[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter F, PART III: TAXATION OF BUSINESS INCOME OF CERTAIN EXEMPT ORGANIZATIONS
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter F, PART III: TAXATION OF BUSINESS INCOME OF CERTAIN EXEMPT ORGANIZATIONS
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter F—Exempt Organizations

PART III—TAXATION OF BUSINESS INCOME OF CERTAIN EXEMPT ORGANIZATIONS

Sec.
511.
Imposition of tax on unrelated business income of charitable, etc., organizations.
512.
Unrelated business taxable income.
513.
Unrelated trade or business.
514.
Unrelated debt-financed income.
515.
Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(125), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1190, substituted "Imposition of tax on unrelated business income of charitable, etc., organizations." for "Imposition of tax on unrelated business income of charitable organizations, etc." in item 511.

1969Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §§101(a), 121(d)(3)(C), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 492, 548, substituted "PART III" for "PART II" as part designation and substituted "Unrelated debt-financed income" for "Business leases" in item 514.

§511. Imposition of tax on unrelated business income of charitable, etc., organizations

(a) Charitable, etc., organizations taxable at corporation rates

(1) Imposition of tax

There is hereby imposed for each taxable year on the unrelated business taxable income (as defined in section 512) of every organization described in paragraph (2) a tax computed as provided in section 11. In making such computation for purposes of this section, the term "taxable income" as used in section 11 shall be read as "unrelated business taxable income".

(2) Organizations subject to tax

(A) Organizations described in sections 401(a) and 501(c)

The tax imposed by paragraph (1) shall apply in the case of any organization (other than a trust described in subsection (b) or an organization described in section 501(c)(1)) which is exempt, except as provided in this part or part II (relating to private foundations), from taxation under this subtitle by reason of section 501(a).

(B) State colleges and universities

The tax imposed by paragraph (1) shall apply in the case of any college or university which is an agency or instrumentality of any government or any political subdivision thereof, or which is owned or operated by a government or any political subdivision thereof, or by any agency or instrumentality of one or more governments or political subdivisions. Such tax shall also apply in the case of any corporation wholly owned by one or more such colleges or universities.

(b) Tax on charitable, etc., trusts

(1) Imposition of tax

There is hereby imposed for each taxable year on the unrelated business taxable income of every trust described in paragraph (2) a tax computed as provided in section 1(e). In making such computation for purposes of this section, the term "taxable income" as used in section 1 shall be read as "unrelated business taxable income" as defined in section 512.

(2) Charitable, etc., trusts subject to tax

The tax imposed by paragraph (1) shall apply in the case of any trust which is exempt, except as provided in this part or part II (relating to private foundations), from taxation under this subtitle by reason of section 501(a) and which, if it were not for such exemption, would be subject to subchapter J (sec. 641 and following, relating to estates, trusts, beneficiaries, and decedents).

(c) Special rule for section 501(c)(2) corporations

If a corporation described in section 501(c)(2)—

(1) pays any amount of its net income for a taxable year to an organization exempt from taxation under section 501(a) (or which would pay such an amount but for the fact that the expenses of collecting its income exceed its income), and

(2) such corporation and such organization file a consolidated return for the taxable year,


such corporation shall be treated, for purposes of the tax imposed by subsection (a), as being organized and operated for the same purposes as such organization, in addition to the purposes described in section 501(c)(2).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 169; Pub. L. 86–667, §3, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 535; Pub. L. 89–352, §2, Feb. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 4; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §121(a)(1)–(3), title III, §301(b)(8), title VIII, §803(d)(2), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 536, 585, 684; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(6), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 133; Pub. L. 95–600, title III, §301(b)(5), title IV, §421(e)(3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2821, 2876; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §201(d)(5), formerly §201(c)(5), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 419, renumbered §201(d)(5), Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(1)(A)(i), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2400; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1007(g)(6), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3435.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–647 struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: "Tax Preferences.—

"(1) Organizations taxable at corporate rates.—If an organization is subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income pursuant to subsection (a), the tax imposed by section 56 shall apply to such organizations with respect to items of tax preference which enter into the computation of unrelated business taxable income in the same manner as section 56 applies to corporations.

"(2) Organizations taxable as trusts.—If an organization is subject to tax on unrelated business taxable income pursuant to subsection (b), the taxes imposed by section 55 shall apply to such organization with respect to items of tax preference which enter into the computation of unrelated business taxable income."

1982—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–248 substituted "section 55" for "section 55 and section 56 (as the case may be)".

1978—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §301(b)(5)(A), substituted "a tax" for "a normal tax and a surtax".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–600, §301(b)(5)(B), substituted "tax" for "taxes" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–600, §421(e)(3), substituted provisions relating to organizations taxable at corporate rates and organizations taxable as trusts, for provisions relating to imposition of the tax imposed by section 56 of this title to an organization subject to tax under this section for tax preferences computed in unrelated business taxable income.

1977—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–30 substituted "section 1(e)" for "section 1(d)".

1969—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(a)(1), removed reference, in heading, to pars. (2), (3), (5), (6), (14)(B), (C), and (17) of section 501(c) of this title, and, in text, struck out exemptions to churches, conventions, or associations of churches, from the imposition of tax on their unrelated business income, made corporations organized under section 501(c)(1) of this title (i.e. organized under Acts of Congress), exempt from such tax, but made all such exemptions subservient to the exceptions in part II and section 501(a) of this title.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–172, §803(d)(2), substituted section 1(d) for section 1 in reference to section under which the computation of the tax dealing with the imposition of tax on the unrelated business taxable income of trusts, is computed.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(a)(2), pluralized "trust" in heading and in text made the imposition of tax on the unrelated business income of exempt trusts subject to provisions of part II, and, for purposes of determining trusts exempt from taxation, substituted reference to section 501(a) for reference to "section 501(c)(3) or (17) or section 401(a)".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(a)(3), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c), covering the effective date, was struck out.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–172, §301(b)(8), added subsec. (d).

1966—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 89–352 inserted "(14)(B) or (C)," after "(6)," in heading and in text.

1960—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 86–667, §3(a), included organizations described in section 501(c)(17) within subpar. (A).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 86–667, §3(b), inserted a reference to section 501(c)(17).

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 201(e)(1) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(b)(5)(A), (B) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Amendment by section 421(e)(3) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 421(g) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §121(g), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 549, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 48, 501, 502, 503, 512 to 514, 681, 801, 810, 1443, 1504, and 7605 of this title] (other than by subsections (b)(3) and (e) [enacting sections 277 and 6050 of this title]) shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969. The amendments made by subsection (b)(3) [enacting section 277 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1970. The amendments made by subsection (e) [enacting section 6050 of this title] shall apply with respect to transfers of property after December 31, 1969. Where an organization makes a bargain purchase of property before October 9, 1969, which is subject to a mortgage which was placed on the property more than 5 years before the purchase, and the organization paid the seller a total amount no greater than the amount of the seller's cost (including attorneys' fees) directly related to the transfer of such property to the organization (but in any event no more than 10 percent of the value of the seller's equity in the property), the indebtedness secured by such mortgage shall not be treated, notwithstanding the amendments made by subsection (d)(1) [amending section 514 of this title], as acquisition indebtedness for purposes of section 514(c)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] during a period of 10 years following the date of the transaction."

Amendment by section 301(b)(8) of Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 301(c) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 5 of this title.

Amendment by section 803(d)(2) of Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 803(f) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–352, §3, Feb. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 4, provided in part that: "The amendment made by section 2 [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 2, 1966]."

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–667 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1959, see section 6 of Pub. L. 86–667, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

§512. Unrelated business taxable income

(a) Definition

For purposes of this title—

(1) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the term "unrelated business taxable income" means the gross income derived by any organization from any unrelated trade or business (as defined in section 513) regularly carried on by it, less the deductions allowed by this chapter which are directly connected with the carrying on of such trade or business, both computed with the modifications provided in subsection (b).

(2) Special rule for foreign organizations

In the case of an organization described in section 511 which is a foreign organization, the unrelated business taxable income shall be—

(A) its unrelated business taxable income which is derived from sources within the United States and which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States, plus

(B) its unrelated business taxable income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(3) Special rules applicable to organizations described in paragraph (7), (9), or (17) of section 501(c)

(A) General rule

In the case of an organization described in paragraph (7), (9), or (17) of section 501(c), the term "unrelated business taxable income" means the gross income (excluding any exempt function income), less the deductions allowed by this chapter which are directly connected with the production of the gross income (excluding exempt function income), both computed with the modifications provided in paragraphs (6), (10), (11), and (12) of subsection (b). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the deductions provided by sections 243 and 245 (relating to dividends received by corporations) shall be treated as not directly connected with the production of gross income.

(B) Exempt function income

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "exempt function income" means the gross income from dues, fees, charges, or similar amounts paid by members of the organization as consideration for providing such members or their dependents or guests goods, facilities, or services in furtherance of the purposes constituting the basis for the exemption of the organization to which such income is paid. Such term also means all income (other than an amount equal to the gross income derived from any unrelated trade or business regularly carried on by such organization computed as if the organization were subject to paragraph (1)), which is set aside—

(i) for a purpose specified in section 170(c)(4), or

(ii) in the case of an organization described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c), to provide for the payment of life, sick, accident, or other benefits,


including reasonable costs of administration directly connected with a purpose described in clause (i) or (ii). If during the taxable year, an amount which is attributable to income so set aside is used for a purpose other than that described in clause (i) or (ii), such amount shall be included, under subparagraph (A), in unrelated business taxable income for the taxable year.

(C) Applicability to certain corporations described in section 501(c)(2)

In the case of a corporation described in section 501(c)(2), the income of which is payable to an organization described in paragraph (7), (9), or (17) of section 501(c), subparagraph (A) shall apply as if such corporation were the organization to which the income is payable. For purposes of the preceding sentence, such corporation shall be treated as having exempt function income for a taxable year only if it files a consolidated return with such organization for such year.

(D) Nonrecognition of gain

If property used directly in the performance of the exempt function of an organization described in paragraph (7), (9), or (17) of section 501(c) is sold by such organization, and within a period beginning 1 year before the date of such sale, and ending 3 years after such date, other property is purchased and used by such organization directly in the performance of its exempt function, gain (if any) from such sale shall be recognized only to the extent that such organization's sales price of the old property exceeds the organization's cost of purchasing the other property. For purposes of this subparagraph, the destruction in whole or in part, theft, seizure, requisition, or condemnation of property, shall be treated as the sale of such property, and rules similar to the rules provided by subsections (b), (c), (e), and (j) of section 1034 (as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997) shall apply.

(E) Limitation on amount of setaside in the case of organizations described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c)

(i) In general

In the case of any organization described in paragraph (9) or (17) of section 501(c), a set-aside for any purpose specified in clause (ii) of subparagraph (B) may be taken into account under subparagraph (B) only to the extent that such set-aside does not result in an amount of assets set aside for such purpose in excess of the account limit determined under section 419A (without regard to subsection (f)(6) thereof) for the taxable year (not taking into account any reserve described in section 419A(c)(2)(A) for post-retirement medical benefits).

(ii) Treatment of existing reserves for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits

(I) Clause (i) shall not apply to any income attributable to an existing reserve for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits.

(II) For purposes of subclause (I), the term "reserve for post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits" means the greater of the amount of assets set aside for purposes of post-retirement medical or life insurance benefits to be provided to covered employees as of the close of the last plan year ending before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 or on July 18, 1984.

(III) All payments during plan years ending on or after the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 of post-retirement medical benefits or life insurance benefits shall be charged against the reserve referred to in subclause (II). Except to the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, all plans of an employer shall be treated as 1 plan for purposes of the preceding sentence.

(iii) Treatment of tax exempt organizations

This subparagraph shall not apply to any organization if substantially all of the contributions to such organization are made by employers who were exempt from tax under this chapter throughout the 5-taxable year period ending with the taxable year in which the contributions are made.

(4) Special rule applicable to organizations described in section 501(c)(19)

In the case of an organization described in section 501(c)(19), the term "unrelated business taxable income" does not include any amount attributable to payments for life, sick, accident, or health insurance with respect to members of such organizations or their dependents which is set aside for the purpose of providing for the payment of insurance benefits or for a purpose specified in section 170(c)(4). If an amount set aside under the preceding sentence is used during the taxable year for a purpose other than a purpose described in the preceding sentence, such amount shall be included, under paragraph (1), in unrelated business taxable income for the taxable year.

(5) Definition of payments with respect to securities loans

(A) The term "payments with respect to securities loans" includes all amounts received in respect of a security (as defined in section 1236(c)) transferred by the owner to another person in a transaction to which section 1058 applies (whether or not title to the security remains in the name of the lender) including—

(i) amounts in respect of dividends, interest, or other distributions,

(ii) fees computed by reference to the period beginning with the transfer of securities by the owner and ending with the transfer of identical securities back to the transferor by the transferee and the fair market value of the security during such period,

(iii) income from collateral security for such loan, and

(iv) income from the investment of collateral security.


(B) Subparagraph (A) shall apply only with respect to securities transferred pursuant to an agreement between the transferor and the transferee which provides for—

(i) reasonable procedures to implement the obligation of the transferee to furnish to the transferor, for each business day during such period, collateral with a fair market value not less than the fair market value of the security at the close of business on the preceding business day,

(ii) termination of the loan by the transferor upon notice of not more than 5 business days, and

(iii) return to the transferor of securities identical to the transferred securities upon termination of the loan.

(6) Special rule for organization with more than 1 unrelated trade or business

In the case of any organization with more than 1 unrelated trade or business—

(A) unrelated business taxable income, including for purposes of determining any net operating loss deduction, shall be computed separately with respect to each such trade or business and without regard to subsection (b)(12),

(B) the unrelated business taxable income of such organization shall be the sum of the unrelated business taxable income so computed with respect to each such trade or business, less a specific deduction under subsection (b)(12), and

(C) for purposes of subparagraph (B), unrelated business taxable income with respect to any such trade or business shall not be less than zero.

(7) Increase in unrelated business taxable income by disallowed fringe

Unrelated business taxable income of an organization shall be increased by any amount for which a deduction is not allowable under this chapter by reason of section 274 and which is paid or incurred by such organization for any qualified transportation fringe (as defined in section 132(f)), any parking facility used in connection with qualified parking (as defined in section 132(f)(5)(C)), or any on-premises athletic facility (as defined in section 132(j)(4)(B)). The preceding sentence shall not apply to the extent the amount paid or incurred is directly connected with an unrelated trade or business which is regularly carried on by the organization. The Secretary shall issue such regulations or other guidance as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations or other guidance providing for the appropriate allocation of depreciation and other costs with respect to facilities used for parking or for on-premises athletic facilities.

(b) Modifications

The modifications referred to in subsection (a) are the following:

(1) There shall be excluded all dividends, interest, payments with respect to securities loans (as defined in subsection (a)(5)), amounts received or accrued as consideration for entering into agreements to make loans, and annuities, and all deductions directly connected with such income.

(2) There shall be excluded all royalties (including overriding royalties) whether measured by production or by gross or taxable income from the property, and all deductions directly connected with such income.

(3) In the case of rents—

(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), there shall be excluded—

(i) all rents from real property (including property described in section 1245(a)(3)(C)), and

(ii) all rents from personal property (including for purposes of this paragraph as personal property any property described in section 1245(a)(3)(B)) leased with such real property, if the rents attributable to such personal property are an incidental amount of the total rents received or accrued under the lease, determined at the time the personal property is placed in service.


(B) Subparagraph (A) shall not apply—

(i) if more than 50 percent of the total rent received or accrued under the lease is attributable to personal property described in subparagraph (A)(ii), or

(ii) if the determination of the amount of such rent depends in whole or in part on the income or profits derived by any person from the property leased (other than an amount based on a fixed percentage or percentages of receipts or sales).


(C) There shall be excluded all deductions directly connected with rents excluded under subparagraph (A).


(4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (5), in the case of debt-financed property (as defined in section 514) there shall be included, as an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business, the amount ascertained under section 514(a)(1), and there shall be allowed, as a deduction, the amount ascertained under section 514(a)(2).

(5) There shall be excluded all gains or losses from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of property other than—

(A) stock in trade or other property of a kind which would properly be includible in inventory if on hand at the close of the taxable year, or

(B) property held primarily for sale to customers in the ordinary course of the trade or business.


There shall also be excluded all gains or losses recognized, in connection with the organization's investment activities, from the lapse or termination of options to buy or sell securities (as defined in section 1236(c)) or real property and all gains or losses from the forfeiture of good-faith deposits (that are consistent with established business practice) for the purchase, sale, or lease of real property in connection with the organization's investment activities. This paragraph shall not apply with respect to the cutting of timber which is considered, on the application of section 631, as a sale or exchange of such timber.

(6) The net operating loss deduction provided in section 172 shall be allowed, except that—

(A) the net operating loss for any taxable year, the amount of the net operating loss carryback or carryover to any taxable year, and the net operating loss deduction for any taxable year shall be determined under section 172 without taking into account any amount of income or deduction which is excluded under this part in computing the unrelated business taxable income; and

(B) the terms "preceding taxable year" and "preceding taxable years" as used in section 172 shall not include any taxable year for which the organization was not subject to the provisions of this part.


(7) There shall be excluded all income derived from research for (A) the United States, or any of its agencies or instrumentalities, or (B) any State or political subdivision thereof; and there shall be excluded all deductions directly connected with such income.

(8) In the case of a college, university, or hospital, there shall be excluded all income derived from research performed for any person, and all deductions directly connected with such income.

(9) In the case of an organization operated primarily for purposes of carrying on fundamental research the results of which are freely available to the general public, there shall be excluded all income derived from research performed for any person, and all deductions directly connected with such income.

(10) In the case of any organization described in section 511(a), the deduction allowed by section 170 (relating to charitable etc. contributions and gifts) shall be allowed (whether or not directly connected with the carrying on of the trade or business), but shall not exceed 10 percent of the unrelated business taxable income computed without the benefit of this paragraph.

(11) In the case of any trust described in section 511(b), the deduction allowed by section 170 (relating to charitable etc. contributions and gifts) shall be allowed (whether or not directly connected with the carrying on of the trade or business), and for such purpose a distribution made by the trust to a beneficiary described in section 170 shall be considered as a gift or contribution. The deduction allowed by this paragraph shall be allowed with the limitations prescribed in section 170(b)(1)(A) and (B) determined with reference to the unrelated business taxable income computed without the benefit of this paragraph (in lieu of with reference to adjusted gross income).

(12) Except for purposes of computing the net operating loss under section 172 and paragraph (6), there shall be allowed a specific deduction of $1,000. In the case of a diocese, province of a religious order, or a convention or association of churches, there shall also be allowed, with respect to each parish, individual church, district, or other local unit, a specific deduction equal to the lower of—

(A) $1,000, or

(B) the gross income derived from any unrelated trade or business regularly carried on by such local unit.


(13) Special rules for certain amounts received from controlled entities.—

(A) In general.—If an organization (in this paragraph referred to as the "controlling organization") receives or accrues (directly or indirectly) a specified payment from another entity which it controls (in this paragraph referred to as the "controlled entity"), notwithstanding paragraphs (1), (2), and (3), the controlling organization shall include such payment as an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business to the extent such payment reduces the net unrelated income of the controlled entity (or increases any net unrelated loss of the controlled entity). There shall be allowed all deductions of the controlling organization directly connected with amounts treated as derived from an unrelated trade or business under the preceding sentence.

(B) Net unrelated income or loss.—For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Net unrelated income.—The term "net unrelated income" means—

(I) in the case of a controlled entity which is not exempt from tax under section 501(a), the portion of such entity's taxable income which would be unrelated business taxable income if such entity were exempt from tax under section 501(a) and had the same exempt purposes as the controlling organization, or

(II) in the case of a controlled entity which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), the amount of the unrelated business taxable income of the controlled entity.


(ii) Net unrelated loss.—The term "net unrelated loss" means the net operating loss adjusted under rules similar to the rules of clause (i).


(C) Specified payment.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term "specified payment" means any interest, annuity, royalty, or rent.

(D) Definition of control.—For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Control.—The term "control" means—

(I) in the case of a corporation, ownership (by vote or value) of more than 50 percent of the stock in such corporation,

(II) in the case of a partnership, ownership of more than 50 percent of the profits interests or capital interests in such partnership, or

(III) in any other case, ownership of more than 50 percent of the beneficial interests in the entity.


(ii) Constructive ownership.—Section 318 (relating to constructive ownership of stock) shall apply for purposes of determining ownership of stock in a corporation. Similar principles shall apply for purposes of determining ownership of interests in any other entity.


(E) Paragraph to apply only to certain excess payments.—

(i) In general.—Subparagraph (A) shall apply only to the portion of a qualifying specified payment received or accrued by the controlling organization that exceeds the amount which would have been paid or accrued if such payment met the requirements prescribed under section 482.

(ii) Addition to tax for valuation misstatements.—The tax imposed by this chapter on the controlling organization shall be increased by an amount equal to 20 percent of the larger of—

(I) such excess determined without regard to any amendment or supplement to a return of tax, or

(II) such excess determined with regard to all such amendments and supplements.


(iii) Qualifying specified payment.—The term "qualifying specified payment" means a specified payment which is made pursuant to—

(I) a binding written contract in effect on the date of the enactment of this subparagraph, or

(II) a contract which is a renewal, under substantially similar terms, of a contract described in subclause (I).



(F) Related persons.—The Secretary shall prescribe such rules as may be necessary or appropriate to prevent avoidance of the purposes of this paragraph through the use of related persons.


[(14) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(23), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521.]

(15) Except as provided in paragraph (4), in the case of a trade or business—

(A) which consists of providing services under license issued by a Federal regulatory agency,

(B) which is carried on by a religious order or by an educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) maintained by such religious order, and which was so carried on before May 27, 1959, and

(C) less than 10 percent of the net income of which for each taxable year is used for activities which are not related to the purpose constituting the basis for the religious order's exemption,


there shall be excluded all gross income derived from such trade or business and all deductions directly connected with the carrying on of such trade or business, so long as it is established to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the rates or other charges for such services are competitive with rates or other charges charged for similar services by persons not exempt from taxation.

(16)(A) Notwithstanding paragraph (5)(B), there shall be excluded all gains or losses from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of any real property described in subparagraph (B) if—

(i) such property was acquired by the organization from—

(I) a financial institution described in section 581 or 591(a) which is in conservatorship or receivership, or

(II) the conservator or receiver of such an institution (or any government agency or corporation succeeding to the rights or interests of the conservator or receiver),


(ii) such property is designated by the organization within the 9-month period beginning on the date of its acquisition as property held for sale, except that not more than one-half (by value determined as of such date) of property acquired in a single transaction may be so designated,

(iii) such sale, exchange, or disposition occurs before the later of—

(I) the date which is 30 months after the date of the acquisition of such property, or

(II) the date specified by the Secretary in order to assure an orderly disposition of property held by persons described in subparagraph (A), and


(iv) while such property was held by the organization, the aggregate expenditures on improvements and development activities included in the basis of the property are (or were) not in excess of 20 percent of the net selling price of such property.


(B) Property is described in this subparagraph if it is real property which—

(i) was held by the financial institution at the time it entered into conservatorship or receivership, or

(ii) was foreclosure property (as defined in section 514(c)(9)(H)(v)) which secured indebtedness held by the financial institution at such time.


For purposes of this subparagraph, real property includes an interest in a mortgage.

(17) Treatment of certain amounts derived from foreign corporations.—

(A) In general.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1), any amount included in gross income under section 951(a)(1)(A) shall be included as an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business to the extent the amount so included is attributable to insurance income (as defined in section 953) which, if derived directly by the organization, would be treated as gross income from an unrelated trade or business. There shall be allowed all deductions directly connected with amounts included in gross income under the preceding sentence.

(B) Exception.—

(i) In general.—Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to income attributable to a policy of insurance or reinsurance with respect to which the person (directly or indirectly) insured is—

(I) such organization,

(II) an affiliate of such organization which is exempt from tax under section 501(a), or

(III) a director or officer of, or an individual who (directly or indirectly) performs services for, such organization or affiliate but only if the insurance covers primarily risks associated with the performance of services in connection with such organization or affiliate.


(ii) Affiliate.—For purposes of this subparagraph—

(I) In general.—The determination as to whether an entity is an affiliate of an organization shall be made under rules similar to the rules of section 168(h)(4)(B).

(II) Special rule.—Two or more organizations (and any affiliates of such organizations) shall be treated as affiliates if such organizations are colleges or universities described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) or organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii) and participate in an insurance arrangement that provides for any profits from such arrangement to be returned to the policyholders in their capacity as such.


(C) Regulations.—The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this paragraph, including regulations for the application of this paragraph in the case of income paid through 1 or more entities or between 2 or more chains of entities.


(18) Treatment of mutual or cooperative electric companies.—In the case of a mutual or cooperative electric company described in section 501(c)(12), there shall be excluded income which is treated as member income under subparagraph (H) thereof.

(19) Treatment of gain or loss on sale or exchange of certain brownfield sites.—

(A) In general.—Notwithstanding paragraph (5)(B), there shall be excluded any gain or loss from the qualified sale, exchange, or other disposition of any qualifying brownfield property by an eligible taxpayer.

(B) Eligible taxpayer.—For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general.—The term "eligible taxpayer" means, with respect to a property, any organization exempt from tax under section 501(a) which—

(I) acquires from an unrelated person a qualifying brownfield property, and

(II) pays or incurs eligible remediation expenditures with respect to such property in an amount which exceeds the greater of $550,000 or 12 percent of the fair market value of the property at the time such property was acquired by the eligible taxpayer, determined as if there was not a presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant on the property which is complicating the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of the property.


(ii) Exception.—Such term shall not include any organization which is—

(I) potentially liable under section 107 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 with respect to the qualifying brownfield property,

(II) affiliated with any other person which is so potentially liable through any direct or indirect familial relationship or any contractual, corporate, or financial relationship (other than a contractual, corporate, or financial relationship which is created by the instruments by which title to any qualifying brownfield property is conveyed or financed or by a contract of sale of goods or services), or

(III) the result of a reorganization of a business entity which was so potentially liable.


(C) Qualifying brownfield property.—For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general.—The term "qualifying brownfield property" means any real property which is certified, before the taxpayer incurs any eligible remediation expenditures (other than to obtain a Phase I environmental site assessment), by an appropriate State agency (within the meaning of section 198(c)(4)) in the State in which such property is located as a brownfield site within the meaning of section 101(39) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph).

(ii) Request for certification.—Any request by an eligible taxpayer for a certification described in clause (i) shall include a sworn statement by the eligible taxpayer and supporting documentation of the presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant on the property which is complicating the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of the property given the property's reasonably anticipated future land uses or capacity for uses of the property (including a Phase I environmental site assessment and, if applicable, evidence of the property's presence on a local, State, or Federal list of brownfields or contaminated property) and other environmental assessments prepared or obtained by the taxpayer.


(D) Qualified sale, exchange, or other disposition.—For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general.—A sale, exchange, or other disposition of property shall be considered as qualified if—

(I) such property is transferred by the eligible taxpayer to an unrelated person, and

(II) within 1 year of such transfer the eligible taxpayer has received a certification from the Environmental Protection Agency or an appropriate State agency (within the meaning of section 198(c)(4)) in the State in which such property is located that, as a result of the eligible taxpayer's remediation actions, such property would not be treated as a qualifying brownfield property in the hands of the transferee.


 For purposes of subclause (II), before issuing such certification, the Environmental Protection Agency or appropriate State agency shall respond to comments received pursuant to clause (ii)(V) in the same form and manner as required under section 117(b) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph).

(ii) Request for certification.—Any request by an eligible taxpayer for a certification described in clause (i) shall be made not later than the date of the transfer and shall include a sworn statement by the eligible taxpayer certifying the following:

(I) Remedial actions which comply with all applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (consistent with section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) have been substantially completed, such that there are no hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants which complicate the expansion, redevelopment, or reuse of the property given the property's reasonably anticipated future land uses or capacity for uses of the property.

(II) The reasonably anticipated future land uses or capacity for uses of the property are more economically productive or environmentally beneficial than the uses of the property in existence on the date of the certification described in subparagraph (C)(i). For purposes of the preceding sentence, use of property as a landfill or other hazardous waste facility shall not be considered more economically productive or environmentally beneficial.

(III) A remediation plan has been implemented to bring the property into compliance with all applicable local, State, and Federal environmental laws, regulations, and standards and to ensure that the remediation protects human health and the environment.

(IV) The remediation plan described in subclause (III), including any physical improvements required to remediate the property, is either complete or substantially complete, and, if substantially complete, sufficient monitoring, funding, institutional controls, and financial assurances have been put in place to ensure the complete remediation of the property in accordance with the remediation plan as soon as is reasonably practicable after the sale, exchange, or other disposition of such property.

(V) Public notice and the opportunity for comment on the request for certification was completed before the date of such request. Such notice and opportunity for comment shall be in the same form and manner as required for public participation required under section 117(a) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (as in effect on the date of the enactment of this paragraph). For purposes of this subclause, public notice shall include, at a minimum, publication in a major local newspaper of general circulation.


(iii) Attachment to tax returns.—A copy of each of the requests for certification described in clause (ii) of subparagraph (C) and this subparagraph shall be included in the tax return of the eligible taxpayer (and, where applicable, of the qualifying partnership) for the taxable year during which the transfer occurs.

(iv) Substantial completion.—For purposes of this subparagraph, a remedial action is substantially complete when any necessary physical construction is complete, all immediate threats have been eliminated, and all long-term threats are under control.


(E) Eligible remediation expenditures.—For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general.—The term "eligible remediation expenditures" means, with respect to any qualifying brownfield property, any amount paid or incurred by the eligible taxpayer to an unrelated third person to obtain a Phase I environmental site assessment of the property, and any amount so paid or incurred after the date of the certification described in subparagraph (C)(i) for goods and services necessary to obtain a certification described in subparagraph (D)(i) with respect to such property, including expenditures—

(I) to manage, remove, control, contain, abate, or otherwise remediate a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant on the property,

(II) to obtain a Phase II environmental site assessment of the property, including any expenditure to monitor, sample, study, assess, or otherwise evaluate the release, threat of release, or presence of a hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant on the property,

(III) to obtain environmental regulatory certifications and approvals required to manage the remediation and monitoring of the hazardous substance, pollutant, or contaminant on the property, and

(IV) regardless of whether it is necessary to obtain a certification described in subparagraph (D)(i)(II), to obtain remediation cost-cap or stop-loss coverage, re-opener or regulatory action coverage, or similar coverage under environmental insurance policies, or financial guarantees required to manage such remediation and monitoring.


(ii) Exceptions.—Such term shall not include—

(I) any portion of the purchase price paid or incurred by the eligible taxpayer to acquire the qualifying brownfield property,

(II) environmental insurance costs paid or incurred to obtain legal defense coverage, owner/operator liability coverage, lender liability coverage, professional liability coverage, or similar types of coverage,

(III) any amount paid or incurred to the extent such amount is reimbursed, funded, or otherwise subsidized by grants provided by the United States, a State, or a political subdivision of a State for use in connection with the property, proceeds of an issue of State or local government obligations used to provide financing for the property the interest of which is exempt from tax under section 103, or subsidized financing provided (directly or indirectly) under a Federal, State, or local program provided in connection with the property, or

(IV) any expenditure paid or incurred before the date of the enactment of this paragraph.


 For purposes of subclause (III), the Secretary may issue guidance regarding the treatment of government-provided funds for purposes of determining eligible remediation expenditures.


(F) Determination of gain or loss.—For purposes of this paragraph, the determination of gain or loss shall not include an amount treated as gain which is ordinary income with respect to section 1245 or section 1250 property, including amounts deducted as section 198 expenses which are subject to the recapture rules of section 198(e), if the taxpayer had deducted such amounts in the computation of its unrelated business taxable income.

(G) Special rules for partnerships.—

(i) In general.—In the case of an eligible taxpayer which is a partner of a qualifying partnership which acquires, remediates, and sells, exchanges, or otherwise disposes of a qualifying brownfield property, this paragraph shall apply to the eligible taxpayer's distributive share of the qualifying partnership's gain or loss from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of such property.

(ii) Qualifying partnership.—The term "qualifying partnership" means a partnership which—

(I) has a partnership agreement which satisfies the requirements of section 514(c)(9)(B)(vi) at all times beginning on the date of the first certification received by the partnership under subparagraph (C)(i),

(II) satisfies the requirements of subparagraphs (B)(i), (C), (D), and (E), if "qualified partnership" is substituted for "eligible taxpayer" each place it appears therein (except subparagraph (D)(iii)), and

(III) is not an organization which would be prevented from constituting an eligible taxpayer by reason of subparagraph (B)(ii).


(iii) Requirement that tax-exempt partner be a partner since first certification.—This paragraph shall apply with respect to any eligible taxpayer which is a partner of a partnership which acquires, remediates, and sells, exchanges, or otherwise disposes of a qualifying brownfield property only if such eligible taxpayer was a partner of the qualifying partnership at all times beginning on the date of the first certification received by the partnership under subparagraph (C)(i) and ending on the date of the sale, exchange, or other disposition of the property by the partnership.

(iv) Regulations.—The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary to prevent abuse of the requirements of this subparagraph, including abuse through—

(I) the use of special allocations of gains or losses, or

(II) changes in ownership of partnership interests held by eligible taxpayers.


(H) Special rules for multiple properties.—

(i) In general.—An eligible taxpayer or a qualifying partnership of which the eligible taxpayer is a partner may make a 1-time election to apply this paragraph to more than 1 qualifying brownfield property by averaging the eligible remediation expenditures for all such properties acquired during the election period. If the eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership makes such an election, the election shall apply to all qualified sales, exchanges, or other dispositions of qualifying brownfield properties the acquisition and transfer of which occur during the period for which the election remains in effect.

(ii) Election.—An election under clause (i) shall be made with the eligible taxpayer's or qualifying partnership's timely filed tax return (including extensions) for the first taxable year for which the taxpayer or qualifying partnership intends to have the election apply. An election under clause (i) is effective for the period—

(I) beginning on the date which is the first day of the taxable year of the return in which the election is included or a later day in such taxable year selected by the eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership, and

(II) ending on the date which is the earliest of a date of revocation selected by the eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership, the date which is 8 years after the date described in subclause (I), or, in the case of an election by a qualifying partnership of which the eligible taxpayer is a partner, the date of the termination of the qualifying partnership.


(iii) Revocation.—An eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership may revoke an election under clause (i) by filing a statement of revocation with a timely filed tax return (including extensions). A revocation is effective as of the first day of the taxable year of the return in which the revocation is included or a later day in such taxable year selected by the eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership. Once an eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership revokes the election, the eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership is ineligible to make another election under clause (i) with respect to any qualifying brownfield property subject to the revoked election.


(I) Recapture.—If an eligible taxpayer excludes gain or loss from a sale, exchange, or other disposition of property to which an election under subparagraph (H) applies, and such property fails to satisfy the requirements of this paragraph, the unrelated business taxable income of the eligible taxpayer for the taxable year in which such failure occurs shall be determined by including any previously excluded gain or loss from such sale, exchange, or other disposition allocable to such taxpayer, and interest shall be determined at the overpayment rate established under section 6621 on any resulting tax for the period beginning with the due date of the return for the taxable year during which such sale, exchange, or other disposition occurred, and ending on the date of payment of the tax.

(J) Related persons.—For purposes of this paragraph, a person shall be treated as related to another person if—

(i) such person bears a relationship to such other person described in section 267(b) (determined without regard to paragraph (9) thereof), or section 707(b)(1), determined by substituting "25 percent" for "50 percent" each place it appears therein, and

(ii) in the case such other person is a nonprofit organization, if such person controls directly or indirectly more than 25 percent of the governing body of such organization.


(K) Termination.—Except for purposes of determining the average eligible remediation expenditures for properties acquired during the election period under subparagraph (H), this paragraph shall not apply to any property acquired by the eligible taxpayer or qualifying partnership after December 31, 2009.

(c) Special rules for partnerships

(1) In general

If a trade or business regularly carried on by a partnership of which an organization is a member is an unrelated trade or business with respect to such organization, such organization in computing its unrelated business taxable income shall, subject to the exceptions, additions, and limitations contained in subsection (b), include its share (whether or not distributed) of the gross income of the partnership from such unrelated trade or business and its share of the partnership deductions directly connected with such gross income.

(2) Special rule where partnership year is different from organization's year

If the taxable year of the organization is different from that of the partnership, the amounts to be included or deducted in computing the unrelated business taxable income under paragraph (1) shall be based upon the income and deductions of the partnership for any taxable year of the partnership ending within or with the taxable year of the organization.

(d) Treatment of dues of agricultural or horticultural organizations

(1) In general

If—

(A) an agricultural or horticultural organization described in section 501(c)(5) requires annual dues to be paid in order to be a member of such organization, and

(B) the amount of such required annual dues does not exceed $100,


in no event shall any portion of such dues be treated as derived by such organization from an unrelated trade or business by reason of any benefits or privileges to which members of such organization are entitled.

(2) Indexation of $100 amount

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1995, the $100 amount in paragraph (1) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) $100, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting "calendar year 1994" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.

(3) Dues

For purposes of this subsection, the term "dues" means any payment (whether or not designated as dues) which is required to be made in order to be recognized by the organization as a member of the organization.

(e) Special rules applicable to S corporations

(1) In general

If an organization described in section 1361(c)(2)(A)(vi) or 1361(c)(6) holds stock in an S corporation—

(A) such interest shall be treated as an interest in an unrelated trade or business, and

(B) notwithstanding any other provision of this part—

(i) all items of income, loss, or deduction taken into account under section 1366(a), and

(ii) any gain or loss on the disposition of the stock in the S corporation,


shall be taken into account in computing the unrelated business taxable income of such organization.

(2) Basis reduction

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of paragraph (1), the basis of any stock acquired by purchase (as defined in section 1361(e)(1)(C)) shall be reduced by the amount of any dividends received by the organization with respect to the stock.

(3) Exception for ESOPs

This subsection shall not apply to employer securities (within the meaning of section 409(l)) held by an employee stock ownership plan described in section 4975(e)(7).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 170; Pub. L. 85–367, §1(a), Apr. 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 80; Pub. L. 88–380, §1, July 17, 1964, 78 Stat. 333; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §104(g), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1559; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §121(b)(1), (2), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 537, 538; Pub. L. 92–418, §1(b), Aug. 29, 1972, 86 Stat. 656; Pub. L. 94–396, §1(a), Sept. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1201; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(b)(8)(F), 1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(8)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1794, 1834, 1839; Pub. L. 94–568, §1(b), Oct. 20, 1976, 90 Stat. 2697; Pub. L. 95–345, §2(a)(2), (b), Aug. 15, 1978, 92 Stat. 481; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §102(m)(3), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2374; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §511(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 860; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1851(a)(10), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2861; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10213(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–406; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1018(t)(2)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3587; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(23), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §§13145(a), 13147(a), 13148(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 443, 444; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1115(a), 1316(c), 1603(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1761, 1786, 1835; Pub. L. 105–34, title III, §312(d)(5), title X, §1041(a), title XV, §1523(a), title XVI, §1601(c)(4)(A), (D), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 840, 938, 1070, 1087; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §§6010(j)(1), (2), 6023(8), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 815, 825; Pub. L. 108–357, title II, §233(d), title III, §319(c), title VII, §702(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1434, 1472, 1540; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(dd), (ee)(1), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2639; Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1205(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1066; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §306(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3868; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §747(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3320; Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §319(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2331; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §131(a), title II, §221(a)(41)(G), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4018, 4044; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §114(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3049; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §§11002(d)(1)(Y), 13702(a), 13703(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2060, 2168, 2169; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(126), (b)(21)(E)–(H), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1190, 1203.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(D), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–34, which was approved Aug. 5, 1997.

The date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(E)(ii)(II), (III), is the date of enactment of division A of Pub. L. 98–369, which was approved July 18, 1984.

The date of the enactment of this subparagraph, referred to in subsec. (b)(13)(E)(iii)(I), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–280, which was approved Aug. 17, 2006.

Sections 101(39), 107, 117(a), (b), and 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (b)(19)(B)(ii)(I), (C)(i), (D)(i), (ii)(I), (V), are classified to sections 9601(39), 9607, 9617(a), (b), and 9621(d), respectively, of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare.

The date of the enactment of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (b)(19)(C)(i), (D)(i), (ii)(V), (E)(ii)(IV), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(21)(G), substituted "or (17)" for "(17), or (20)" in heading.

Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(21)(E), substituted "or (17)" for "(17), or (20)".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(21)(F), substituted "or (17)" for ", (17), or (20)".

Subsec. (a)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(21)(E), substituted "or (17)" for "(17), or (20)".

Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(b)(21)(F), (H), substituted "or (17)" for ", (17), or (20)" in subpar. heading and text of cl. (i).

Subsec. (b)(19)(H)(iii). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(126), substituted "clause (i)" for "clause (i)(II)".

2017—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 115–97, §13702(a), added par. (6).

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 115–97, §13703(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–97, §11002(d)(1)(Y), substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2015—Subsec. (b)(13)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 114–113 struck out cl. (iv). Text read as follows: "This subparagraph shall not apply to payments received or accrued after December 31, 2014."

2014—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(41)(G), struck out ", 244," after "sections 243".

Subsec. (b)(13)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 113–295, §131(a), substituted "December 31, 2014" for "December 31, 2013".

2013—Subsec. (b)(13)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "December 31, 2013" for "December 31, 2011".

2010—Subsec. (b)(13)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 111–312 substituted "December 31, 2011" for "December 31, 2009".

2008—Subsec. (b)(13)(E)(iv). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted "December 31, 2009" for "December 31, 2007".

2006—Subsec. (b)(13)(E), (F). Pub. L. 109–280, which directed the amendment of section 512(b)(13) by adding subpar. (E) and redesignating former subpar. (E) as (F), without specifying the act to be amended, was executed by making the amendments to this section, which is section 512 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2005—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(dd), substituted "subsection (a)(5)" for "section 512(a)(5)".

Subsec. (b)(18), (19). Pub. L. 109–135, §412(ee)(1), redesignated par. (18), relating to treatment of gain or loss on sale or exchange of certain brownfield sites, as (19).

2004—Subsec. (b)(18). Pub. L. 108–357, §702(a), added par. (18) relating to treatment of gain or loss on sale or exchange of certain brownfield sites.

Pub. L. 108–357, §319(c), added par. (18) relating to treatment of mutual or cooperative electric companies.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 108–357, §233(d), inserted "1361(c)(2)(A)(vi) or" before "1361(c)(6)" in introductory provisions.

1998—Subsec. (b)(13)(A). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(j)(1), inserted "or accrues" after "receives" in first sentence.

Subsec. (b)(13)(B)(i)(I). Pub. L. 105–206, §6010(j)(2), struck out "(as defined in section 513A(a)(5)(A))" after "exempt purposes".

Subsec. (b)(17)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 105–206, §6023(8), substituted "rule" for "Rule" in subcl. heading.

1997—Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 105–34, §312(d)(5), inserted "(as in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997)" after "1034".

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 105–34, §1041(a), amended par. (13) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (13) related to inclusion in gross income of controlling organization of amounts of interest, annuities, royalties, and rents derived from a controlled organization.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(c)(4)(D), substituted "section 1361(c)(6)" for "section 1361(c)(7)".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1601(c)(4)(A), substituted "as defined in section 1361(e)(1)(C)" for "within the meaning of section 1012".

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §1523(a), added par. (3).

1996—Subsec. (b)(17). Pub. L. 104–188, §1603(a), added par. (17).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–188, §1115(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–188, §1316(c), added subsec. (e).

1993—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–66, §13148(a), inserted "amounts received or accrued as consideration for entering into agreements to make loans," before "and annuities".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 103–66, §13148(b), in second sentence, substituted "all gains or losses recognized, in connection with the organization's investment activities, from" for "all gains on", struck out ", written by the organization in connection with its investment activities," after "termination of options", and inserted before period at end "or real property and all gains or losses from the forfeiture of good-faith deposits (that are consistent with established business practice) for the purchase, sale, or lease of real property in connection with the organization's investment activities".

Subsec. (b)(16). Pub. L. 103–66, §13147(a), added par. (16).

Subsec. (c)(2), (3). Pub. L. 103–66, §13145(a), redesignated par. (3) as (2), substituted "paragraph (1)" for "paragraph (1) or (2)", and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of this section—

"(A) any organization's share (whether or not distributed) of the gross income of a publicly traded partnership (as defined in section 469(k)(2)) shall be treated as gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business, and

"(B) such organization's share of the partnership deductions shall be allowed in computing unrelated business taxable income."

1990—Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 101–508 struck out par. (14) which read as follows: "Except as provided in paragraph (4), in the case of a church, or convention or association of churches, for taxable years beginning before January 1, 1976, there shall be excluded all gross income derived from a trade or business and all deductions directly connected with the carrying on of such trade or business if such trade or business was carried on by such organization or its predecessor before May 27, 1969."

1988—Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "subclause (I)" for "subclause (II)" and a period for comma at end.

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–203 substituted "for partnerships" for "applicable to partnerships" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If a trade or business regularly carried on by a partnership of which an organization is a member is an unrelated trade or business with respect to such organization, such organization in computing its unrelated business taxable income shall, subject to the exceptions, additions, and limitations contained in subsection (b), include its share (whether or not distributed) of the gross income of the partnership from such unrelated trade or business and its share of the partnership deductions directly connected with such gross income. If the taxable year of the organization is different from that of the partnership, the amounts to be so included or deducted in computing the unrelated business taxable income shall be based upon the income and deductions of the partnership for any taxable year of the partnership ending within or with the taxable year of the organization."

1986—Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1851(a)(10)(A), substituted "determined under section 419A (without regard to subsection (f)(6) thereof)" for "determined under section 419A(c)".

Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(ii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1851(a)(10)(B), (C), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii), in subcl. I substituted "an existing reserve" for "a existing reserve", and substituted new subcl. (II) for former subcl. (II) which read as follows: "For purposes of subclause (I), the term 'existing reserve or post-retirement medical or life insurance benefit' means the amount of assets set aside as of the close of the last plan year ending before the date of the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1984 for purposes of post-retirement medical benefits or life insurance benefits to be provided to covered employees." Former cl. (ii), which provided that no set aside for assets used in the provision of benefits described in cl. (ii) of subpar. (B), could be taken into account, was struck out.

Subsec. (a)(3)(E)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 99–514, §1851(a)(10)(B), (D), redesignated former cl. (iv) as (iii) and substituted "subparagraph shall not" for "paragraph shall not". Former cl. (iii) redesignated (ii).

1984—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §511(b)(1)(A), substituted "paragraph (7), (9), (17), or (20) of section 501(c)" for "section 501(c)(7) or (9)" wherever appearing in heading and in text.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 98–369, §511(b)(1)(B), substituted "paragraph (9), (17), or (20) of section 501(c)" for "section 501(c)(9)".

Subsec. (a)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 98–369, §511(b)(1)(A), substituted in subpars. (C) and (D) "paragraph (7), (9), (17), or (20) of section 501(c)" for "section 501(c)(7) or (9)" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 98–369, §511(b)(2), added subpar. (E).

1983—Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted "10 percent" for "5 percent".

1978—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 95–345, §2(b), added par. (5).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–345, §2(a)(2), inserted provision relating to payments with respect to securities loans.

1976—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 94–568 provided that for purposes of the general rule, the deductions provided by sections 243, 244, and 245 (relating to dividends received by corporations) shall be treated as not directly connected with the production of gross income.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 94–396 inserted provision relating to exclusion of gains on the lapse or termination of options to buy or sell securities.

Subsec. (b)(13), (14). Pub. L. 94–455, §1951(b)(8)(A), redesignated pars. (15) and (16) as (13) and (14), respectively. Former pars. (13) and (14), relating to exceptions, additions, and limitations applicable in determining unrelated business taxable income, were struck out.

Subsec. (b)(15). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(b)(8)(F), 1906(b)(13)(A), 1951(b)(8)(A), redesignated par. (17) as (15) and substituted in subpar. (B) "educational organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii)" for "educational institution (as defined in section 151(e)(4))" after "order or by an", and struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary". Former par. (15) redesignated (13).

Subsec. (b)(16), (17). Pub. L. 94–455, §1951(b)(8)(A), redesignated pars. (16) and (17) as (14) and (15), respectively.

1972—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 92–418 added par. (4).

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(1), designated existing provisions as pars. (1) and (2)(B) and added pars. (2)(A) and (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(2)(D), substituted "Modifications" for "Exceptions, additions, and limitations", in heading, and, in text preceding par. (1) substituted "The modifications referred to in subsection (a)" for "The exceptions, additions, and limitations applicable in determining unrelated business taxable income".

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(2)(A), inserted reference to exceptions set out in subsec. (b)(3)(B) in text preceding cl. (i), substituted "property described in section 1245(a)(3)(C)" for "personal property leased with the real property" in parenthetical of cl. (i), and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(2)(A), added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(2)(A), substituted "rents excluded under subparagraph (A)" for "such rents".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(2)(A), inserted reference to pars. (1), (3) and (5) of this subsec., and substituted "debt financed property" for "a business lease".

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(2)(B), made the allowance of the specific $1,000 deduction inapplicable for the purposes of computing the net operating loss under section 172 of this title and par. (6) of this subsec., and provided for the allowance of specific deductions equal to the lower of $1,000 or the gross income derived from any unrelated trade or business carried on by a parish, individual church, district, or other local unit.

Subsec. (b)(15) to (17). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(2)(C), added pars. (15) to (17).

1966—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 89–809 substituted ", the unrelated business taxable income shall be its unrelated business taxable income which is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States" for ", the unrelated business taxable income shall be its unrelated business taxable income derived from sources within the United States determined under subchapter N (sec. 861 and following), relating to tax based on income from sources within or without the United States".

1964—Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 88–380 added par. (14).

1958—Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 85–367 added par. (13).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by section 11002(d)(1)(Y) of Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13702(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2168, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except to the extent provided in paragraph (2), the amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017.

"(2) Carryovers of net operating losses.—If any net operating loss arising in a taxable year beginning before January 1, 2018, is carried over to a taxable year beginning on or after such date—

"(A) subparagraph (A) of section 512(a)(6) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as added by this Act, shall not apply to such net operating loss, and

"(B) the unrelated business taxable income of the organization, after the application of subparagraph (B) of such section, shall be reduced by the amount of such net operating loss."

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13703(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2169, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts paid or incurred after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §114(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3049, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments received or accrued after December 31, 2014."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §131(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4018, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments received or accrued after December 31, 2013."

Amendment by section 221(a)(41)(G) of Pub. L. 113–295 not applicable to preferred stock issued before Oct. 1, 1942 (determined in the same manner as under section 247 of this title as in effect before its repeal by Pub. L. 113–295), see section 221(a)(41)(K) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 172 of this title.

Except as otherwise provided in section 221(a) of Pub. L. 113–295, amendment by section 221(a)(41)(G) of Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §319(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2332, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments received or accrued after December 31, 2011."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §747(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3320, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments received or accrued after December 31, 2009."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §306(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3868, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments received or accrued after December 31, 2007."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1205(c)(1), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1067, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to payments received or accrued after December 31, 2005."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title II, §233(e), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1435, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1361 and 4975 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Amendment by section 319(c) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years beginning after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 319(e) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §702(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1546, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 514 of this title] shall apply to any gain or loss on the sale, exchange, or other disposition of any property acquired by the taxpayer after December 31, 2004."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 6023(8) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective July 22, 1998, see section 6023(32) of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 34 of this title.

Amendment by section 6010(j)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 312(d)(5) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales and exchanges after May 6, 1997, with certain exceptions, see section 312(d)[(e)] of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 121 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1041(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 939, as amended by Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6010(j)(3), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 815, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997].

"(2) Binding contracts.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to any amount received or accrued during the first 2 taxable years beginning on or after the date of the enactment of this Act if such amount is received or accrued pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on June 8, 1997, and at all times thereafter before such amount is received or accrued. The preceding sentence shall not apply to any amount which would (but for the exercise of an option to accelerate payment of such amount) be received or accrued after such 2 taxable years."

Pub. L. 105–34, title XV, §1523(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1071, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Amendment by section 1601(c)(4)(A), (D) of Pub. L. 105–34 effective as if included in the provisions of the Small Business Job Protection Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–188, to which it relates, see section 1601(j) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1115(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1761, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(2) Transitional rule.—If—

"(A) for purposes of applying part III of subchapter F of chapter 1 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 to any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, an agricultural or horticultural organization did not treat any portion of membership dues received by it as income derived in an unrelated trade or business, and

"(B) such organization had a reasonable basis for not treating such dues as income derived in an unrelated trade or business,

then, for purposes of applying such part III to any such taxable year, in no event shall any portion of such dues be treated as derived in an unrelated trade or business.

"(3) Reasonable basis.—For purposes of paragraph (2), an organization shall be treated as having a reasonable basis for not treating membership dues as income derived in an unrelated trade or business if the taxpayer's treatment of such dues was in reasonable reliance on any of the following:

"(A) Judicial precedent, published rulings, technical advice with respect to the organization, or a letter ruling to the organization.

"(B) A past Internal Revenue Service audit of the organization in which there was no assessment attributable to the reclassification of membership dues for purposes of the tax on unrelated business income.

"(C) Long-standing recognized practice of agricultural or horticultural organizations."

Amendment by section 1316(c) of Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 1316(f) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1603(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1836, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts included in gross income in any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1995."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13145(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 443, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to partnership years beginning on or after January 1, 1994."

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13147(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 444, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to property acquired on or after January 1, 1994."

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13148(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 444, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to amounts received on or after January 1, 1994."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10213(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–407, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to partnership interests acquired after December 17, 1987."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1985, with such amendments treated as a change in the rate of tax imposed by chapter 1 of this title for purposes of section 15 of this title, see section 511(e)(6) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 419 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–345 applicable with respect to amounts received after Dec. 31, 1976, as payments with respect to securities loans (as defined in subsec. (a)(5) of this section), and transfers of securities, under agreements described in section 1058 of this title, occurring after such date, see section 2(e) of Pub. L. 95–345, set out as a note under section 509 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–568 applicable to taxable years beginning after Oct. 20, 1976, see section 1(d) of Pub. L. 94–568, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(8)(F) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 1951(b)(8)(A) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1951(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 72 of this title.

Pub. L. 94–396, §1(b), Sept. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1201, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to gain from options which lapse or terminate on or after January 1, 1976, in taxable years ending on or after such date."

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–418 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 1(c) of Pub. L. 92–418, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1966, see section 104(n) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 11 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–380, §2, July 17, 1964, 78 Stat. 333, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1963."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–367, §1(b), Apr. 7, 1958, 72 Stat. 80, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years of trusts beginning after December 31, 1955."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by section 401(b)(21)(E)–(H) of Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

Pub. L. 108–357, title VII, §702(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1546, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 514 of this title] shall affect any duty, liability, or other requirement imposed under any other Federal or State law. Notwithstanding section 128(b) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 [42 U.S.C. 9628(b)], a certification provided by the Environmental Protection Agency or an appropriate State agency (within the meaning of section 198(c)(4) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986) shall not affect the liability of any person under section 107(a) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 9607(a)]."

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1951(b)(8)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1839, provided that: "Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) [amending this section], income received in a taxable year beginning after December 31, 1975, shall be excluded from gross income in determining unrelated business taxable income, if such income would have been excluded by paragraph (13) or (14) of section 512(b) if received in a taxable year beginning before such date. Any deductions directly connected with income excluded under the preceding sentence in determining unrelated business taxable income shall also be excluded for such purpose."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§513. Unrelated trade or business

(a) General rule

The term "unrelated trade or business" means, in the case of any organization subject to the tax imposed by section 511, any trade or business the conduct of which is not substantially related (aside from the need of such organization for income or funds or the use it makes of the profits derived) to the exercise or performance by such organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501 (or, in the case of an organization described in section 511(a)(2)(B), to the exercise or performance of any purpose or function described in section 501(c)(3)), except that such term does not include any trade or business—

(1) in which substantially all the work in carrying on such trade or business is performed for the organization without compensation; or

(2) which is carried on, in the case of an organization described in section 501(c)(3) or in the case of a college or university described in section 511(a)(2)(B), by the organization primarily for the convenience of its members, students, patients, officers, or employees, or, in the case of a local association of employees described in section 501(c)(4) organized before May 27, 1969, which is the selling by the organization of items of work-related clothes and equipment and items normally sold through vending machines, through food dispensing facilities, or by snack bars, for the convenience of its members at their usual places of employment; or

(3) which is the selling of merchandise, substantially all of which has been received by the organization as gifts or contributions.

(b) Special rule for trusts

The term "unrelated trade or business" means, in the case of—

(1) a trust computing its unrelated business taxable income under section 512 for purposes of section 681; or

(2) a trust described in section 401(a), or section 501(c)(17), which is exempt from tax under section 501(a);


any trade or business regularly carried on by such trust or by a partnership of which it is a member.

(c) Advertising, etc., activities

For purposes of this section, the term "trade or business" includes any activity which is carried on for the production of income from the sale of goods or the performance of services. For purposes of the preceding sentence, an activity does not lose identity as a trade or business merely because it is carried on within a larger aggregate of similar activities or within a larger complex of other endeavors which may, or may not, be related to the exempt purposes of the organization. Where an activity carried on for profit constitutes an unrelated trade or business, no part of such trade or business shall be excluded from such classification merely because it does not result in profit.

(d) Certain activities of trade shows, State fairs, etc.

(1) General rule

The term "unrelated trade or business" does not include qualified public entertainment activities of an organization described in paragraph (2)(C), or qualified convention and trade show activities of an organization described in paragraph (3)(C).

(2) Qualified public entertainment activities

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Public entertainment activity

The term "public entertainment activity" means any entertainment or recreational activity of a kind traditionally conducted at fairs or expositions promoting agricultural and educational purposes, including, but not limited to, any activity one of the purposes of which is to attract the public to fairs or expositions or to promote the breeding of animals or the development of products or equipment.

(B) Qualified public entertainment activity

The term "qualified public entertainment activity" means a public entertainment activity which is conducted by a qualifying organization described in subparagraph (C) in—

(i) conjunction with an international, national, State, regional, or local fair or exposition,

(ii) accordance with the provisions of State law which permit the activity to be operated or conducted solely by such an organization, or by an agency, instrumentality, or political subdivision of such State, or

(iii) accordance with the provisions of State law which permit such an organization to be granted a license to conduct not more than 20 days of such activity on payment to the State of a lower percentage of the revenue from such licensed activity than the State requires from organizations not described in section 501(c)(3), (4), or (5).

(C) Qualifying organization

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualifying organization" means an organization which is described in section 501(c) (3), (4), or (5) which regularly conducts, as one of its substantial exempt purposes, an agricultural and educational fair or exposition.

(3) Qualified convention and trade show activities

(A) Convention and trade show activities

The term "convention and trade show activity" means any activity of a kind traditionally conducted at conventions, annual meetings, or trade shows, including, but not limited to, any activity one of the purposes of which is to attract persons in an industry generally (without regard to membership in the sponsoring organization) as well as members of the public to the show for the purpose of displaying industry products or to stimulate interest in, and demand for, industry products or services, or to educate persons engaged in the industry in the development of new products and services or new rules and regulations affecting the industry.

(B) Qualified convention and trade show activity

The term "qualified convention and trade show activity" means a convention and trade show activity carried out by a qualifying organization described in subparagraph (C) in conjunction with an international, national, State, regional, or local convention, annual meeting, or show conducted by an organization described in subparagraph (C) if one of the purposes of such organization in sponsoring the activity is the promotion and stimulation of interest in, and demand for, the products and services of that industry in general or to educate persons in attendance regarding new developments or products and services related to the exempt activities of the organization, and the show is designed to achieve such purpose through the character of the exhibits and the extent of the industry products displayed.

(C) Qualifying organization

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualifying organization" means an organization described in section 501(c)(3), (4), (5), or (6) which regularly conducts as one of its substantial exempt purposes a show which stimulates interest in, and demand for, the products of a particular industry or segment of such industry or which educates persons in attendance regarding new developments or products and services related to the exempt activities of the organization.

(4) Such activities not to affect exempt status

An organization described in section 501(c) (3), (4), or (5) shall not be considered as not entitled to the exemption allowed under section 501(a) solely because of qualified public entertainment activities conducted by it.

(e) Certain hospital services

In the case of a hospital described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii), the term "unrelated trade or business" does not include the furnishing of one or more of the services described in section 501(e)(1)(A) to one or more hospitals described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(iii) if—

(1) such services are furnished solely to such hospitals which have facilities to serve not more than 100 inpatients;

(2) such services, if performed on its own behalf by the recipient hospital, would constitute activities in exercising or performing the purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption; and

(3) such services are provided at a fee or cost which does not exceed the actual cost of providing such services, such cost including straight line depreciation and a reasonable amount for return on capital goods used to provide such services.

(f) Certain bingo games

(1) In general

The term "unrelated trade or business" does not include any trade or business which consists of conducting bingo games.

(2) Bingo game defined

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "bingo game" means any game of bingo—

(A) of a type in which usually—

(i) the wagers are placed,

(ii) the winners are determined, and

(iii) the distribution of prizes or other property is made,


in the presence of all persons placing wagers in such game,

(B) the conducting of which is not an activity ordinarily carried out on a commercial basis, and

(C) the conducting of which does not violate any State or local law.

(g) Certain pole rentals

In the case of a mutual or cooperative telephone or electric company, the term "unrelated trade or business" does not include engaging in qualified pole rentals (as defined in section 501(c)(12)(D)).

(h) Certain distributions of low cost articles without obligation to purchase and exchanges and rentals of member lists

(1) In general

In the case of an organization which is described in section 501 and contributions to which are deductible under paragraph (2) or (3) of section 170(c), the term "unrelated trade or business" does not include—

(A) activities relating to the distribution of low cost articles if the distribution of such articles is incidental to the solicitation of charitable contributions, or

(B) any trade or business which consists of—

(i) exchanging with another such organization names and addresses of donors to (or members of) such organization, or

(ii) renting such names and addresses to another such organization.

(2) Low cost article defined

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "low cost article" means any article which has a cost not in excess of $5 to the organization which distributes such item (or on whose behalf such item is distributed).

(B) Aggregation rule

If more than 1 item is distributed by or on behalf of an organization to a single distributee in any calendar year, the aggregate of the items so distributed in such calendar year to such distributee shall be treated as 1 article for purposes of subparagraph (A).

(C) Indexation of $5 amount

In the case of any taxable year beginning in a calendar year after 1987, the $5 amount in subparagraph (A) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(i) $5, multiplied by

(ii) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for the calendar year in which the taxable year begins, by substituting "calendar year 1987" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.

(3) Distribution which is incidental to the solicitation of charitable contributions described

For purposes of this subsection, any distribution of low cost articles by an organization shall be treated as a distribution incidental to the solicitation of charitable contributions only if—

(A) such distribution is not made at the request of the distributee,

(B) such distribution is made without the express consent of the distributee, and

(C) the articles so distributed are accompanied by—

(i) a request for a charitable contribution (as defined in section 170(c)) by the distributee to such organization, and

(ii) a statement that the distributee may retain the low cost article regardless of whether such distributee makes a charitable contribution to such organization.

(i) Treatment of certain sponsorship payments

(1) In general

The term "unrelated trade or business" does not include the activity of soliciting and receiving qualified sponsorship payments.

(2) Qualified sponsorship payments

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) In general

The term "qualified sponsorship payment" means any payment made by any person engaged in a trade or business with respect to which there is no arrangement or expectation that such person will receive any substantial return benefit other than the use or acknowledgement of the name or logo (or product lines) of such person's trade or business in connection with the activities of the organization that receives such payment. Such a use or acknowledgement does not include advertising such person's products or services (including messages containing qualitative or comparative language, price information, or other indications of savings or value, an endorsement, or an inducement to purchase, sell, or use such products or services).

(B) Limitations

(i) Contingent payments

The term "qualified sponsorship payment" does not include any payment if the amount of such payment is contingent upon the level of attendance at one or more events, broadcast ratings, or other factors indicating the degree of public exposure to one or more events.

(ii) Safe harbor does not apply to periodicals and qualified convention and trade show activities

The term "qualified sponsorship payment" does not include—

(I) any payment which entitles the payor to the use or acknowledgement of the name or logo (or product lines) of the payor's trade or business in regularly scheduled and printed material published by or on behalf of the payee organization that is not related to and primarily distributed in connection with a specific event conducted by the payee organization, or

(II) any payment made in connection with any qualified convention or trade show activity (as defined in subsection (d)(3)(B)).

(3) Allocation of portions of single payment

For purposes of this subsection, to the extent that a portion of a payment would (if made as a separate payment) be a qualified sponsorship payment, such portion of such payment and the other portion of such payment shall be treated as separate payments.

(j) Debt management plan services

The term "unrelated trade or business" includes the provision of debt management plan services (as defined in section 501(q)(4)(B)) by any organization other than an organization which meets the requirements of section 501(q).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 172; Pub. L. 86–667, §4, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 536; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §121(b)(4), (c), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 541, 542; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIII, §§1305(a), 1311(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1716, 1729; Pub. L. 95–502, title III, §301(a), Oct. 21, 1978, 92 Stat. 1702; Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §106(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3524; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVI, §§1601(a), 1602(a), (b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2766, 2767; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11101(d)(1)(G), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–405; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13201(b)(3)(H), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 459; Pub. L. 105–34, title IX, §965(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 893; Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1220(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1088; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11002(d)(1)(Z), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2060.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (h)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2006—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–280, which directed the addition of subsec. (j) to section 513, without specifying the act to be amended, was executed by making the addition to this section, which is section 513 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1997—Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (i).

1993—Subsec. (h)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted "calendar year 1992" for "calendar year 1989".

1990—Subsec. (h)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 101–508 inserted before period at end ", by substituting 'calendar year 1987' for 'calendar year 1989' in subparagraph (B) thereof".

1986—Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1602(a), inserted "or to educate persons in attendance regarding new developments or products and services related to the exempt activities of the organization".

Subsec. (d)(3)(C). Pub. L. 99–514, §1602(b), substituted "section 501(c)(3), (4), (5), or (6)" for "section 501(c)(5) or (6)" and inserted "or which educates persons in attendance regarding new developments or products and services related to the exempt activities of the organization".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–514, §1601(a), added subsec. (h).

1980—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 96–605 added subsec. (g).

1978—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–502 added subsec. (f).

1976—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1305(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §1311(a), added subsec. (e).

1969—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(b)(4), inserted reference to local associations of employees described in section 501(c)(4) of this title and organized before May 27, 1969.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(c), substituted "Advertising, etc., activities" for "Special rule for certain publishing businesses", in heading, and, in text, substituted provisions extending definition of trade or business to include any activity carried on for the production of income from the sale of goods or the performance of services, for provisions referring to publishing businesses carried on by an organization during a taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1953.

1960—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 86–667 included trusts described in section 501(c)(17).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–280 applicable to taxable years beginning after Aug. 17, 2006, with transition rule for existing organizations, see section 1220(c) of Pub. L. 109–280, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title IX, §965(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 894, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to payments solicited or received after December 31, 1997."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1992, see section 13201(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1990, see section 11101(e) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVI, §1601(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2767, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to distributions of low cost articles and exchanges and rentals of member lists after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVI, §1602(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2768, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to activities in taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §106(c)(2), Dec. 29, 1980, 94 Stat. 3524, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–502, title III, §301(b), Oct. 21, 1978, 92 Stat. 1702, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1969."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIII, §1305(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1717, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] apply to qualified public entertainment activities in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1962, and to qualified convention and trade show activities in taxable years beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 4, 1976]."

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIII, §1311(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1730, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to all taxable years to which the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] [this title] applies."

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–667 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1959, see section 6 of Pub. L. 86–667, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Conducting of Certain Games of Chance Not Treated as Unrelated Trade or Business

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title III, §311, July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 786, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, title XVIII, §1834, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, 2852, provided that:

"(a) General Rule.—For purposes of section 513 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (defining unrelated trade or business), the term 'unrelated trade or business' does not include any trade or business which consists of conducting any game of chance if—

"(1) such game of chance is conducted by a nonprofit organization,

"(2) the conducting of such game by such organization does not violate any State or local law, and

"(3) as of October 5, 1983—

"(A) there was a State law (originally enacted on April 22, 1977) in effect which permitted the conducting of such game of chance by such nonprofit organization, but

"(B) the conducting of such game of chance by organizations which were not nonprofit organizations would have violated such law.

"(b) Effective Date.—Subsection (a) shall apply to games of chance conducted after June 30, 1981, in taxable years ending after such date."

[Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1834, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2852, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6201, Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3730, provided in part that: "The amendment made by this section [amending section 311 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out above] shall apply to games of chance conducted after October 22, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date".]

§514. Unrelated debt-financed income

(a) Unrelated debt-financed income and deductions

In computing under section 512 the unrelated business taxable income for any taxable year—

(1) Percentage of income taken into account

There shall be included with respect to each debt-financed property as an item of gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business an amount which is the same percentage (but not in excess of 100 percent) of the total gross income derived during the taxable year from or on account of such property as (A) the average acquisition indebtedness (as defined in subsection (c)(7)) for the taxable year with respect to the property is of (B) the average amount (determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary) of the adjusted basis of such property during the period it is held by the organization during such taxable year.

(2) Percentage of deductions taken into account

There shall be allowed as a deduction with respect to each debt-financed property an amount determined by applying (except as provided in the last sentence of this paragraph) the percentage derived under paragraph (1) to the sum determined under paragraph (3). The percentage derived under this paragraph shall not be applied with respect to the deduction of any capital loss resulting from the carryback or carryover of net capital losses under section 1212.

(3) Deductions allowable

The sum referred to in paragraph (2) is the sum of the deductions under this chapter which are directly connected with the debt-financed property or the income therefrom, except that if the debt-financed property is of a character which is subject to the allowance for depreciation provided in section 167, the allowance shall be computed only by use of the straight-line method.

(b) Definition of debt-financed property

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the term "debt-financed property" means any property which is held to produce income and with respect to which there is an acquisition indebtedness (as defined in subsection (c)) at any time during the taxable year (or, if the property was disposed of during the taxable year, with respect to which there was an acquisition indebtedness at any time during the 12-month period ending with the date of such disposition), except that such term does not include—

(A)(i) any property substantially all the use of which is substantially related (aside from the need of the organization for income or funds) to the exercise or performance by such organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501 (or, in the case of an organization described in section 511(a)(2)(B), to the exercise or performance of any purpose or function designated in section 501(c)(3)), or (ii) any property to which clause (i) does not apply, to the extent that its use is so substantially related;

(B) except in the case of income excluded under section 512(b)(5), any property to the extent that the income from such property is taken into account in computing the gross income of any unrelated trade or business;

(C) any property to the extent that the income from such property is excluded by reason of the provisions of paragraph (7), (8), or (9) of section 512(b) in computing the gross income of any unrelated trade or business;

(D) any property to the extent that it is used in any trade or business described in paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 513(a); or

(E) any property the gain or loss from the sale, exchange, or other disposition of which would be excluded by reason of the provisions of section 512(b)(19) in computing the gross income of any unrelated trade or business.


For purposes of subparagraph (A), substantially all the use of a property shall be considered to be substantially related to the exercise or performance by an organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501 if such property is real property subject to a lease to a medical clinic entered into primarily for purposes which are substantially related (aside from the need of such organization for income or funds or the use it makes of the rents derived) to the exercise or performance by such organization of its charitable, educational, or other purpose or function constituting the basis for its exemption under section 501.

(2) Special rule for related uses

For purposes of applying paragraphs (1) (A), (C), and (D), the use of any property by an exempt organization which is related to an organization shall be treated as use by such organization.

(3) Special rules when land is acquired for exempt use within 10 years

(A) Neighborhood land

If an organization acquires real property for the principal purpose of using the land (commencing within 10 years of the time of acquisition) in the manner described in paragraph (1)(A) and at the time of acquisition the property is in the neighborhood of other property owned by the organization which is used in such manner, the real property acquired for such future use shall not be treated as debt-financed property so long as the organization does not abandon its intent to so use the land within the 10-year period. The preceding sentence shall not apply for any period after the expiration of the 10-year period, and shall apply after the first 5 years of the 10-year period only if the organization establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that it is reasonably certain that the land will be used in the described manner before the expiration of the 10-year period.

(B) Other cases

If the first sentence of subparagraph (A) is inapplicable only because—

(i) the acquired land is not in the neighborhood referred to in subparagraph (A), or

(ii) the organization (for the period after the first 5 years of the 10-year period) is unable to establish to the satisfaction of the Secretary that it is reasonably certain that the land will be used in the manner described in paragraph (1)(A) before the expiration of the 10-year period,


but the land is converted to such use by the organization within the 10-year period, the real property (subject to the provisions of subparagraph (D)) shall not be treated as debt-financed property for any period before such conversion. For purposes of this subparagraph, land shall not be treated as used in the manner described in paragraph (1)(A) by reason of the use made of any structure which was on the land when acquired by the organization.

(C) Limitations

Subparagraphs (A) and (B)—

(i) shall apply with respect to any structure on the land when acquired by the organization, or to the land occupied by the structure, only if (and so long as) the intended future use of the land in the manner described in paragraph (1)(A) requires that the structure be demolished or removed in order to use the land in such manner;

(ii) shall not apply to structures erected on the land after the acquisition of the land; and

(iii) shall not apply to property subject to a lease which is a business lease (as defined in this section immediately before the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976).

(D) Refund of taxes when subparagraph (B) applies

If an organization for any taxable year has not used land in the manner to satisfy the actual use condition of subparagraph (B) before the time prescribed by law (including extensions thereof) for filing the return for such taxable year, the tax for such year shall be computed without regard to the application of subparagraph (B), but if and when such use condition is satisfied, the provisions of subparagraph (B) shall then be applied to such taxable year. If the actual use condition of subparagraph (B) is satisfied for any taxable year after such time for filing the return, and if credit or refund of any overpayment for the taxable year resulting from the satisfaction of such use condition is prevented at the close of the taxable year in which the use condition is satisfied, by the operation of any law or rule of law (other than chapter 74, relating to closing agreements and compromises), credit or refund of such overpayment may nevertheless be allowed or made if claim therefor is filed before the expiration of 1 year after the close of the taxable year in which the use condition is satisfied.

(E) Special rule for churches

In applying this paragraph to a church or convention or association of churches, in lieu of the 10-year period referred to in subparagraphs (A) and (B) a 15-year period shall be applied, and subparagraphs (A) and (B)(ii) shall apply whether or not the acquired land meets the neighborhood test.

(c) Acquisition indebtedness

(1) General rule

For purposes of this section, the term "acquisition indebtedness" means, with respect to any debt-financed property, the unpaid amount of—

(A) the indebtedness incurred by the organization in acquiring or improving such property;

(B) the indebtedness incurred before the acquisition or improvement of such property if such indebtedness would not have been incurred but for such acquisition or improvement; and

(C) the indebtedness incurred after the acquisition or improvement of such property if such indebtedness would not have been incurred but for such acquisition or improvement and the incurrence of such indebtedness was reasonably foreseeable at the time of such acquisition or improvement.

(2) Property acquired subject to mortgage, etc.

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) General rule

Where property (no matter how acquired) is acquired subject to a mortgage or other similar lien, the amount of the indebtedness secured by such mortgage or lien shall be considered as an indebtedness of the organization incurred in acquiring such property even though the organization did not assume or agree to pay such indebtedness.

(B) Exceptions

Where property subject to a mortgage is acquired by an organization by bequest or devise, the indebtedness secured by the mortgage shall not be treated as acquisition indebtedness during a period of 10 years following the date of the acquisition. If an organization acquires property by gift subject to a mortgage which was placed on the property more than 5 years before the gift, which property was held by the donor more than 5 years before the gift, the indebtedness secured by such mortgage shall not be treated as acquisition indebtedness during a period of 10 years following the date of such gift. This subparagraph shall not apply if the organization, in order to acquire the equity in the property by bequest, devise, or gift, assumes and agrees to pay the indebtedness secured by the mortgage, or if the organization makes any payment for the equity in the property owned by the decedent or the donor.

(C) Liens for taxes or assessments

Where State law provides that—

(i) a lien for taxes, or

(ii) a lien for assessments,


made by a State or a political subdivision thereof attaches to property prior to the time when such taxes or assessments become due and payable, then such lien shall be treated as similar to a mortgage (within the meaning of subparagraph (A)) but only after such taxes or assessments become due and payable and the organization has had an opportunity to pay such taxes or assessments in accordance with State law.

(3) Extension of obligations

For purposes of this section, an extension, renewal, or refinancing of an obligation evidencing a pre-existing indebtedness shall not be treated as the creation of a new indebtedness.

(4) Indebtedness incurred in performing exempt purpose

For purposes of this section, the term "acquisition indebtedness" does not include indebtedness the incurrence of which is inherent in the performance or exercise of the purpose or function constituting the basis of the organization's exemption, such as the indebtedness incurred by a credit union described in section 501(c)(14) in accepting deposits from its members.

(5) Annuities

For purposes of this section, the term "acquisition indebtedness" does not include an obligation to pay an annuity which—

(A) is the sole consideration (other than a mortgage to which paragraph (2)(B) applies) issued in exchange for property if, at the time of the exchange, the value of the annuity is less than 90 percent of the value of the property received in the exchange,

(B) is payable over the life of one individual in being at the time the annuity is issued, or over the lives of two individuals in being at such time, and

(C) is payable under a contract which—

(i) does not guarantee a minimum amount of payments or specify a maximum amount of payments, and

(ii) does not provide for any adjustment of the amount of the annuity payments by reference to the income received from the transferred property or any other property.

(6) Certain Federal financing

(A) In general

For purposes of this section, the term "acquisition indebtedness" does not include—

(i) an obligation, to the extent that it is insured by the Federal Housing Administration, to finance the purchase, rehabilitation, or construction of housing for low and moderate income persons, or

(ii) indebtedness incurred by a small business investment company licensed after the date of the enactment of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004 under the Small Business Investment Act of 1958 if such indebtedness is evidenced by a debenture—

(I) issued by such company under section 303(a) of such Act, and

(II) held or guaranteed by the Small Business Administration.

(B) Limitation

Subparagraph (A)(ii) shall not apply with respect to any small business investment company during any period that—

(i) any organization which is exempt from tax under this title (other than a governmental unit) owns more than 25 percent of the capital or profits interest in such company, or

(ii) organizations which are exempt from tax under this title (including governmental units other than any agency or instrumentality of the United States) own, in the aggregate, 50 percent or more of the capital or profits interest in such company.

(7) Average acquisition indebtedness

For purposes of this section, the term "average acquisition indebtedness" for any taxable year with respect to a debt-financed property means the average amount, determined under regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the acquisition indebtedness during the period the property is held by the organization during the taxable year, except that for the purpose of computing the percentage of any gain or loss to be taken into account on a sale or other disposition of debt-financed property, such term means the highest amount of the acquisition indebtedness with respect to such property during the 12-month period ending with the date of the sale or other disposition.

(8) Securities subject to loans

For purposes of this section—

(A) payments with respect to securities loans (as defined in section 512(a)(5)) shall be deemed to be derived from the securities loaned and not from collateral security or the investment of collateral security from such loans,

(B) any deductions which are directly connected with collateral security for such loan, or with the investment of collateral security, shall be deemed to be deductions which are directly connected with the securities loaned, and

(C) an obligation to return collateral security shall not be treated as acquisition indebtedness (as defined in paragraph (1)).

(9) Real property acquired by a qualified organization

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "acquisition indebtedness" does not, for purposes of this section, include indebtedness incurred by a qualified organization in acquiring or improving any real property. For purposes of this paragraph, an interest in a mortgage shall in no event be treated as real property.

(B) Exceptions

The provisions of subparagraph (A) shall not apply in any case in which—

(i) the price for the acquisition or improvement is not a fixed amount determined as of the date of the acquisition or the completion of the improvement;

(ii) the amount of any indebtedness or any other amount payable with respect to such indebtedness, or the time for making any payment of any such amount, is dependent, in whole or in part, upon any revenue, income, or profits derived from such real property;

(iii) the real property is at any time after the acquisition leased by the qualified organization to the person selling such property to such organization or to any person who bears a relationship described in section 267(b) or 707(b) to such person;

(iv) the real property is acquired by a qualified trust from, or is at any time after the acquisition leased by such trust to, any person who—

(I) bears a relationship which is described in subparagraph (C), (E), or (G) of section 4975(e)(2) to any plan with respect to which such trust was formed, or

(II) bears a relationship which is described in subparagraph (F) or (H) of section 4975(e)(2) to any person described in subclause (I);


(v) any person described in clause (iii) or (iv) provides the qualified organization with financing in connection with the acquisition or improvement; or

(vi) the real property is held by a partnership unless the partnership meets the requirements of clauses (i) through (v) and unless—

(I) all of the partners of the partnership are qualified organizations,

(II) each allocation to a partner of the partnership which is a qualified organization is a qualified allocation (within the meaning of section 168(h)(6)), or

(III) such partnership meets the requirements of subparagraph (E).


For purposes of subclause (I) of clause (vi), an organization shall not be treated as a qualified organization if any income of such organization is unrelated business taxable income.

(C) Qualified organization

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "qualified organization" means—

(i) an organization described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) and its affiliated support organizations described in section 509(a)(3);

(ii) any trust which constitutes a qualified trust under section 401;

(iii) an organization described in section 501(c)(25); or

(iv) a retirement income account described in section 403(b)(9).

(D) Other pass-thru entities; tiered entities

Rules similar to the rules of subparagraph (B)(vi) shall also apply in the case of any pass-thru entity other than a partnership and in the case of tiered partnerships and other entities.

(E) Certain allocations permitted

(i) In general

A partnership meets the requirements of this subparagraph if—

(I) the allocation of items to any partner which is a qualified organization cannot result in such partner having a share of the overall partnership income for any taxable year greater than such partner's share of the overall partnership loss for the taxable year for which such partner's loss share will be the smallest, and

(II) each allocation with respect to the partnership has substantial economic effect within the meaning of section 704(b)(2).


 For purposes of this clause, items allocated under section 704(c) shall not be taken into account.

(ii) Special rules

(I) Chargebacks

Except as provided in regulations, a partnership may without violating the requirements of this subparagraph provide for chargebacks with respect to disproportionate losses previously allocated to qualified organizations and disproportionate income previously allocated to other partners. Any chargeback referred to in the preceding sentence shall not be at a ratio in excess of the ratio under which the loss or income (as the case may be) was allocated.

(II) Preferred rates of return, etc.

To the extent provided in regulations, a partnership may without violating the requirements of this subparagraph provide for reasonable preferred returns or reasonable guaranteed payments.

(iii) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this subparagraph, including regulations which may provide for exclusion or segregation of items.

(F) Special rules for organizations described in section 501(c)(25)

(i) In general

In computing under section 512 the unrelated business taxable income of a disqualified holder of an interest in an organization described in section 501(c)(25), there shall be taken into account—

(I) as gross income derived from an unrelated trade or business, such holder's pro rata share of the items of income described in clause (ii)(I) of such organization, and

(II) as deductions allowable in computing unrelated business taxable income, such holder's pro rata share of the items of deduction described in clause (ii)(II) of such organization.


 Such amounts shall be taken into account for the taxable year of the holder in which (or with which) the taxable year of such organization ends.

(ii) Description of amounts

For purposes of clause (i)—

(I) gross income is described in this clause to the extent such income would (but for this paragraph) be treated under subsection (a) as derived from an unrelated trade or business, and

(II) any deduction is described in this clause to the extent it would (but for this paragraph) be allowable under subsection (a)(2) in computing unrelated business taxable income.

(iii) Disqualified holder

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "disqualified holder" means any shareholder (or beneficiary) which is not described in clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (C).

(G) Special rules for purposes of the exceptions

Except as otherwise provided by regulations—

(i) Small leases disregarded

For purposes of clauses (iii) and (iv) of subparagraph (B), a lease to a person described in such clause (iii) or (iv) shall be disregarded if no more than 25 percent of the leasable floor space in a building (or complex of buildings) is covered by the lease and if the lease is on commercially reasonable terms.

(ii) Commercially reasonable financing

Clause (v) of subparagraph (B) shall not apply if the financing is on commercially reasonable terms.

(H) Qualifying sales by financial institutions

(i) In general

In the case of a qualifying sale by a financial institution, except as provided in regulations, clauses (i) and (ii) of subparagraph (B) shall not apply with respect to financing provided by such institution for such sale.

(ii) Qualifying sale

For purposes of this clause, there is a qualifying sale by a financial institution if—

(I) a qualified organization acquires property described in clause (iii) from a financial institution and any gain recognized by the financial institution with respect to the property is ordinary income,

(II) the stated principal amount of the financing provided by the financial institution does not exceed the amount of the outstanding indebtedness (including accrued but unpaid interest) of the financial institution with respect to the property described in clause (iii) immediately before the acquisition referred to in clause (iii) or (v), whichever is applicable, and

(III) the present value (determined as of the time of the sale and by using the applicable Federal rate determined under section 1274(d)) of the maximum amount payable pursuant to the financing that is determined by reference to the revenue, income, or profits derived from the property cannot exceed 30 percent of the total purchase price of the property (including the contingent payments).

(iii) Property to which subparagraph applies

Property is described in this clause if such property is foreclosure property, or is real property which—

(I) was acquired by the qualified organization from a financial institution which is in conservatorship or receivership, or from the conservator or receiver of such an institution, and

(II) was held by the financial institution at the time it entered into conservatorship or receivership.

(iv) Financial institution

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "financial institution" means—

(I) any financial institution described in section 581 or 591(a),

(II) any other corporation which is a direct or indirect subsidiary of an institution referred to in subclause (I) but only if, by virtue of being affiliated with such institution, such other corporation is subject to supervision and examination by a Federal or State agency which regulates institutions referred to in subclause (I), and

(III) any person acting as a conservator or receiver of an entity referred to in subclause (I) or (II) (or any government agency or corporation succeeding to the rights or interest of such person).

(v) Foreclosure property

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "foreclosure property" means any real property acquired by the financial institution as the result of having bid on such property at foreclosure, or by operation of an agreement or process of law, after there was a default (or a default was imminent) on indebtedness which such property secured.

(d) Basis of debt-financed property acquired in corporate liquidation

For purposes of this subtitle, if the property was acquired in a complete or partial liquidation of a corporation in exchange for its stock, the basis of the property shall be the same as it would be in the hands of the transferor corporation, increased by the amount of gain recognized to the transferor corporation upon such distribution and by the amount of any gain to the organization which was included, on account of such distribution, in unrelated business taxable income under subsection (a).

(e) Allocation rules

Where debt-financed property is held for purposes described in subsection (b)(1)(A), (B), (C), or (D) as well as for other purposes, proper allocation shall be made with respect to basis, indebtedness, and income and deductions. The allocations required by this section shall be made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary to the extent proper to carry out the purposes of this section.

(f) Personal property leased with real property

For purposes of this section, the term "real property" includes personal property of the lessor leased by it to a lessee of its real estate if the lease of such personal property is made under, or in connection with, the lease of such real estate.

(g) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section, including regulations to prevent the circumvention of any provision of this section through the use of segregated asset accounts.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 172; Pub. L. 86–667, §5, July 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 536; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §121(d)(1), (3)(A), (B), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 543, 548; Pub. L. 93–625, §7(b)(2), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2115; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIII, §1308(a), title XIX, §§1901(a)(72), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1729, 1776, 1834; Pub. L. 95–345, §2(c), Aug. 15, 1978, 92 Stat. 482; Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §110(a), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3525; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §174(b)(5)(B), title X, §1034(a), (b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 707, 1039, 1040; Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §201(d)(9), title XVI, §1603(b), title XVIII, §1878(e), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2141, 2768, 2903; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10214(a), (b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–407; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1016(a)(5)(A), (6), 1018(u)(13), title II, §2004(h), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3574, 3575, 3590, 3603; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(l), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2412; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13144(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 441, 442; Pub. L. 108–357, title II, §247(a), title VII, §702(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1449, 1546; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §412(ee)(2), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2639; Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §866(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1025.)

References in Text

The Tax Reform Act of 1976, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(C)(iii), is Pub. L. 94–455, Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1520, as amended, which was enacted Oct. 4, 1976. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

The date of the enactment of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, referred to in subsec. (c)(6)(A)(ii), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

The Small Business Investment Act of 1958, referred to in subsec. (c)(6)(A)(ii), is Pub. L. 85–699, Aug. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 689, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 14B (§661 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. Section 303(a) of the Act is classified to section 683(a) of Title 15. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 661 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (c)(9)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 109–280 added cl. (iv).

2005—Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 109–135 substituted "section 512(b)(19)" for "section 512(b)(18)".

2004—Subsec. (b)(1)(E). Pub. L. 108–357, §702(b), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 108–357, §247(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For purposes of this section, the term 'acquisition indebtedness' does not include an obligation, to the extent that it is insured by the Federal Housing Administration, to finance the purchase, rehabilitation, or construction of housing for low and moderate income persons."

1993—Subsec. (c)(9)(A). Pub. L. 103–66, §13144(b)(1), inserted at end "For purposes of this paragraph, an interest in a mortgage shall in no event be treated as real property."

Subsec. (c)(9)(B). Pub. L. 103–66, §13144(b)(2), struck out at end "For purposes of this paragraph, an interest in a mortgage shall in no event be treated as real property."

Subsec. (c)(9)(G), (H). Pub. L. 103–66, §13144(a), added subpars. (G) and (H).

1989—Subsec. (c)(9)(E), (F). Pub. L. 101–239 redesignated the subpar. (E), relating to special rules for organizations described in section 501(c)(25), as (F).

1988—Subsec. (c)(9)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §1016(a)(6), substituted "this paragraph" for "clause (vi)" in last sentence.

Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(u)(13)(A), amended directory language of Pub. L. 99–514, §1878(e)(1), (3), to clarify that general amendment by section 1878(e)(3) included concluding provision as well as cl. (vi) and that amendment by section 1878(e)(1) should have been to the concluding provisions as amended by section 1878(e)(3).

Subsec. (c)(9)(E). Pub. L. 100–647, §1016(a)(5)(A), added subpar. (E) relating to special rules for organizations described in section 501(c)(25).

Subsec. (c)(9)(E)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(h)(2), in subsec. (c)(9)(E), relating to certain allocations permitted, redesignated subcls. (II) and (III) as (I) and (II), respectively, and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: "the allocation of items to any partner other than a qualified organization cannot result in such partner having a share of the overall partnership loss for any taxable year greater than such partner's share of the overall partnership income for the taxable year for which such partner's income share will be the smallest,".

Subsec. (c)(9)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §2004(h)(1), in subsec. (c)(9)(E) relating to certain allocations permitted, added cl. (iii).

1987—Subsec. (c)(9)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 100–203, §10214(a), amended cl. (vi) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (vi) read as follows: "the real property is held by a partnership (which does not fail to meet the requirements of clauses (i) through (v)), and—

"(I) any partner of the partnership is not a qualified organization, and

"(II) the principal purpose of any allocation to any partner of the partnership which is a qualified organization which is not a qualified allocation (within the meaning of section 168(h)(6)) is the avoidance of income tax."

Subsec. (c)(9)(E). Pub. L. 100–203, §10214(b), added subpar. (E).

1986—Subsec. (c)(9)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1878(e)(1), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(u)(13)(A), which directed amendment of penultimate sentence by substituting "is unrelated business taxable income" for "would be unrelated business taxable income (determined without regard to this paragraph)", was executed by making the substitution for "would be unrelated business taxable income (determined without regard to this paragraph", as the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1878(e)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(u)(13)(B), amended concluding provisions generally. Prior to amendment, concluding provisions read as follows: "For purposes of clause (vi)(I), an organization shall not be treated as a qualified organization if any income of such organization would be unrelated business taxable income (determined without regard to this paragraph)."

Subsec. (c)(9)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 99–514, §1878(e)(3), as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, §1018(u)(13)(B), amended cl. (vi) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (vi) read as follows: "the real property is held by a partnership unless the partnership meets the requirements of clauses (i) through (v) and unless—

"(I) all of the partners of the partnership are qualified organizations, or

"(II) each allocation to a partner of the partnership which is a qualified organization is a qualified allocation (within the meaning of section 168(j)(9))."

Subsec. (c)(9)(B)(vi)(II). Pub. L. 99–514, §201(d)(9), substituted "section 168(h)(6)" for "section 168(j)(9)".

Subsec. (c)(9)(C)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1878(e)(2), substituted "section 509(a)(3)" for "section 509(a)".

Subsec. (c)(9)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1603(b), added cl. (iii).

1984—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 98–369, §1034(a), amended par. (9) generally, substituting provisions relating to real property acquired by a qualified organization for provisions relating to real property acquired by a qualified trust, with "qualified organization" expanded to include trusts constituting qualified trusts under section 401 of this title as well as organizations described in section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) of this title and their affiliated support organizations described in section 509(a) of this title.

Subsec. (c)(9)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 98–369, §174(b)(5)(B), inserted reference to section 707(b).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 98–369, §1034(b), added subsec. (g).

1980—Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 96–605 added par. (9).

1978—Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 95–345 added par. (8).

1976—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(3)(A), (B)(ii). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (b)(3)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(72)(C), substituted "(as defined in this section immediately before the enactment of the Tax Reform Act of 1976)" for "as (defined in subsection (f))" after "is a business lease".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(72)(A), struck out exception following subpar. (C) that in any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1972, any acquisition indebtedness incurred prior to June 28, 1966, would not be taken into account except for business lease indebtedness of certain organizations.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 94–455, §1308(a), added subpar. (C).

Subsecs. (c)(7), (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(72(B), struck out subsec. (f) relating to definition of business lease, special rules applicable to such leases, and exceptions to the definition and applicable rules, and redesignated subsec. (h) as (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(72)(B), struck out subsec. (g) relating to definition and special rules applicable to business lease indebtedness.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(72)(B), redesignated subsec. (h) as (f).

1975—Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 93–625 struck out last sentence providing for allowance and payment of interest on any overpayment for a taxable year resulting from application of subpar. (B) after actual use condition was satisfied at rate of 4 in lieu of 6 percent per annum.

1969—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(d)(1), substituted "Unrelated debt-financed income" for "Business leases" in heading and substituted in text material covering unrelated debt-financed income and deductions for material covering business lease rents and deductions.

Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(d)(1), (3)(A), added subsecs. (b), (c), (d) and (e). Former subsecs. (b), (c), and (d) redesignated (f), (g), and (h), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(d)(3)(A), (B), redesignated subsec. (b) as subsec. (f), and, in par. (1) of subsec. (f) as so redesignated, substituted reference to subsec. (g) for reference to subsec. (c).

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 91–172, §121(d)(3)(A), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (g) and (h), respectively.

1960—Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 86–667 added par. (8).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title VIII, §866(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1025, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 17, 2006]."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title II, §247(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1449, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to indebtedness incurred after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004] by a small business investment company licensed after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Amendment by section 702(b) of Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to any gain or loss on the sale, exchange, or other disposition of any property acquired by the taxpayer after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 702(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 512 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13144(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 442, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to acquisitions on or after January 1, 1994.

"(2) Small leases.—The provisions of section 514(c)(9)(G)(i) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 shall, in addition to any leases to which the provisions apply by reason of paragraph (1), apply to leases entered into on or after January 1, 1994."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1016(a)(5)(B), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3575, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to interests in the organization acquired after June 10, 1987, except that such amendment shall not apply to any such interest acquired after June 10, 1987, pursuant to a binding written contract in effect on June 10, 1987, and at all times thereafter before such acquisition."

Amendment by sections 1016(a)(6) and 1018(u)(13) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Amendment by section 2004(h) of Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1987, Pub. L. 100–203, title X, to which such amendment relates, see section 2004(u) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 56 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10214(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–408, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to—

"(1) property acquired by the partnership after October 13, 1987, and

"(2) partnership interests acquired after October 13, 1987,

except that such amendments shall not apply in the case of any property (or partnership interest) acquired pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on October 13, 1987, and at all times thereafter before such property (or interest) is acquired."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 201(d)(9) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to property placed in service after Dec. 31, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, with exceptions, see sections 203 and 204 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 168 of this title.

Amendment by section 201(d)(9) of Pub. L. 99–514 not applicable to any property placed in service before Jan. 1, 1994, if such property placed in service as part of specified rehabilitations, and not applicable to certain additional rehabilitations, see section 251(d)(2), (3) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 46 of this title.

Amendment by section 1603(b) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 1603(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Amendment by section 1878(e) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 174(b)(5)(B) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1983, in taxable years ending after that date, see section 174(c)(2)(A) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 267 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1034(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1040, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to indebtedness incurred after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

"(2) Exception for indebtedness on certain property acquired before january 1, 1985.—

"(A) The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply to any indebtedness incurred before January 1, 1985, by a partnership described in subparagraph (B) if such indebtedness is incurred with respect to property acquired (directly or indirectly) by such partnership before such date.

"(B) A partnership is described in this subparagraph if—

"(i) before October 21, 1983, the partnership was organized, a request for exemption with respect to such partnership was filed with the Department of Labor, and a private placement memorandum stating the maximum number of units in the partnership that would be offered had been circulated,

"(ii) the interest in the property to be acquired, directly or indirectly (including through acquiring an interest in another partnership) by such partnership was described in such private placement memorandum, and

"(iii) the marketing of partnership interests in such partnership is completed not later than 2 years after the later of the date of enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] or the date of publication in the Federal Register of such exemption by the Department of Labor and the aggregate number of units in such partnership sold does not exceed the amount described in clause (i).

"(3) Exception for indebtedness on certain property acquired before january 1, 1986.—

"(A) The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply to any indebtedness incurred before January 1, 1986, by a partnership described in subparagraph (B) if such indebtedness is incurred with respect to property acquired (directly or indirectly) by such partnership before such date.

"(B) A partnership is described in this paragraph if—

"(i) before March 6, 1984, the partnership was organized and publicly announced, the maximum amount of interests which would be sold in such partnership, and

"(ii) the marketing of partnership interests in such partnership is completed not later than the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] and the aggregate amount of interests in such partnership sold does not exceed the maximum amount described in clause (i).

For purposes of clause (i), the maximum amount taken into account shall be the greatest of the amounts shown in the registration statement, prospectus, or partnership agreement.

"(C) Binding contracts.—For purposes of this paragraph, property shall be deemed to have been acquired before January 1, 1986, if such property is acquired pursuant to a written contract which, on January 1, 1986, and at all times thereafter, required the acquisition of such property and such property is placed in service not later than 6 months after the date such contract was entered into."

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §110(c), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3526, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1980."

Extension of 1980 Amendment of This Section to Other Persons

Pub. L. 96–605, title I, §110(b), Dec. 28, 1980, 94 Stat. 3526, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not be considered a precedent with respect to extending such amendment (or similar rules) to any other person."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–345 applicable with respect to amounts received after Dec. 31, 1976, as payments with respect to securities loans (as defined in section 512(a)(5) of this title), and transfers of securities, under agreements described in section 1058 of this title, occurring after such date, see section 2(e) of Pub. L. 95–345, set out as a note under section 509 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIII, §1308(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1729, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years ending after December 31, 1969."

Amendment by section 1901(a)(72) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–625 effective July 1, 1975, and applicable to amounts outstanding on such date or arising thereafter, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 93–625, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1969, and to the manner of treatment to be accorded indebtednesses secured by certain mortgages on properties bargain-purchased before Oct. 9, 1969, see section 121(g) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as a note under section 511 of this title.

Effective Date of 1960 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 86–667 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1959, see section 6 of Pub. L. 86–667, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

Transition Rule for Acquisition Indebtedness With Respect to Certain Land

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVI, §1607, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2771, provided that: "For purposes of applying section 514(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, with respect to a disposition during calendar year 1986 or calendar year 1987 of land acquired during calendar year 1984, the term 'acquisition indebtedness' does not include indebtedness incurred in connection with bonds issued after January 1, 1984, and before July 19, 1984, on behalf of an organization which is a community college and which is described in section 511(a)(2)(B) of such Code."

§515. Taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States

The amount of taxes imposed by foreign countries and possessions of the United States shall be allowed as a credit against the tax of an organization subject to the tax imposed by section 511 to the extent provided in section 901; and in the case of the tax imposed by section 511, the term "taxable income" as used in section 901 shall be read as "unrelated business taxable income".

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 176.)