the credit allowable, under subsection (a) by reason of expenditures (as the case may be) made during such calendar year by any of such individuals with respect to such dwelling unit shall be determined by treating all of such individuals as 1 taxpayer whose taxable year is such calendar year.

"(B) There shall be allowable, with respect to such expenditures to each of such individuals, a credit under subsection (a) for the taxable year in which such calendar year ends in an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount determined under subparagraph (A) as the amount of such expenditures made by such individual during such calendar year bears to the aggregate of such expenditures made by all of such individuals during such calendar year."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40402(c), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2016."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. P, title III, §304(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3040, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 2017."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by section 1103(b)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1103(c)(2) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as a note under section 25C of this title.

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1122(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 324, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, except that amendment by section 106(b) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 106(f)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(i)(3)(E) of Pub. L. 109–135 subject to title IX of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, §901, in the same manner as the provisions of such Act to which such amendment relates, see section 402(i)(3)(H) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title. Title IX of Pub. L. 107–16 was repealed by Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §101(a)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2315.

Amendments by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which they relate, except that amendment by section 402(i)(3)(E) of Pub. L. 109–135 is applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2005, see section 402(m) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 2005, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 1335(c) of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendments note under section 23 of this title.

§26. Limitation based on tax liability; definition of tax liability

(a) Limitation based on amount of tax

The aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart for the taxable year shall not exceed the sum of—

(1) the taxpayer's regular tax liability for the taxable year reduced by the foreign tax credit allowable under section 27, and

(2) the tax imposed by section 55(a) for the taxable year.

(b) Regular tax liability

For purposes of this part—

(1) In general

The term "regular tax liability" means the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year.

(2) Exception for certain taxes

For purposes of paragraph (1), any tax imposed by any of the following provisions shall not be treated as tax imposed by this chapter:

(A) section 55 (relating to minimum tax),

(B) section 59A (relating to base erosion and anti-abuse tax),

(C) subsection (m)(5)(B), (q), (t), or (v) of section 72 (relating to additional taxes on certain distributions),

(D) section 143(m) (relating to recapture of proration of Federal subsidy from use of mortgage bonds and mortgage credit certificates),

(E) section 530(d)(4) (relating to additional tax on certain distributions from Coverdell education savings accounts),

(F) section 531 (relating to accumulated earnings tax),

(G) section 541 (relating to personal holding company tax),

(H) section 1351(d)(1) (relating to recoveries of foreign expropriation losses),

(I) section 1374 (relating to tax on certain built-in gains of S corporations),

(J) section 1375 (relating to tax imposed when passive investment income of corporation having subchapter C earnings and profits exceeds 25 percent of gross receipts),

(K) subparagraph (A) of section 7518(g)(6) (relating to nonqualified withdrawals from capital construction funds taxed at highest marginal rate),

(L) sections 871(a) and 881 (relating to certain income of nonresident aliens and foreign corporations),

(M) section 860E(e) (relating to taxes with respect to certain residual interests),

(N) section 884 (relating to branch profits tax),

(O) sections 453(l)(3) and 453A(c) (relating to interest on certain deferred tax liabilities),

[(P) Repealed. Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(b)(2), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1201.]

(Q) section 220(f)(4) (relating to additional tax on Archer MSA distributions not used for qualified medical expenses),

(R) section 138(c)(2) (relating to penalty for distributions from Medicare Advantage MSA not used for qualified medical expenses if minimum balance not maintained),

(S) sections 106(e)(3)(A)(ii), 223(b)(8)(B)(i)(II), and 408(d)(9)(D)(i)(II) (relating to certain failures to maintain high deductible health plan coverage),

(T) section 170(o)(3)(B) (relating to recapture of certain deductions for fractional gifts),

(U) section 223(f)(4) (relating to additional tax on health savings account distributions not used for qualified medical expenses),

(V) subsections (a)(1)(B)(i) and (b)(4)(A) of section 409A (relating to interest and additional tax with respect to certain deferred compensation),

(W) section 36(f) (relating to recapture of homebuyer credit),

(X) section 457A(c)(1)(B) (relating to determinability of amounts of compensation), and

(Y) section 529A(c)(3)(A) (relating to additional tax on ABLE account distributions not used for qualified disability expenses).

(c) Tentative minimum tax

For purposes of this part, the term "tentative minimum tax" means the amount determined under section 55(b)(1).

(Added §25, renumbered §26, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §472, title VI, §612(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 827, 905; amended Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §516(b)(1)(A), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1770; Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §261(c), title VI, §632(c)(1), title VII, §701(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2214, 2277, 2340; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1006(t)(16)(C), 1007(g)(1), 1011A(c)(10), 1012(q)(8), title IV, §4005(g)(4), title V, §5012(b)(2), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3425, 3434, 3476, 3524, 3650, 3662; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §§7811(c)(1), (2), 7821(a)(4)(A), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2406, 2407, 2424; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1621(b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1866; Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §213(e)(1), title XVI, §1602(a)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 817, 1093; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title II, §2001(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–901; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §501(a), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1918; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title II, §202(a)(1)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-628; Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §§201(b)(2)(D), 202(f)(2)(C), title VI, §618(b)(2)(C), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 46, 49, 108; Pub. L. 107–22, §1(b)(2)(A), July 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §§415(a), 417(23)(B), title VI, §601(a), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 54, 57, 59; Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §312(a), title IV, §§401(a)(1), 408(a)(5)(A), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1181, 1183, 1191; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §§403(hh)(1), 412(c), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2631, 2636; Pub. L. 109–222, title III, §302(a), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 353; Pub. L. 110–166, §3(a), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2461; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(a)(3), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2484; Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3011(b)(1), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2891; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title I, §106(e)(2)(D), title II, §205(d)(1)(D), div. C, title I, §101(a), title VIII, §801(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3817, 3839, 3863, 3931; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1004(b)(3), 1011(a), 1142(b)(1)(D), 1144(b)(1)(D), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 314, 319, 330, 332; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(E), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), title II, §202(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298, 3299; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(1), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2321; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(12)(B), div. B, title I, §102(e)(1), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4038, 4062; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14401(c), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2233; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(b)(2), (d)(1)(D)(ii), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1201, 1206.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(d)(1)(D)(ii), substituted "section 27" for "section 27(a)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(P). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(2), struck out subpar. (P) which read as follows: "section 860K (relating to treatment of transfers of high-yield interests to disqualified holders),".

2017—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–97 added subpar. (B).

2014—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(12)(B), struck out subpar. (B) which read as follows: "section 59A (relating to environmental tax),".

Subsec. (b)(2)(Y). Pub. L. 113–295, §102(e)(1), added subpar. (Y).

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 112–240 amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) related to limitation based on amount of tax with a special rule for taxable years 2000 through 2011.

2010—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(E), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, §101(b)(1), temporarily struck out "23," before "24," in introductory provisions. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–312, §202(a), substituted "2011" for "2009" in heading and "2009, 2010, or 2011" for "or 2009" in introductory provisions.

2009—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 111–5, §1144(b)(1)(D), inserted "30B," after "30," in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 111–5, §1142(b)(1)(D), inserted "30," after "25D," in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 111–5, §1004(b)(3), inserted "25A(i)," after "24," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–5, §1011(a), substituted "2009" for "2008" in heading and "2008, or 2009" for "or 2008" in introductory provisions.

2008—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–343, §205(d)(1)(D), substituted "25D, and 30D" for "and 25D" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 110–343, §106(e)(2)(D), substituted "25B, and 25D" for "and 25B" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–343, §101(a), substituted "2008" for "2007" in heading and "2007, or 2008" for "or 2007" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(W). Pub. L. 110–289 added subpar. (W).

Subsec. (b)(2)(X). Pub. L. 110–343, §801(b), added subpar. (X).

2007—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–166 substituted "2007" for "2006" in heading and "2006, or 2007" for "or 2006" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(S) to (V). Pub. L. 110–172 added subpars. (S) and (T) and redesignated former subpars. (S) and (T) as (U) and (V), respectively.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–222 substituted "2006" for "2005" in heading and "2005, or 2006" for "or 2005" in introductory provisions.

2005—Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(c), substituted "section 530(d)(4)" for "section 530(d)(3)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(T). Pub. L. 109–135, §403(hh)(1), added subpar. (T).

2004—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–311, §312(a), substituted "rule for taxable years 2000 through 2005" for "rule for 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003" in heading and "2003, 2004, or 2005" for "or 2003" in text.

Subsec. (b)(2)(R). Pub. L. 108–311, §408(a)(5)(A), substituted "Medicare Advantage MSA" for "Medicare+Choice MSA".

Subsec. (b)(2)(S). Pub. L. 108–311, §401(a)(1), added subpar. (S).

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–147, §417(23)(B), amended directory language of Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(2)(C). See 2001 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–147, §601(a), substituted "rule for 2000, 2001, 2002, and 2003" for "rule for 2000 and 2001" in heading and "during 2000, 2001, 2002, or 2003," for "during 2000 or 2001," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(P), (Q). Pub. L. 107–147, §415(a), which directed striking "and" at end of subpar. (P) and substituting ", and" for the period at the end of subpar. (Q), was executed to subpars. (P) and (Q) as redesignated by Pub. L. 105–34, §213(e)(1), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. See 1997 Amendment notes below.

Subsec. (b)(2)(R). Pub. L. 107–147, §415(a), added subpar. (R).

2001—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–16, §618(b)(2)(C), as amended by Pub. L. 107–147, §417(23)(B), substituted ", 24, and 25B" for "and 24" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 107–16, §202(f)(2)(C), substituted "sections 23 and 24" for "section 24" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 107–16, §201(b)(2)(D), inserted "(other than section 24)" after "this subpart" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 107–22 substituted "Coverdell education savings" for "education individual retirement".

2000—Subsec. (b)(2)(Q). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted "Archer MSA" for "medical savings account".

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–170 reenacted subsec. heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart for the taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

"(1) the taxpayer's regular tax liability for the taxable year, over

"(2) the tentative minimum tax for the taxable year (determined without regard to the alternative minimum tax foreign tax credit).

For purposes of paragraph (2), the taxpayer's tentative minimum tax for any taxable year beginning during 1998 shall be treated as being zero."

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–277 inserted concluding provisions.

1997—Subsec. (b)(2)(E) to (O). Pub. L. 105–34, §213(e)(1), added subpar. (E) and redesignated former subpars. (E) to (N) as (F) to (O), respectively. Former subpar. (O) redesignated (P).

Subsec. (b)(2)(P). Pub. L. 105–34, §213(e)(1), redesignated subpar. (P) as (Q).

Pub. L. 105–34, §1602(a)(1), added subpar. (P).

Subsec. (b)(2)(Q). Pub. L. 105–34, §213(e)(1), redesignated subpar. (P) as (Q).

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(O). Pub. L. 104–188 added subpar. (O).

1989—Subsec. (b)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(c)(1), amended subpars. (C) and (D) generally. Prior to amendment, subpars. (C) and (D) read as follows:

"(C) subsection (m)(5)(B) (q), or (v) of section 72 (relating to additional tax on certain distributions),

"(D) section 72(t) (relating to 10-percent additional tax on early distributions from qualified retirement plans),".

Subsec. (b)(2)(K). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(c)(2), added subpar. (K) and struck out former subpar. (K) which was identical.

Subsec. (b)(2)(L), (M). Pub. L. 101–239, §7811(c)(2), added subpars. (L) and (M) and struck out former subpars. (L) and (M) which read as follows:

"(L) section 860E(e) (relating to taxes with respect to certain residual interests), and

"(L) section 884 (relating to branch profits tax), and

"(M) section 143(m) (relating to recapture of portion of federal subsidy from use of mortgage bonds and mortgage credit certificates)."

Subsec. (b)(2)(N). Pub. L. 101–239, §7821(a)(4)(A), which directed amendment of subsec. (b)(2) of this section "as amended by section 11811" by adding subpar. (N), was executed as if it directed amendment of subsec. (b)(2) of this section "as amended by section 7811", to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the renumbering of section 11811 of H.R. 3299 as section 7811 prior to the enactment of H.R. 3299 into law as Pub. L. 101–239.

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(10)(A), struck out ", (o)(2)," after "subsection (m)(5)(B)".

Pub. L. 100–647, §5012(b)(2), substituted "(q), or (v)" for "or (q)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–647, §1011A(c)(10)(B), substituted "72(t) (relating to 10-percent additional tax on early distributions from qualified retirement plans)" for "408(f) (relating to additional tax on income from certain retirement accounts)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(K). Pub. L. 100–647, §1007(g)(1), substituted "corporations)." for "corporations,".

Subsec. (b)(2)(L). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(q)(8), added subpar. (L) relating to branch profits tax.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1006(t)(16)(C), added subpar. (L) relating to taxes with respect to certain residual interests.

Subsec. (b)(2)(M). Pub. L. 100–647, §4005(g)(4), added subpar. (M).

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(A), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "The aggregate amount of credits allowed by this subpart for the taxable year shall not exceed the taxpayer's tax liability for such taxable year."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(i), (v), substituted "Regular tax liability" for "Tax liability" in heading and "this part" for "this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(ii), substituted "regular tax liability" for "tax liability".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 99–499 added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) to (J) as (C) to (K), respectively.

Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(iii), substituted "section 55 (relating to minimum tax)" for "section 56 (relating to corporate minimum tax)" in subpar. (A).

Pub. L. 99–514, §632(c)(1), substituted "certain built-in gains" for "certain capital gains" in subpar. (G).

Pub. L. 99–514, §261(c), added subpar. (I).

Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(B)(iv), added subpar. (J).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §701(c)(1)(C), amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions relating to tentative minimum tax for provisions referring to section 55(c) of this title for similar rule for alternative minimum tax for taxpayers other than corporations.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14401(e), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2234, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 59A of this title and amending this section and sections 882, 6038A, 6425, and 6655 of this title] shall apply to base erosion payments (as defined in section 59A(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 59A(d)], as added by this section) paid or accrued in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by section 221(a)(12)(B) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of div. A of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 102(e)(1) of Pub. L. 113–295 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2014, see section 102(f)(1) of div. B of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 552a of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title II, §202(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3299, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009."

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by section 1004(b)(3) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1004(d) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1011(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 319, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Amendment by section 1142(b)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to vehicles acquired after Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1142(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1144(b)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1144(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by section 106(e)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2007, see section 106(f)(1) of div. B of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 205(d)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 205(e) of div. B of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title I, §101(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3863, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007."

Amendment by section 801(b) of Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to amounts deferred which are attributable to services performed after Dec. 31, 2008, with certain exceptions, see section 801(d) of div. C of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective Date note under section 457A of this title.

Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3011(c), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2891, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 36 of this title, amending this section and section 6211 of this title and section 1324 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and renumbering former section 36 of this title as section 37 of this title] shall apply to residences purchased on or after April 9, 2008, in taxable years ending on or after such date."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–166, §3(b), Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2461, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–222, title III, §302(b), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 353, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(nn), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2632, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 [Pub. L. 108–357] to which they relate."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §312(c), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1181, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2003."

Pub. L. 108–311, title IV, §401(b), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1183, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 35 of this title] shall take effect as if included in section 1201 of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 [Pub. L. 108–173]."

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §415(b), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 54, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 4006 of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997 [Pub. L. 105–33]."

Pub. L. 107–147, title VI, §601(c), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 59, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 904 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001."

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2004 or 2005, see section 312(b)(2) of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 inapplicable to taxable years beginning during 2002 and 2003, see section 601(b)(2) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Pub. L. 107–22, §1(c), July 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 197, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 72, 135, 529, 530, 4973, 4975, and 6693 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 26, 2001]."

Amendment by section 201(b)(2)(D) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 201(e)(2) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 202(f)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 202(g)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Amendment by section 618(b)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2001, see section 618(d) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1998, see section 501(c) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 2001(c) of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title II, §213(f), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 817, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 530 of this title and amending this section and sections 135, 4973, 4975, and 6693 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1602(i), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1096, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 162, 220, 264, 877, 2107, 2501, 4975, 6050Q, 6652, 6693, 6724, and 7702B of this title, renumbering section 6039F of this title as section 6039G of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 264 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–191] to which such amendments relate."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1621(d), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1867, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 860H to 860L of this title and amending this section and sections 56, 382, 582, 856, 860G, 1202, and 7701 of this title] shall take effect on September 1, 1997."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by section 7811(c)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7823, Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2425, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this part [part II (§§7821–7823) of subtitle H of title VII of Pub. L. 101–239, amending this section and sections 453A, 842, 1503, 6427, 6655, 6863, 7519, 7611, 9502, 9503, and 9508 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 56 and 7519 of this title], any amendment made by this part shall take effect as if included in the provision of the 1987 Act [Pub. L. 100–203, title X] to which such amendment relates."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1006(t)(16)(C) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable, with certain exceptions, to transfers after Mar. 31, 1988, and to excess inclusions for periods after Mar. 31, 1988, see section 1006(t)(16)(D)(ii)–(iv) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 860E of this title.

Amendment by sections 1007(g)(1), 1011A(c)(10), and 1012(q)(8) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 4005(g)(4) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable, with certain exceptions, to financing provided, and mortgage credit certificates issued, after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 4005(h)(3) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 143 of this title.

Amendment by section 5012(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–647 applicable to contracts entered into on or after June 21, 1988, with special rule where death benefit increases by more than $150,000, certain other material changes taken into account, and certain exchanges permitted, see section 5012(e) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7702A of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 261(c) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 261(g) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 7518 of this title.

Amendment by section 632(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in cases where the return for the taxable year is filed pursuant to an S election made after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 633(b) of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 336 of this title.

Amendment by section 632(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 not applicable in the case of certain transactions, see section 54(d)(3)(D) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 311 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §516(c), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1772, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 59A of this title and amending this section and sections 164, 275, 936, 1561, 6154, 6425, and 6655 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note under section 21 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Public Law 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(c)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

Treatment of Tax Imposed Under Former Section 409(c)

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(f)(5), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 853, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "For purposes of section 26(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by this Act), any tax imposed by section 409(c) of such Code (as in effect before its repeal by this section) shall be treated as a tax imposed by section 408(f) of such Code."

Subpart B—Other Credits

Sec.
27.
Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States.
[28, 29.
Renumbered.]
[30, 30A.
Repealed.]
30B.
Alternative motor vehicle credit.
30C.
Alternative fuel vehicle refueling property credit.
30D.
New qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(D)(i), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1206, substituted "Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States" for "Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States; possession tax credit" in item 27.

Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(B), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1206, which directed amendment of the table of sections for subpart C of part IV of subchapter A of chapter 1 by striking out item 30A "Puerto Rico economic activity credit", was executed to the table of sections for this subpart to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2014Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037, struck out item 30 "Certain plug-in electric vehicles".

2009Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1142(b)(8), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 331, substituted "Certain plug-in electric vehicles" for "Credit for qualified electric vehicles" in item 30.

2008Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title II, §205(d)(4), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3839, added item 30D.

2005Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(e), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2637, substituted "Alternative fuel vehicle refueling property credit" for "Clean-fuel vehicle refueling property credit" in item 30C.

Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §§1322(a)(3)(K), 1341(b)(5), 1342(b)(5), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1012, 1049, 1051, struck out item 29 "Credit for producing fuel from a nonconventional source" and added items 30B and 30C.

1997Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1090, substituted "Puerto Rico" for "Puerto Rican" in item 30A.

1996Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1205(a)(3)(A), 1601(b)(2)(E), (F)(i), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1775, 1833, substituted "Other Credits" for "Foreign Tax Credits, Etc." in subpart heading, struck out item 28 "Clinical testing expenses for certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions", and added item 30A.

1992Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1913(b)(2)(A), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3020, added item 30.

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §231(d)(3)(J), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2180, struck out item 30 "Credit for increasing research activities".

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, added subpart B heading and analysis of sections for subpart B consisting of items 27 (formerly 33), 28 (formerly 44H), 29 (formerly 44D), and 30 (formerly 44F). Former subpart B was redesignated E.

§27. Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States

The amount of taxes imposed by foreign countries and possessions of the United States shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter to the extent provided in section 901 1

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 13, §33; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1051(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1643; renumbered §27, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(A), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1206.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) and (b) relating to the foreign tax credit under section 901 and the tax credit under section 936, respectively.

1984Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 33 of this title as this section.

1976Pub. L. 94–455 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1051(i), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1647, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided by paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 936 of this title and amending sections 33 [now 27], 48, 116, 243, 246, 861, 901, 904, 931, 1504, and 6091 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975, except that 'qualified possession source investment income' as defined in [former] section 936(d)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall include income from any source outside the United States if the taxpayer establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate that the income from such sources was earned before October 1, 1976.

"(2) The amendment made by subsection (d)(2) [amending section 901 of this title] shall not apply to any tax imposed by a possession of the United States with respect to the complete liquidation occurring before January 1, 1979, of a corporation to the extent that such tax is attributable to earnings and profits accumulated by such corporation during periods ending before January 1, 1976."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

[§28. Renumbered §45C]

[§29. Renumbered §45K]

[§30. Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(2)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037]

Section, added Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1913(b)(1), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3019; amended Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1205(d)(4), 1704(j)(4)(A), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1776, 1881; Pub. L. 107–147, title VI, §602(a), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 59; Pub. L. 108–311, title III, §318(a), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1182; Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1322(a)(3)(A), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1011; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1142(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 328; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(F), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(G), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §209(f)(2), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4028, related to certain plug-in electric vehicles.

A prior section 30 was renumbered section 41 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as an Effective Date of 2014 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

[§30A. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(B), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1206]

Section, added Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1601(b)(1), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1830; amended Pub. L. 105–34, title XVI, §1601(f)(1)(A), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1090; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §311(a)(2)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-640; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(12)(C), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4038, related to Puerto Rico economic activity credit. Repeal was executed to this section, which is in subpart B of part IV of subchapter A of chapter 1, to reflect the probable intent of Congress, notwithstanding directory language of Pub. L. 115–141, which repealed section 30A in subpart C of part IV of subchapter A of chapter 1.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in repeal by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

American Samoa Economic Development Credit

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §119, Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2942, as amended by Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §309(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3869; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §756(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3322; Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §330(a), (b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2335; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §141(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4020; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §173(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3071; Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40312(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 147, provided that:

"(a) In General.—For purposes of [former] section 30A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, a domestic corporation shall be treated as a qualified domestic corporation to which such section applies if—

"(1) in the case of a taxable year beginning before January 1, 2012, such corporation—

"(A) is an existing credit claimant with respect to American Samoa, and

"(B) elected the application of [former] section 936 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for its last taxable year beginning before January 1, 2006, and

"(2) in the case of a taxable year beginning after December 31, 2011, such corporation meets the requirements of subsection (e).

"(b) Special Rules for Application of Section.—The following rules shall apply in applying [former] section 30A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 for purposes of this section:

"(1) Amount of credit.—Notwithstanding section 30A(a)(1) of such Code, the amount of the credit determined under section 30A(a)(1) of such Code for any taxable year shall be the amount determined under section 30A(d) of such Code, except that section 30A(d) shall be applied without regard to paragraph (3) thereof.

"(2) Separate application.—In applying section 30A(a)(3) of such Code in the case of a corporation treated as a qualified domestic corporation by reason of this section, section [former] 30A of such Code (and so much of [former] section 936 of such Code as relates to such [former] section 30A) shall be applied separately with respect to American Samoa.

"(3) Foreign tax credit allowed.—Notwithstanding [former] section 30A(e) of such Code, the provisions of [former] section 936(c) of such Code shall not apply with respect to the credit allowed by reason of this section.

"(c) Definitions.—For purposes of this section, any term which is used in this section which is also used in [former] section 30A or 936 of such Code shall have the same meaning given such term by such [former] section 30A or 936.

"(d) Application of Section.—Notwithstanding [former] section 30A(h) or [former] section 936(j) of such Code, this section (and so much of [former] section 30A and [former] section 936 of such Code as relates to this section) shall apply—

"(1) in the case of a corporation that meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(1), to the first 12 taxable years of such corporation which begin after December 31, 2006, and before January 1, 2018, and

"(2) in the case of a corporation that does not meet the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of subsection (a)(1), to the first 6 taxable years of such corporation which begin after December 31, 2011, and before January 1, 2018.

"(e) Qualified Production Activities Income Requirement.—A corporation meets the requirement of this subsection if such corporation has qualified production activities income, as defined in [former] subsection (c) of section 199 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, determined by substituting 'American Samoa' for 'the United States' each place it appears in paragraphs (3), (4), and (6) of such subsection (c), for the taxable year. References in this subsection to section 199 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be treated as references to such section as in effect before its repeal."

[Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40312(b), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 147, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 119 of Pub. L. 109–432, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2016."]

[Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §173(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3071, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 119 of Pub. L. 109–432, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014."]

[Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §141(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4020, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 119 of Pub. L. 109–432, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013."]

[Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §330(c), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2335, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 119 of Pub. L. 109–432, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2011."]

[Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §756(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3322, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 119 of Pub. L. 109–432, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009."]

[Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §309(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3869, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending section 119 of Pub. L. 109–432, set out above] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007."]

§30B. Alternative motor vehicle credit

(a) Allowance of credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of—

(1) the new qualified fuel cell motor vehicle credit determined under subsection (b),

(2) the new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle credit determined under subsection (c),

(3) the new qualified hybrid motor vehicle credit determined under subsection (d),

(4) the new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle credit determined under subsection (e), and

(5) the plug-in conversion credit determined under subsection (i).

(b) New qualified fuel cell motor vehicle credit

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a), the new qualified fuel cell motor vehicle credit determined under this subsection with respect to a new qualified fuel cell motor vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year is—

(A) $8,000 ($4,000 in the case of a vehicle placed in service after December 31, 2009), if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 8,500 pounds,

(B) $10,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 8,500 pounds but not more than 14,000 pounds,

(C) $20,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 14,000 pounds but not more than 26,000 pounds, and

(D) $40,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 26,000 pounds.

(2) Increase for fuel efficiency

(A) In general

The amount determined under paragraph (1)(A) with respect to a new qualified fuel cell motor vehicle which is a passenger automobile or light truck shall be increased by—

(i) $1,000, if such vehicle achieves at least 150 percent but less than 175 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy,

(ii) $1,500, if such vehicle achieves at least 175 percent but less than 200 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy,

(iii) $2,000, if such vehicle achieves at least 200 percent but less than 225 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy,

(iv) $2,500, if such vehicle achieves at least 225 percent but less than 250 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy,

(v) $3,000, if such vehicle achieves at least 250 percent but less than 275 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy,

(vi) $3,500, if such vehicle achieves at least 275 percent but less than 300 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy, and

(vii) $4,000, if such vehicle achieves at least 300 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy.

(B) 2002 model year city fuel economy

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the 2002 model year city fuel economy with respect to a vehicle shall be determined in accordance with the following tables:

(i) In the case of a passenger automobile:

 
  If vehicle inertia weight class is:The 2002 model year city fuel economy is:
1,500 or 1,750 lbs 45.2 mpg  
2,000 lbs 39.6 mpg  
2,250 lbs 35.2 mpg  
2,500 lbs 31.7 mpg  
2,750 lbs 28.8 mpg  
3,000 lbs 26.4 mpg  
3,500 lbs 22.6 mpg  
4,000 lbs 19.8 mpg  
4,500 lbs 17.6 mpg  
5,000 lbs 15.9 mpg  
5,500 lbs 14.4 mpg  
6,000 lbs 13.2 mpg  
6,500 lbs 12.2 mpg  
7,000 to 8,500 lbs 11.3 mpg.

(ii) In the case of a light truck:

 
  If vehicle inertia weight class is:The 2002 model year city fuel economy is:
1,500 or 1,750 lbs 39.4 mpg  
2,000 lbs 35.2 mpg  
2,250 lbs 31.8 mpg  
2,500 lbs 29.0 mpg  
2,750 lbs 26.8 mpg  
3,000 lbs 24.9 mpg  
3,500 lbs 21.8 mpg  
4,000 lbs 19.4 mpg  
4,500 lbs 17.6 mpg  
5,000 lbs 16.1 mpg  
5,500 lbs 14.8 mpg  
6,000 lbs 13.7 mpg  
6,500 lbs 12.8 mpg  
7,000 to 8,500 lbs 12.1 mpg.

(C) Vehicle inertia weight class

For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term "vehicle inertia weight class" has the same meaning as when defined in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for purposes of the administration of title II of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7521 et seq.).

(3) New qualified fuel cell motor vehicle

For purposes of this subsection, the term "new qualified fuel cell motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle—

(A) which is propelled by power derived from 1 or more cells which convert chemical energy directly into electricity by combining oxygen with hydrogen fuel which is stored on board the vehicle in any form and may or may not require reformation prior to use,

(B) which, in the case of a passenger automobile or light truck, has received on or after the date of the enactment of this section a certificate that such vehicle meets or exceeds the Bin 5 Tier II emission level established in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under section 202(i) of the Clean Air Act for that make and model year vehicle,

(C) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer,

(D) which is acquired for use or lease by the taxpayer and not for resale, and

(E) which is made by a manufacturer.

(c) New advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle credit

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a), the new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle credit determined under this subsection for the taxable year is the credit amount determined under paragraph (2) with respect to a new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(2) Credit amount

(A) Fuel economy

(i) In general

The credit amount determined under this paragraph shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

 
In the case of a vehicle which achieves

 a fuel economy (expressed as a

 percentage of the 2002 model year

 city fuel economy) of—

The credit amount is—
At least 125 percent but less than 150 percent $400  
At least 150 percent but less than 175 percent $800  
At least 175 percent but less than 200 percent $1,200  
At least 200 percent but less than 225 percent $1,600  
At least 225 percent but less than 250 percent $2,000  
At least 250 percent $2,400.  

(ii) 2002 model year city fuel economy

For purposes of clause (i), the 2002 model year city fuel economy with respect to a vehicle shall be determined on a gasoline gallon equivalent basis as determined by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency using the tables provided in subsection (b)(2)(B) with respect to such vehicle.

(B) Conservation credit

The amount determined under subparagraph (A) with respect to a new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle shall be increased by the conservation credit amount determined in accordance with the following table:

 
In the case of a vehicle which achieves

 a lifetime fuel savings (expressed in

 gallons of gasoline) of—

The conservation credit amount is—
At least 1,200 but less than 1,800 $250  
At least 1,800 but less than 2,400 $500  
At least 2,400 but less than 3,000 $750  
At least 3,000 $1,000.  

(3) New advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle

For purposes of this subsection, the term "new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle" means a passenger automobile or a light truck—

(A) with an internal combustion engine which—

(i) is designed to operate primarily using more air than is necessary for complete combustion of the fuel,

(ii) incorporates direct injection,

(iii) achieves at least 125 percent of the 2002 model year city fuel economy,

(iv) for 2004 and later model vehicles, has received a certificate that such vehicle meets or exceeds—

(I) in the case of a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating of 6,000 pounds or less, the Bin 5 Tier II emission standard established in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under section 202(i) of the Clean Air Act for that make and model year vehicle, and

(II) in the case of a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 6,000 pounds but not more than 8,500 pounds, the Bin 8 Tier II emission standard which is so established,


(B) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer,

(C) which is acquired for use or lease by the taxpayer and not for resale, and

(D) which is made by a manufacturer.

(4) Lifetime fuel savings

For purposes of this subsection, the term "lifetime fuel savings" means, in the case of any new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle, an amount equal to the excess (if any) of—

(A) 120,000 divided by the 2002 model year city fuel economy for the vehicle inertia weight class, over

(B) 120,000 divided by the city fuel economy for such vehicle.

(d) New qualified hybrid motor vehicle credit

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a), the new qualified hybrid motor vehicle credit determined under this subsection for the taxable year is the credit amount determined under paragraph (2) with respect to a new qualified hybrid motor vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(2) Credit amount

(A) Credit amount for passenger automobiles and light trucks

In the case of a new qualified hybrid motor vehicle which is a passenger automobile or light truck and which has a gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 8,500 pounds, the amount determined under this paragraph is the sum of the amounts determined under clauses (i) and (ii).

(i) Fuel economy

The amount determined under this clause is the amount which would be determined under subsection (c)(2)(A) if such vehicle were a vehicle referred to in such subsection.

(ii) Conservation credit

The amount determined under this clause is the amount which would be determined under subsection (c)(2)(B) if such vehicle were a vehicle referred to in such subsection.

(B) Credit amount for other motor vehicles

(i) In general

In the case of any new qualified hybrid motor vehicle to which subparagraph (A) does not apply, the amount determined under this paragraph is the amount equal to the applicable percentage of the qualified incremental hybrid cost of the vehicle as certified under clause (v).

(ii) Applicable percentage

For purposes of clause (i), the applicable percentage is—

(I) 20 percent if the vehicle achieves an increase in city fuel economy relative to a comparable vehicle of at least 30 percent but less than 40 percent,

(II) 30 percent if the vehicle achieves such an increase of at least 40 percent but less than 50 percent, and

(III) 40 percent if the vehicle achieves such an increase of at least 50 percent.

(iii) Qualified incremental hybrid cost

For purposes of this subparagraph, the qualified incremental hybrid cost of any vehicle is equal to the amount of the excess of the manufacturer's suggested retail price for such vehicle over such price for a comparable vehicle, to the extent such amount does not exceed—

(I) $7,500, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 14,000 pounds,

(II) $15,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 14,000 pounds but not more than 26,000 pounds, and

(III) $30,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 26,000 pounds.

(iv) Comparable vehicle

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "comparable vehicle" means, with respect to any new qualified hybrid motor vehicle, any vehicle which is powered solely by a gasoline or diesel internal combustion engine and which is comparable in weight, size, and use to such vehicle.

(v) Certification

A certification described in clause (i) shall be made by the manufacturer and shall be determined in accordance with guidance prescribed by the Secretary. Such guidance shall specify procedures and methods for calculating fuel economy savings and incremental hybrid costs.

(3) New qualified hybrid motor vehicle

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "new qualified hybrid motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle—

(i) which draws propulsion energy from onboard sources of stored energy which are both—

(I) an internal combustion or heat engine using consumable fuel, and

(II) a rechargeable energy storage system,


(ii) which, in the case of a vehicle to which paragraph (2)(A) applies, has received a certificate of conformity under the Clean Air Act and meets or exceeds the equivalent qualifying California low emission vehicle standard under section 243(e)(2) of the Clean Air Act for that make and model year, and

(I) in the case of a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating of 6,000 pounds or less, the Bin 5 Tier II emission standard established in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency under section 202(i) of the Clean Air Act for that make and model year vehicle, and

(II) in the case of a vehicle having a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 6,000 pounds but not more than 8,500 pounds, the Bin 8 Tier II emission standard which is so established,


(iii) which has a maximum available power of at least—

(I) 4 percent in the case of a vehicle to which paragraph (2)(A) applies,

(II) 10 percent in the case of a vehicle which has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 8,500 pounds and not more than 14,000 pounds, and

(III) 15 percent in the case of a vehicle in excess of 14,000 pounds,


(iv) which, in the case of a vehicle to which paragraph (2)(B) applies, has an internal combustion or heat engine which has received a certificate of conformity under the Clean Air Act as meeting the emission standards set in the regulations prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for 2004 through 2007 model year diesel heavy duty engines or ottocycle heavy duty engines, as applicable,

(v) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer,

(vi) which is acquired for use or lease by the taxpayer and not for resale, and

(vii) which is made by a manufacturer.


Such term shall not include any vehicle which is not a passenger automobile or light truck if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of less than 8,500 pounds.

(B) Consumable fuel

For purposes of subparagraph (A)(i)(I), the term "consumable fuel" means any solid, liquid, or gaseous matter which releases energy when consumed by an auxiliary power unit.

(C) Maximum available power

(i) Certain passenger automobiles and light trucks

In the case of a vehicle to which paragraph (2)(A) applies, the term "maximum available power" means the maximum power available from the rechargeable energy storage system, during a standard 10 second pulse power or equivalent test, divided by such maximum power and the SAE net power of the heat engine.

(ii) Other motor vehicles

In the case of a vehicle to which paragraph (2)(B) applies, the term "maximum available power" means the maximum power available from the rechargeable energy storage system, during a standard 10 second pulse power or equivalent test, divided by the vehicle's total traction power. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "total traction power" means the sum of the peak power from the rechargeable energy storage system and the heat engine peak power of the vehicle, except that if such storage system is the sole means by which the vehicle can be driven, the total traction power is the peak power of such storage system.

(D) Exclusion of plug-in vehicles

Any vehicle with respect to which a credit is allowable under section 30D (determined without regard to subsection (c) thereof) shall not be taken into account under this section.

(e) New qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle credit

(1) Allowance of credit

Except as provided in paragraph (5), the new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle credit determined under this subsection is an amount equal to the applicable percentage of the incremental cost of any new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(2) Applicable percentage

For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable percentage with respect to any new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle is—

(A) 50 percent, plus

(B) 30 percent, if such vehicle—

(i) has received a certificate of conformity under the Clean Air Act and meets or exceeds the most stringent standard available for certification under the Clean Air Act for that make and model year vehicle (other than a zero emission standard), or

(ii) has received an order certifying the vehicle as meeting the same requirements as vehicles which may be sold or leased in California and meets or exceeds the most stringent standard available for certification under the State laws of California (enacted in accordance with a waiver granted under section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act) for that make and model year vehicle (other than a zero emission standard).


For purposes of the preceding sentence, in the case of any new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle which weighs more than 14,000 pounds gross vehicle weight rating, the most stringent standard available shall be such standard available for certification on the date of the enactment of the Energy Tax Incentives Act of 2005.

(3) Incremental cost

For purposes of this subsection, the incremental cost of any new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle is equal to the amount of the excess of the manufacturer's suggested retail price for such vehicle over such price for a gasoline or diesel fuel motor vehicle of the same model, to the extent such amount does not exceed—

(A) $5,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of not more than 8,500 pounds,

(B) $10,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 8,500 pounds but not more than 14,000 pounds,

(C) $25,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 14,000 pounds but not more than 26,000 pounds, and

(D) $40,000, if such vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of more than 26,000 pounds.

(4) New qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "new qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle" means any motor vehicle—

(i) which is only capable of operating on an alternative fuel,

(ii) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer,

(iii) which is acquired by the taxpayer for use or lease, but not for resale, and

(iv) which is made by a manufacturer.

(B) Alternative fuel

The term "alternative fuel" means compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, hydrogen, and any liquid at least 85 percent of the volume of which consists of methanol.

(5) Credit for mixed-fuel vehicles

(A) In general

In the case of a mixed-fuel vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year, the credit determined under this subsection is an amount equal to—

(i) in the case of a 75/25 mixed-fuel vehicle, 70 percent of the credit which would have been allowed under this subsection if such vehicle was a qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle, and

(ii) in the case of a 90/10 mixed-fuel vehicle, 90 percent of the credit which would have been allowed under this subsection if such vehicle was a qualified alternative fuel motor vehicle.

(B) Mixed-fuel vehicle

For purposes of this subsection, the term "mixed-fuel vehicle" means any motor vehicle described in subparagraph (C) or (D) of paragraph (3), which—

(i) is certified by the manufacturer as being able to perform efficiently in normal operation on a combination of an alternative fuel and a petroleum-based fuel,

(ii) either—

(I) has received a certificate of conformity under the Clean Air Act, or

(II) has received an order certifying the vehicle as meeting the same requirements as vehicles which may be sold or leased in California and meets or exceeds the low emission vehicle standard under section 88.105–94 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, for that make and model year vehicle,


(iii) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer,

(iv) which is acquired by the taxpayer for use or lease, but not for resale, and

(v) which is made by a manufacturer.

(C) 75/25 mixed-fuel vehicle

For purposes of this subsection, the term "75/25 mixed-fuel vehicle" means a mixed-fuel vehicle which operates using at least 75 percent alternative fuel and not more than 25 percent petroleum-based fuel.

(D) 90/10 mixed-fuel vehicle

For purposes of this subsection, the term "90/10 mixed-fuel vehicle" means a mixed-fuel vehicle which operates using at least 90 percent alternative fuel and not more than 10 percent petroleum-based fuel.

(f) Limitation on number of new qualified hybrid and advanced lean-burn technology vehicles eligible for credit

(1) In general

In the case of a qualified vehicle sold during the phaseout period, only the applicable percentage of the credit otherwise allowable under subsection (c) or (d) shall be allowed.

(2) Phaseout period

For purposes of this subsection, the phaseout period is the period beginning with the second calendar quarter following the calendar quarter which includes the first date on which the number of qualified vehicles manufactured by the manufacturer of the vehicle referred to in paragraph (1) sold for use in the United States after December 31, 2005, is at least 60,000.

(3) Applicable percentage

For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable percentage is—

(A) 50 percent for the first 2 calendar quarters of the phaseout period,

(B) 25 percent for the 3d and 4th calendar quarters of the phaseout period, and

(C) 0 percent for each calendar quarter thereafter.

(4) Controlled groups

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, all persons treated as a single employer under subsection (a) or (b) of section 52 or subsection (m) or (o) of section 414 shall be treated as a single manufacturer.

(B) Inclusion of foreign corporations

For purposes of subparagraph (A), in applying subsections (a) and (b) of section 52 to this section, section 1563 shall be applied without regard to subsection (b)(2)(C) thereof.

(5) Qualified vehicle

For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified vehicle" means any new qualified hybrid motor vehicle (described in subsection (d)(2)(A)) and any new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle.

(g) Application with other credits

(1) Business credit treated as part of general business credit

So much of the credit which would be allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined without regard to this subsection) that is attributable to property of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation shall be treated as a credit listed in section 38(b) for such taxable year (and not allowed under subsection (a)).

(2) Personal credit

For purposes of this title, the credit allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined after application of paragraph (1)) shall be treated as a credit allowable under subpart A for such taxable year.

(h) Other definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Motor vehicle

The term "motor vehicle" means any vehicle which is manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways (not including a vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails) and which has at least 4 wheels.

(2) City fuel economy

The city fuel economy with respect to any vehicle shall be measured in a manner which is substantially similar to the manner city fuel economy is measured in accordance with procedures under part 600 of subchapter Q of chapter I of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on the date of the enactment of this section.

(3) Other terms

The terms "automobile", "passenger automobile", "medium duty passenger vehicle", "light truck", and "manufacturer" have the meanings given such terms in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for purposes of the administration of title II of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7521 et seq.).

(4) Reduction in basis

For purposes of this subtitle, the basis of any property for which a credit is allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced by the amount of such credit so allowed (determined without regard to subsection (g)).

(5) No double benefit

The amount of any deduction or other credit allowable under this chapter—

(A) for any incremental cost taken into account in computing the amount of the credit determined under subsection (e) shall be reduced by the amount of such credit attributable to such cost, and

(B) with respect to a vehicle described under subsection (b) or (c), shall be reduced by the amount of credit allowed under subsection (a) for such vehicle for the taxable year (determined without regard to subsection (g)).

(6) Property used by tax-exempt entity

In the case of a vehicle whose use is described in paragraph (3) or (4) of section 50(b) and which is not subject to a lease, the person who sold such vehicle to the person or entity using such vehicle shall be treated as the taxpayer that placed such vehicle in service, but only if such person clearly discloses to such person or entity in a document the amount of any credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to such vehicle (determined without regard to subsection (g)). For purposes of subsection (g), property to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation.

(7) Property used outside United States, etc., not qualified

No credit shall be allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any property referred to in section 50(b)(1) or with respect to the portion of the cost of any property taken into account under section 179.

(8) Recapture

The Secretary shall, by regulations, provide for recapturing the benefit of any credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any property which ceases to be property eligible for such credit (including recapture in the case of a lease period of less than the economic life of a vehicle), except that no benefit shall be recaptured if such property ceases to be eligible for such credit by reason of conversion to a qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle.

(9) Election to not take credit

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any vehicle if the taxpayer elects to not have this section apply to such vehicle.

(10) Interaction with air quality and motor vehicle safety standards

Unless otherwise provided in this section, a motor vehicle shall not be considered eligible for a credit under this section unless such vehicle is in compliance with—

(A) the applicable provisions of the Clean Air Act for the applicable make and model year of the vehicle (or applicable air quality provisions of State law in the case of a State which has adopted such provision under a waiver under section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act), and

(B) the motor vehicle safety provisions of sections 30101 through 30169 of title 49, United States Code.

(i) Plug-in conversion credit

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a), the plug-in conversion credit determined under this subsection with respect to any motor vehicle which is converted to a qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle is 10 percent of so much of the cost of the converting such vehicle as does not exceed $40,000.

(2) Qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle

For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle" means any new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle (as defined in section 30D, determined without regard to whether such vehicle is made by a manufacturer or whether the original use of such vehicle commences with the taxpayer).

(3) Credit allowed in addition to other credits

The credit allowed under this subsection shall be allowed with respect to a motor vehicle notwithstanding whether a credit has been allowed with respect to such motor vehicle under this section (other than this subsection) in any preceding taxable year.

(4) Termination

This subsection shall not apply to conversions made after December 31, 2011.

(j) Regulations

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the Secretary shall promulgate such regulations as necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(2) Coordination in prescription of certain regulations

The Secretary of the Treasury, in coordination with the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall prescribe such regulations as necessary to determine whether a motor vehicle meets the requirements to be eligible for a credit under this section.

(k) Termination

This section shall not apply to any property purchased after—

(1) in the case of a new qualified fuel cell motor vehicle (as described in subsection (b)), December 31, 2017,

(2) in the case of a new advanced lean burn technology motor vehicle (as described in subsection (c)) or a new qualified hybrid motor vehicle (as described in subsection (d)(2)(A)), December 31, 2010,

(3) in the case of a new qualified hybrid motor vehicle (as described in subsection (d)(2)(B)), December 31, 2009, and

(4) in the case of a new qualified alternative fuel vehicle (as described in subsection (e)), December 31, 2010.

(Added Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1341(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1038; amended Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §§402(j), 412(d), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2615, 2636; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title II, §205(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3838; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1141(b)(1), 1142(b)(2), 1143(a)–(c), 1144(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 328, 330-332; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(G), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(H), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2322; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §§218(a), 220(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4035; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §193(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3075; Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40403(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in text, is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title II of the Act, known as the National Emissions Standards Act, is classified generally to subchapter II (§7521 et seq.) of chapter 85 of Title 42. Sections 202(i), 209(b), and 243(e)(2) of the Act are classified to sections 7521(i), 7543(b), and 7583(e)(2), respectively, of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of Title 42 and Tables.

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (b)(3)(B) and (h)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–58, which was approved Aug. 8, 2005.

The date of the enactment of the Energy Tax Incentives Act of 2005, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is the date of enactment of title XIII of Pub. L. 109–58, which was approved Aug. 8, 2005.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 115–123 substituted "December 31, 2017" for "December 31, 2016".

2015—Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 114–113 substituted "December 31, 2016" for "December 31, 2014".

2014—Subsec. (h)(5)(B). Pub. L. 113–295, §218(a), inserted "(determined without regard to subsection (g))" before period at end.

Subsec. (h)(8). Pub. L. 113–295, §220(a), substituted "vehicle), except that" for "vehicle)., except that".

2013—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 112–240 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) related to personal credit with a limitation based on amount of tax.

2010—Subsec. (g)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(G), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily struck out "23," before "25D,". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2009—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 111–5, §1143(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (d)(3)(D). Pub. L. 111–5, §1141(b)(1), substituted "subsection (c) thereof" for "subsection (d) thereof".

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 111–5, §1144(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The credit allowed under subsection (a) (after the application of paragraph (1)) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

"(A) the regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)) reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A and sections 27 and 30, over

"(B) the tentative minimum tax for the taxable year."

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 111–5, §1142(b)(2), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'motor vehicle' has the meaning given such term by section 30(c)(2)."

Subsec. (h)(8). Pub. L. 111–5, §1143(c), inserted at end ", except that no benefit shall be recaptured if such property ceases to be eligible for such credit by reason of conversion to a qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle."

Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 111–5, §1143(a), added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsecs. (i) and (j) as (j) and (k), respectively.

2008—Subsec. (d)(3)(D). Pub. L. 110–343 added subpar. (D).

2005—Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(d), substituted "regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b))" for "regular tax".

Subsec. (h)(6). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(j), inserted at end "For purposes of subsection (g), property to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40403(b), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property purchased after December 31, 2016."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §193(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3076, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property purchased after December 31, 2014."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §218(c), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4035, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 30C of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Energy Tax Incentives Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII] to which it relates."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1141(c), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 328, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 30D, 38, 1016, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to vehicles acquired after December 31, 2009."

Amendment by section 1142(b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to vehicles acquired after Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1142(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1143(d), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 332, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 17, 2009]."

Amendment by section 1144(a) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1144(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–343 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 205(e) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(j) of Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provision of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which such amendment relates, see section 402(m)(1) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendments note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1341(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1049, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 38, 55, 1016, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2005, in taxable years ending after such date."

§30C. Alternative fuel vehicle refueling property credit

(a) Credit allowed

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to 30 percent of the cost of any qualified alternative fuel vehicle refueling property placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(b) Limitation

The credit allowed under subsection (a) with respect to all qualified alternative fuel vehicle refueling property placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year at a location shall not exceed—

(1) $30,000 in the case of a property of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation, and

(2) $1,000 in any other case.

(c) Qualified alternative fuel vehicle refueling property

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified alternative fuel vehicle refueling property" has the same meaning as the term "qualified clean-fuel vehicle refueling property" would have under section 179A if—

(1) paragraph (1) of section 179A(d) did not apply to property installed on property which is used as the principal residence (within the meaning of section 121) of the taxpayer, and

(2) only the following were treated as clean-burning fuels for purposes of section 179A(d):

(A) Any fuel at least 85 percent of the volume of which consists of one or more of the following: ethanol, natural gas, compressed natural gas, liquified natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, or hydrogen.

(B) Any mixture—

(i) which consists of two or more of the following: biodiesel (as defined in section 40A(d)(1)), diesel fuel (as defined in section 4083(a)(3)), or kerosene, and

(ii) at least 20 percent of the volume of which consists of biodiesel (as so defined) determined without regard to any kerosene in such mixture.


(C) Electricity.

(d) Application with other credits

(1) Business credit treated as part of general business credit

So much of the credit which would be allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined without regard to this subsection) that is attributable to property of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation shall be treated as a credit listed in section 38(b) for such taxable year (and not allowed under subsection (a)).

(2) Personal credit

The credit allowed under subsection (a) (after the application of paragraph (1)) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(A) the regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b)) reduced by the sum of the credits allowable under subpart A and section 27, over

(B) the tentative minimum tax for the taxable year.

(e) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Reduction in basis

For purposes of this subtitle, the basis of any property for which a credit is allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced by the amount of such credit so allowed (determined without regard to subsection (d)).

(2) Property used by tax-exempt entity

In the case of any qualified alternative fuel vehicle refueling property the use of which is described in paragraph (3) or (4) of section 50(b) and which is not subject to a lease, the person who sold such property to the person or entity using such property shall be treated as the taxpayer that placed such property in service, but only if such person clearly discloses to such person or entity in a document the amount of any credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to such property (determined without regard to subsection (d)). For purposes of subsection (d), property to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation.

(3) Property used outside United States not qualified

No credit shall be allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any property referred to in section 50(b)(1) or with respect to the portion of the cost of any property taken into account under section 179.

(4) Election not to take credit

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any property if the taxpayer elects not to have this section apply to such property.

(5) Recapture rules

Rules similar to the rules of section 179A(e)(4) shall apply.

(6) Reference

For purposes of this section, any reference to section 179A shall be treated as a reference to such section as in effect immediately before its repeal.

(f) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(g) Termination

This section shall not apply to any property placed in service after December 31, 2017.

(Added Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1342(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1049; amended Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §§402(k), 412(d), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2615, 2636; Pub. L. 110–172, §6(b), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2479; Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title II, §207(a), (b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3839; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §§1123(a), 1142(b)(3), 1144(b)(2), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 325, 331, 332; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §711(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3315; Pub. L. 112–240, title IV, §402(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2337; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §161(a), title II, §§218(b), 221(a)(34)(B), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4023, 4035, 4042; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §182(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3072; Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40404(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(b)(3), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1201.)

References in Text

Section 179A as in effect immediately before its repeal, referred to in subsec. (e)(6), means section 179A of this title as in effect before it was repealed by Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(34)(A), Dec, 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4042, effective Dec. 19, 2014.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e)(6), (7). Pub. L. 115–141 redesignated par. (7) as (6) and struck out former par. (6) which related to special rule for property placed in service during 2009 and 2010.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–123 substituted "December 31, 2017" for "December 31, 2016".

2015—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 114–113 substituted "December 31, 2016" for "December 31, 2014".

2014—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 113–295, §218(b), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The basis of any property shall be reduced by the portion of the cost of such property taken into account under subsection (a)."

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(34)(B), added par. (7).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 113–295, §161(a), substituted "placed in service after December 31, 2014." for "placed in service—

"(1) in the case of property relating to hydrogen, after December 31, 2014, and

"(2) in the case of any other property, after December 31, 2013."

2013—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "December 31, 2013" for "December 31, 2011.".

2010—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 111–312 substituted "December 31, 2011." for "December 31, 2010".

2009—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–5, §1144(b)(2), substituted "section 27" for "sections 27 and 30B".

Pub. L. 111–5, §1142(b)(3), struck out ", 30," before "and 30B".

Subsec. (e)(6). Pub. L. 111–5, §1123(a), added par. (6).

2008—Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 110–343, §207(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 110–343, §207(a), substituted "December 31, 2010" for "December 31, 2009".

2007—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–172, §6(b)(1), reenacted heading without change and amended introductory provisions generally. Prior to amendment, introductory provisions read as follows: "The credit allowed under subsection (a) with respect to any alternative fuel vehicle refueling property shall not exceed—".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–172, §6(b)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term 'qualified alternative fuel vehicle refueling property' has the meaning given to such term by section 179A(d), but only with respect to any fuel—

"(A) at least 85 percent of the volume of which consists of one or more of the following: ethanol, natural gas, compressed natural gas, liquefied natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, or hydrogen, or

"(B) any mixture of biodiesel (as defined in section 40A(d)(1)) and diesel fuel (as defined in section 4083(a)(3)), determined without regard to any use of kerosene and containing at least 20 percent biodiesel.

"(2) Residential property.—In the case of any property installed on property which is used as the principal residence (within the meaning of section 121) of the taxpayer, paragraph (1) of section 179A(d) shall not apply."

2005—Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(d), substituted "regular tax liability (as defined in section 26(b))" for "regular tax".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 109–135, §402(k), inserted at end "For purposes of subsection (d), property to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation."

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40404(b), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2016."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §182(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3072, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2014."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §161(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4023, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2013."

Amendment by section 218(b) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective as if included in the provision of the Energy Tax Incentives Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, to which such amendment relates, see section 218(c) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 30B of this title.

Amendment by section 221(a)(34)(B) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title IV, §402(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2337, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2011."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §711(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3315, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2010."

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1123(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 325, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Amendment by section 1142(b)(3) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to vehicles acquired after Feb. 17, 2009, see section 1142(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 1144(b)(2) of Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 1144(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2009 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title II, §207(c), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3840, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to property placed in service after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 3, 2008], in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–172, §6(e), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2481, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 41, 45J, 4041, 4042, 4082, and 6430 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 6430 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–58] to which they relate.

"(2) Nonapplication of exemption for off-highway business use.—The amendment made by subsection (d)(3) [amending section 4041 of this title] shall apply to fuel sold for use or used after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 29, 2007].

"(3) Amendment made by the safetea–lu.—The amendment made by subsection (d)(2)(C)(ii) [amending section 4082 of this title] shall take effect as if included in section 11161 of the SAFETEA–LU [Pub. L. 109–59]."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by section 402(k) of Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provision of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, to which such amendment relates, see section 402(m)(1) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2005 Amendments note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 109–58, title XIII, §1342(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1051, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 38, 55, 1016, and 6501 of this title] shall apply to property placed in service after December 31, 2005, in taxable years ending after such date."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

§30D. New qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles

(a) Allowance of credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of the credit amounts determined under subsection (b) with respect to each new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year.

(b) Per vehicle dollar limitation

(1) In general

The amount determined under this subsection with respect to any new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle is the sum of the amounts determined under paragraphs (2) and (3) with respect to such vehicle.

(2) Base amount

The amount determined under this paragraph is $2,500.

(3) Battery capacity

In the case of a vehicle which draws propulsion energy from a battery with not less than 5 kilowatt hours of capacity, the amount determined under this paragraph is $417, plus $417 for each kilowatt hour of capacity in excess of 5 kilowatt hours. The amount determined under this paragraph shall not exceed $5,000.

(c) Application with other credits

(1) Business credit treated as part of general business credit

So much of the credit which would be allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined without regard to this subsection) that is attributable to property of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation shall be treated as a credit listed in section 38(b) for such taxable year (and not allowed under subsection (a)).

(2) Personal credit

For purposes of this title, the credit allowed under subsection (a) for any taxable year (determined after application of paragraph (1)) shall be treated as a credit allowable under subpart A for such taxable year.

(d) New qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

The term "new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle—

(A) the original use of which commences with the taxpayer,

(B) which is acquired for use or lease by the taxpayer and not for resale,

(C) which is made by a manufacturer,

(D) which is treated as a motor vehicle for purposes of title II of the Clean Air Act,

(E) which has a gross vehicle weight rating of less than 14,000 pounds, and

(F) which is propelled to a significant extent by an electric motor which draws electricity from a battery which—

(i) has a capacity of not less than 4 kilowatt hours, and

(ii) is capable of being recharged from an external source of electricity.

(2) Motor vehicle

The term "motor vehicle" means any vehicle which is manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways (not including a vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails) and which has at least 4 wheels.

(3) Manufacturer

The term "manufacturer" has the meaning given such term in regulations prescribed by the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for purposes of the administration of title II of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7521 et seq.).

(4) Battery capacity

The term "capacity" means, with respect to any battery, the quantity of electricity which the battery is capable of storing, expressed in kilowatt hours, as measured from a 100 percent state of charge to a 0 percent state of charge.

(e) Limitation on number of new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles eligible for credit

(1) In general

In the case of a new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle sold during the phaseout period, only the applicable percentage of the credit otherwise allowable under subsection (a) shall be allowed.

(2) Phaseout period

For purposes of this subsection, the phaseout period is the period beginning with the second calendar quarter following the calendar quarter which includes the first date on which the number of new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicles manufactured by the manufacturer of the vehicle referred to in paragraph (1) sold for use in the United States after December 31, 2009, is at least 200,000.

(3) Applicable percentage

For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable percentage is—

(A) 50 percent for the first 2 calendar quarters of the phaseout period,

(B) 25 percent for the 3d and 4th calendar quarters of the phaseout period, and

(C) 0 percent for each calendar quarter thereafter.

(4) Controlled groups

Rules similar to the rules of section 30B(f)(4) shall apply for purposes of this subsection.

(f) Special rules

(1) Basis reduction

For purposes of this subtitle, the basis of any property for which a credit is allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced by the amount of such credit so allowed (determined without regard to subsection (c)).

(2) No double benefit

The amount of any deduction or other credit allowable under this chapter for a vehicle for which a credit is allowable under subsection (a) shall be reduced by the amount of credit allowed under such subsection for such vehicle (determined without regard to subsection (c)).

(3) Property used by tax-exempt entity

In the case of a vehicle the use of which is described in paragraph (3) or (4) of section 50(b) and which is not subject to a lease, the person who sold such vehicle to the person or entity using such vehicle shall be treated as the taxpayer that placed such vehicle in service, but only if such person clearly discloses to such person or entity in a document the amount of any credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to such vehicle (determined without regard to subsection (c)). For purposes of subsection (c), property to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation.

(4) Property used outside United States not qualified

No credit shall be allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any property referred to in section 50(b)(1).

(5) Recapture

The Secretary shall, by regulations, provide for recapturing the benefit of any credit allowable under subsection (a) with respect to any property which ceases to be property eligible for such credit.

(6) Election not to take credit

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for any vehicle if the taxpayer elects to not have this section apply to such vehicle.

(7) Interaction with air quality and motor vehicle safety standards

A vehicle shall not be considered eligible for a credit under this section unless such vehicle is in compliance with—

(A) the applicable provisions of the Clean Air Act for the applicable make and model year of the vehicle (or applicable air quality provisions of State law in the case of a State which has adopted such provision under a waiver under section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act), and

(B) the motor vehicle safety provisions of sections 30101 through 30169 of title 49, United States Code.

(g) Credit allowed for 2- and 3-wheeled plug-in electric vehicles

(1) In general

In the case of a qualified 2- or 3-wheeled plug-in electric vehicle—

(A) there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of the applicable amount with respect to each such qualified 2- or 3-wheeled plug-in electric vehicle placed in service by the taxpayer during the taxable year, and

(B) the amount of the credit allowed under subparagraph (A) shall be treated as a credit allowed under subsection (a).

(2) Applicable amount

For purposes of paragraph (1), the applicable amount is an amount equal to the lesser of—

(A) 10 percent of the cost of the qualified 2- or 3-wheeled plug-in electric vehicle, or

(B) $2,500.

(3) Qualified 2- or 3-wheeled plug-in electric vehicle

The term "qualified 2- or 3-wheeled plug-in electric vehicle" means any vehicle which—

(A) has 2 or 3 wheels,

(B) meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), (E), and (F) of subsection (d)(1) (determined by substituting "2.5 kilowatt hours" for "4 kilowatt hours" in subparagraph (F)(i)),

(C) is manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways,

(D) is capable of achieving a speed of 45 miles per hour or greater, and

(E) is acquired—

(i) after December 31, 2011, and before January 1, 2014, or

(ii) in the case of a vehicle that has 2 wheels, after December 31, 2014, and before January 1, 2018.

(Added Pub. L. 110–343, div. B, title II, §205(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3835; amended Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1141(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 326; Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(H), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §104(c)(2)(I), title IV, §403(a), (b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2322, 2337, 2338; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §209(e), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4028; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §183(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3072; Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40405(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act, referred to in subsecs. (d)(1)(D), (3), (f)(7)(A), is act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, 69 Stat. 322, which is classified generally to chapter 85 (§7401 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title II of the Act, known as the National Emissions Standards Act, is classified generally to subchapter II (§7521 et seq.) of chapter 85 of Title 42. Section 209(b) of the Act is classified to section 7543(b) of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (g)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 115–123 substituted "January 1, 2018" for "January 1, 2017".

2015—Subsec. (g)(3)(E). Pub. L. 114–113 substituted "acquired—" for "acquired after December 31, 2011, and before January 1, 2014." and added cls. (i) and (ii).

2014—Subsec. (f)(1), (2). Pub. L. 113–295, §209(e)(1)(A), (B), inserted "(determined without regard to subsection (c))" before period at end.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 113–295, §209(e)(2), inserted at end "For purposes of subsection (c), property to which this paragraph applies shall be treated as of a character subject to an allowance for depreciation."

2013—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 112–240, §104(c)(2)(I), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) related to personal credit with a limitation based on amount of tax.

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 112–240, §403(b)(1), substituted "vehicle for which a credit is allowable under subsection (a)" for "new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle" and "allowed under such subsection" for "allowed under subsection (a)".

Subsec. (f)(7). Pub. L. 112–240, §403(b)(2), substituted "A vehicle" for "A motor vehicle" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 112–240, §403(a), added subsec. (g).

2010—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 111–148, §10909(b)(2)(H), (c), as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, temporarily substituted "section 25D" for "sections 23 and 25D". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note below.

2009Pub. L. 111–5 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section provided credit with respect to each new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle placed in service and set forth provisions defining "applicable amount" and "new qualified plug-in electric drive motor vehicle" and stating limitations based on vehicle weight, the number of vehicles eligible for credit, and amount of tax liability.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–123, div. D, title I, §40405(b), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 148, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to vehicles acquired after December 31, 2016."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §183(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3073, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to vehicles acquired after December 31, 2014."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective as if included in the provisions of the American Recovery and Reinvestment Tax Act of 2009, Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, to which such amendment relates, see section 209(k) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by section 104(c)(2)(I) of Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, see section 104(d) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Pub. L. 112–240, title IV, §403(c), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2338, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to vehicles acquired after December 31, 2011."

Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 terminated applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2011, and section is amended to read as if such amendment had never been enacted, see section 10909(c) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–148 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 10909(d) of Pub. L. 111–148, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–5 applicable to vehicles acquired after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 1141(c) of Pub. L. 111–5, set out as a note under section 30B of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2008, see section 205(e) of Pub. L. 110–343, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2008 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Subpart C—Refundable Credits

Sec.
31.
Tax withheld on wages.
32.
Earned income.
33.
Tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations.
34.
Certain uses of gasoline and special fuels.
35.
Health insurance costs of eligible individuals.
36.
First-time homebuyer credit.
[36A.
Repealed.]
36B.
Refundable credit for coverage under a qualified health plan.
[36C.
Renumbered.]
37.
Overpayments of tax.

        

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(5)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4037, struck out item 36A "Making work pay credit".

2010Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10909(b)(2)(Q), (c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1023, as amended by Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §101(b)(1), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3298, temporarily added item 36C "Adoption expenses". See Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note set out under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–148, title I, §1401(d)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 220, added item 36B.

2009Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1001(e)(3), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 312, added item 36A.

2008Pub. L. 110–289, div. C, title I, §3011(b)(4), July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2891, added item 36 and redesignated former item 36 as 37.

2002Pub. L. 107–210, div. A, title II, §201(c)(2), Aug. 6, 2002, 116 Stat. 960, which directed amendment of the table of sections for subpart C of part IV of this chapter by adding items 35 and 36 and striking out the last item, was executed to the table of sections for this subpart which is in part IV of subchapter A of this chapter by adding those items and striking out former item 35 "Overpayments of tax" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, added subpart C heading and analysis of sections for subpart C consisting of items 31, 32 (formerly 43), 33 (formerly 32), 34 (formerly 39), and 35 (formerly 45). Former subpart C, setting out the rules for computing credit for expenses of work incentive programs, was repealed.

§31. Tax withheld on wages

(a) Wage withholding for income tax purposes

(1) In general

The amount withheld as tax under chapter 24 shall be allowed to the recipient of the income as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle.

(2) Year of credit

The amount so withheld during any calendar year shall be allowed as a credit for the taxable year beginning in such calendar year. If more than one taxable year begins in a calendar year, such amount shall be allowed as a credit for the last taxable year so beginning.

(b) Credit for special refunds of social security tax

(1) In general

The Secretary may prescribe regulations providing for the crediting against the tax imposed by this subtitle of the amount determined by the taxpayer or the Secretary to be allowable under section 6413(c) as a special refund of tax imposed on wages. The amount allowed as a credit under such regulations shall, for purposes of this subtitle, be considered an amount withheld at source as tax under section 3402.

(2) Year of credit

Any amount to which paragraph (1) applies shall be allowed as a credit for the taxable year beginning in the calendar year during which the wages were received. If more than one taxable year begins in the calendar year, such amount shall be allowed as a credit for the last taxable year so beginning.

(c) Special rule for backup withholding

Any credit allowed by subsection (a) for any amount withheld under section 3406 shall be allowed for the taxable year of the recipient of the income in which the income is received.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 12; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(D), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§302(a), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 585, 591; Pub. L. 97–354, §3(i)(4), Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1691; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(b)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2405; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §§102(a), 104(d)(2), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, 379; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §471(c), title VII, §714(j)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 962.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §714(j)(2), substituted "as tax under chapter 24" for "under section 3402 as tax on the wages of any individual".

1983Pub. L. 98–67 added subsec. (c) and repealed amendments made by Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 97–448 amended subsec. (d) generally. See 1982 Amendment note below.

1982Pub. L. 97–248, as amended by Pub. L. 97–354 and Pub. L. 97–448, amended section generally, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983. Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1976—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "The Secretary" and "(or his delegate)" after "taxpayer or the Secretary".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §715, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 966, provided that: "Any amendment made by this subtitle [subtitle A (§§711–715) of title VII of Pub. L. 98–369, see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–248] to which such amendment relates."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §110, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 384, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this title [enacting sections 3406 and 6705 of this title, amending this section and sections 274, 275, 643, 661, 3402, 3403, 3502, 3507, 6011, 6013, 6015, 6042, 6044, 6049, 6051, 6365, 6401, 6413, 6652, 6653, 6654, 6676, 6678, 6682, 7205, 7215, 7431, 7654, and 7701 of this title, repealing sections 3451 to 3456 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1, 3451, and 6011 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3451 of this title] shall apply with respect to payments made after December 31, 1983.

"(b) Section 102.—The amendments made by section 102 [amending this section and sections 274, 275, 643, 661, 3403, 3502, 3507, 6013, 6015, 6042, 6044, 6049, 6051, 6365, 6401, 6413, 6654, 6682, 7205, 7215, 7654, and 7701 of this title, repealing sections 3451 to 3456 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 3451 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3451 of this title] shall take effect as of the close of June 30, 1983.

"(c) Sections 104(b) and 107.—The amendments made by sections 104(b) and 107 [amending sections 6682, 7205, and 7431 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1983]."

Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §311(d), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2412, provided that: "The amendments made by section 306 [amending this section and sections 48, 55, 263, 291, 312, 338, 401, 501, 1232, 6038A, 6226, 6228, 6679, and 7701 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 338 and 1232 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 56, 72, 101, 103, 168, 302, 311, 338, 415, 907, and 5701 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [Pub. L. 97–248] to which such amendments relate."

Construction of Amendment by Title VII of Division A of Pub. L. 98–369

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §701, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 942, provided that: "For purposes of applying the amendments made by any title of this Act [see Tables for classification] other than this title, the provisions of this title shall be treated as having been enacted immediately before the provisions of such other titles."

§32. Earned income

(a) Allowance of credit

(1) In general

In the case of an eligible individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to the credit percentage of so much of the taxpayer's earned income for the taxable year as does not exceed the earned income amount.

(2) Limitation

The amount of the credit allowable to a taxpayer under paragraph (1) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

(A) the credit percentage of the earned income amount, over

(B) the phaseout percentage of so much of the adjusted gross income (or, if greater, the earned income) of the taxpayer for the taxable year as exceeds the phaseout amount.

(b) Percentages and amounts

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) Percentages

The credit percentage and the phaseout percentage shall be determined as follows:

 
In the case of an eligible individual with:The credit percentage is:The

phaseout

percentage

is:

1 qualifying child 34 15.98
2 qualifying children 40 21.06
3 or more qualifying children 45 21.06
No qualifying children 7.65  7.65

(2) Amounts

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the earned income amount and the phaseout amount shall be determined as follows:


 
In the case of an eligible individual with:The earned income amount is:The

phaseout

amount is:

1 qualifying child $6,330 $11,610
2 or more qualifying children $8,890 $11,610
No qualifying children $4,220  $5,280

(B) Joint returns

In the case of a joint return filed by an eligible individual and such individual's spouse, the phaseout amount determined under subparagraph (A) shall be increased by $5,000.

(c) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Eligible individual

(A) In general

The term "eligible individual" means—

(i) any individual who has a qualifying child for the taxable year, or

(ii) any other individual who does not have a qualifying child for the taxable year, if—

(I) such individual's principal place of abode is in the United States for more than one-half of such taxable year,

(II) such individual (or, if the individual is married, either the individual or the individual's spouse) has attained age 25 but not attained age 65 before the close of the taxable year, and

(III) such individual is not a dependent for whom a deduction is allowable under section 151 to another taxpayer for any taxable year beginning in the same calendar year as such taxable year.


 For purposes of the preceding sentence, marital status shall be determined under section 7703.

(B) Qualifying child ineligible

If an individual is the qualifying child of a taxpayer for any taxable year of such taxpayer beginning in a calendar year, such individual shall not be treated as an eligible individual for any taxable year of such individual beginning in such calendar year.

(C) Exception for individual claiming benefits under section 911

The term "eligible individual" does not include any individual who claims the benefits of section 911 (relating to citizens or residents living abroad) for the taxable year.

(D) Limitation on eligibility of nonresident aliens

The term "eligible individual" shall not include any individual who is a nonresident alien individual for any portion of the taxable year unless such individual is treated for such taxable year as a resident of the United States for purposes of this chapter by reason of an election under subsection (g) or (h) of section 6013.

(E) Identification number requirement

No credit shall be allowed under this section to an eligible individual who does not include on the return of tax for the taxable year—

(i) such individual's taxpayer identification number, and

(ii) if the individual is married (within the meaning of section 7703), the taxpayer identification number of such individual's spouse.

(F) Individuals who do not include TIN, etc., of any qualifying child

No credit shall be allowed under this section to any eligible individual who has one or more qualifying children if no qualifying child of such individual is taken into account under subsection (b) by reason of paragraph (3)(D).

(2) Earned income

(A) The term "earned income" means—

(i) wages, salaries, tips, and other employee compensation, but only if such amounts are includible in gross income for the taxable year, plus

(ii) the amount of the taxpayer's net earnings from self-employment for the taxable year (within the meaning of section 1402(a)), but such net earnings shall be determined with regard to the deduction allowed to the taxpayer by section 164(f).


(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A)—

(i) the earned income of an individual shall be computed without regard to any community property laws,

(ii) no amount received as a pension or annuity shall be taken into account,

(iii) no amount to which section 871(a) applies (relating to income of nonresident alien individuals not connected with United States business) shall be taken into account,

(iv) no amount received for services provided by an individual while the individual is an inmate at a penal institution shall be taken into account,

(v) no amount described in subparagraph (A) received for service performed in work activities as defined in paragraph (4) or (7) of section 407(d) of the Social Security Act to which the taxpayer is assigned under any State program under part A of title IV of such Act shall be taken into account, but only to the extent such amount is subsidized under such State program, and

(vi) a taxpayer may elect to treat amounts excluded from gross income by reason of section 112 as earned income.

(3) Qualifying child

(A) In general

The term "qualifying child" means a qualifying child of the taxpayer (as defined in section 152(c), determined without regard to paragraph (1)(D) thereof and section 152(e)).

(B) Married individual

The term "qualifying child" shall not include an individual who is married as of the close of the taxpayer's taxable year unless the taxpayer is entitled to a deduction under section 151 for such taxable year with respect to such individual (or would be so entitled but for section 152(e)).

(C) Place of abode

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the requirements of section 152(c)(1)(B) shall be met only if the principal place of abode is in the United States.

(D) Identification requirements

(i) In general

A qualifying child shall not be taken into account under subsection (b) unless the taxpayer includes the name, age, and TIN of the qualifying child on the return of tax for the taxable year.

(ii) Other methods

The Secretary may prescribe other methods for providing the information described in clause (i).

(4) Treatment of military personnel stationed outside the United States

For purposes of paragraphs (1)(A)(ii)(I) and (3)(C), the principal place of abode of a member of the Armed Forces of the United States shall be treated as in the United States during any period during which such member is stationed outside the United States while serving on extended active duty with the Armed Forces of the United States. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "extended active duty" means any period of active duty pursuant to a call or order to such duty for a period in excess of 90 days or for an indefinite period.

(d) Married individuals

In the case of an individual who is married (within the meaning of section 7703), this section shall apply only if a joint return is filed for the taxable year under section 6013.

(e) Taxable year must be full taxable year

Except in the case of a taxable year closed by reason of the death of the taxpayer, no credit shall be allowable under this section in the case of a taxable year covering a period of less than 12 months.

(f) Amount of credit to be determined under tables

(1) In general

The amount of the credit allowed by this section shall be determined under tables prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Requirements for tables

The tables prescribed under paragraph (1) shall reflect the provisions of subsections (a) and (b) and shall have income brackets of not greater than $50 each—

(A) for earned income between $0 and the amount of earned income at which the credit is phased out under subsection (b), and

(B) for adjusted gross income between the dollar amount at which the phaseout begins under subsection (b) and the amount of adjusted gross income at which the credit is phased out under subsection (b).

[(g) Repealed. Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §219(a)(2), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2403]

[(h) Repealed. Pub. L. 107–16, title III, §303(c), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 55]

(i) Denial of credit for individuals having excessive investment income

(1) In general

No credit shall be allowed under subsection (a) for the taxable year if the aggregate amount of disqualified income of the taxpayer for the taxable year exceeds $2,200.

(2) Disqualified income

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "disqualified income" means—

(A) interest or dividends to the extent includible in gross income for the taxable year,

(B) interest received or accrued during the taxable year which is exempt from tax imposed by this chapter,

(C) the excess (if any) of—

(i) gross income from rents or royalties not derived in the ordinary course of a trade or business, over

(ii) the sum of—

(I) the deductions (other than interest) which are clearly and directly allocable to such gross income, plus

(II) interest deductions properly allocable to such gross income,


(D) the capital gain net income (as defined in section 1222) of the taxpayer for such taxable year, and

(E) the excess (if any) of—

(i) the aggregate income from all passive activities for the taxable year (determined without regard to any amount included in earned income under subsection (c)(2) or described in a preceding subparagraph), over

(ii) the aggregate losses from all passive activities for the taxable year (as so determined).


For purposes of subparagraph (E), the term "passive activity" has the meaning given such term by section 469.

(j) Inflation adjustments

(1) In general

In the case of any taxable year beginning after 2015, each of the dollar amounts in subsections (b)(2) and (i)(1) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof—

(i) in the case of amounts in subsections (b)(2)(A) and (i)(1), "calendar year 1995" for "calendar year 2016", and

(ii) in the case of the $5,000 amount in subsection (b)(2)(B), "calendar year 2008" for "calendar year 2016".

(2) Rounding

(A) In general

If any dollar amount in subsection (b)(2)(A) (after being increased under subparagraph (B) thereof), after being increased under paragraph (1), is not a multiple of $10, such dollar amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10.

(B) Disqualified income threshold amount

If the dollar amount in subsection (i)(1), after being increased under paragraph (1), is not a multiple of $50, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $50.

(k) Restrictions on taxpayers who improperly claimed credit in prior year

(1) Taxpayers making prior fraudulent or reckless claims

(A) In general

No credit shall be allowed under this section for any taxable year in the disallowance period.

(B) Disallowance period

For purposes of paragraph (1), the disallowance period is—

(i) the period of 10 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of credit under this section was due to fraud, and

(ii) the period of 2 taxable years after the most recent taxable year for which there was a final determination that the taxpayer's claim of credit under this section was due to reckless or intentional disregard of rules and regulations (but not due to fraud).

(2) Taxpayers making improper prior claims

In the case of a taxpayer who is denied credit under this section for any taxable year as a result of the deficiency procedures under subchapter B of chapter 63, no credit shall be allowed under this section for any subsequent taxable year unless the taxpayer provides such information as the Secretary may require to demonstrate eligibility for such credit.

(l) Coordination with certain means-tested programs

For purposes of—

(1) the United States Housing Act of 1937,

(2) title V of the Housing Act of 1949,

(3) section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965,

(4) sections 221(d)(3), 235, and 236 of the National Housing Act, and

(5) the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008,


any refund made to an individual (or the spouse of an individual) by reason of this section shall not be treated as income (and shall not be taken into account in determining resources for the month of its receipt and the following month).

(m) Identification numbers

Solely for purposes of subsections (c)(1)(E) and (c)(3)(D), a taxpayer identification number means a social security number issued to an individual by the Social Security Administration (other than a social security number issued pursuant to clause (II) (or that portion of clause (III) that relates to clause (II)) of section 205(c)(2)(B)(i) of the Social Security Act) on or before the due date for filing the return for the taxable year.

(Added Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §204(a), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 30, §43; amended Pub. L. 94–164, §2(c), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 971; Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(c)(1)(B), (2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1557; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §§104(a)–(e), 105(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2772, 2773; Pub. L. 95–615, §202(g)(5), formerly §202(f)(5), Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3100, renumbered §202(g)(5) and amended Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §§101(a)(1), (2)(E), 108(a)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 194, 195, 223; Pub. L. 97–34, title I, §§111(b)(2), 112(b)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 194, 195; Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §124(c)(4)(B), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 91; renumbered §32 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§423(c)(3), 471(c), title X, §1042(a)–(d)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 801, 826, 1043; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §§104(b)(1)(B), 111(a)–(d)(1), title XII, §1272(d)(4), title XIII, §1301(j)(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2104, 2107, 2594, 2658; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1001(c), 1007(g)(12), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3350, 3436; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11101(d)(1)(B), 11111(a), (b), (e), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–405, 1388-408, 1388-412, 1388-413; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13131(a)–(d)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 433–435; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §§721(a), 722(a), 723(a), 742(a), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5002, 5003, 5010; Pub. L. 104–7, §4(a), Apr. 11, 1995, 109 Stat. 95; Pub. L. 104–193, title IV, §451(a), (b), title IX, §§909(a), (b), 910(a), (b), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2276, 2277, 2351, 2352; Pub. L. 105–34, title I, §101(b), title III, §312(d)(2), title X, §1085(a)(1), (b)–(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 798, 840, 955, 956; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §§6003(b), 6010(p)(1), (2), 6021(a), (b), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 791, 816, 817, 823, 824; Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §412(a), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1917; Pub. L. 107–16, title II, §201(c)(3), title III, §303(a)–(f), (h), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 47, 55-57; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §416(a)(1), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 108–311, title I, §104(b), title II, §205, Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1169, 1176; Pub. L. 109–135, title III, §302(a), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2608; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §106(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2938; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(O), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1097; Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §102(a), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1625; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(O), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1858; Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1002(a), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 312; Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §219(a)(2), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2403; Pub. L. 111–312, title I, §103(c), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3299; Pub. L. 112–240, title I, §103(c), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2319; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §§206(a), 221(a)(3), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4027, 4037; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §103(a)–(c), title II, §204(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3044, 3045, 3081; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11002(d)(1)(D), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2060; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(a), title IV, §401(b)(4), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1160, 1201.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2)(B)(v) and (m), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Sections 205(c)(2)(B)(i) and 407(d)(4), (7) of the Act are classified to sections 405(c)(2)(B)(i) and 607(d)(4), (7), respectively, of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in subsec. (l)(1), is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, which is classified generally to chapter 8 (§1437 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note under section 1437 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Housing Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (l)(2), is act July 15, 1949, ch. 338, 63 Stat. 413, as amended. Title V of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1471 et seq.) of chapter 8A of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (l)(3), is section 101 of Pub. L. 89–117, title I, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 451, which enacted section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and amended sections 1451 and 1465 of Title 42.

Sections 221(d)(3), 235, and 236 of the National Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (l)(4), are classified to sections 1715l(d)(3), 1715z, and 1715z–1, respectively, of Title 12.

The Food and Nutrition Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (l)(5), is Pub. L. 88–525, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 703, which is classified generally to chapter 51 (§2011 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of Title 7 and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 32 was renumbered section 33 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(a)(1), struck out cl. (i) designation and heading and struck out cls. (ii) and (iii) which related to inflation adjustment for taxable years after 2015 and application of rounding provisions in subsec. (j)(2)(A) of this section, respectively.

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(a)(2)(A), substituted "after 2015" for "after 1996" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(a)(2)(B), inserted "by substituting in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof" after ", determined" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (j)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(a)(2)(C), struck out "by substituting" after "(i)(1)," and "in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof" after " 'calendar year 2016' ".

Subsec. (j)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(a)(2)(D), substituted "$5,000 amount in subsection (b)(2)(B), 'calendar year 2008' for 'calendar year 2016' " for "$3,000 amount in subsection (b)(2)(B)(iii), by substituting 'calendar year 2007' for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii) of such section 1".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(4), struck out ", and any payment made to such individual (or such spouse) by an employer under section 3507," after "reason of this section" in concluding provisions.

2017—Subsecs. (b)(2)(B)(ii)(II), (j)(1)(B)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2015—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–113, §103(a), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) provided credit and phaseout percentages for eligible individuals with 1, 2 or more, or no qualifying children.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 114–113, §103(b), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of a joint return filed by an eligible individual and such individual's spouse, the phaseout amount determined under subparagraph (A) shall be increased by $3,000."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 114–113, §103(c), struck out par. (3) which provided for increased credit percentage for taxpayers with 3 or more qualifying children and reduction of marriage penalty in taxable years beginning after 2008 and before 2018, with adjustment for inflation.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 114–113, §204(a), inserted "on or before the due date for filing the return for the taxable year" before period at end.

2014—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(3)(A), struck out subpar. (A) designation, heading "In general", and introductory provisions "In the case of taxable years beginning after 1995:" before the table and struck out subpars. (B) and (C) which related to transitional percentages for 1995 and transitional percentages for 1994, respectively, and realigned margins.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(3)(B), substituted "increased by $3,000." for "increased by—

"(i) $1,000 in the case of taxable years beginning in 2002, 2003, and 2004,

"(ii) $2,000 in the case of taxable years beginning in 2005, 2006, and 2007, and

"(iii) $3,000 in the case of taxable years beginning after 2007."

Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 113–295, §206(a), substituted "after 2009" for "in 2010" in introductory provisions.

2013—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "for certain years" for "2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012" in heading and "after 2008 and before 2018" for "in 2009, 2010, 2011, or 2012" in introductory provisions.

2010—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–312 substituted "2009, 2010, 2011, and 2012" for "2009 and 2010" in heading and ", 2010, 2011, or 2012" for "or 2010" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 111–226 struck out subsec. (g). Text read as follows:

"(1) Recapture of excess advance payments.—If any payment is made to the individual by an employer under section 3507 during any calendar year, then the tax imposed by this chapter for the individual's last taxable year beginning in such calendar year shall be increased by the aggregate amount of such payments.

"(2) Reconciliation of payments advanced and credit allowed.—Any increase in tax under paragraph (1) shall not be treated as tax imposed by this chapter for purposes of determining the amount of any credit (other than the credit allowed by subsection (a)) allowable under this part."

2009—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 111–5 added par. (3).

2008—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 110–245 amended cl. (vi) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (vi) read as follows: "in the case of any taxable year ending—

"(I) after the date of the enactment of this clause, and

"(II) before January 1, 2008,

a taxpayer may elect to treat amounts excluded from gross income by reason of section 112 as earned income."

Subsec. (l)(5). Pub. L. 110–246, §4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(O), substituted "Food and Nutrition Act of 2008" for "Food Stamp Act of 1977".

2006—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(vi)(II). Pub. L. 109–432 substituted "2008" for "2007".

2005—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(vi)(II). Pub. L. 109–135 substituted "2007" for "2006".

2004—Subsec. (c)(1)(C) to (G). Pub. L. 108–311, §205(b)(1), redesignated subpars. (D) to (G) as (C) to (F), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (C) which related to 2 or more claiming qualifying child.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 108–311, §104(b), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 108–311, §205(a), amended par. (3) generally, substituting subpars. (A) to (D) for former subpars. (A) to (E), relating to qualifying child in general, relationship test, age requirements, identification requirements, and place of abode requirements.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 108–311, §205(b)(2), substituted "(3)(C)" for "(3)(E)".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 108–311, §205(b)(3), substituted "(c)(1)(E)" for "(c)(1)(F)".

2002—Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 107–147 substituted "part" for "subpart".

2001—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(d)(1), struck out "modified" before "adjusted gross income".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(a)(1), reenacted par. heading without change, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted subpar. heading, substituted "Subject to subparagraph (B), the earned" for "The earned", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(f), amended heading and text of subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If 2 or more individuals would (but for this subparagraph and after application of subparagraph (B)) be treated as eligible individuals with respect to the same qualifying child for taxable years beginning in the same calendar year, only the individual with the highest modified adjusted gross income for such taxable years shall be treated as an eligible individual with respect to such qualifying child."

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(b), inserted ", but only if such amounts are includible in gross income for the taxable year" after "other employee compensation".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(e)(2)(B), struck out "except as provided in subparagraph (B)(iii)," before "who has".

Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(e)(1), reenacted heading, introductory provisions, and subcl. (III) of cl. (i) without change and amended subcls. (I) and (II) generally. Prior to amendment, subcls. (I) and (II) read as follows:

"(I) a son or daughter of the taxpayer, or a descendant of either,

"(II) a stepson or stepdaughter of the taxpayer, or."

Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(e)(2)(A), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of clause (i)(III), the term 'eligible foster child' means an individual not described in clause (i)(I) or (II) who—

"(I) is a brother, sister, stepbrother, or stepsister of the taxpayer (or a descendant of any such relative) or is placed with the taxpayer by an authorized placement agency,

"(II) the taxpayer cares for as the taxpayer's own child, and

"(III) has the same principal place of abode as the taxpayer for the taxpayer's entire taxable year."

Subsec. (c)(3)(E). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(h), substituted "subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (B)(iii)(II)".

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(d)(2)(A), struck out heading and text of par. (5), which defined "modified adjusted gross income" as meaning adjusted gross income without regard to certain described amounts and increased by certain described amounts.

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(d)(2)(B), struck out "modified" before "adjusted gross income" in two places.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(c), struck out heading and text of subsec. (h). Text read as follows: "The credit allowed under this section for the taxable year shall be reduced by the amount of tax imposed by section 55 (relating to alternative minimum tax) with respect to such taxpayer for such taxable year."

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(a)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, determined by substituting 'calendar year 1995' for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B) thereof."

Subsec. (j)(2)(A). Pub. L. 107–16, §303(a)(3), substituted "subsection (b)(2)(A) (after being increased under subparagraph (B) thereof)" for "subsection (b)(2)".

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 107–16, §201(c)(3), struck out heading and text of subsec. (n), which had increased credit allowable under this section in the case of a taxpayer with respect to whom a child tax credit is allowed under section 24(a), described amount of increase, and set forth provisions relating to coordination with other credits allowable under this part.

1999—Subsec. (c)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 106–170 added subcl. (I) and redesignated former subcls. (I) and (II) as (II) and (III), respectively.

1998—Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(a), added introductory provisions and struck out former introductory provisions which read as follows: "The term 'eligible individual' does not include any individual who does not include on the return of tax for the taxable year—".

Subsec. (c)(1)(G). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(b)(2), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(2), inserted "shall be taken into account" before ", but only".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(ii) to (iv). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(b)(3), inserted "and" at end of cl. (ii), substituted a period for ", and" at end of cl. (iii), and struck out cl. (iv) which read as follows: "with respect to whom the taxpayer meets the identification requirements of subparagraph (D)".

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 105–206, §6021(b)(1), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The requirements of this subparagraph are met if the taxpayer includes the name, age, and TIN of each qualifying child (without regard to this subparagraph) on the return of tax for the taxable year."

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(1)(A), inserted "and increased by the amounts described in subparagraph (C)" before period at end.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(1)(B), (C), inserted "or" at end of cl. (iii) and substituted cl. (iv)(III) and concluding provisions for former cls. (iv)(III), (v), (vi), and concluding provisions which read as follows:

"(III) other trades or businesses

"(v) interest received or accrued during the taxable year which is exempt from tax imposed by this chapter, and

"(vi) amounts received as a pension or annuity, and any distributions or payments received from an individual retirement plan, by the taxpayer during the taxable year to the extent not included in gross income.

For purposes of clause (iv), there shall not be taken into account items which are attributable to a trade or business which consists of the performance of services by the taxpayer as an employee. Clause (vi) shall not include any amount which is not includible in gross income by reason of section 402(c), 403(a)(4), 403(b), 408(d)(3), (4), or (5), or 457(e)(10)."

Subsec. (c)(5)(C). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(p)(1)(C), added subpar. (C).

Subsecs. (m), (n). Pub. L. 105–206, §6003(b), redesignated subsec. (m), relating to supplemental child credit, as (n) and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) In general.—In the case of a taxpayer with respect to whom a credit is allowed under section 24 for the taxable year, there shall be allowed as a credit under this section an amount equal to the supplemental child credit (if any) determined for such taxpayer for such taxable year under paragraph (2). Such credit shall be in addition to the credit allowed under subsection (a).

"(2) Supplemental child credit.—For purposes of this subsection, the supplemental child credit is an amount equal to the excess (if any) of—

"(A) the amount determined under section 24(d)(1)(A), over

"(B) the amount determined under section 24(d)(1)(B).

The amounts referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall be determined as if section 24(d) applied to all taxpayers.

"(3) Coordination with section 24.—The amount of the credit under section 24 shall be reduced by the amount of the credit allowed under this subsection."

1997—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(v). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(c), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 105–34, §312(d)(2), struck out "(as defined in section 1034(h)(3)" after "serving on extended active duty" and inserted at end "For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'extended active duty' means any period of active duty pursuant to a call or order to such duty for a period in excess of 90 days or for an indefinite period."

Subsec. (c)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(d)(4), inserted at end of concluding provisions "Clause (vi) shall not include any amount which is not includible in gross income by reason of section 402(c), 403(a)(4), 403(b), 408(d)(3), (4), or (5), or 457(e)(10)."

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(b), substituted "75 percent" for "50 percent" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(v), (vi). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(d)(1)–(3), added cls. (v) and (vi).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(1), added subsec. (k). Former subsec. (k) redesignated (l).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (k) as (l). Former subsec. (l) redesignated (m).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 105–34, §1085(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (l) as (m) relating to identification numbers.

Pub. L. 105–34, §101(b), added subsec. (m) relating to supplemental child credit.

1996—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(a), inserted "modified" before "adjusted gross income".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(a)(3), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text consisted of subpars. (A) and (B) setting out tables for determining the earned income amount for taxable years beginning after 1994 and for taxable years beginning in 1994.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(a), inserted "modified" before "adjusted gross income".

Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 104–193, §451(a), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–193, §910(a), inserted "modified" before "adjusted gross income" in two places.

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(a)(1), substituted "$2,200" for "$2,350".

Subsec. (i)(2). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(b), added subpars. (D) and (E) and concluding provisions.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 104–193, §909(a)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) In general.—In the case of any taxable year beginning after 1994, each dollar amount contained in subsection (b)(2)(A) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

"(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

"(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3), for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting 'calendar year 1993' for 'calendar year 1992'.

"(2) Rounding.—If any dollar amount after being increased under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $10, such dollar amount shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10 (or, if such dollar amount is a multiple of $5, such dollar amount shall be increased to the next higher multiple of $10)."

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104–193, §451(b), added subsec. (l).

1995—Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 104–7 added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsecs. (i) and (j) as (j) and (k), respectively.

1994—Subsec. (c)(1)(E). Pub. L. 103–465, §722(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 103–465, §723(a), added cl. (iv).

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 103–465, §742(a), amended heading and text of cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The requirements of this subparagraph are met if—

"(I) the taxpayer includes the name and age of each qualifying child (without regard to this subparagraph) on the return of tax for the taxable year, and

"(II) in the case of an individual who has attained the age of 1 year before the close of the taxpayer's taxable year, the taxpayer includes the taxpayer identification number of such individual on such return of tax for such taxable year."

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–465, §721(a), added par. (4).

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(a), amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of an eligible individual, there shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of—

"(1) the basic earned income credit, and

"(2) the health insurance credit."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(a), substituted "Percentages and amounts" for "Computation of credit" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text related to method of computation of both earned income credit and health insurance credit.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(b), amended heading and text of subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'eligible individual' means any individual who has a qualifying child for the taxable year."

Subsec. (c)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(d)(1), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii), substituted "clause (i)" for "clause (i) or (ii)", and struck out heading and text of former cl. (ii). Text read as follows: "In the case of any taxpayer with respect to which the health insurance credit is allowed under subsection (a)(2), the Secretary may require a taxpayer to include an insurance policy number or other adequate evidence of insurance in addition to any information required to be included in clause (i)."

Subsec. (i)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(c)(1), added par. (1) and struck out text and heading of former par. (1). Text read as follows: "In the case of any taxable year beginning after the applicable calendar year, each dollar amount referred to in paragraph (2)(B) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

"(A) such dollar amount, multiplied by

"(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3), for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting 'calendar year 1984' for 'calendar year 1989' in subparagraph (B) thereof."

Subsec. (i)(2), (3). Pub. L. 103–66, §13131(c), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out former par. (2) which defined terms for purposes of the inflation adjustment in par. (1).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) read as follows: "In the case of an eligible individual, there is allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to 14 percent of so much of the earned income for the taxable year as does not exceed $5,714."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(a), substituted heading for one which read "Limitation" and amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "The amount of the credit allowable to a taxpayer under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

"(1) the maximum credit allowable under subsection (a) to any taxpayer, over

"(2) 10 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income (or, if greater, the earned income) of the taxpayer for the taxable year as exceeds $9,000.

In the case of any taxable year beginning in 1987, paragraph (2) shall be applied by substituting '$6,500' for '$9,000'."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(a), amended subsec. (c) generally, inserting "and special rules" in heading and substituting present provisions for provisions defining "eligible individual" and "earned income".

Subsec. (i)(1)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11101(d)(1)(B), substituted "1989" for "1987".

Subsec. (i)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(e)(1), (2), substituted "clause (i) of subparagraph (B)" for "clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B)" in cl. (i) and "clause (ii)" for "clause (iii)" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (i)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(e)(3), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "The dollar amounts referred to in this subparagraph are—

"(i) the $5,714 amount contained in subsection (a),

"(ii) the $6,500 amount contained in the last sentence of subsection (b), and

"(iii) the $9,000 amount contained in subsection (b)(2)."

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–508, §11111(b), added subsec. (j).

1988—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–647, §1007(g)(12), struck out "for taxpayers other than corporations" after "alternative minimum tax".

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 100–647, §1001(c), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows: "If any increase determined under paragraph (1) is not a multiple of $10, such increase shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10 (or, if such increase is a multiple of $5, such increase shall be increased to the next higher multiple of $10)."

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(a), substituted "14 percent" for "11 percent" and "$5,714" for "$5,000".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(b), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "The amount of the credit allowable to a taxpayer under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the excess (if any) of—

"(1) $550, over

"(2) 122/9 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income (or, if greater, the earned income) of the taxpayer for the taxable year as exceeds $6,500."

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(8), substituted "section 7703" for "section 143".

Pub. L. 99–514, §104(b)(1)(B), substituted "section 151(c)(3)" for "section 151(e)(3)".

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1272(d)(4), struck out "or 931" after "911" in heading, and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'eligible individual' does not include an individual who, for the taxable year, claims the benefits of—

"(i) section 911 (relating to citizens or residents of the United States living abroad),

"(ii) section 931 (relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States)."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1301(j)(8), substituted "section 7703" for "section 143".

Subsec. (f)(2)(A), (B). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(d)(1), added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) for earned income between $0 and $11,000, and

"(B) for adjusted gross income between $6,500 and $11,000."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 99–514, §111(c), added subsec. (i).

1984Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 43 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(a), substituted "11 percent" for "10 percent".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(d)(1), substituted "$550" for "$500".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(b), substituted "122/9 percent" for "12.5 percent" and "$6,500" for "$6,000".

Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(3)(A), inserted "or would be so entitled but for paragraph (2) or (4) of section 152(e)".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §423(c)(3)(B), substituted "as the individual for more than one-half of the taxable year" for "as the individual".

Subsec. (f)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(d)(2), substituted "between $0 and $11,000" for "between $0 and $10,000".

Subsec. (f)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(d)(2), substituted "between $6,500 and $11,000" for "between $6,000 and $10,000".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 98–369, §1042(c), added subsec. (h).

1983—Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 98–21 inserted before period at end ", but such net earnings shall be determined with regard to the deduction allowed to the taxpayer by section 164(f)".

1981—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 97–34 struck out reference to section 913 in heading, substituted "relating to citizens or residents of the United States living abroad" for "relating to income earned by individuals in certain camps outside the United States" in cl. (i), struck out cl. (ii) which made reference to section 913, and redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii).

1980—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 96–222, §101(a)(1), in heading substituted "who claims benefit of section 911, 913, or 931" for "entitled to exclude income under section 911" and in text substituted "claims the benefits of" for "is entitled to exclude any amounts from gross income under" and inserted reference to section 913 (relating to deduction for certain expenses of living abroad).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 96–222, §101(a)(2)(E), redesignated subsec. (h) as (g).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(a), substituted "subtitle" for "chapter" and "$5,000" for "$4,000".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(b), substituted provision limiting the allowable credit to an amount not to exceed the excess of $500 over 12.5 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income for the taxable year as exceeds $6,000 for provision limiting the allowable credit to an amount reduced by 10 percent of so much of the adjusted gross income for the taxable year as exceeds $4,000.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(e), amended par. (1) generally, substituting in definition of eligible individual one who is married and is entitled to a deduction under section 151 for a child, provided the child has the same principal abode as the individual and the abode is in the United States, is a surviving spouse, or is a head of household, provided the household is in the United States for one who maintains a household in the United States which is the principal abode of that individual and a child of that individual who meets the requirements of section 151(e)(1)(B) or a child of that individual who is disabled within the meaning of section 72(m)(7) and to whom the individual is entitled to claim a deduction under section 151.

Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 95–615, §202(f)(5), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c)(1)(B) by substituting "(relating to income earned by employees in certain camps)" for "(relating to earned income from sources without the United States)", was executed to subsec. (c)(1)(C) to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the general amendment of subsec. (c)(1) by Pub. L. 95–600 which enacted provisions formerly contained in subsec. (c)(1)(B) in subsec. (c)(1)(C).

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(d), redesignated cls. (ii) to (iv) as (i) to (iii), respectively. Former cl. (i), which provided that amounts be taken into account only if includible in the gross income of the taxpayer for the taxable year, was struck out.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–600, §104(c), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–600, §105(a), added subsec. (h).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §401(c)(1)(B), substituted "is allowed" for "shall be allowed" and struck out provisions relating to the application of the six-month rule.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §401(c)(1)(B), struck out provisions relating to the application of the six-month rule.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 94–455, §401(c)(2), among other changes, substituted "section 44A(f)(1)" for "section 214(b)(3)" and "if such child meets the requirements of section 151(e)(1)(B)" for "with respect to whom he is entitled to claim a deduction under section 151(e)(1)(B)" and inserted reference to a child of that individual who is disabled (within the meaning of section 72(m)(7)) and with respect to whom that individual is entitled to claim a deduction under section 151.

1975—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–164 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–164 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(a) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in the provision of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, div. Q of Pub. L. 114–113, to which such amendment relates, see section 101(s) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §103(d), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3045, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015."

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title II, §204(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3081, as amended by Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(h), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1162, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to any return of tax, and any amendment or supplement to any return of tax, which is filed after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §206(d), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4027, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1397B and 2801 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 2001 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Tax Relief, Unemployment Insurance Reauthorization, and Job Creation Act of 2010 [Pub. L. 111–312] to which they relate."

Amendment by section 221(a)(3) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–240 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2012, see section 103(e)(1) of Pub. L. 112–240, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–312 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, see section 103(d) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2010 Amendment note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §219(c), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2403, provided that: "The repeals and amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 6012, 6051, and 6302 of this title and repealing section 3507 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2010."

Effective Date of 2009 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–5, div. B, title I, §1002(b), Feb. 17, 2009, 123 Stat. 312, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2008."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of Title 7, Agriculture.

Amendment by section 4002(b)(1)(B), (2)(O) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §102(d), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1625, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6428 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 2007."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title I, §106(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2938, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–135, title III, §302(b), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2608, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–245, title I, §102(c), June 17, 2008, 122 Stat. 1625, provided that: "Section 105 of the Working Families Tax Relief Act of 2004 [section 105 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 1 of this title] (relating to application of EGTRRA sunset to this title [probably means title I of Pub. L. 108–311, see Tables for classification]) shall not apply to section 104(b) of such Act [amending this section]."

Pub. L. 108–311, title I, §104(c)(2), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1169, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 2004]."

Amendment by section 205 of Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §416(a)(2), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 55, provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 474 of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 [Pub. L. 98–369]."

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by section 201(c)(3) of Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2000, see section 201(e)(1) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Pub. L. 107–16, title III, §303(i), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 57, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6213 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2001.

"(2) Subsection (g).—The amendment made by subsection (g) [amending section 6213 of this title] shall take effect on January 1, 2004."

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–170, title IV, §412(b), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1917, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1999."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6021(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 824, provided that:

"(1) Eligible individuals.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 451 of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 [Pub. L. 104–193].

"(2) Qualifying children.—The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 11111 of Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–508]."

Amendment by sections 6003(b) and 6010(p)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 101(e) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as an Effective Date note under section 24 of this title.

Amendment by section 312(d)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1085(e), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 957, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 6213 and 6695 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996.

"(2) The amendments made by subsections (b), (c), and (d) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–193, title IV, §451(d), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2277, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6213 of this title] shall apply with respect to returns the due date for which (without regard to extensions) is more than 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 22, 1996]."

Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, §909(c), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2352, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.

"(2) Advance payment individuals.—In the case of any individual who on or before June 26, 1996, has in effect an earned income eligibility certificate for the individual's taxable year beginning in 1996, the amendments made by this section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996."

Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, §910(c), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2353, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995.

"(2) Advance payment individuals.—In the case of any individual who on or before June 26, 1996, has in effect an earned income eligibility certificate for the individual's taxable year beginning in 1996, the amendments made by this section shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1996."

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–7, §4(b), Apr. 11, 1995, 109 Stat. 96, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1995."

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §721(d)(1), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5002, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1994."

Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §722(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5003, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1994."

Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §723(b), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5003, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993."

Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §742(c), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5010, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 6109 of this title] shall apply to returns for taxable years beginning after December 31, 1994.

"(2) Exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to—

"(A) returns for taxable years beginning in 1995 with respect to individuals who are born after October 31, 1995, and

"(B) returns for taxable years beginning in 1996 with respect to individuals who are born after November 30, 1996."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13131(e), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 435, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 162, 213, and 3507 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1993."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 11101(d)(1)(B) of Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11101(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11111(f), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–413, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 162, 213, and 3507 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1990."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by sections 104(b)(1)(B) and 111(a)–(d)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 1272(d)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Amendment by section 1301(j)(8) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to bonds issued after Aug. 15, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see sections 1311 to 1318 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 141 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 423(c)(3) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1984, see section 423(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1042(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1044, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending sections 32 and 3507 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1984."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–21 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1989, see section 124(d)(2) of Pub. L. 98–21, set out as a note under section 1401 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 115 of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §101(b)(1)(A), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 205, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1977."

Pub. L. 96–222, title II, §201, Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 228, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in title I, any amendment made by title I [see Tables for classification] shall take effect as if it had been included in the provision of the Revenue Act of 1978 [Pub. L. 95–600, see Tables for classification] to which such amendment relates."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §104(f), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2773, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978."

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §105(g)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2776, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (d) [amending this section and section 6012 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1978."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment; Election of Prior Law

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–615 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977, with provision for election of prior law, see section 209 of Pub. L. 95–615, set out as a note under section 911 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(e), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1558, as amended by Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §103(c), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §103(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2771, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending sections 43 [now 32] and 6096 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975, and shall cease to apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1978. The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975. The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending sections 141 and 6012 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975. The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending section 3402 of this title] shall apply to wages paid after September 14, 1976."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1975 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–164, §2(g), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 972, as amended by Pub. L. 94–455, §402(b), provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending sections 43 [now 32], 141, 3402, and 6012 of this title and provisions set out as notes under sections 42 and 43 [now 32] of this title] (other than by subsection (d) [enacting provisions set out as a note under this section]) apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975, and before January 1, 1978. Subsection (d) applies to taxable years ending after December 31, 1975."

Pub. L. 94–12, title II, §209(b), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 35, as amended by Pub. L. 94–164, §2(f), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 972; Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §401(c)(1)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1557; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §103(b), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 139; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §103(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2771, provided that: "The amendments made by section 204 [enacting this section and amending sections 6201 and 6401 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1974."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 401(b)(4) of Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Study on Earned Income Tax Credit Certification Program

Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title II, §206, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 319, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Internal Revenue Service shall conduct a study, as a part of any program that requires certification (including pre-certification) in order to claim the earned income tax credit under section 32 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, on the following matters:

"(1) The costs (in time and money) incurred by the participants in the program.

"(2) The administrative costs incurred by the Internal Revenue Service in operating the program.

"(3) The percentage of individuals included in the program who were not certified for the credit, including the percentage of individuals who were not certified due to—

"(A) ineligibility for the credit; and

"(B) failure to complete the requirements for certification.

"(4) The percentage of individuals to whom paragraph (3)(B) applies who were—

"(A) otherwise eligible for the credit; and

"(B) otherwise ineligible for the credit.

"(5) The percentage of individuals to whom paragraph (3)(B) applies who—

"(A) did not respond to the request for certification; and

"(B) responded to such request but otherwise failed to complete the requirements for certification.

"(6) The reasons—

"(A) for which individuals described in paragraph (5)(A) did not respond to requests for certification; and

"(B) for which individuals described in paragraph (5)(B) had difficulty in completing the requirements for certification.

"(7) The characteristics of those individuals who were denied the credit due to—

"(A) failure to complete the requirements for certification; and

"(B) ineligibility for the credit.

"(8) The impact of the program on non-English speaking participants.

"(9) The impact of the program on homeless and other highly transient individuals.

"(b) Report.—

"(1) Preliminary report.—Not later than July 30, 2004, the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service shall submit to Congress a preliminary report on the study conducted under subsection (a).

"(2) Final report.—Not later than June 30, 2005, the Commissioner of the Internal Revenue Service shall submit to Congress a final report detailing the findings of the study conducted under subsection (a)."

Program To Increase Public Awareness

Secretary of the Treasury, or Secretary's delegate, to establish taxpayer awareness program to inform taxpaying public of availability of earned income credit and child health insurance under this section, see section 11114 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Employee Notification

Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §111(e), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2108, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury is directed to require, under regulations, employers to notify any employee who has not had any tax withheld from wages (other than an employee whose wages are exempt from withholding pursuant to section 3402(n) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) that such employee may be eligible for a refund because of the earned income credit."

Disregard of Refund for Determination of Eligibility for Federal Benefits or Assistance

Pub. L. 94–164, §2(d), Dec. 23, 1975, 89 Stat. 972, as amended by Pub. L. 94–455, title IV, §402(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1558; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §105(f), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2776; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "Any refund of Federal income taxes made to any individual by reason of section 43 [now 32] of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to earned income credit), and any payment made by an employer under [former] section 3507 of such Code (relating to advance payment of earned income credit) shall not be taken into account in any year ending before 1980 as income or receipts for purposes of determining the eligibility, for the month in which such refund is made or any month thereafter of such individual or any other individual for benefits or assistance, or the amount or extent of benefits or assistance, under any Federal program or under any State or local program financed in whole or in part with Federal funds, but only if such individual (or the family unit of which he is a member) is a recipient of benefits or assistance under such a program for the month before the month in which such refund is made."

[Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §105(g)(3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2776, provided that: "Subsection (f) [amending section 2(d) of Pub. L. 94–164, set out above] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978]."]

§33. Tax withheld at source on nonresident aliens and foreign corporations

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle the amount of tax withheld at source under subchapter A of chapter 3 (relating to withholding of tax on nonresident aliens and on foreign corporations).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 13, §32; renumbered §33 and amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §§471(c), 474(j), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 826, 832.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 33 was renumbered section 27 of this title.

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–369, §471(c), renumbered section 32 of this title as this section.

Pub. L. 98–369, §474(j), amended section generally, striking out "and on tax-free covenant bonds" after "foreign corporations" in section catchline, and, in text, substituting "as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle" for "as credits against the tax imposed by this chapter", and striking out designation "(1)" before "the amount of tax withheld", and ", and (2) the amount of tax withheld at source under subchapter B of chapter 3 (relating to interest on tax-free covenant bonds)" after "on foreign corporations)".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §475(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 847, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (j) and (r)(29) [amending this section and sections 12, 164, 1441, 1442, 6049, and 7701 of this title and repealing section 1451 of this title] shall not apply with respect to obligations issued before January 1, 1984."

§34. Certain uses of gasoline and special fuels

(a) General rule

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this subtitle for the taxable year an amount equal to the sum of the amounts payable to the taxpayer—

(1) under section 6420 (determined without regard to section 6420(g)),

(2) under section 6421 (determined without regard to section 6421(i)), and

(3) under section 6427 (determined without regard to section 6427(k)).

(b) Exception

Credit shall not be allowed under subsection (a) for any amount payable under section 6421 or 6427, if a claim for such amount is timely filed and, under section 6421(i) or 6427(k), is payable under such section.

(Added Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, 809(c), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 167, §39; amended Pub. L. 91–258, title II, §207(c), May 21, 1970, 84 Stat. 248; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(3), 1906(b)(8), (9), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1764, 1834; Pub. L. 94–530, §1(c)(1), Oct. 17, 1976, 90 Stat. 2487; Pub. L. 95–599, title V, §505(c)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2760;