[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter C, PART III, Subpart B: Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders
Result 1 of 1
   
 
26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter C, PART III, Subpart B: Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter C—Corporate Distributions and AdjustmentsPART III—CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONS AND REORGANIZATIONS

Subpart B—Effects on Shareholders and Security Holders

Sec.
354.
Exchanges of stock and securities in certain reorganizations.
355.
Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation.
356.
Receipt of additional consideration.
357.
Assumption of liability.
358.
Basis to distributees.

        

§354. Exchanges of stock and securities in certain reorganizations

(a) General rule

(1) In general

No gain or loss shall be recognized if stock or securities in a corporation a party to a reorganization are, in pursuance of the plan of reorganization, exchanged solely for stock or securities in such corporation or in another corporation a party to the reorganization.

(2) Limitation

(A) Excess principal amount

Paragraph (1) shall not apply if—

(i) the principal amount of any such securities received exceeds the principal amount of any such securities surrendered, or

(ii) any such securities are received and no such securities are surrendered.

(B) Property attributable to accrued interest

Neither paragraph (1) nor so much of section 356 as relates to paragraph (1) shall apply to the extent that any stock (including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351(g)(2)), securities, or other property received is attributable to interest which has accrued on securities on or after the beginning of the holder's holding period.

(C) Nonqualified preferred stock

(i) In general

Nonqualified preferred stock (as defined in section 351(g)(2)) received in exchange for stock other than nonqualified preferred stock (as so defined) shall not be treated as stock or securities.

(ii) Recapitalizations of family-owned corporations

(I) In general

Clause (i) shall not apply in the case of a recapitalization under section 368(a)(1)(E) of a family-owned corporation.

(II) Family-owned corporation

For purposes of this clause, except as provided in regulations, the term "family-owned corporation" means any corporation which is described in clause (i) of section 447(d)(2)(C) 1 throughout the 8-year period beginning on the date which is 5 years before the date of the recapitalization. For purposes of the preceding sentence, stock shall not be treated as owned by a family member during any period described in section 355(d)(6)(B).

(III) Extension of statute of limitations

The statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to a corporation failing to be a family-owned corporation shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years after the date the Secretary is notified by the corporation (in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe) of such failure, and such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.

(3) Cross references

(A) For treatment of the exchange if any property is received which is not permitted to be received under this subsection (including nonqualified preferred stock and an excess principal amount of securities received over securities surrendered, but not including property to which paragraph (2)(B) applies), see section 356.

(B) For treatment of accrued interest in the case of an exchange described in paragraph (2)(B), see section 61.

(b) Exception

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall not apply to an exchange in pursuance of a plan of reorganization within the meaning of subparagraph (D) or (G) of section 368(a)(1), unless—

(A) the corporation to which the assets are transferred acquires substantially all of the assets of the transferor of such assets; and

(B) the stock, securities, and other properties received by such transferor, as well as the other properties of such transferor, are distributed in pursuance of the plan of reorganization.

(2) Cross reference

For special rules for certain exchanges in pursuance of plans of reorganization within the meaning of subparagraph (D) or (G) of section 368(a)(1), see section 355.

(c) Certain railroad reorganizations

Notwithstanding any other provision of this subchapter, subsection (a)(1) (and so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall apply with respect to a plan of reorganization (whether or not a reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)) for a railroad confirmed under section 1173 of title 11 of the United States Code, as being in the public interest.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 112; Pub. L. 94–253, §1(c), Mar. 31, 1976, 90 Stat. 296; Pub. L. 95–473, §2(a)(2)(F), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 96–589, §§4(e)(1), (h)(1), 6(i)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3403, 3404, 3410; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(c)(8)(D), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–524; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §304(c), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 944; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1014(b), (e)(1), (2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 920, 921; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6010(e)(2), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 814.)

References in Text

Section 447(d), referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(C)(ii)(II), was repealed and provisions not relating to family-owned corporations were redesignated as section 447(d) by Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13102(a)(5)(C), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2103.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(2)(C)(ii)(III). Pub. L. 105–206 added subcl. (III).

1997—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–34, §1014(e)(1), inserted "(including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351(g)(2))" after "stock".

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §1014(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, §1014(e)(2), inserted "nonqualified preferred stock and" after "subsection (including".

1995—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–88 struck out "or approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission under subchapter IV of chapter 113 of title 49," after "Code,".

1990—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–508 struck out subsec. (d) "Exchanges under the final system plan for ConRail" which read as follows: "No gain or loss shall be recognized if stock or securities in a corporation are, in pursuance of an exchange to which paragraph (1) or (2) of section 374(c) applies, exchanged solely for stock of the Consolidated Rail Corporation, securities of such Corporation, certificates of value of the United States Railway Association, or any combination thereof."

1980—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(e)(1), redesignated existing pars. (A) and (B) as par. (A)(i), (ii), and added par. (B).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(e)(1), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted provisions excluding property to which paragraph (2)(B) applies, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(h)(1), substituted "subparagraph (D) or (G) of section 368(a)(1)" for "section 368(a)(1)(D)", wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–589, §6(i)(2), substituted "confirmed under section 1173 of title 11 of the United States Code, or approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission" for "approved by the Interstate Commerce Commission under section 77 of the Bankruptcy Act, or".

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–473 substituted "subchapter IV of chapter 113 of title 49" for "section 20b of the Interstate Commerce Act".

1976—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–253 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable, with certain exceptions, to transactions after June 8, 1997, see section 1014(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of Title 49, Transportation.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by section 4(e)(1) of Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to bankruptcy cases or similar judicial proceedings commencing after Dec. 31, 1980, and to exchanges which occur after Dec. 31, 1980, and which do not occur in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding or in a proceeding under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced on or before Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to such cases, proceedings or exchanges commencing after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 7(c), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Amendment by section 4(h)(1) of Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to bankruptcy cases or similar judicial proceedings commencing after Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to such cases or proceedings commencing after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 7(c)(1), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Amendment by section 6(i)(2) of Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to any proceeding under Title 11 commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–253, §2, Mar. 31, 1976, 90 Stat. 297, provided that: "The amendments made by section 1 [amending this section and sections 356, 358, and 374 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after March 31, 1976."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Abolition of United States Railway Association and Transfer of Functions

United States Railway Association abolished effective Apr. 1, 1987, all powers, duties, rights, and obligations of Association relating to Consolidated Rail Corporation under Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 701 et seq.) transferred to Secretary of Transportation on Jan. 1, 1987, and any securities of Corporation held by Association transferred to Secretary of Transportation on Oct. 21, 1986, see section 1341 of Title 45, Railroads.

1 See References in Text note below.

§355. Distribution of stock and securities of a controlled corporation

(a) Effect on distributees

(1) General rule

If—

(A) a corporation (referred to in this section as the "distributing corporation")—

(i) distributes to a shareholder, with respect to its stock, or

(ii) distributes to a security holder, in exchange for its securities,


solely stock or securities of a corporation (referred to in this section as "controlled corporation") which it controls immediately before the distribution,

(B) the transaction was not used principally as a device for the distribution of the earnings and profits of the distributing corporation or the controlled corporation or both (but the mere fact that subsequent to the distribution stock or securities in one or more of such corporations are sold or exchanged by all or some of the distributees (other than pursuant to an arrangement negotiated or agreed upon prior to such distribution) shall not be construed to mean that the transaction was used principally as such a device),

(C) the requirements of subsection (b) (relating to active businesses) are satisfied, and

(D) as part of the distribution, the distributing corporation distributes—

(i) all of the stock and securities in the controlled corporation held by it immediately before the distribution, or

(ii) an amount of stock in the controlled corporation constituting control within the meaning of section 368(c), and it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the retention by the distributing corporation of stock (or stock and securities) in the controlled corporation was not in pursuance of a plan having as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax,


then no gain or loss shall be recognized to (and no amount shall be includible in the income of) such shareholder or security holder on the receipt of such stock or securities.

(2) Non pro rata distributions, etc.

Paragraph (1) shall be applied without regard to the following:

(A) whether or not the distribution is pro rata with respect to all of the shareholders of the distributing corporation,

(B) whether or not the shareholder surrenders stock in the distributing corporation, and

(C) whether or not the distribution is in pursuance of a plan of reorganization (within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(D)).

(3) Limitations

(A) Excess principal amount

Paragraph (1) shall not apply if—

(i) the principal amount of the securities in the controlled corporation which are received exceeds the principal amount of the securities which are surrendered in connection with such distribution, or

(ii) securities in the controlled corporation are received and no securities are surrendered in connection with such distribution.

(B) Stock acquired in taxable transactions within 5 years treated as boot

For purposes of this section (other than paragraph (1)(D) of this subsection) and so much of section 356 as relates to this section, stock of a controlled corporation acquired by the distributing corporation by reason of any transaction—

(i) which occurs within 5 years of the distribution of such stock, and

(ii) in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part,


shall not be treated as stock of such controlled corporation, but as other property.

(C) Property attributable to accrued interest

Neither paragraph (1) nor so much of section 356 as relates to paragraph (1) shall apply to the extent that any stock (including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351(g)(2)), securities, or other property received is attributable to interest which has accrued on securities on or after the beginning of the holder's holding period.

(D) Nonqualified preferred stock

Nonqualified preferred stock (as defined in section 351(g)(2)) received in a distribution with respect to stock other than nonqualified preferred stock (as so defined) shall not be treated as stock or securities.

(4) Cross references

(A) For treatment of the exchange if any property is received which is not permitted to be received under this subsection (including nonqualified preferred stock and an excess principal amount of securities received over securities surrendered, but not including property to which paragraph (3)(C) applies), see section 356.

(B) For treatment of accrued interest in the case of an exchange described in paragraph (3)(C), see section 61.

(b) Requirements as to active business

(1) In general

Subsection (a) shall apply only if either—

(A) the distributing corporation, and the controlled corporation (or, if stock of more than one controlled corporation is distributed, each of such corporations), is engaged immediately after the distribution in the active conduct of a trade or business, or

(B) immediately before the distribution, the distributing corporation had no assets other than stock or securities in the controlled corporations and each of the controlled corporations is engaged immediately after the distribution in the active conduct of a trade or business.

(2) Definition

For purposes of paragraph (1), a corporation shall be treated as engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business if and only if—

(A) it is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business,

(B) such trade or business has been actively conducted throughout the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution,

(C) such trade or business was not acquired within the period described in subparagraph (B) in a transaction in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part, and

(D) control of a corporation which (at the time of acquisition of control) was conducting such trade or business—

(i) was not acquired by any distributee corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations, whether through the distributing corporation or otherwise) within the period described in subparagraph (B) and was not acquired by the distributing corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations) within such period, or

(ii) was so acquired by any such corporation within such period, but, in each case in which such control was so acquired, it was so acquired, only by reason of transactions in which gain or loss was not recognized in whole or in part, or only by reason of such transactions combined with acquisitions before the beginning of such period.


For purposes of subparagraph (D), all distributee corporations which are members of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a) without regard to section 1504(b)) shall be treated as 1 distributee corporation.

(3) Special rules for determining active conduct in the case of affiliated groups

(A) In general

For purposes of determining whether a corporation meets the requirements of paragraph (2)(A), all members of such corporation's separate affiliated group shall be treated as one corporation.

(B) Separate affiliated group

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "separate affiliated group" means, with respect to any corporation, the affiliated group which would be determined under section 1504(a) if such corporation were the common parent and section 1504(b) did not apply.

(C) Treatment of trade or business conducted by acquired member

If a corporation became a member of a separate affiliated group as a result of one or more transactions in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part, any trade or business conducted by such corporation (at the time that such corporation became such a member) shall be treated for purposes of paragraph (2) as acquired in a transaction in which gain or loss was recognized in whole or in part.

(D) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations which provide for the proper application of subparagraphs (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (2), and modify the application of subsection (a)(3)(B), in connection with the application of this paragraph.

(c) Taxability of corporation on distribution

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a corporation on any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies and which is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization.

(2) Distribution of appreciated property

(A) In general

If—

(i) in a distribution referred to in paragraph (1), the corporation distributes property other than qualified property, and

(ii) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation),


then gain shall be recognized to the distributing corporation as if such property were sold to the distributee at its fair market value.

(B) Qualified property

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "qualified property" means any stock or securities in the controlled corporation.

(C) Treatment of liabilities

If any property distributed in the distribution referred to in paragraph (1) is subject to a liability or the shareholder assumes a liability of the distributing corporation in connection with the distribution, then, for purposes of subparagraph (A), the fair market value of such property shall be treated as not less than the amount of such liability.

(3) Coordination with sections 311 and 336(a)

Sections 311 and 336(a) shall not apply to any distribution referred to in paragraph (1).

(d) Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in controlled corporation

(1) In general

In the case of a disqualified distribution, any stock or securities in the controlled corporation shall not be treated as qualified property for purposes of subsection (c)(2) of this section or section 361(c)(2).

(2) Disqualified distribution

For purposes of this subsection, the term "disqualified distribution" means any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies if, immediately after the distribution—

(A) any person holds disqualified stock in the distributing corporation which constitutes a 50-percent or greater interest in such corporation, or

(B) any person holds disqualified stock in the controlled corporation (or, if stock of more than 1 controlled corporation is distributed, in any controlled corporation) which constitutes a 50-percent or greater interest in such corporation.

(3) Disqualified stock

For purposes of this subsection, the term "disqualified stock" means—

(A) any stock in the distributing corporation acquired by purchase during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution, and

(B) any stock in any controlled corporation—

(i) acquired by purchase during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution, or

(ii) received in the distribution to the extent attributable to distributions on—

(I) stock described in subparagraph (A), or

(II) any securities in the distributing corporation acquired by purchase during the 5-year period ending on the date of the distribution.

(4) 50-percent or greater interest

For purposes of this subsection, the term "50-percent or greater interest" means stock possessing at least 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote or at least 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock.

(5) Purchase

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term "purchase" means any acquisition but only if—

(i) the basis of the property acquired in the hands of the acquirer is not determined (I) in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of the person from whom acquired, or (II) under section 1014(a), and

(ii) the property is not acquired in an exchange to which section 351, 354, 355, or 356 applies.

(B) Certain section 351 exchanges treated as purchases

The term "purchase" includes any acquisition of property in an exchange to which section 351 applies to the extent such property is acquired in exchange for—

(i) any cash or cash item,

(ii) any marketable stock or security, or

(iii) any debt of the transferor.

(C) Carryover basis transactions

If—

(i) any person acquires property from another person who acquired such property by purchase (as determined under this paragraph with regard to this subparagraph), and

(ii) the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of such acquirer is determined in whole or in part by reference to the adjusted basis of such property in the hands of such other person,


such acquirer shall be treated as having acquired such property by purchase on the date it was so acquired by such other person.

(6) Special rule where substantial diminution of risk

(A) In general

If this paragraph applies to any stock or securities for any period, the running of any 5-year period set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (3) (whichever applies) shall be suspended during such period.

(B) Property to which suspension applies

This paragraph applies to any stock or securities for any period during which the holder's risk of loss with respect to such stock or securities, or with respect to any portion of the activities of the corporation, is (directly or indirectly) substantially diminished by—

(i) an option,

(ii) a short sale,

(iii) any special class of stock, or

(iv) any other device or transaction.

(7) Aggregation rules

(A) In general

For purposes of this subsection, a person and all persons related to such person (within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)(1)) shall be treated as one person.

(B) Persons acting pursuant to plans or arrangements

If two or more persons act pursuant to a plan or arrangement with respect to acquisitions of stock or securities in the distributing corporation or controlled corporation, such persons shall be treated as one person for purposes of this subsection.

(8) Attribution from entities

(A) In general

Paragraph (2) of section 318(a) shall apply in determining whether a person holds stock or securities in any corporation (determined by substituting "10 percent" for "50 percent" in subparagraph (C) of such paragraph (2) and by treating any reference to stock as including a reference to securities).

(B) Deemed purchase rule

If—

(i) any person acquires by purchase an interest in any entity, and

(ii) such person is treated under subparagraph (A) as holding any stock or securities by reason of holding such interest,


such stock or securities shall be treated as acquired by purchase by such person on the later of the date of the purchase of the interest in such entity or the date such stock or securities are acquired by purchase by such entity.

(9) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including—

(A) regulations to prevent the avoidance of the purposes of this subsection through the use of related persons, intermediaries, pass-thru entities, options, or other arrangements, and

(B) regulations modifying the definition of the term "purchase".

(e) Recognition of gain on certain distributions of stock or securities in connection with acquisitions

(1) General rule

If there is a distribution to which this subsection applies, any stock or securities in the controlled corporation shall not be treated as qualified property for purposes of subsection (c)(2) of this section or section 361(c)(2).

(2) Distributions to which subsection applies

(A) In general

This subsection shall apply to any distribution—

(i) to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies, and

(ii) which is part of a plan (or series of related transactions) pursuant to which 1 or more persons acquire directly or indirectly stock representing a 50-percent or greater interest in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation.

(B) Plan presumed to exist in certain cases

If 1 or more persons acquire directly or indirectly stock representing a 50-percent or greater interest in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation during the 4-year period beginning on the date which is 2 years before the date of the distribution, such acquisition shall be treated as pursuant to a plan described in subparagraph (A)(ii) unless it is established that the distribution and the acquisition are not pursuant to a plan or series of related transactions.

(C) Certain plans disregarded

A plan (or series of related transactions) shall not be treated as described in subparagraph (A)(ii) if, immediately after the completion of such plan or transactions, the distributing corporation and all controlled corporations are members of a single affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 without regard to subsection (b) thereof).

(D) Coordination with subsection (d)

This subsection shall not apply to any distribution to which subsection (d) applies.

(3) Special rules relating to acquisitions

(A) Certain acquisitions not taken into account

Except as provided in regulations, the following acquisitions shall not be taken into account in applying paragraph (2)(A)(ii):

(i) The acquisition of stock in any controlled corporation by the distributing corporation.

(ii) The acquisition by a person of stock in any controlled corporation by reason of holding stock or securities in the distributing corporation.

(iii) The acquisition by a person of stock in any successor corporation of the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation by reason of holding stock or securities in such distributing or controlled corporation.

(iv) The acquisition of stock in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation to the extent that the percentage of stock owned directly or indirectly in such corporation by each person owning stock in such corporation immediately before the acquisition does not decrease.


This subparagraph shall not apply to any acquisition if the stock held before the acquisition was acquired pursuant to a plan (or series of related transactions) described in paragraph (2)(A)(ii).

(B) Asset acquisitions

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of this subsection, if the assets of the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation are acquired by a successor corporation in a transaction described in subparagraph (A), (C), or (D) of section 368(a)(1) or any other transaction specified in regulations by the Secretary, the shareholders (immediately before the acquisition) of the corporation acquiring such assets shall be treated as acquiring stock in the corporation from which the assets were acquired.

(4) Definition and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) 50-percent or greater interest

The term "50-percent or greater interest" has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(4).

(B) Distributions in title 11 or similar case

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution made in a title 11 or similar case (as defined in section 368(a)(3)).

(C) Aggregation and attribution rules

(i) Aggregation

The rules of paragraph (7)(A) of subsection (d) shall apply.

(ii) Attribution

Section 318(a)(2) shall apply in determining whether a person holds stock or securities in any corporation. Except as provided in regulations, section 318(a)(2)(C) shall be applied without regard to the phrase "50 percent or more in value" for purposes of the preceding sentence.

(D) Successors and predecessors

For purposes of this subsection, any reference to a controlled corporation or a distributing corporation shall include a reference to any predecessor or successor of such corporation.

(E) Statute of limitations

If there is a distribution to which paragraph (1) applies—

(i) the statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency attributable to any part of the gain recognized under this subsection by reason of such distribution shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified by the taxpayer (in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe) that such distribution occurred, and

(ii) such deficiency may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.

(5) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection, including regulations—

(A) providing for the application of this subsection where there is more than 1 controlled corporation,

(B) treating 2 or more distributions as 1 distribution where necessary to prevent the avoidance of such purposes, and

(C) providing for the application of rules similar to the rules of subsection (d)(6) where appropriate for purposes of paragraph (2)(B).

(f) Section not to apply to certain intragroup distributions

Except as provided in regulations, this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall not apply to the distribution of stock from 1 member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a)) to another member of such group if such distribution is part of a plan (or series of related transactions) described in subsection (e)(2)(A)(ii) (determined after the application of subsection (e)).

(g) Section not to apply to distributions involving disqualified investment corporations

(1) In general

This section (and so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall not apply to any distribution which is part of a transaction if—

(A) either the distributing corporation or controlled corporation is, immediately after the transaction, a disqualified investment corporation, and

(B) any person holds, immediately after the transaction, a 50-percent or greater interest in any disqualified investment corporation, but only if such person did not hold such an interest in such corporation immediately before the transaction.

(2) Disqualified investment corporation

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "disqualified investment corporation" means any distributing or controlled corporation if the fair market value of the investment assets of the corporation is—

(i) in the case of distributions after the end of the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this subsection, 2/3 or more of the fair market value of all assets of the corporation, and

(ii) in the case of distributions during such 1-year period, ¾ or more of the fair market value of all assets of the corporation.

(B) Investment assets

(i) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, the term "investment assets" means—

(I) cash,

(II) any stock or securities in a corporation,

(III) any interest in a partnership,

(IV) any debt instrument or other evidence of indebtedness,

(V) any option, forward or futures contract, notional principal contract, or derivative,

(VI) foreign currency, or

(VII) any similar asset.

(ii) Exception for assets used in active conduct of certain financial trades or businesses

Such term shall not include any asset which is held for use in the active and regular conduct of—

(I) a lending or finance business (within the meaning of section 954(h)(4)),

(II) a banking business through a bank (as defined in section 581), a domestic building and loan association (within the meaning of section 7701(a)(19)), or any similar institution specified by the Secretary, or

(III) an insurance business if the conduct of the business is licensed, authorized, or regulated by an applicable insurance regulatory body.


 This clause shall only apply with respect to any business if substantially all of the income of the business is derived from persons who are not related (within the meaning of section 267(b) or 707(b)(1)) to the person conducting the business.

(iii) Exception for securities marked to market

Such term shall not include any security (as defined in section 475(c)(2)) which is held by a dealer in securities and to which section 475(a) applies.

(iv) Stock or securities in a 20-percent controlled entity

(I) In general

Such term shall not include any stock and securities in, or any asset described in subclause (IV) or (V) of clause (i) issued by, a corporation which is a 20-percent controlled entity with respect to the distributing or controlled corporation.

(II) Look-thru rule

The distributing or controlled corporation shall, for purposes of applying this subsection, be treated as owning its ratable share of the assets of any 20-percent controlled entity.

(III) 20-percent controlled entity

For purposes of this clause, the term "20-percent controlled entity" means, with respect to any distributing or controlled corporation, any corporation with respect to which the distributing or controlled corporation owns directly or indirectly stock meeting the requirements of section 1504(a)(2), except that such section shall be applied by substituting "20 percent" for "80 percent" and without regard to stock described in section 1504(a)(4).

(v) Interests in certain partnerships

(I) In general

Such term shall not include any interest in a partnership, or any debt instrument or other evidence of indebtedness, issued by the partnership, if 1 or more of the trades or businesses of the partnership are (or, without regard to the 5-year requirement under subsection (b)(2)(B), would be) taken into account by the distributing or controlled corporation, as the case may be, in determining whether the requirements of subsection (b) are met with respect to the distribution.

(II) Look-thru rule

The distributing or controlled corporation shall, for purposes of applying this subsection, be treated as owning its ratable share of the assets of any partnership described in subclause (I).

(3) 50-percent or greater interest

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "50-percent or greater interest" has the meaning given such term by subsection (d)(4).

(B) Attribution rules

The rules of section 318 shall apply for purposes of determining ownership of stock for purposes of this paragraph.

(4) Transaction

For purposes of this subsection, the term "transaction" includes a series of transactions.

(5) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out, or prevent the avoidance of, the purposes of this subsection, including regulations—

(A) to carry out, or prevent the avoidance of, the purposes of this subsection in cases involving—

(i) the use of related persons, intermediaries, pass-thru entities, options, or other arrangements, and

(ii) the treatment of assets unrelated to the trade or business of a corporation as investment assets if, prior to the distribution, investment assets were used to acquire such unrelated assets,


(B) which in appropriate cases exclude from the application of this subsection a distribution which does not have the character of a redemption which would be treated as a sale or exchange under section 302, and

(C) which modify the application of the attribution rules applied for purposes of this subsection.

(h) Restriction on distributions involving real estate investment trusts

(1) In general

This section (and so much of section 356 as relates to this section) shall not apply to any distribution if either the distributing corporation or controlled corporation is a real estate investment trust.

(2) Exceptions for certain distributions

(A) Distributions of a real estate investment trust by another real estate investment trust

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution if, immediately after the distribution, the distributing corporation and the controlled corporation are both real estate investment trusts.

(B) Distributions of certain taxable REIT subsidiaries

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any distribution if—

(i) the distributing corporation has been a real estate investment trust at all times during the 3-year period ending on the date of such distribution,

(ii) the controlled corporation has been a taxable REIT subsidiary (as defined in section 856(l)) of the distributing corporation at all times during such period, and

(iii) the distributing corporation had control (as defined in section 368(c) applied by taking into account stock owned directly or indirectly, including through one or more corporations or partnerships, by the distributing corporation) of the controlled corporation at all times during such period.


A controlled corporation will be treated as meeting the requirements of clauses (ii) and (iii) if the stock of such corporation was distributed by a taxable REIT subsidiary in a transaction to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies and the assets of such corporation consist solely of the stock or assets held by one or more taxable REIT subsidiaries of the distributing corporation meeting the requirements of clauses (ii) and (iii). For purposes of clause (iii), control of a partnership means ownership of at least 80 percent of the profits interest and at least 80 percent of the capital interests.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 113; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 96–589, §4(e)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3403; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10223(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–411; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(d)(5)(C), title II, §2004(k)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3580, 3605; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §§11321(a), 11702(e)(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–460, 1388-515; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(31), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1889; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §§1012(a), (b)(1), 1014(c), (e)(1), (2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 914, 916, 921; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6010(c)(2), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 813; Pub. L. 109–222, title II, §202, title V, §507(a), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 348, 358; Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §410(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2963; Pub. L. 110–172, §4(b)(1), (2), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2476; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(50), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4045; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §311(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3090; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title I, §101(m), title IV, §401(a)(65), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1165, 1187.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (g)(2)(A)(i), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–222, which was approved May 17, 2006.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(m)(2)(A), substituted "distributions" for "spinoffs" in heading.

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–141, §101(m)(2)(B), substituted "Distributions" for "Spinoffs" in heading.

Subsec. (h)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(65), struck out "of assets" after "the stock or assets" in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 115–141, §101(m)(2)(B), substituted "Distributions" for "Spinoffs" in heading.

Pub. L. 115–141, §101(m)(1), in concluding provisions, substituted "at least 80 percent" for "80 percent" in two places.

2015—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 114–113 added subsec. (h).

2014—Subsec. (d)(3)(A), (B)(i), (ii)(II). Pub. L. 113–295 struck out "after October 9, 1990, and" after "acquired by purchase".

2007—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–172, §4(b)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "it is engaged in the active conduct of a trade or business, or substantially all of its assets consist of stock and securities of a corporation controlled by it (immediately after the distribution) which is so engaged,".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–172, §4(b)(2), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) provided for special rule relating to active business requirement applicable in the case of any distribution made after May 17, 2006.

2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–222, §202, added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(3)(A), (D). Pub. L. 109–432 struck out "and on or before December 31, 2010" after "this paragraph" in subpar. (A) and after "such date" in subpar. (D).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 109–222, §507(a), added subsec. (g).

1998—Subsec. (e)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(c)(2)(A), substituted "shall not be taken into account in applying" for "shall not be treated as described in" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(3)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(c)(2)(B), added cl. (iv) and struck out former cl. (iv) which read as follows: "The acquisition of stock in a corporation if shareholders owning directly or indirectly stock possessing—

"(I) more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, and

"(II) more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock,

in the distributing corporation or any controlled corporation before such acquisition own directly or indirectly stock possessing such vote and value in such distributing or controlled corporation after such acquisition."

1997—Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §1014(e)(1), inserted "(including nonqualified preferred stock, as defined in section 351(g)(2))" after "stock".

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 105–34, §1014(c), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, §1014(e)(2), inserted "nonqualified preferred stock and" after "subsection (including".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–34, §1012(a), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–34, §1012(b)(1), added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (d)(7)(A). Pub. L. 104–188 inserted "section" before "267(b)".

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–508, §11321(a), added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which read as follows:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), no gain or loss shall be recognized to a corporation on any distribution to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies and which is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization.

"(2) Distribution of appreciated property.—

"(A) In general.—If—

"(i) in a distribution referred to in paragraph (1), the corporation distributes property other than stock or securities in the controlled corporation, and

"(ii) the fair market value of such property exceeds its adjusted basis (in the hands of the distributing corporation),

then gain shall be recognized to the distributing corporation as if such property were sold to the distributee at its fair market value.

"(B) Treatment of liabilities.—If any property distributed in the distribution referred to in paragraph (1) is subject to a liability or the shareholder assumes a liability of the distributing corporation in connection with the distribution, then, for purposes of subparagraph (A), the fair market value of such property shall be treated as not less than the amount of such liability.

"(3) Coordination with sections 311 and 336(a).—Sections 311 and 336(a) shall not apply to any distribution referred to in paragraph (1)."

Pub. L. 101–508, §11702(e)(2), amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "Section 311 shall apply to any distribution—

"(1) to which this section (or so much of section 356 as relates to this section) applies, and

"(2) which is not in pursuance of a plan of reorganization,

in the same manner as if such distribution were a distribution to which subpart A of part I applies; except that subsection (b) of section 311 shall not apply to any distribution of stock or securities in the controlled corporation."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–508, §11321(a), added subsec. (d).

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(k)(1), added cls. (i) and (ii) and struck out former cls. (i) and (ii) which read as follows:

"(i) was not acquired by any distributee corporation directly (or through 1 or more corporations, whether through the distributing corporation or otherwise) within the period described in subparagraph (B), or

"(ii) was so acquired such distributee corporation within such period, but such control was so acquired only by reason of transactions in which gain or loss was not recognized in whole or in part, or only by reason of such transactions combined with acquisitions before the beginning of such period."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(d)(5)(C), added subsec. (c).

1987—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 100–203, §10223(b)(3), inserted at end "For purposes of subparagraph (D), all distributee corporations which are members of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a) without regard to section 1504(b)) shall be treated as 1 distributee corporation."

Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(i). Pub. L. 100–203, §10223(b)(1), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "was not acquired directly (or through one or more corporations) by another corporation within the period described in subparagraph (B), or".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 100–203, §10223(b)(2), substituted "such distributee corporation" for "by another corporation".

1980—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–589 designated existing provisions as subpars. (A) and (B) and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(e)(2), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted "exchange if any property" for "distribution if any property", inserted provisions excluding property to which paragraph (3)(C) applies, and added subpar. (B).

1976—Subsec. (a)(1)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(m) of Pub. L. 115–141 effective as if included in the provision of the Protecting Americans from Tax Hikes Act of 2015, div. Q of Pub. L. 114–113, to which such amendment relates, see section 101(s) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 24 of this title.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §311(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3091, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 856 of this title] shall apply to distributions on or after December 7, 2015, but shall not apply to any distribution pursuant to a transaction described in a ruling request initially submitted to the Internal Revenue Service on or before such date, which request has not been withdrawn and with respect to which a ruling has not been issued or denied in its entirety as of such date."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–172, §4(d), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2478, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 911 and 954 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–222] to which they relate.

"(2) Modification of active business definition under section 355.—

"(A) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the amendments made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions made after May 17, 2006.

"(B) Transition rule.—The amendments made by subsection (b) shall not apply to any distribution pursuant to a transaction which is—

"(i) made pursuant to an agreement which was binding on May 17, 2006, and at all times thereafter,

"(ii) described in a ruling request submitted to the Internal Revenue Service on or before such date, or

"(iii) described on or before such date in a public announcement or in a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission.

"(C) Election out of transition rule.—Subparagraph (B) shall not apply if the distributing corporation elects not to have such subparagraph apply to distributions of such corporation. Any such election, once made, shall be irrevocable.

"(D) Special rule for certain pre-enactment distributions.—For purposes of determining the continued qualification under section 355(b)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 of distributions made on or before May 17, 2006, as a result of an acquisition, disposition, or other restructuring after such date, such distribution shall be treated as made on the date of such acquisition, disposition, or restructuring for purposes of applying subparagraphs (A) through (C) of this paragraph. The preceding sentence shall only apply with respect to the corporation that undertakes such acquisition, disposition, or other restructuring, and only if such application results in continued qualification under section 355(b)(2)(A) of such Code.

"(3) Amendment related to section 515 of the act.—The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending section 911 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2006."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–432, div. A, title IV, §410(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2963, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in section 202 of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–222]."

Pub. L. 109–222, title V, §507(b), May 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 361, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after the date of the enactment of this Act [May 17, 2006].

"(2) Transition rule.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any distribution pursuant to a transaction which is—

"(A) made pursuant to an agreement which was binding on such date of enactment and at all times thereafter,

"(B) described in a ruling request submitted to the Internal Revenue Service on or before such date, or

"(C) described on or before such date in a public announcement or in a filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 1012(a), (b)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable, with transition rule, to distributions after Apr. 16, 1997, except that amendment by section 1012(a) applicable to such distributions only if pursuant to a plan (or series of related transactions) which involves an acquisition described in subsec. (e)(2)(A)(ii) of this section occurring after such date, see section 1012(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, as amended, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Amendment by section 1014(c), (e)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable, with certain exceptions, to transactions after June 8, 1997, see section 1014(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11321(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–463, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 361 of this title] shall apply to distributions after October 9, 1990.

"(2) Binding contract exception.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any distribution pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on October 9, 1990, and at all times thereafter before such distribution.

"(3) Transitional rules.—For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 355(d)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by subsection (a)), an acquisition shall be treated as occurring on or before October 9, 1990, if—

"(A) such acquisition is pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on October 9, 1990, and at all times thereafter before such acquisition,

"(B) such acquisition is pursuant to a transaction which was described in documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on or before October 9, 1990, or

"(C) such acquisition is pursuant to a transaction—

"(i) the material terms of which were described in a written public announcement on or before October 9, 1990,

"(ii) which was the subject of a prior filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission, and

"(iii) which is the subject of a subsequent filing with the Securities and Exchange Commission before January 1, 1991."

Amendment by section 11702(e)(2) of Pub. L. 101–508 effective as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 11702(j) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 59 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1018(d)(5)(C) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 2004(k)(1) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title X, to which such amendment relates, see section 2004(u) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–203 applicable to distributions or transfers after Dec. 15, 1987, with exceptions for certain distributee corporations and distributions covered by prior transition rule, see section 10223(d) of Pub. L. 100–203, set out as a note under section 304 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to bankruptcy cases or similar judicial proceedings commencing after Dec. 31, 1980, and to exchanges which occur after Dec. 31, 1980, and which do not occur in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding or in a proceeding under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced on or before Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to such cases, proceedings or exchanges commencing after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 7(c), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Termination of Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 and Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 Amendments

Pub. L. 110–172, §4(b)(3), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2476, provided that: "The Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall be applied and administered as if the amendments made by section 202 of the Tax Increase Prevention and Reconciliation Act of 2005 [Pub. L. 109–222, amending this section] and by section 410 of division A of the Tax Relief and Health Care Act of 2006 [Pub. L. 109–432, amending this section] had never been enacted."

§356. Receipt of additional consideration

(a) Gain on exchanges

(1) Recognition of gain

If—

(A) section 354 or 355 would apply to an exchange but for the fact that

(B) the property received in the exchange consists not only of property permitted by section 354 or 355 to be received without the recognition of gain but also of other property or money,


then the gain, if any, to the recipient shall be recognized, but in an amount not in excess of the sum of such money and the fair market value of such other property.

(2) Treatment as dividend

If an exchange is described in paragraph (1) but has the effect of the distribution of a dividend (determined with the application of section 318(a)), then there shall be treated as a dividend to each distributee such an amount of the gain recognized under paragraph (1) as is not in excess of his ratable share of the undistributed earnings and profits of the corporation accumulated after February 28, 1913. The remainder, if any, of the gain recognized under paragraph (1) shall be treated as gain from the exchange of property.

(b) Additional consideration received in certain distributions

If—

(1) section 355 would apply to a distribution but for the fact that

(2) the property received in the distribution consists not only of property permitted by section 355 to be received without the recognition of gain, but also of other property or money,


then an amount equal to the sum of such money and the fair market value of such other property shall be treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies.

(c) Loss

If—

(1) section 354 would apply to an exchange or section 355 would apply to an exchange or distribution, but for the fact that

(2) the property received in the exchange or distribution consists not only of property permitted by section 354 or 355 to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, but also of other property or money,


then no loss from the exchange or distribution shall be recognized.

(d) Securities as other property

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term "other property" includes securities.

(2) Exceptions

(A) Securities with respect to which nonrecognition of gain would be permitted

The term "other property" does not include securities to the extent that, under section 354 or 355, such securities would be permitted to be received without the recognition of gain.

(B) Greater principal amount in section 354 exchange

If—

(i) in an exchange described in section 354 (other than subsection (c) thereof), securities of a corporation a party to the reorganization are surrendered and securities of any corporation a party to the reorganization are received, and

(ii) the principal amount of such securities received exceeds the principal amount of such securities surrendered,


then, with respect to such securities received, the term "other property" means only the fair market value of such excess. For purposes of this subparagraph and subparagraph (C), if no securities are surrendered, the excess shall be the entire principal amount of the securities received.

(C) Greater principal amount in section 355 transaction

If, in an exchange or distribution described in section 355, the principal amount of the securities in the controlled corporation which are received exceeds the principal amount of the securities in the distributing corporation which are surrendered, then, with respect to such securities received, the term "other property" means only the fair market value of such excess.

(e) Nonqualified preferred stock treated as other property

For purposes of this section—

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), the term "other property" includes nonqualified preferred stock (as defined in section 351(g)(2)).

(2) Exception

The term "other property" does not include nonqualified preferred stock (as so defined) to the extent that, under section 354 or 355, such preferred stock would be permitted to be received without the recognition of gain.

(f) Exchanges for section 306 stock

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, to the extent that any of the other property (or money) is received in exchange for section 306 stock, an amount equal to the fair market value of such other property (or the amount of such money) shall be treated as a distribution of property to which section 301 applies.

(g) Transactions involving gift or compensation

For special rules for a transaction described in section 354, 355, or this section, but which—

(1) results in a gift, see section 2501 and following, or

(2) has the effect of the payment of compensation, see section 61(a)(1).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 115; Pub. L. 94–253, §1(c), Mar. 31, 1976, 90 Stat. 296; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §227(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 492; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(c)(8)(E), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–524; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1014(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 921.)

Amendments

1997—Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsecs. (e) and (f) as (f) and (g), respectively.

1990—Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 101–508 struck out "or (d)" after "subsection (c)".

1982—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–248 inserted "(determined with the application of section 318(a))" after "distribution of a dividend".

1976—Subsec. (d)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 94–253 substituted "subsection (c) or (d) thereof" for "subsection (c) thereof".

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable, with certain exceptions, to transactions after June 8, 1997, see section 1014(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §227(c)(2), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 492, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to distributions after August 31, 1982, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–253 applicable to taxable years ending after Mar. 31, 1976, see section 2 of Pub. L. 94–253, set out as a note under section 354 of this title.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

§357. Assumption of liability

(a) General rule

Except as provided in subsections (b) and (c), if—

(1) the taxpayer receives property which would be permitted to be received under section 351 or 361 without the recognition of gain if it were the sole consideration, and

(2) as part of the consideration, another party to the exchange assumes a liability of the taxpayer,


then such assumption shall not be treated as money or other property, and shall not prevent the exchange from being within the provisions of section 351 or 361, as the case may be.

(b) Tax avoidance purpose

(1) In general

If, taking into consideration the nature of the liability and the circumstances in the light of which the arrangement for the assumption was made, it appears that the principal purpose of the taxpayer with respect to the assumption described in subsection (a)—

(A) was a purpose to avoid Federal income tax on the exchange, or

(B) if not such purpose, was not a bona fide business purpose,


then such assumption (in the total amount of the liability assumed pursuant to such exchange) shall, for purposes of section 351 or 361 (as the case may be), be considered as money received by the taxpayer on the exchange.

(2) Burden of proof

In any suit or proceeding where the burden is on the taxpayer to prove such assumption is not to be treated as money received by the taxpayer, such burden shall not be considered as sustained unless the taxpayer sustains such burden by the clear preponderance of the evidence.

(c) Liabilities in excess of basis

(1) In general

In the case of an exchange—

(A) to which section 351 applies, or

(B) to which section 361 applies by reason of a plan of reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(D) with respect to which stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 355,


if the sum of the amount of the liabilities assumed exceeds the total of the adjusted basis of the property transferred pursuant to such exchange, then such excess shall be considered as a gain from the sale or exchange of a capital asset or of property which is not a capital asset, as the case may be.

(2) Exceptions

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any exchange—

(A) to which subsection (b)(1) of this section applies, or

(B) which is pursuant to a plan of reorganization within the meaning of section 368(a)(1)(G) where no former shareholder of the transferor corporation receives any consideration for his stock.

(3) Certain liabilities excluded

(A) In general

If a taxpayer transfers, in an exchange to which section 351 applies, a liability the payment of which either—

(i) would give rise to a deduction, or

(ii) would be described in section 736(a),


then, for purposes of paragraph (1), the amount of such liability shall be excluded in determining the amount of liabilities assumed.

(B) Exception

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any liability to the extent that the incurrence of the liability resulted in the creation of, or an increase in, the basis of any property.

(d) Determination of amount of liability assumed

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, section 358(d), section 358(h), section 361(b)(3), section 362(d), section 368(a)(1)(C), and section 368(a)(2)(B), except as provided in regulations—

(A) a recourse liability (or portion thereof) shall be treated as having been assumed if, as determined on the basis of all facts and circumstances, the transferee has agreed to, and is expected to, satisfy such liability (or portion), whether or not the transferor has been relieved of such liability; and

(B) except to the extent provided in paragraph (2), a nonrecourse liability shall be treated as having been assumed by the transferee of any asset subject to such liability.

(2) Exception for nonrecourse liability

The amount of the nonrecourse liability treated as described in paragraph (1)(B) shall be reduced by the lesser of—

(A) the amount of such liability which an owner of other assets not transferred to the transferee and also subject to such liability has agreed with the transferee to, and is expected to, satisfy; or

(B) the fair market value of such other assets (determined without regard to section 7701(g)).

(3) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subsection and section 362(d). The Secretary may also prescribe regulations which provide that the manner in which a liability is treated as assumed under this subsection is applied, where appropriate, elsewhere in this title.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 116; June 29, 1956, ch. 463, §2, 70 Stat. 403; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §365(a), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2854; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §103(a)(12), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 96–589, §4(h)(2), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3405; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(c)(8)(F), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–524; Pub. L. 106–36, title III, §3001(a)(1), (b)(1), (d)(2)–(5), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 181–184; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §309(b)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-638; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §898(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1649; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(jj)(2), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2632.)

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–135 inserted "section 361(b)(3)," after "section 358(h),".

2004—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 108–357 inserted "with respect to which stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 355" after "section 368(a)(1)(D)".

2000—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–554 inserted "section 358(h)," after "section 358(d)," in introductory provisions.

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(d)(2), struck out "or acquisition" after "assumption" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(a)(1), struck out ", or acquires from the taxpayer property subject to a liability" before comma at end.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(d)(2), (3), struck out "or acquisition" after "assumption" wherever appearing and struck out "or acquired" after "liability assumed" in concluding provisions of par. (1).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(d)(4), struck out ", plus the amount of the liabilities to which the property is subject," after "liabilities assumed" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(d)(5), struck out "or to which the property transferred is subject" after "liabilities assumed" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(b)(1), added subsec. (d).

1990—Subsecs. (a), (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(c)(8)(F)(i), substituted "351 or 361" for "351, 361, 371, or 374" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(c)(8)(F)(ii), inserted "or" at end of subpar. (A), redesignated subpar. (C) as (B), and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "to which section 371 or 374 applies, or".

1980—Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 96–589 added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 96–222 struck out requirement that only taxpayers who compute taxable income under the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting are eligible to exclude certain liabilities in determining the amount of gain realized on a transfer to a controlled corporation and the requirement that the excluded liability must be an account payable.

1978—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 95–600 added par. (3).

1956—Subsec. (a). Act June 29, 1956, §2(1), substituted "371, or 374" for "or 371" in two places.

Subsec. (b). Act June 29, 1956, §2(1), substituted "371, or 374" for "or 371".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Act June 29, 1956, §2(2), substituted "371 or 374" for "371".

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which such amendment relates, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §898(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1649, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 361 of this title] shall apply to transfers of money or other property, or liabilities assumed, in connection with a reorganization occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–554 applicable to assumptions of liability after Oct. 18, 1999, see section 1(a)(7) [title III, §309(d)] of Pub. L. 106–554, set out as a note under section 358 of this title.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–36 applicable to transfers after Oct. 18, 1998, see section 3001(e) of Pub. L. 106–36, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to bankruptcy cases or similar judicial proceedings commencing after Dec. 31, 1980, with exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to such cases or proceedings commencing after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 7(c)(1), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §365(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2855, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 358 of this title] shall apply to transfers occurring on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978]."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

§358. Basis to distributees

(a) General rule

In the case of an exchange to which section 351, 354, 355, 356, or 361 applies—

(1) Nonrecognition property

The basis of the property permitted to be received under such section without the recognition of gain or loss shall be the same as that of the property exchanged—

(A) decreased by—

(i) the fair market value of any other property (except money) received by the taxpayer,

(ii) the amount of any money received by the taxpayer, and

(iii) the amount of loss to the taxpayer which was recognized on such exchange, and


(B) increased by—

(i) the amount which was treated as a dividend, and

(ii) the amount of gain to the taxpayer which was recognized on such exchange (not including any portion of such gain which was treated as a dividend).

(2) Other property

The basis of any other property (except money) received by the taxpayer shall be its fair market value.

(b) Allocation of basis

(1) In general

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the basis determined under subsection (a)(1) shall be allocated among the properties permitted to be received without the recognition of gain or loss.

(2) Special rule for section 355

In the case of an exchange to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies, then in making the allocation under paragraph (1) of this subsection, there shall be taken into account not only the property so permitted to be received without the recognition of gain or loss, but also the stock or securities (if any) of the distributing corporation which are retained, and the allocation of basis shall be made among all such properties.

(c) Section 355 transactions which are not exchanges

For purposes of this section, a distribution to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies shall be treated as an exchange, and for such purposes the stock and securities of the distributing corporation which are retained shall be treated as surrendered, and received back, in the exchange.

(d) Assumption of liability

(1) In general

Where, as part of the consideration to the taxpayer, another party to the exchange assumed a liability of the taxpayer, such assumption shall, for purposes of this section, be treated as money received by the taxpayer on the exchange.

(2) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the amount of any liability excluded under section 357(c)(3).

(e) Exception

This section shall not apply to property acquired by a corporation by the exchange of its stock or securities (or the stock or securities of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation) as consideration in whole or in part for the transfer of the property to it.

(f) Definition of nonrecognition property in case of section 361 exchange

For purposes of this section, the property permitted to be received under section 361 without the recognition of gain or loss shall be treated as consisting only of stock or securities in another corporation a party to the reorganization.

(g) Adjustments in intragroup transactions involving section 355

In the case of a distribution to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies and which involves the distribution of stock from 1 member of an affiliated group (as defined in section 1504(a) without regard to subsection (b) thereof) to another member of such group, the Secretary may, notwithstanding any other provision of this section, provide adjustments to the adjusted basis of any stock which—

(1) is in a corporation which is a member of such group, and

(2) is held by another member of such group,


to appropriately reflect the proper treatment of such distribution.

(h) Special rules for assumption of liabilities to which subsection (d) does not apply

(1) In general

If, after application of the other provisions of this section to an exchange or series of exchanges, the basis of property to which subsection (a)(1) applies exceeds the fair market value of such property, then such basis shall be reduced (but not below such fair market value) by the amount (determined as of the date of the exchange) of any liability—

(A) which is assumed by another person as part of the exchange, and

(B) with respect to which subsection (d)(1) does not apply to the assumption.

(2) Exceptions

Except as provided by the Secretary, paragraph (1) shall not apply to any liability if—

(A) the trade or business with which the liability is associated is transferred to the person assuming the liability as part of the exchange, or

(B) substantially all of the assets with which the liability is associated are transferred to the person assuming the liability as part of the exchange.

(3) Liability

For purposes of this subsection, the term "liability" shall include any fixed or contingent obligation to make payment, without regard to whether the obligation is otherwise taken into account for purposes of this title.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 117; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §21(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1620; Pub. L. 90–621, §2(a), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1311; Pub. L. 94–253, §1(b), Mar. 31, 1976, 90 Stat. 296; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §365(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2855; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(d)(5)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3580; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(c)(8)(G), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–524; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1012(b)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 916; Pub. L. 106–36, title III, §3001(a)(2), (d)(6), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 182, 184; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §309(a)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-638; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §412(c), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 53.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 107–147 amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "which is assumed in exchange for such property, and".

2000—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–554 added subsec. (h).

1999—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–36 struck out "or acquired from the taxpayer property subject to a liability" after "liability of the taxpayer" and "or acquisition (in the amount of the liability)" after "such assumption".

1997—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (g).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(c)(8)(G)(i), substituted "or 361" for "361, 371(b), or 374".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–508, §11801(c)(8)(G)(ii), struck out par. (3) "Certain exchanges involving ConRail" which read as follows: "To the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary in the case of an exchange to which section 354(d) (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 354(d)) or section 374(c) applies, for purposes of allocating basis under paragraph (1), stock of the Consolidated Rail Corporation and the certificate of value of the United States Railway Association which relates to such stock shall, so long as they are held by the same person, be treated as one property."

1988—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–647 added subsec. (f).

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–600 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–253, §1(b)(1), substituted "371(b), or 374" for "or 371(b)".

Subsec. (b)(1), (3). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Pub. L. 94–253, §1(b)(2), added par. (3).

1968—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 90–621 substituted exchange of stock and securities for issuance of stock or securities as the transaction involved and inserted parenthetical provisions making reference to stock or securities of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation.

1958—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 85–866 added cl. (iii).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Community Renewal Tax Relief Act of 2000 [H.R. 5662, as enacted by Pub. L. 106–554], to which such amendment relates, see section 412(e) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 151 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §309(d)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-638, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 357 of this title] shall apply to assumptions of liability after October 18, 1999.

"(2) Rules.—The rules prescribed under subsection (c) [see Application of Comparable Rules to Partnerships and S Corporations note below] shall apply to assumptions of liability after October 18, 1999, or such later date as may be prescribed in such rules."

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–36 applicable to transfers after Oct. 18, 1998, see section 3001(e) of Pub. L. 106–36, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable, with certain exceptions, to distributions after Apr. 16, 1997, pursuant to a plan (or series of related transactions) which involves an acquisition described in section 355(e)(2)(A)(ii) of this title occurring after such date, see section 1012(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to transfers occurring on or after Nov. 6, 1978, see section 365(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 357 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–253 applicable to taxable years ending after Mar. 31, 1976, see section 2 of Pub. L. 94–253, set out as a note under section 354 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–621, §2(c), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1311, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section and section 362 of this title] shall apply only in respect of plans of reorganization adopted after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1968]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–866, §21(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1620, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply as provided in section 393 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] as if the clause (iii) added by such amendment had been included in such Code at the time of its enactment [Aug. 16, 1954]."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Abolition of United States Railway Association and Transfer of Functions

United States Railway Association abolished effective Apr. 1, 1987, all powers, duties, rights, and obligations of Association relating to Consolidated Rail Corporation under Regional Rail Reorganization Act of 1973 (45 U.S.C. 701 et seq.) transferred to Secretary of Transportation on Jan. 1, 1987, and any securities of Corporation held by Association transferred to Secretary of Transportation on Oct. 21, 1986, see section 1341 of Title 45, Railroads.

Application of Comparable Rules to Partnerships and S Corporations

Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §309(c)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-638, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate—

"(1) shall prescribe rules which provide appropriate adjustments under subchapter K of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to prevent the acceleration or duplication of losses through the assumption of (or transfer of assets subject to) liabilities described in section 358(h)(3) of such Code (as added by subsection (a)) in transactions involving partnerships, and

"(2) may prescribe rules which provide appropriate adjustments under subchapter S of chapter 1 of such Code in transactions described in paragraph (1) involving S corporations rather than partnerships."