[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter C, PART III, Subpart D: Special Rule; Definitions
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter C, PART III, Subpart D: Special Rule; Definitions
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter C—Corporate Distributions and AdjustmentsPART III—CORPORATE ORGANIZATIONS AND REORGANIZATIONS

Subpart D—Special Rule; Definitions

Sec.
367.
Foreign corporations.
368.
Definitions relating to corporate reorganizations.

        

§367. Foreign corporations

(a) Transfers of property from the United States

(1) General rule

If, in connection with any exchange described in section 332, 351, 354, 356, or 361, a United States person transfers property to a foreign corporation, such foreign corporation shall not, for purposes of determining the extent to which gain shall be recognized on such transfer, be considered to be a corporation.

(2) Exception for certain stock or securities

Except to the extent provided in regulations, paragraph (1) shall not apply to the transfer of stock or securities of a foreign corporation which is a party to the exchange or a party to the reorganization.

(3) Special rule for transfer of partnership interests

Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, a transfer by a United States person of an interest in a partnership to a foreign corporation in an exchange described in paragraph (1) shall, for purposes of this subsection, be treated as a transfer to such corporation of such person's pro rata share of the assets of the partnership.

(4) Paragraph (2) not to apply to certain section 361 transactions

Paragraph (2) shall not apply in the case of an exchange described in subsection (a) or (b) of section 361. Subject to such basis adjustments and such other conditions as shall be provided in regulations, the preceding sentence shall not apply if the transferor corporation is controlled (within the meaning of section 368(c)) by 5 or fewer domestic corporations. For purposes of the preceding sentence, all members of the same affiliated group (within the meaning of section 1504) shall be treated as 1 corporation.

(5) Secretary may exempt certain transactions from application of this subsection

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the transfer of any property which the Secretary, in order to carry out the purposes of this subsection, designates by regulation.

(b) Other transfers

(1) Effect of section to be determined under regulations

In the case of any exchange described in section 332, 351, 354, 355, 356, or 361 in connection with which there is no transfer of property described in subsection (a)(1), a foreign corporation shall be considered to be a corporation except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary which are necessary or appropriate to prevent the avoidance of Federal income taxes.

(2) Regulations relating to sale or exchange of stock in foreign corporations

The regulations prescribed pursuant to paragraph (1) shall include (but shall not be limited to) regulations dealing with the sale or exchange of stock or securities in a foreign corporation by a United States person, including regulations providing—

(A) the circumstances under which—

(i) gain shall be recognized currently, or amounts included in gross income currently as a dividend, or both, or

(ii) gain or other amounts may be deferred for inclusion in the gross income of a shareholder (or his successor in interest) at a later date, and


(B) the extent to which adjustments shall be made to earnings and profits, basis of stock or securities, and basis of assets.

(c) Transactions to be treated as exchanges

(1) Section 355 distribution

For purposes of this section, any distribution described in section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) shall be treated as an exchange whether or not it is an exchange.

(2) Contribution of capital to controlled corporations

For purposes of this chapter, any transfer of property to a foreign corporation as a contribution to the capital of such corporation by one or more persons who, immediately after the transfer, own (within the meaning of section 318) stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote shall be treated as an exchange of such property for stock of the foreign corporation equal in value to the fair market value of the property transferred.

(d) Special rules relating to transfers of intangibles

(1) In general

Except as provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if a United States person transfers any intangible property to a foreign corporation in an exchange described in section 351 or 361—

(A) subsection (a) shall not apply to the transfer of such property, and

(B) the provisions of this subsection shall apply to such transfer.

(2) Transfer of intangibles treated as transfer pursuant to sale of contingent payments

(A) In general

If paragraph (1) applies to any transfer, the United States person transferring such property shall be treated as—

(i) having sold such property in exchange for payments which are contingent upon the productivity, use, or disposition of such property, and

(ii) receiving amounts which reasonably reflect the amounts which would have been received—

(I) annually in the form of such payments over the useful life of such property, or

(II) in the case of a disposition following such transfer (whether direct or indirect), at the time of the disposition.


The amounts taken into account under clause (ii) shall be commensurate with the income attributable to the intangible.

(B) Effect on earnings and profits

For purposes of this chapter, the earnings and profits of a foreign corporation to which the intangible property was transferred shall be reduced by the amount required to be included in the income of the transferor of the intangible property under subparagraph (A)(ii).

(C) Amounts received treated as ordinary income

For purposes of this chapter, any amount included in gross income by reason of this subsection shall be treated as ordinary income. For purposes of applying section 904(d), any such amount shall be treated in the same manner as if such amount were a royalty.

(D) Regulatory authority

For purposes of the last sentence of subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall require—

(i) the valuation of transfers of intangible property, including intangible property transferred with other property or services, on an aggregate basis, or

(ii) the valuation of such a transfer on the basis of the realistic alternatives to such a transfer,


if the Secretary determines that such basis is the most reliable means of valuation of such transfers.

(3) Regulations relating to transfers of intangibles to partnerships

The Secretary may provide by regulations that the rules of paragraph (2) also apply to the transfer of intangible property by a United States person to a partnership in circumstances consistent with the purposes of this subsection.

(4) Intangible property

For purposes of this subsection, the term "intangible property" means any—

(A) patent, invention, formula, process, design, pattern, or know-how,

(B) copyright, literary, musical, or artistic composition,

(C) trademark, trade name, or brand name,

(D) franchise, license, or contract,

(E) method, program, system, procedure, campaign, survey, study, forecast, estimate, customer list, or technical data,

(F) goodwill, going concern value, or workforce in place (including its composition and terms and conditions (contractual or otherwise) of its employment), or

(G) other item the value or potential value of which is not attributable to tangible property or the services of any individual.

(e) Treatment of distributions described in section 355 or liquidations under section 332

(1) Distributions described in section 355

In the case of any distribution described in section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) by a domestic corporation to a person who is not a United States person, to the extent provided in regulations, gain shall be recognized under principles similar to the principles of this section.

(2) Liquidations under section 332

In the case of any liquidation to which section 332 applies, except as provided in regulations, subsections (a) and (b)(1) of section 337 shall not apply where the 80-percent distributee (as defined in section 337(c)) is a foreign corporation.

(f) Other transfers

To the extent provided in regulations, if a United States person transfers property to a foreign corporation as paid-in surplus or as a contribution to capital (in a transaction not otherwise described in this section), such transfer shall be treated as a sale or exchange for an amount equal to the fair market value of the property transferred, and the transferor shall recognize as gain the excess of—

(1) the fair market value of the property so transferred, over

(2) the adjusted basis (for purposes of determining gain) of such property in the hands of the transferor.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 119; Pub. L. 91–681, §1(a), Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2065; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1042(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1634; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §213(d), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 465; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §131(a)–(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 662–664; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §631(d)(1), title XII, §1231(e)(2), title XVIII, §1810(g)(1), (4), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2272, 2563, 2828, 2829; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1006(e)(13)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3402; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11702(a)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–514; Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1131(b)(2), (4), (5)(A), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 979, 980; Pub. L. 106–170, title V, §532(c)(1)(C), Dec. 17, 1999, 113 Stat. 1930; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §406(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1498; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §§14102(e)(1), (2), 14221(b)(1), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2194, 2218; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(D)(viii)(I), (II), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1207.)

Codification

Another section 1131(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 enacted section 684 of this title.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(d)(1)(D)(viii)(II), struck out "(within the meaning of section 936(h)(3)(B))" after "intangible property" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(d)(1)(D)(viii)(I), added par. (4).

2017—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–97, §14102(e)(1), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3) which related to exception for transfers of certain property used in the active conduct of a trade or business.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 115–97, §14102(e)(1), (2), redesignated par. (5) as (4) and substituted "Paragraph (2)" for "Paragraphs (2) and (3)" in heading and text. Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 115–97, §14102(e)(1), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (4) and (5), respectively.

Subsec. (d)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–97, §14221(b)(1), added subpar. (D).

2004—Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 108–357 inserted at end "For purposes of applying section 904(d), any such amount shall be treated in the same manner as if such amount were a royalty."

1999—Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 106–170 substituted "section 1221(a)" for "section 1221".

1997—Subsec. (d)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–34, §1131(b)(4), amended heading and text of subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of this chapter, any amount included in gross income by reason of this subsection shall be treated as ordinary income from sources within the United States."

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §1131(b)(5)(A), added par. (3).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–34, §1131(b)(2), added subsec. (f).

1990—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted "subsection (a) or (b) of section 361" for "section 361".

1988—Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 100–647 added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

1986—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(g)(4)(A), struck out "355," after "354,".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1231(e)(2), inserted at end "The amounts taken into account under clause (ii) shall be commensurate with the income attributable to the intangible."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §631(d)(1), amended subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (e), treatment of distributions described in section 336 or 355, read as follows: "In the case of any distribution described in section 336 or 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) by a domestic corporation which is made to a person who is not a United States person, to the extent provided in regulations, gain shall be recognized under principles similar to the principles of this section."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(g)(1), struck out subsec. (f) which related to transitional rules in the case of any exchanges beginning before Jan. 1, 1978.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1810(g)(4)(B), in heading substituted "distributions described in section 336 or 355" for "liquidations under section 336", and in text inserted "or 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355)".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §131(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, revising provisions of pars. (1) and (2), and adding pars. (3) to (5).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §131(b), amended subsec. (d) generally, substituting provision providing special rules relating to transfers of intangibles for provision providing special rules relating to transfers of intangibles by possession corporation.

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 98–369, §131(c), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsec. (e) as (f).

1982—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 97–248 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1976Pub. L. 94–455, among other changes, inserted provisions permitting nonrecognition of gain if a request for a ruling that tax avoidance is not present is filed within 183 days after beginning of an exchange, relating to an organization, reorganization, and liquidation of a foreign corporation, in the case of outbound transfers, however, for all other transfers, regulations are to provide the extent that earnings are to be taken into account as dividends and provisions relating to Tax Court review of the tax avoidance rulings.

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–681 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), and, as so designated, inserted provisions relating to instances of an exchange, described in subsec. (b). Provisions relating to distributions described in section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) were stricken and were transferred to subsec. (c).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–681 added subsec. (b).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–681 designated as subsec. (c) provisions relating to distribution described in section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–681 added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14102(e)(3), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2195, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to transfers after December 31, 2017."

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14221(c)(1), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2219, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 482 and 936 of this title] shall apply to transfers in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §406(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1498, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts treated as received pursuant to section 367(d)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 on or after August 5, 1997."

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–170 applicable to any instrument held, acquired, or entered into, any transaction entered into, and supplies held or acquired on or after Dec. 17, 1999, see section 532(d) of Pub. L. 106–170, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title XI, §1131(d), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 980, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 684 of this title, amending this section and sections 721, 814, 1035, and 6422 of this title, and repealing sections 1057, 1491, 1492, and 1494 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997]."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 effective as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 11702(j) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 59 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1006(e)(13)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3402, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to exchanges on or after June 21, 1988, except that such amendment shall not apply to any exchange pursuant to any reorganization for which a plan of reorganization was adopted before June 21, 1988."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 631(d)(1) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to any distribution in complete liquidation, and any sale or exchange, made by a corporation after July 31, 1986, unless such corporation is completely liquidated before Jan. 1, 1987, any transaction described in section 338 of this title for which the acquisition date occurs after Dec. 31, 1986, and any distribution, not in complete liquidation, made after Dec. 31, 1986, with exceptions and special and transitional rules, see section 633 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 336 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1231(g), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2563, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(n)(1)–(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3514, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 482 and 936 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(2) Special rule for transfer of intangibles.—

"(A) In general.—The amendments made by subsection (e) [amending this section and section 482 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, but only with respect to transfers after November 16, 1985, or licenses granted after such date (or before such date with respect to property not in existence or owned by the taxpayer on such date). In the case of any transfer (or license) which is not to a foreign person, the preceding sentence shall be applied by substituting 'August 16, 1986' for 'November 16, 1985'.

"(B) Special rule for [former] section 936.—For purposes of [former] section 936(h)(5)(C) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 the amendments made by subsection (e) shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986, without regard to when the transfer (or license), if any, was made.

"(3) Subsection (f).—The amendment made by subsection (f) [amending section 936 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982.

"(4) Transitional rule.—In the case of a corporation—

"(A) with respect to which an election under [former] section 936 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (relating to possessions tax credit) is in effect,

"(B) which produced an end-product form in Puerto Rico on or before September 3, 1982,

"(C) which began manufacturing a component of such product in Puerto Rico in its taxable year beginning in 1983, and

"(D) with respect to which a Puerto Rican tax exemption was granted on June 27, 1983,

such corporation shall treat such component as a separate product for such taxable year for purposes of determining whether such corporation had a significant business presence in Puerto Rico with respect to such product and its income with respect to such product.

"(5) Transitional rule for increase in gross income test.—

"(A) In general.—If—

"(i) a corporation fails to meet the requirements of subparagraph (B) of [former] section 936(a)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as amended by subsection (d)(1)) for any taxable year beginning in 1987 or 1988,

"(ii) such corporation would have met the requirements of such subparagraph (B) if such subparagraph had been applied without regard to the amendment made by subsection (d)(1), and

"(iii) 75 percent or more of the gross income of such corporation for such taxable year (or, in the case of a taxable year beginning in 1988, for the period consisting of such taxable year and the preceding taxable year) was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession of the United States, such corporation shall nevertheless be treated as meeting the requirements of such subparagraph (B) for such taxable year if it elects to reduce the amount of the qualified possession source investment income for the taxable year by the amount of the shortfall determined under subparagraph (B) of this paragraph.

"(B) Determination of shortfall.—The shortfall determined under this subparagraph for any taxable year is an amount equal to the excess of—

"(i) 75 percent of the gross income of the corporation for the 3-year period (or part thereof) referred to in [former] section 936(a)(2)(A) of such Code, over

"(ii) the amount of the gross income of such corporation for such period (or part thereof) which was derived from the active conduct of a trade or business within a possession of the United States.

"(C) Special rule.—Any income attributable to the investment of the amount not treated as qualified possession source investment income under subparagraph (A) shall not be treated as qualified possession source investment income for any taxable year."

Amendment by section 1810(g)(1), (4) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §131(g), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 665, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 6038B of this title, amending this section and sections 1492, 1494, 6501, and 7482 of this title, and repealing section 7477 of this title] shall apply to transfers or exchanges after December 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Special rule for certain transfers of intangibles.—

"(A) In general.—If, after June 6, 1984, and before January 1, 1985, a United States person transfers any intangible property (within the meaning of [former] section 936(h)(3)(B) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]) to a foreign corporation or in a transfer described in section 1491, such transfer shall be treated for purposes of sections 367(a), 1492(2), and 1494(b) of such Code as pursuant to a plan having as 1 of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income tax.

"(B) Waiver.—Subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate may prescribe, the Secretary may waive the application of subparagraph (A) with respect to any transfer.

"(3) Ruling request before march 1, 1984.—The amendments made by this section (and the provisions of paragraph (2) of this subsection) shall not apply to any transfer or exchange of property described in a request filed before March 1, 1984, under section 367(a), 1492(2), or 1494(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as in effect before such amendments)."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years ending after Aug. 14, 1982, see section 213(e)(3) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 246 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1042(e), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1639, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) The amendments made by this section (other than by subsection (d)) [amending this section and sections 751 and 1248 of this title] shall apply to transfers beginning after October 9, 1975, and to sales, exchanges, and distributions taking place after such date. The amendments made by subsection (d) [enacting section 7477 of this title and amending sections 7476 and 7482 of this title] shall apply with respect to pleadings filed with the Tax Court after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976] but only with respect to transfers beginning after October 9, 1975.

"(2) In the case of any exchange described in section 367 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as in effect on December 31, 1974) in any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1962, and before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976], which does not involve the transfer of property to or from a United States person, a taxpayer shall have for purposes of such section until 183 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976] to file a request with the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate seeking to establish to the satisfaction of the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate that such exchange was not in pursuance of a plan having as one of its principal purposes the avoidance of Federal income taxes and that for purposes of such section a foreign corporation is to be treated as a foreign corporation."

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–681, §1(c), Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2066, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 1492 of this title] shall apply to transfers made after December 31, 1967; except that sections 367(d) and 1492 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by this section) shall apply only with respect to transfers made after December 31, 1970."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Applicability of Subsection (e)(2)

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1006(e)(13)(C), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3402, provided that: "Section 367(e)(2) of the 1986 Code (as amended by the Reform Act [Pub. L. 99–514]) shall not apply in the case of any corporation completely liquidated before June 10, 1987, into a corporation organized in a country which has an income tax treaty with the United States."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§368. Definitions relating to corporate reorganizations

(a) Reorganization

(1) In general

For purposes of parts I and II and this part, the term "reorganization" means—

(A) a statutory merger or consolidation;

(B) the acquisition by one corporation, in exchange solely for all or a part of its voting stock (or in exchange solely for all or a part of the voting stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation), of stock of another corporation if, immediately after the acquisition, the acquiring corporation has control of such other corporation (whether or not such acquiring corporation had control immediately before the acquisition);

(C) the acquisition by one corporation, in exchange solely for all or a part of its voting stock (or in exchange solely for all or a part of the voting stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation), of substantially all of the properties of another corporation, but in determining whether the exchange is solely for stock the assumption by the acquiring corporation of a liability of the other shall be disregarded;

(D) a transfer by a corporation of all or a part of its assets to another corporation if immediately after the transfer the transferor, or one or more of its shareholders (including persons who were shareholders immediately before the transfer), or any combination thereof, is in control of the corporation to which the assets are transferred; but only if, in pursuance of the plan, stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 354, 355, or 356;

(E) a recapitalization;

(F) a mere change in identity, form, or place of organization of one corporation, however effected; or

(G) a transfer by a corporation of all or part of its assets to another corporation in a title 11 or similar case; but only if, in pursuance of the plan, stock or securities of the corporation to which the assets are transferred are distributed in a transaction which qualifies under section 354, 355, or 356.

(2) Special rules relating to paragraph (1)

(A) Reorganizations described in both paragraph (1)(C) and paragraph (1)(D)

If a transaction is described in both paragraph (1)(C) and paragraph (1)(D), then, for purposes of this subchapter (other than for purposes of subparagraph (C)), such transaction shall be treated as described only in paragraph (1)(D).

(B) Additional consideration in certain paragraph (1)(C) cases

If—

(i) one corporation acquires substantially all of the properties of another corporation,

(ii) the acquisition would qualify under paragraph (1)(C) but for the fact that the acquiring corporation exchanges money or other property in addition to voting stock, and

(iii) the acquiring corporation acquires, solely for voting stock described in paragraph (1)(C), property of the other corporation having a fair market value which is at least 80 percent of the fair market value of all of the property of the other corporation,


then such acquisition shall (subject to subparagraph (A) of this paragraph) be treated as qualifying under paragraph (1)(C). Solely for the purpose of determining whether clause (iii) of the preceding sentence applies, the amount of any liability assumed by the acquiring corporation shall be treated as money paid for the property.

(C) Transfers of assets or stock to subsidiaries in certain paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), and (1)(G) cases

A transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), or (1)(C) shall not be disqualified by reason of the fact that part or all of the assets or stock which were acquired in the transaction are transferred to a corporation controlled by the corporation acquiring such assets or stock. A similar rule shall apply to a transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(G) where the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 354(b)(1) are met with respect to the acquisition of the assets.

(D) Use of stock of controlling corporation in paragraph (1)(A) and (1)(G) cases

The acquisition by one corporation, in exchange for stock of a corporation (referred to in this subparagraph as "controlling corporation") which is in control of the acquiring corporation, of substantially all of the properties of another corporation shall not disqualify a transaction under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(G) if—

(i) no stock of the acquiring corporation is used in the transaction, and

(ii) in the case of a transaction under paragraph (1)(A), such transaction would have qualified under paragraph (1)(A) had the merger been into the controlling corporation.

(E) Statutory merger using voting stock of corporation controlling merged corporation

A transaction otherwise qualifying under paragraph (1)(A) shall not be disqualified by reason of the fact that stock of a corporation (referred to in this subparagraph as the "controlling corporation") which before the merger was in control of the merged corporation is used in the transaction, if—

(i) after the transaction, the corporation surviving the merger holds substantially all of its properties and of the properties of the merged corporation (other than stock of the controlling corporation distributed in the transaction); and

(ii) in the transaction, former shareholders of the surviving corporation exchanged, for an amount of voting stock of the controlling corporation, an amount of stock in the surviving corporation which constitutes control of such corporation.

(F) Certain transactions involving 2 or more investment companies

(i) If immediately before a transaction described in paragraph (1) (other than subparagraph (E) thereof), 2 or more parties to the transaction were investment companies, then the transaction shall not be considered to be a reorganization with respect to any such investment company (and its shareholders and security holders) unless it was a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or a corporation which meets the requirements of clause (ii).

(ii) A corporation meets the requirements of this clause if not more than 25 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of any one issuer, and not more than 50 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of 5 or fewer issuers. For purposes of this clause, all members of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1563(a)) shall be treated as one issuer. For purposes of this clause, a person holding stock in a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or an investment company which meets the requirements of this clause shall, except as provided in regulations, be treated as holding its proportionate share of the assets held by such company or trust.

(iii) For purposes of this subparagraph the term "investment company" means a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or a corporation 50 percent or more of the value of whose total assets are stock and securities and 80 percent or more of the value of whose total assets are assets held for investment. In making the 50-percent and 80-percent determinations under the preceding sentence, stock and securities in any subsidiary corporation shall be disregarded and the parent corporation shall be deemed to own its ratable share of the subsidiary's assets, and a corporation shall be considered a subsidiary if the parent owns 50 percent or more of the combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote, or 50 percent or more of the total value of shares of all classes of stock outstanding.

(iv) For purposes of this subparagraph, in determining total assets there shall be excluded cash and cash items (including receivables). Government securities, and, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, assets acquired (through incurring indebtedness or otherwise) for purposes of meeting the requirements of clause (ii) or ceasing to be an investment company.

(v) This subparagraph shall not apply if the stock of each investment company is owned substantially by the same persons in the same proportions.

(vi) If an investment company which does not meet the requirements of clause (ii) acquires assets of another corporation, clause (i) shall be applied to such investment company and its shareholders and security holders as though its assets had been acquired by such other corporation. If such investment company acquires stock of another corporation in a reorganization described in section 368(a)(1)(B), clause (i) shall be applied to the shareholders of such investment company as though they had exchanged with such other corporation all of their stock in such company for stock having a fair market value equal to the fair market value of their stock of such investment company immediately after the exchange. For purposes of section 1001, the deemed acquisition or exchange referred to in the two preceding sentences shall be treated as a sale or exchange of property by the corporation and by the shareholders and security holders to which clause (i) is applied.

(vii) For purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii), the term "securities" includes obligations of State and local governments, commodity futures contracts, shares of regulated investment companies and real estate investment trusts, and other investments constituting a security within the meaning of the Investment Company Act of 1940 (15 U.S.C. 80a–2(a)(36)).

[(viii) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §174(b)(5)(D), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 707]

(G) Distribution requirement for paragraph (1)(C)

(i) In general

A transaction shall fail to meet the requirements of paragraph (1)(C) unless the acquired corporation distributes the stock, securities, and other properties it receives, as well as its other properties, in pursuance of the plan of reorganization. For purposes of the preceding sentence, if the acquired corporation is liquidated pursuant to the plan of reorganization, any distribution to its creditors in connection with such liquidation shall be treated as pursuant to the plan of reorganization.

(ii) Exception

The Secretary may waive the application of clause (i) to any transaction subject to any conditions the Secretary may prescribe.

(H) Special rules for determining whether certain transactions are qualified under paragraph (1)(D)

For purposes of determining whether a transaction qualifies under paragraph (1)(D)—

(i) in the case of a transaction with respect to which the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 354(b)(1) are met, the term "control" has the meaning given such term by section 304(c), and

(ii) in the case of a transaction with respect to which the requirements of section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) are met, the fact that the shareholders of the distributing corporation dispose of part or all of the distributed stock, or the fact that the corporation whose stock was distributed issues additional stock, shall not be taken into account.

(3) Additional rules relating to title 11 and similar cases

(A) Title 11 or similar case defined

For purposes of this part, the term "title 11 or similar case" means—

(i) a case under title 11 of the United States Code, or

(ii) a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding in a Federal or State court.

(B) Transfer of assets in a title 11 or similar case

In applying paragraph (1)(G), a transfer of the assets of a corporation shall be treated as made in a title 11 or similar case if and only if—

(i) any party to the reorganization is under the jurisdiction of the court in such case, and

(ii) the transfer is pursuant to a plan of reorganization approved by the court.

(C) Reorganizations qualifying under paragraph (1)(G) and another provision

If a transaction would (but for this subparagraph) qualify both—

(i) under subparagraph (G) of paragraph (1), and

(ii) under any other subparagraph of paragraph (1) or under section 332 or 351,


then, for purposes of this subchapter (other than section 357(c)(1)), such transaction shall be treated as qualifying only under subparagraph (G) of paragraph (1).

(D) Agency receivership proceedings which involve financial institutions

For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), in the case of a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding before a Federal or State agency involving a financial institution referred to in section 581 or 591, the agency shall be treated as a court.

(E) Application of paragraph (2)(E)(ii)

In the case of a title 11 or similar case, the requirement of clause (ii) of paragraph (2)(E) shall be treated as met if—

(i) no former shareholder of the surviving corporation received any consideration for his stock, and

(ii) the former creditors of the surviving corporation exchanged, for an amount of voting stock of the controlling corporation, debt of the surviving corporation which had a fair market value equal to 80 percent or more of the total fair market value of the debt of the surviving corporation.

(b) Party to a reorganization

For purposes of this part, the term "a party to a reorganization" includes—

(1) a corporation resulting from a reorganization, and

(2) both corporations, in the case of a reorganization resulting from the acquisition by one corporation of stock or properties of another.


In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(B) or (1)(C) of subsection (a), if the stock exchanged for the stock or properties is stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation, the term "a party to a reorganization" includes the corporation so controlling the acquiring corporation. In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(C) of subsection (a), the term "a party to a reorganization" includes the corporation controlling the corporation to which the acquired assets or stock are transferred. In the case of a reorganization qualifying under paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(D) of that subsection, the term "a party to a reorganization" includes the controlling corporation referred to in such paragraph (2)(D). In the case of a reorganization qualifying under subsection (a)(1)(A) by reason of subsection (a)(2)(E), the term "party to a reorganization" includes the controlling corporation referred to in subsection (a)(2)(E).

(c) Control defined

For purposes of part I (other than section 304), part II, this part, and part V, the term "control" means the ownership of stock possessing at least 80 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock entitled to vote and at least 80 percent of the total number of shares of all other classes of stock of the corporation.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 120; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §218(a), (b), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 57; Pub. L. 90–621, §1(a), (b), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1310, 1311; Pub. L. 91–693, §1(a), (b), Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2077; Pub. L. 94–455, title VIII, §806(f)(1), title XXI, §2131(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1605, 1922; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(j)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2905; Pub. L. 96–589, §4(a)–(d), (h)(3), (4), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3401–3403, 3405; Pub. L. 97–34, title II, §241, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 254; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §225(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 490; Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §304(b), (c), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2398; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §§63(a), 64(a), 174(b)(5)(D), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 583, 584, 707; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §621(e)(1), title IX, §904(a), title XVIII, §§1804(g)(2), (h), 1879(l)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2266, 2385, 2806, 2909; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(q)(5), title IV, §4012(b)(1)(A), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3586, 3656; Pub. L. 101–73, title XIV, §1401(a)(1), (b)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 548, 549; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1012(c)(2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 917; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6010(c)(3)(B), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 813; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4003(f)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–910; Pub. L. 106–36, title III, §3001(a)(3), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 182; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(68), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1187.)

References in Text

The Investment Company Act of 1940, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(F)(vii), is title I of act Aug. 22, 1940, ch. 686, 54 Stat. 789, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§80a–1 et seq.) of chapter 2D of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 80a–51 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(F)(vii). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "(15 U.S.C. 80a–2(a)(36))" for "(15 U.S.C. 80a–2(36))".

1999—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(a)(3)(A), struck out ", or the fact that property acquired is subject to a liability," before "shall be disregarded".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 106–36, §3001(a)(3)(B), which directed amendment of concluding provisions by striking out ", and the amount of any liability to which any property acquired from the acquiring corporation is subject,", was executed by striking out ", and the amount of any liability to which any property acquired by the acquiring corporation is subject," after "acquiring corporation", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1998—Subsec. (a)(2)(H)(ii). Pub. L. 105–277 inserted ", or the fact that the corporation whose stock was distributed issues additional stock," after "dispose of part or all of the distributed stock".

Pub. L. 105–206 amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "in the case of a transaction with respect to which the requirements of section 355 are met, the shareholders described in paragraph (1)(D) shall be treated as having control of the corporation to which the assets are transferred if such shareholders own (immediately after the distribution) stock possessing—

"(I) more than 50 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock of such corporation entitled to vote, and

"(II) more than 50 percent of the total value of shares of all classes of stock of such corporation."

1997—Subsec. (a)(2)(H). Pub. L. 105–34 amended heading and text of subpar. (H) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "In the case of any transaction with respect to which the requirements of subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 354(b)(1) are met, for purposes of determining whether such transaction qualifies under subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1), the term 'control' has the meaning given to such term by section 304(c)."

1989—Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 101–73, §1401(b)(1), repealed amendment made by Pub. L. 99–514, §904(a), see 1986 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 101–73, §1401(a)(1), inserted "receivership" in heading and amended text generally, changing the structure of the subparagraph from one consisting of five clauses designated (i) to (v) to one consisting of a single undesignated subparagraph.

1988—Subsec. (a)(2)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(q)(5), struck out "(other than stock in a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or an investment company which meets the requirements of this clause (ii))" after "any one issuer" and after "or fewer issuers" and inserted at end "For purposes of this clause, a person holding stock in a regulated investment company, a real estate investment trust, or an investment company which meets the requirements of this clause shall, except as provided in regulations, be treated as holding its proportionate share of the assets held by such company or trust."

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 100–647, §4012(b)(1)(A), amended subpar. (D), as in effect before the amendment made by section 904(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, by adding cls. (iv) and (v).

1986—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1804(h)(3), inserted "(other than for purposes of subparagraph (C))" after "subchapter".

Subsec. (a)(2)(F)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1879(l)(1), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "A corporation meets the requirements of this clause if not more than 25 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of any one issuer, and not more than 50 percent of the value of its total assets is invested in the stock and securities of 5 or fewer issuers. For purposes of this clause, all members of a controlled group of corporations (within the meaning of section 1563(a)) shall be treated as one issuer."

Subsec. (a)(2)(G)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1804(g)(2), inserted "For purposes of the preceding sentence, if the acquired corporation is liquidated pursuant to the plan of reorganization, any distribution to its creditors in connection with such liquidation shall be treated as pursuant to the plan of reorganization."

Subsec. (a)(2)(H). Pub. L. 99–514, §1804(h)(2), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 99–514, §904(a), (c)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §4012(a)(1), which (applicable to acquisitions after Dec. 31, 1989, in taxable years ending after such date) directed amendment of subpar. (D) to read "(D) Agency receivership proceedings which involve financial institutions.—For purposes of subparagraphs (A) and (B), in the case of a receivership, foreclosure, or similar proceeding before a Federal or State agency involving a financial institution referred to in section 581 or 591, the agency shall be treated as a court.", was repealed by Pub. L. 101–73, §1401(b)(1), (c)(4), eff. Oct. 22, 1986, and I.R.C. of 1986 applicable as if the amendments made by such section had not been enacted.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1804(h)(1), in amending subsec. (c) generally, struck out par. (1) designation and struck out par. (2) defining term "control" as having meaning given to such term by section 304(c) in case of any transaction with respect to which requirements of subpars. (A) and (B) of section 354(b)(1) are met, for purposes of determining whether such transaction is described in subpar. (D) of subsec. (a)(1).

Pub. L. 99–514, §621(e)(1), repealed amendment by Pub. L. 94–455, §806(f)(1). See 1976 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (a)(2)(F)(viii). Pub. L. 98–369, §174(b)(5)(D), struck out cl. (viii) which provided that in applying paragraph (3) of section 267(b) in respect of any transaction to which this subparagraph applies, the reference to a personal holding company in such paragraph (3) be treated as including a reference to an investment company and the determination of whether a corporation is an investment company be made as of the time immediately before the transaction instead of with respect to the taxable year referred to in such paragraph (3).

Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 98–369, §63(a), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §64(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1983—Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 97–448, §304(b), struck out "or stock" after "acquisition of the assets".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 97–448, §304(c), substituted "any party to the reorganization" for "such corporation".

1982—Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 97–248 inserted "of one corporation" after "place of organization".

1981—Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted "Agency proceedings" for "Agency receivership proceedings" in heading, incorporated existing provisions in text designated cl. (i), inserted in cl. (i)(II) definition for term "title 11 or similar case", and added cls. (ii) and (iii).

1980—Subsec. (a)(1)(G). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(a), (h)(3), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(c), inserted provision that a similar rule would apply to a transaction otherwise qualifying under par. (1)(G), where the requirements of subpars. (A) and (B) of section 354(b)(1) are met with respect to the acquisition of the assets or stock.

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(d), among other changes, inserted reference to par. (1)(G).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–589, §4(h)(4), substituted "paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), (1)(C), or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(C)" and "paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(G) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(D)" for "paragraph (1)(A), (1)(B), or (1)(C) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(C)" and "paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(D)", respectively.

1978—Subsec. (a)(2)(F). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted in cl. (iii), first sentence, "50 percent or more" and "80 percent or more" for "more than 50 percent" and "more than 80 percent"; substituted in cl. (vi), first sentence, "does not meet the requirements" for "is not diversified within the meaning"; struck from cl. (vi), second sentence, "(hereafter referred to as the ('actual acquisition')" after "section 368(a)(1)(B)" and "and security holders" after "the shareholders" and substituted "stock in such company for stock having a fair market value equal to the fair market value of their stock of such investment company immediately after the exchange" for "stock in such investment company for a percentage of the value of the total outstanding stock of the other corporation equal to the percentage of the value of the total outstanding stock of such investment company which such shareholders own immediately after the actual acquisition"; and added cls. (vii) and (viii).

1976—Subsec. (a)(2)(F). Pub. L. 94–455, §2131(a), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §806(f)(1), which substituted "this part, and Part V," for "and this part," was repealed by Pub. L. 99–514, §621(e)(1). See Effective Date of 1986 and 1976 Amendment notes below.

1971—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 91–693, §1(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–693, §1(b), defined "party to a reorganization" in the case of a reorganization qualifying under subsection (a)(1)(A) by reason of subsection (a)(2)(E).

1968—Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 90–621, §1(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–621, §1(b), inserted reference to the inclusion of the controlling corporation in term "a party to a reorganization" in reorganizations qualifying under paragraph (1)(A) of subsection (a) by reason of paragraph (2)(D) of subsection (a).

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–272, §218(a), (b)(1), inserted "(or in exchange solely for all or a part of the voting stock of a corporation which is in control of the acquiring corporation)" in par. (1)(B), and in par. (2)(C), inserted references to par. (1)(B), and substituted "assets or stock" for "assets" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–272, §218(b)(2), inserted references to par. (1)(B) wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1999 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–36 applicable to transfers after Oct. 18, 1998, see section 3001(e) of Pub. L. 106–36, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective as if included in the provision of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 4003(l) of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 86 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable, with certain exceptions, to transfers after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 1012(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 351 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Repeal of amendment by section 904(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective Oct. 22, 1986, and I.R.C. of 1986 applicable as if the amendment had not been enacted, see section 1401(b)(1) of Pub. L. 101–73, set out as a Repeal of Provisions Relating to Repeal of Special Reorganization Rules for Financial Institutions note set out under section 597 of this title, and section 1401(c)(4) of Pub. L. 101–73, set out as Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note under section 597 of this title.

Pub. L. 101–73, title XIV, §1401(c)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 550, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] shall apply to acquisitions on or after May 10, 1989."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by section 1018(q)(5) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 100–647, title IV, §4012(b)(1)(C)(i), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3657, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to acquisitions after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988] and before January 1, 1990."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Repeal of amendment by section 806(f)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective Jan. 1, 1986, with certain exceptions, see section 621(f)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 382 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title IX, §904(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2385, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title IV, §4012(a)(1), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3656, which provided that the amendments made by subsection (a), amending this section, were to apply to acquisitions after Dec. 31, 1989, in taxable years ending after such date, was repealed by Pub. L. 101–73, title XIV, §1401(b)(1), Aug. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 549.

Amendment by section 1804(g)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to plans of reorganizations adopted after Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1804(g)(4) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 361 of this title.

Amendment by section 1804(h) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1879(l)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2910, provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply as if included in section 2131 of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [Pub. L. 94–455]."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 63(a) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions pursuant to plans adopted after July 18, 1984, see section 63(c) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 312 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §64(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 584, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to transactions pursuant to plans adopted after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]."

Amendment by section 174(b)(5)(D) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after that date, see section 174(c)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 267 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §311(b)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2411, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) of section 304 [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the amendments made by section 4 of such Act [Pub. L. 96–589, the Bankruptcy Tax Act of 1980, see 1980 Amendment notes above]."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §225(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 490, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to transactions occurring after August 31, 1982.

"(2) Plans adopted on or before august 31, 1982.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to plans of reorganization adopted on or before August 31, 1982, but only if the transaction occurs before January 1, 1983."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title II, §246(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 256, provided that: "The amendment made by sections 241 and 242 [amending this section and section 382 of this title] shall apply to any transfer made on or after January 1, 1981."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to bankruptcy cases or similar judicial proceedings commencing after Dec. 31, 1980, with exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to such cases or proceedings commencing after Sept. 30, 1979, see section 7(c)(1), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(j)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2906, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(A) Except as provided in subparagraphs (B) and (C), the amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply as if included in section 368(a)(2)(F) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] as added by section 2131(a) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2131(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1922].

"(B) Clause (viii) of section 368(a)(2)(F) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by paragraph (1)) shall apply only with respect to losses sustained after September 26, 1977.

"(C) Clause (vii) of section 368(a)(2)(F) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by paragraph (1)) shall apply only with respect to transfers made after September 26, 1977."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XXI, §2131(f)(1), (2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1924, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers made after February 17, 1976, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to transfers made in accordance with a ruling issued by the Internal Revenue Service before February 18, 1976, holding that a proposed transaction would be a reorganization described in paragraph (1) of section 368(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]."

For effective date of amendment by section 806(f)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, see section 806(g)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 94–455, formerly set out as a note under section 382 of this title.

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–693, §1(c), Jan. 12, 1971, 84 Stat. 2077, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to statutory mergers occurring after December 31, 1970."

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment

Pub. L. 90–621, §1(c), Oct. 22, 1968, 82 Stat. 1311, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) [amending this section] shall apply to statutory mergers occurring after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1968]."

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §218(c), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 57, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to transactions after December 31, 1963, in taxable years ending after such date."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.