[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter K, PART I: DETERMINATION OF TAX LIABILITY
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter K, PART I: DETERMINATION OF TAX LIABILITY
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter K—Partners and Partnerships

PART I—DETERMINATION OF TAX LIABILITY

Sec.
701.
Partners, not partnership, subject to tax.
702.
Income and credits of partner.
703.
Partnership computations.
704.
Partner's distributive share.
705.
Determination of basis of partner's interest.
706.
Taxable years of partner and partnership.
707.
Transactions between partner and partnership.
708.
Continuation of partnership.
709.
Treatment of organization and syndication fees.

        

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title II, §213(b)(2), title XIX, §1901(b)(23), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1547, 1798, struck out part IV "Effective date for subchapter" in table of parts of subchapter K of chapter 1 and added item 709.

§701. Partners, not partnership, subject to tax

A partnership as such shall not be subject to the income tax imposed by this chapter. Persons carrying on business as partners shall be liable for income tax only in their separate or individual capacities.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 239.)

§702. Income and credits of partner

(a) General rule

In determining his income tax, each partner shall take into account separately his distributive share of the partnership's—

(1) gains and losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets held for not more than 1 year,

(2) gains and losses from sales or exchanges of capital assets held for more than 1 year,

(3) gains and losses from sales or exchanges of property described in section 1231 (relating to certain property used in a trade or business and involuntary conversions),

(4) charitable contributions (as defined in section 170(c)),

(5) dividends with respect to which section 1(h)(11) or part VIII of subchapter B applies,

(6) taxes, described in section 901, paid or accrued to foreign countries and to possessions of the United States,

(7) other items of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit, to the extent provided by regulations prescribed by the Secretary, and

(8) taxable income or loss, exclusive of items requiring separate computation under other paragraphs of this subsection.

(b) Character of items constituting distributive share

The character of any item of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit included in a partner's distributive share under paragraphs (1) through (7) of subsection (a) shall be determined as if such item were realized directly from the source from which realized by the partnership, or incurred in the same manner as incurred by the partnership.

(c) Gross income of a partner

In any case where it is necessary to determine the gross income of a partner for purposes of this title, such amount shall include his distributive share of the gross income of the partnership.

(d) Cross reference

For rules relating to procedures for determining the tax treatment of partnership items see subchapter C of chapter 63 (section 6221 and following).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 239; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §201(d)(7), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 32; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIV, §1402(b)(1)(L), (2), title XIX, §§1901(b)(1)(I)(i), (ii), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1732, 1791, 1834; Pub. L. 96–223, title IV, §404(b)(5), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 307; Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §301(b)(5), (6)(C), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 270; Pub. L. 97–248, title IV, §402(c)(1), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §103(a)(4), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2375; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1001(b)(9), (e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1011, 1012; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §612(b)(5), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2250; Pub. L. 108–27, title III, §302(e)(8), May 28, 2003, 117 Stat. 764.)

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 108–27 amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "dividends with respect to which there is a deduction under part VIII of subchapter B,".

1986—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 99–514 amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "dividends or interest with respect to which there is an exclusion under section 116 or 128, or a deduction under part VIII of subchapter B,".

1984—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "6 months" for "1 year", applicable to property acquired after June 22, 1984, and before Jan. 1, 1988. See Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note below.

1983—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted "an exclusion under section 116 or 128," for "provided an exclusion under section 116 or 128".

1982—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–248 added subsec. (d).

1981—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 97–34, §301(b)(6)(C), inserted reference to "interest" in heading and text which continued the amendment made by Pub. L. 96–223.

Pub. L. 97–34, §301(b)(5), inserted "or 128" after "section 116".

1980—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 96–223 inserted "or interest" after "dividends".

1976—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1402(b)(2), provided that "9 months" would be changed to "1 year".

Pub. L. 94–455, §1402(b)(1)(L), provided that "6 months" would be changed to "9 months" for taxable years beginning in 1977.

Subsec. (a)(7) to (9). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1901(b)(1)(I)(i), 1906(b)(13)(A), redesignated pars. (8) and (9) as (7) and (8), respectively, and in par. (7), as so redesignated, struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary". Former par. (7), which related to partially tax-exempt interest on obligations of the United States or its instrumentalities, was struck out.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(1)(I)(ii), substituted "paragraphs (1) through (7)" for "paragraphs (1) through (8)".

1964—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 88–272 struck out "a credit under section 34," before "an exclusion".

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–27 applicable, except as otherwise provided, to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2002, see section 302(f) of Pub. L. 108–27, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2003 Amendment note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 612(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to property acquired after June 22, 1984, and before Jan. 1, 1988, see section 1001(e) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 166 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title IV, §407(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 670, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by sections 402, 403, and 404 [enacting sections 6221 to 6234 of this title and section 1508 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, amending this section and sections 6031, 6213, 6216, 6422, 6501, 6504, 6511, 6512, 6515, 7422, 7451, 7456, 7459, 7482, and 7485 of this title and section 1346 of Title 28, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 6031 of this title] shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982].

"(2) [Former] Section 6232 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] shall apply to periods after December 31, 1982.

"(3) The amendments made by sections 402, 403, and 404 shall apply to any partnership taxable year (or in the case of [former] section 6232 of such Code, to any period) ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982] if the partnership, each partner, and each indirect partner requests such application and the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate consents to such application."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 301(b)(5) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years ending after Sept. 30, 1981, and amendment by section 301(b)(6)(C) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 301(d) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 265 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1980, and before Jan. 1, 1982, see section 404(c) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as a note under section 265 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIV, §1402(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1731, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to taxable years beginning in 1977.

Pub. L. 94–455, title XIV, §1402(b)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1732, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1977.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(1)(I)(i), (ii) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 88–272 applicable with respect to dividends received after Dec. 31, 1964, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 201(e) of Pub. L. 88–272, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

§703. Partnership computations

(a) Income and deductions

The taxable income of a partnership shall be computed in the same manner as in the case of an individual except that—

(1) the items described in section 702(a) shall be separately stated, and

(2) the following deductions shall not be allowed to the partnership:

(A) the deductions for personal exemptions provided in section 151,

(B) the deduction for taxes provided in section 164(a) with respect to taxes, described in section 901, paid or accrued to foreign countries and to possessions of the United States,

(C) the deduction for charitable contributions provided in section 170,

(D) the net operating loss deduction provided in section 172,

(E) the additional itemized deductions for individuals provided in part VII of subchapter B (sec. 211 and following), and

(F) the deduction for depletion under section 611 with respect to oil and gas wells.

(b) Elections of the partnership

Any election affecting the computation of taxable income derived from a partnership shall be made by the partnership, except that any election under—

(1) subsection (b)(5) or (c)(3) of section 108 (relating to income from discharge of indebtedness),

(2) section 617 (relating to deduction and recapture of certain mining exploration expenditures), or

(3) section 901 (relating to taxes of foreign countries and possessions of the United States),


shall be made by each partner separately.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 240; Pub. L. 89–570, §2(b), Sept. 12, 1966, 80 Stat. 764; Pub. L. 91–172, title V, §504(c)(3), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 633; Pub. L. 92–178, title III, §304(c), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 523; Pub. L. 94–12, title V, §501(b)(3), Mar. 29, 1975, 89 Stat. 53; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(21)(F), title XXI, §2115(c)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1798, 1909; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(10), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 96–589, §2(e)(1), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 99–514, title V, §511(d)(2)(B), title VII, §701(e)(4)(E), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2249, 2343; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1008(i), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3445; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13150(c)(9), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 448.)

Amendments

1993—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted "subsection (b)(5) or (c)(3)" for "subsection (b)(5)".

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "subsection (b)(5)" for "subsection (b)(5) or (d)(4)".

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514 struck out former pars. (1) and (3) which related to elections under sections 57(c) and 163(d), respectively, and redesignated former pars. (2), (4), and (5), as pars. (1), (2), and (3), respectively.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–589 inserted reference to section 108(b)(5) and (d)(4).

1977—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–30 struck out subpar. (A) which made reference to the standard deduction provided in section 141, and redesignated subpars. (B) to (G) as (A) to (F), respectively.

1976—Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 94–455, §2115(c)(2), substituted "wells" for "production subject to the provisions of section 613A(c)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(21)(F), struck out "under section 615 (relating to pre-1970 exploration expenditures)," after "of the United States, and any election".

1975—Subsec. (a)(2)(G). Pub. L. 94–12 added subpar. (G).

1971—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 92–178 substituted "," for "or" after "(relating to pre-1970 exploration expenditures)" and inserted "under section 57(c) (relating to definition of net lease), or under section 163(d) (relating to limitation on interest on investment indebtedness)" after "(relating to deduction and recapture of certain mining exploration expenditures)".

1969—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted "(relating to pre-1970 exploration expenditures) or under section 617 (relating to deduction and recapture of certain mining exploration expenditures)" for "(relating to exploration expenditures) or under section 617 (relating to additional exploration expenditures in the case of domestic mining)".

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–570 provided for election under section 615 (relating to exploration expenditures) or under section 617 (relating to additional exploration expenditures in the case of domestic mining).

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 applicable to discharges after Dec. 31, 1992, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 13150(d) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 511(d)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 511(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 163 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(e)(4)(E) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 applicable to transactions which occur after Dec. 31, 1980, other than transactions which occur in a proceeding in a bankruptcy case or similar judicial proceeding or in a proceeding under Title 11 commencing on or after Dec. 31, 1980, with an exception permitting the debtor to make the amendment applicable to transactions occurring after Sept. 30, 1979; in a specified manner, see section 7(a)(1), (f) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(b)(21)(F) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Amendment by section 2115(c)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on Jan. 1, 1975 and applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 2115(f) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 613A of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–12 effective Jan. 1, 1975, to apply to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 501(c) of Pub. L. 94–12, set out as an Effective Date note under section 613A of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 applicable with respect to exploration expenditures paid or incurred after Dec. 31, 1969, see section 504(d)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 243 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–570 applicable to taxable years ending after Sept. 12, 1966, but only in respect of expenditures paid or incurred after such date, see section 3 of Pub. L. 89–570, set out as an Effective Date note under section 617 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(e)(4)(E) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

§704. Partner's distributive share

(a) Effect of partnership agreement

A partner's distributive share of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit shall, except as otherwise provided in this chapter, be determined by the partnership agreement.

(b) Determination of distributive share

A partner's distributive share of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) shall be determined in accordance with the partner's interest in the partnership (determined by taking into account all facts and circumstances), if—

(1) the partnership agreement does not provide as to the partner's distributive share of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof), or

(2) the allocation to a partner under the agreement of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit (or item thereof) does not have substantial economic effect.

(c) Contributed property

(1) In general

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary—

(A) income, gain, loss, and deduction with respect to property contributed to the partnership by a partner shall be shared among the partners so as to take account of the variation between the basis of the property to the partnership and its fair market value at the time of contribution,

(B) if any property so contributed is distributed (directly or indirectly) by the partnership (other than to the contributing partner) within 7 years of being contributed—

(i) the contributing partner shall be treated as recognizing gain or loss (as the case may be) from the sale of such property in an amount equal to the gain or loss which would have been allocated to such partner under subparagraph (A) by reason of the variation described in subparagraph (A) if the property had been sold at its fair market value at the time of the distribution,

(ii) the character of such gain or loss shall be determined by reference to the character of the gain or loss which would have resulted if such property had been sold by the partnership to the distributee, and

(iii) appropriate adjustments shall be made to the adjusted basis of the contributing partner's interest in the partnership and to the adjusted basis of the property distributed to reflect any gain or loss recognized under this subparagraph, and


(C) if any property so contributed has a built-in loss—

(i) such built-in loss shall be taken into account only in determining the amount of items allocated to the contributing partner, and

(ii) except as provided in regulations, in determining the amount of items allocated to other partners, the basis of the contributed property in the hands of the partnership shall be treated as being equal to its fair market value at the time of contribution.


For purposes of subparagraph (C), the term "built-in loss" means the excess of the adjusted basis of the property (determined without regard to subparagraph (C)(ii)) over its fair market value at the time of contribution.

(2) Special rule for distributions where gain or loss would not be recognized outside partnerships

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, if—

(A) property contributed by a partner (hereinafter referred to as the "contributing partner") is distributed by the partnership to another partner, and

(B) other property of a like kind (within the meaning of section 1031) is distributed by the partnership to the contributing partner not later than the earlier of—

(i) the 180th day after the date of the distribution described in subparagraph (A), or

(ii) the due date (determined with regard to extensions) for the contributing partner's return of the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year in which the distribution described in subparagraph (A) occurs,


then to the extent of the value of the property described in subparagraph (B), paragraph (1)(B) shall be applied as if the contributing partner had contributed to the partnership the property described in subparagraph (B).

(3) Other rules

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of paragraph (1) shall apply to contributions by a partner (using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting) of accounts payable and other accrued but unpaid items. Any reference in paragraph (1) or (2) to the contributing partner shall be treated as including a reference to any successor of such partner.

(d) Limitation on allowance of losses

(1) In general

A partner's distributive share of partnership loss (including capital loss) shall be allowed only to the extent of the adjusted basis of such partner's interest in the partnership at the end of the partnership year in which such loss occurred.

(2) Carryover

Any excess of such loss over such basis shall be allowed as a deduction at the end of the partnership year in which such excess is repaid to the partnership.

(3) Special rules

(A) In general

In determining the amount of any loss under paragraph (1), there shall be taken into account the partner's distributive share of amounts described in paragraphs (4) and (6) of section 702(a).

(B) Exception

In the case of a charitable contribution of property whose fair market value exceeds its adjusted basis, subparagraph (A) shall not apply to the extent of the partner's distributive share of such excess.

(e) Partnership interests created by gift

(1) Distributive share of donee includible in gross income

In the case of any partnership interest created by gift, the distributive share of the donee under the partnership agreement shall be includible in his gross income, except to the extent that such share is determined without allowance of reasonable compensation for services rendered to the partnership by the donor, and except to the extent that the portion of such share attributable to donated capital is proportionately greater than the share of the donor attributable to the donor's capital. The distributive share of a partner in the earnings of the partnership shall not be diminished because of absence due to military service.

(2) Purchase of interest by member of family

For purposes of this subsection, an interest purchased by one member of a family from another shall be considered to be created by gift from the seller, and the fair market value of the purchased interest shall be considered to be donated capital. The "family" of any individual shall include only his spouse, ancestors, and lineal descendants, and any trusts for the primary benefit of such persons.

(f) Cross reference

For rules in the case of the sale, exchange, liquidation, or reduction of a partner's interest, see section 706(c)(2).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 240; Pub. L. 94–455, title II, §213(c)(2), (3)(A), (d), (e), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1548, 1834; Pub. L. 95–600, title II, §201(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2816; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §71(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 589; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7642(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2379; Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1937(b)(1), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3033; Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1063(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 947; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §833(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1589; Pub. L. 114–74, title XI, §1102(b), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 639; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13503(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2141.)

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–97 designated first and second sentences of existing provisions as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, inserted headings, and added par. (3).

2015—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–74 substituted "Partnership interests created by gift" for "Family partnerships" in heading, redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively, substituted "this subsection" for "this section" in par. (2), and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, text of par. (1) read as follows: "A person shall be recognized as a partner for purposes of this subtitle if he owns a capital interest in a partnership in which capital is a material income-producing factor, whether or not such interest was derived by purchase or gift from any other person."

2004—Subsec. (c)(1)(C). Pub. L. 108–357 added subpar. (C).

1997—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–34 substituted "7 years" for "5 years" in introductory provisions.

1992—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 102–486 substituted "is distributed (directly or indirectly)" for "is distributed".

1989—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–239 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, income, gain, loss, and deduction with respect to property contributed to the partnership by a partner shall be shared among partners so as to take account of the variation between the basis of the property to the partnership and its fair market value at the time of contribution. Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, rules similar to the rules of the preceding sentence shall apply to contributions by a partner (using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting) of accounts payable and other accrued but unpaid items."

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369 amended subsec. (c) generally, substituting provisions directing that, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, income, gain, loss, and deduction with respect to property contributed to the partnership by a partner be shared among partners so as to take account of the variation between the basis of the property to the partnership and its fair market value at the time of contribution, and that similar rules apply to contributions by a partner (using the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting) of accounts payable and other accrued but unpaid items for provisions which had directed that, if the partnership agreement so provided, depreciation, depletion, or gain or loss with respect to property contributed to the partnership by a partner would under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, be shared among the partners so as to take account of the variation between the basis of the property to the partnership and its fair market value at the time of contribution, and struck out provisions which had directed that in determining a partner's distributive share of items described in section 702(a), depreciation, depletion, or gain or loss with respect to property contributed to the partnership by a partner would, except to the extent otherwise provided, be allocated among the partners in the same manner as if such property had been purchased by the partnership and that if the partnership agreement did not provide otherwise, depreciation, depletion, or gain or loss with respect to undivided interests in property contributed to a partnership would be determined as though such undivided interests had not been contributed to the partnership.

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–600 struck out provisions relating to adjusted basis of a partner's interest.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §213(c)(2), substituted "except as otherwise provided in this chapter" for "except as otherwise provided in this section".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §213(d), among other changes, substituted "Determination of distributive share" for "Distributive share determined by income or loss ratio" in heading, in provisions preceding par. (1) "the partner's interest in the partnership (determined by taking into account all facts and circumstances)" for "his distributive share of taxable income or loss of the partnership, as described in section 702(a)(9), for the taxable year", and in par. (2) provision relating to a lack of substantial economic effect in a partnership agreement for provisions relating to the partnership agreement's purpose being the avoidance or evasion of taxes.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §213(e), inserted provision relating to the determination of the adjusted basis of a partner's liability where there is no personal liability and the applicability of such determination where section 465 of this title applies or the principal activity of the partnership is real estate investment.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §213(c)(3)(A), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13503(b), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2141, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 2017."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–74, title XI, §1102(c), Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 639, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and section 761 of this title] shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 2015."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §833(d)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1592, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004]."

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title X, §1063(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 947, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 737 of this title] shall apply to property contributed to a partnership after June 8, 1997.

"(2) Binding contracts.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to any property contributed pursuant to a written binding contract in effect on June 8, 1997, and at all times thereafter before such contribution if such contract provides for the contribution of a fixed amount of property."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–486, title XIX, §1937(c), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3033, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 737 of this title and amending this section and section 731 of this title] shall apply to distributions on or after June 25, 1992."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7642(b), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2381, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of property contributed to the partnership after October 3, 1989, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §71(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 589, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 613A and 743 of this title] shall apply with respect to property contributed to the partnership after March 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–600 and enactment of provision set out as a note under this section by section 201(b)(2) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1978, see section 204(a) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 465 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 213(c)(2), (c)(3)(A), (d) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable in the case of partnership taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 213(f)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 709 of this title.

Amendment by section 213(e) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to liabilities incurred after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 213(f)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 709 of this title.

Transitional Rule for Limitation on Allowance of Losses

Pub. L. 95–600, title II, §201(b)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2816, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "In the case of a loss which was not allowed for any taxable year by reason of the last 2 sentences of section 704(d) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as in effect before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978]), such loss shall be treated as a deduction (subject to section 465(a) of such Code) for the first taxable year beginning after December 31, 1978. Section 465(a) of such Code (as amended by this section) shall not apply with respect to partnership liabilities to which the last 2 sentences of section 704(d) of such Code (as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act) did not apply because of the provisions of section 213(f)(2) of the Tax Reform Act of 1976 [set out as a note under section 709 of this title]."

§705. Determination of basis of partner's interest

(a) General rule

The adjusted basis of a partner's interest in a partnership shall, except as provided in subsection (b), be the basis of such interest determined under section 722 (relating to contributions to a partnership) or section 742 (relating to transfers of partnership interests)—

(1) increased by the sum of his distributive share for the taxable year and prior taxable years of—

(A) taxable income of the partnership as determined under section 703(a),

(B) income of the partnership exempt from tax under this title, and

(C) the excess of the deductions for depletion over the basis of the property subject to depletion;


(2) decreased (but not below zero) by distributions by the partnership as provided in section 733 and by the sum of his distributive share for the taxable year and prior taxable years of—

(A) losses of the partnership, and

(B) expenditures of the partnership not deductible in computing its taxable income and not properly chargeable to capital account; and


(3) decreased (but not below zero) by the amount of the partner's deduction for depletion for any partnership oil and gas property to the extent such deduction does not exceed the proportionate share of the adjusted basis of such property allocated to such partner under section 613A(c)(7)(D).

(b) Alternative rule

The Secretary shall prescribe by regulations the circumstances under which the adjusted basis of a partner's interest in a partnership may be determined by reference to his proportionate share of the adjusted basis of partnership property upon a termination of the partnership.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 242; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), title XXI, §2115(c)(3), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1909; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §722(e)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 974.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "for any partnership oil and gas property to the extent such deduction does not exceed the proportionate share of the adjusted basis of such property allocated to such partner under section 613A(c)(7)(D)" for "under section 611 with respect to oil and gas wells".

1976—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 94–455, §2115(c)(3), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §722(e)(3)(A), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 974, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on January 1, 1975."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 2115(c)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on Jan. 1, 1975, and applicable to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1974, see section 2115(f) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 613A of this title.

§706. Taxable years of partner and partnership

(a) Year in which partnership income is includible

In computing the taxable income of a partner for a taxable year, the inclusions required by section 702 and section 707(c) with respect to a partnership shall be based on the income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of the partnership for any taxable year of the partnership ending within or with the taxable year of the partner.

(b) Taxable year

(1) Partnership's taxable year

(A) Partnership treated as taxpayer

The taxable year of a partnership shall be determined as though the partnership were a taxpayer.

(B) Taxable year determined by reference to partners

Except as provided in subparagraph (C), a partnership shall not have a taxable year other than—

(i) the majority interest taxable year (as defined in paragraph (4)),

(ii) if there is no taxable year described in clause (i), the taxable year of all the principal partners of the partnership, or

(iii) if there is no taxable year described in clause (i) or (ii), the calendar year unless the Secretary by regulations prescribes another period.

(C) Business purpose

A partnership may have a taxable year not described in subparagraph (B) if it establishes, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, a business purpose therefor. For purposes of this subparagraph, any deferral of income to partners shall not be treated as a business purpose.

(2) Partner's taxable year

A partner may not change to a taxable year other than that of a partnership in which he is a principal partner unless he establishes, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, a business purpose therefor.

(3) Principal partner

For the purpose of this subsection, a principal partner is a partner having an interest of 5 percent or more in partnership profits or capital.

(4) Majority interest taxable year; limitation on required changes

(A) Majority interest taxable year defined

For purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(i)—

(i) In general

The term "majority interest taxable year" means the taxable year (if any) which, on each testing day, constituted the taxable year of 1 or more partners having (on such day) an aggregate interest in partnership profits and capital of more than 50 percent.

(ii) Testing days

The testing days shall be—

(I) the 1st day of the partnership taxable year (determined without regard to clause (i)), or

(II) the days during such representative period as the Secretary may prescribe.

(B) Further change not required for 3 years

Except as provided in regulations necessary to prevent the avoidance of this section, if, by reason of paragraph (1)(B)(i), the taxable year of a partnership is changed, such partnership shall not be required to change to another taxable year for either of the 2 taxable years following the year of change.

(5) Application with other sections

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of determining the taxable year to which a partnership is required to change by reason of this subsection, changes in taxable years of other persons required by this subsection, section 441(i), section 584(i), section 644, or section 1378(a) shall be taken into account.

(c) Closing of partnership year

(1) General rule

Except in the case of a termination of a partnership and except as provided in paragraph (2) of this subsection, the taxable year of a partnership shall not close as the result of the death of a partner, the entry of a new partner, the liquidation of a partner's interest in the partnership, or the sale or exchange of a partner's interest in the partnership.

(2) Treatment of dispositions

(A) Disposition of entire interest

The taxable year of a partnership shall close with respect to a partner whose entire interest in the partnership terminates (whether by reason of death, liquidation, or otherwise).

(B) Disposition of less than entire interest

The taxable year of a partnership shall not close (other than at the end of a partnership's taxable year as determined under subsection (b)(1)) with respect to a partner who sells or exchanges less than his entire interest in the partnership or with respect to a partner whose interest is reduced (whether by entry of a new partner, partial liquidation of a partner's interest, gift, or otherwise).

(d) Determination of distributive share when partner's interest changes

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), if during any taxable year of the partnership there is a change in any partner's interest in the partnership, each partner's distributive share of any item of income, gain, loss, deduction, or credit of the partnership for such taxable year shall be determined by the use of any method prescribed by the Secretary by regulations which takes into account the varying interests of the partners in the partnership during such taxable year.

(2) Certain cash basis items prorated over period to which attributable

(A) In general

If during any taxable year of the partnership there is a change in any partner's interest in the partnership, then (except to the extent provided in regulations) each partner's distributive share of any allocable cash basis item shall be determined—

(i) by assigning the appropriate portion of such item to each day in the period to which it is attributable, and

(ii) by allocating the portion assigned to any such day among the partners in proportion to their interests in the partnership at the close of such day.

(B) Allocable cash basis item

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "allocable cash basis item" means any of the following items with respect to which the partnership uses the cash receipts and disbursements method of accounting:

(i) Interest.

(ii) Taxes.

(iii) Payments for services or for the use of property.

(iv) Any other item of a kind specified in regulations prescribed by the Secretary as being an item with respect to which the application of this paragraph is appropriate to avoid significant misstatements of the income of the partners.

(C) Items attributable to periods not within taxable year

If any portion of any allocable cash basis item is attributable to—

(i) any period before the beginning of the taxable year, such portion shall be assigned under subparagraph (A)(i) to the first day of the taxable year, or

(ii) any period after the close of the taxable year, such portion shall be assigned under subparagraph (A)(i) to the last day of the taxable year.

(D) Treatment of deductible items attributable to prior periods

If any portion of a deductible cash basis item is assigned under subparagraph (C)(i) to the first day of any taxable year—

(i) such portion shall be allocated among persons who are partners in the partnership during the period to which such portion is attributable in accordance with their varying interests in the partnership during such period, and

(ii) any amount allocated under clause (i) to a person who is not a partner in the partnership on such first day shall be capitalized by the partnership and treated in the manner provided for in section 755.

(3) Items attributable to interest in lower tier partnership prorated over entire taxable year

If—

(A) during any taxable year of the partnership there is a change in any partner's interest in the partnership (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the "upper tier partnership"), and

(B) such partnership is a partner in another partnership (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the "lower tier partnership"),


then (except to the extent provided in regulations) each partner's distributive share of any item of the upper tier partnership attributable to the lower tier partnership shall be determined by assigning the appropriate portion (determined by applying principles similar to the principles of subparagraphs (C) and (D) of paragraph (2)) of each such item to the appropriate days during which the upper tier partnership is a partner in the lower tier partnership and by allocating the portion assigned to any such day among the partners in proportion to their interests in the upper tier partnership at the close of such day.

(4) Taxable year determined without regard to subsection (c)(2)(A)

For purposes of this subsection, the taxable year of a partnership shall be determined without regard to subsection (c)(2)(A).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 242; Pub. L. 94–455, title II, §213(c)(1), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1547, 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §72(a), (b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 589, 591; Pub. L. 99–514, title VIII, §806(a), title XVIII, §1805(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2362, 2810; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1008(e)(1)–(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3439, 3440; Pub. L. 105–34, title V, §507(b)(2), title XII, §1246(a), (b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 857, 1030; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(139), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1191.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "section 584(i)" for "section 584(h)".

1997—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 105–34, §507(b)(2), substituted "section 644" for "section 645".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–34, §1246(b), substituted "Treatment of dispositions" for "Partner who retires or sells interest in partnership" as heading.

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, §1246(a), amended heading and text of subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The taxable year of a partnership shall close—

"(i) with respect to a partner who sells or exchanges his entire interest in a partnership, and

"(ii) with respect to a partner whose interest is liquidated, except that the taxable year of a partnership with respect to a partner who dies shall not close prior to the end of the partnership's taxable year."

1988—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 100–647, §1008(e)(1)(A), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "the taxable year of 1 or more of its partners who have an aggregate interest in partnership profits and capital of greater than 50 percent,".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 100–647, §1008(e)(2), substituted "unless the Secretary by regulations prescribes another period" for "or such other period as the Secretary may prescribe in regulations".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1008(e)(1)(B), substituted "Majority interest taxable year; limitation on required changes" for "Application of majority interest rule" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Clause (i) of paragraph (1)(B) shall not apply to any taxable year of a partnership unless the period which constitutes the taxable year of 1 or more of its partners who have an aggregate interest in partnership profits and capital of greater than 50 percent has been the same for—

"(A) the 3-taxable year period of such partner or partners ending on or before the beginning of such taxable year of the partnership, or

"(B) if the partnership has not been in existence during all of such 3-taxable year period, the taxable years of such partner or partners ending with or within the period of existence.

This paragraph shall apply without regard to whether the same partners or interests are taken into account in determining the 50 percent interest during any period."

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §1008(e)(3), added par. (5).

1986—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §806(a)(3), struck out "Adoption of" before "taxable year" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §806(a)(1), amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) read as follows: "The taxable year of a partnership shall be determined as though the partnership were a taxpayer. A partnership may not change to, or adopt, a taxable year other than that of all its principal partners unless it establishes, to the satisfaction of the Secretary, a business purpose therefor."

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99–514, §806(a)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (d)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1805(a)(1)(A), substituted "such item" for "each such item".

Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §1805(a)(1)(B), in introductory provisions, struck out "which are described in paragraph (1) and" after "the following items".

Subsec. (d)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 99–514, §1805(a)(2), substituted "the first day of the taxable year" for "the first day of such taxable year".

1984—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §72(b)(1), struck out last sentence providing that such partner's distributive share of item described in section 702(a) for such year shall be determined, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, for the period ending with such sale, exchange, or liquidation.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §72(b)(2), struck out ", but such partner's distributive share of items described in section 702(a) shall be determined by taking into account his varying interests in the partnership during the taxable year" after "otherwise)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §72(a), added subsec. (d).

1976—Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §§213(c)(1), 1906(b)(13)(A), substituted "or with respect to a partner whose interest is reduced (whether by entry of a new partner, partial liquidation of a partner's interest, gift, or otherwise)" for "or with respect to a partner whose interest is reduced", in par. (B), and struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" in par. (A).

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 507(b)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to sales or exchanges after Aug. 5, 1997, see section 507(c)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 644 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–34, title XII, §1246(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1030, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 1997."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 806(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with special provisions applicable to taxpayers who are required to change their accounting periods, see section 806(e) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1378 of this title.

Amendment by section 1805(a) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §72(c), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 591, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply—

"(1) in the case of items described in section 706(d)(2) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by subsection (a)), to amounts attributable to periods after March 31, 1984, and

"(2) in the case of items described in section 706(d)(3) of such Code (as added by subsection (a)), to amounts paid or accrued by the other partnership after March 31, 1984."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 213(c)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable in the case of partnership taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 213(f) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 709 of this title.

Construction of Section 806 of Pub. L. 99–514

Nothing in section 806 of Pub. L. 99–514 or in any legislative history relating thereto to be construed as requiring the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate to permit an automatic change of a taxable year, see section 1008(e)(9) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1378 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§707. Transactions between partner and partnership

(a) Partner not acting in capacity as partner

(1) In general

If a partner engages in a transaction with a partnership other than in his capacity as a member of such partnership, the transaction shall, except as otherwise provided in this section, be considered as occurring between the partnership and one who is not a partner.

(2) Treatment of payments to partners for property or services

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary—

(A) Treatment of certain services and transfers of property

If—

(i) a partner performs services for a partnership or transfers property to a partnership,

(ii) there is a related direct or indirect allocation and distribution to such partner, and

(iii) the performance of such services (or such transfer) and the allocation and distribution, when viewed together, are properly characterized as a transaction occurring between the partnership and a partner acting other than in his capacity as a member of the partnership,


such allocation and distribution shall be treated as a transaction described in paragraph (1).

(B) Treatment of certain property transfers

If—

(i) there is a direct or indirect transfer of money or other property by a partner to a partnership,

(ii) there is a related direct or indirect transfer of money or other property by the partnership to such partner (or another partner), and

(iii) the transfers described in clauses (i) and (ii), when viewed together, are properly characterized as a sale or exchange of property,


such transfers shall be treated either as a transaction described in paragraph (1) or as a transaction between 2 or more partners acting other than in their capacity as members of the partnership.

(b) Certain sales or exchanges of property with respect to controlled partnerships

(1) Losses disallowed

No deduction shall be allowed in respect of losses from sales or exchanges of property (other than an interest in the partnership), directly or indirectly, between—

(A) a partnership and a person owning, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the capital interest, or the profits interest, in such partnership, or

(B) two partnerships in which the same persons own, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the capital interests or profits interests.


In the case of a subsequent sale or exchange by a transferee described in this paragraph, section 267(d) shall be applicable as if the loss were disallowed under section 267(a)(1). For purposes of section 267(a)(2), partnerships described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall be treated as persons specified in section 267(b).

(2) Gains treated as ordinary income

In the case of a sale or exchange, directly or indirectly, of property, which in the hands of the transferee, is property other than a capital asset as defined in section 1221—

(A) between a partnership and a person owning, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the capital interest, or profits interest, in such partnership, or

(B) between two partnerships in which the same persons own, directly or indirectly, more than 50 percent of the capital interests or profits interests,


any gain recognized shall be considered as ordinary income.

(3) Ownership of a capital or profits interest

For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection, the ownership of a capital or profits interest in a partnership shall be determined in accordance with the rules for constructive ownership of stock provided in section 267(c) other than paragraph (3) of such section.

(c) Guaranteed payments

To the extent determined without regard to the income of the partnership, payments to a partner for services or the use of capital shall be considered as made to one who is not a member of the partnership, but only for the purposes of section 61(a) (relating to gross income) and, subject to section 263, for purposes of section 162(a) (relating to trade or business expenses).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 243; Pub. L. 94–455, title II, §213(b)(3), title XIX, §1901(b)(3)(C), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1547, 1792; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §73(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 591; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §642(a)(2), title XVIII, §§1805(b), 1812(c)(3)(A), (B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2284, 2810, 2834.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 99–514, §1805(b), substituted "sale or exchange of property" for "sale of property".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(c)(3)(B), inserted at end "For purposes of section 267(a)(2), partnerships described in subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall be treated as persons specified in section 267(b)."

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(c)(3)(A), substituted "a person" for "a partner".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–514, §1812(c)(3)(A), substituted "a person" for "a partner".

Pub. L. 99–514, §642(a)(2), substituted "50 percent" for "80 percent".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 99–514, §642(a)(2), substituted "50 percent" for "80 percent".

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1976—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(b)(3)(C), substituted "as ordinary income" for "as gain from the sale or exchange of property other than a capital asset".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §213(b)(3), substituted "and, subject to section 263, for purposes of section 162(a)" for "and section 162(a)".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 642(a)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to sales after Oct. 22, 1986, in taxable years ending after such date, but not applicable to sales made after Aug. 14, 1986, which are made pursuant to a binding contract in effect on Aug. 14, 1986, and at all times thereafter, see section 642(c) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1239 of this title.

Amendment by sections 1805(b) and 1812(c)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1812(c)(3)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2834, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to sales or exchanges after Sept. 27, 1985.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title I, §73(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 592, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply—

"(A) in the case of arrangements described in section 707(a)(2)(A) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as amended by subsection (a)), to services performed or property transferred after February 29, 1984, and

"(B) in the case of transfers described in section 707(a)(2)(B) of such Code (as so amended), to property transferred after March 31, 1984.

"(2) Binding contract exception.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to a transfer of property described in section 707(a)(2)(B)(i) if such transfer is pursuant to a binding contract in effect on March 31, 1984, and at all times thereafter before the transfer.

"(3) Exception for certain transfers.—The amendment made by subsection (a) shall not apply to a transfer of property described in section 707(a)(2)(B)(i) that is made before December 31, 1984, if—

"(A) such transfer was proposed in a written private offering memorandum circulated before February 28, 1984;

"(B) the out-of-pocket costs incurred with respect to such offering exceeded $250,000 as of February 28, 1984;

"(C) the encumbrances placed on such property in anticipation of such transfer all constitute obligations for which neither the partnership nor any partner is liable; and

"(D) the transferor of such property is the sole general partner of the partnership."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 213(b)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable in the case of partnership taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 213(f)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 709 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(b)(3)(C) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§708. Continuation of partnership

(a) General rule

For purposes of this subchapter, an existing partnership shall be considered as continuing if it is not terminated.

(b) Termination

(1) General rule

For purposes of subsection (a), a partnership shall be considered as terminated only if no part of any business, financial operation, or venture of the partnership continues to be carried on by any of its partners in a partnership.

(2) Special rules

(A) Merger or consolidation

In the case of the merger or consolidation of two or more partnerships, the resulting partnership shall, for purposes of this section, be considered the continuation of any merging or consolidating partnership whose members own an interest of more than 50 percent in the capital and profits of the resulting partnership.

(B) Division of a partnership

In the case of a division of a partnership into two or more partnerships, the resulting partnerships (other than any resulting partnership the members of which had an interest of 50 percent or less in the capital and profits of the prior partnership) shall, for purposes of this section, be considered a continuation of the prior partnership.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 244; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §13504(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2141.)

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–97 struck out dash after "only if" and subpar. (A) designation before "no part" and struck out subpar. (B) which read as follows: "within a 12-month period there is a sale or exchange of 50 percent or more of the total interest in partnership capital and profits".

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to partnership taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 13504(c) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 168 of this title.

§709. Treatment of organization and syndication fees

(a) General rule

Except as provided in subsection (b), no deduction shall be allowed under this chapter to the partnership or to any partner for any amounts paid or incurred to organize a partnership or to promote the sale of (or to sell) an interest in such partnership.

(b) Deduction of organization fees

(1) Allowance of deduction

If a partnership elects the application of this subsection (in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary) with respect to any organizational expenses—

(A) the partnership shall be allowed a deduction for the taxable year in which the partnership begins business in an amount equal to the lesser of—

(i) the amount of organizational expenses with respect to the partnership, or

(ii) $5,000, reduced (but not below zero) by the amount by which such organizational expenses exceed $50,000, and


(B) the remainder of such organizational expenses shall be allowed as a deduction ratably over the 180-month period beginning with the month in which the partnership begins business.

(2) Dispositions before close of amortization period

In any case in which a partnership is liquidated before the end of the period to which paragraph (1)(B) applies, any deferred expenses attributable to the partnership which were not allowed as a deduction by reason of this section may be deducted to the extent allowable under section 165.

(3) Organizational expenses defined

The organizational expenses to which paragraph (1) applies, are expenditures which—

(A) are incident to the creation of the partnership;

(B) are chargeable to capital account; and

(C) are of a character which, if expended incident to the creation of a partnership having an ascertainable life, would be amortized over such life.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title II, §213(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1547; amended Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §902(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1651; Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(ll), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2632.)

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–135 substituted "partnership" for "taxpayer" in introductory provisions and before "shall be allowed" in subpar. (A).

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted "Deduction" for "Amortization" in heading, added par. (2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and amended heading and text of par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, text of par. (1) read as follows: "Amounts paid or incurred to organize a partnership may, at the election of the partnership (made in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary), be treated as deferred expenses. Such deferred expenses shall be allowed as a deduction ratably over such period of not less than 60 months as may be selected by the partnership (beginning with the month in which the partnership begins business), or if the partnership is liquidated before the end of such 60-month period, such deferred expenses (to the extent not deducted under this section) may be deducted to the extent provided in section 165."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–135 effective as if included in the provision of the American Jobs Creation Act of 2004, Pub. L. 108–357, to which such amendment relates, see section 403(nn) of Pub. L. 109–135, set out as a note under section 26 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to amounts paid or incurred after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 902(d) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 195 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 94–455, title II, §213(f), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1548, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 179, 704, 706, 707, and 761 of this title] shall apply in the case of partnership taxable years beginning after December 31, 1975.

"(2) Subsection (e).—The amendment made by subsection (e) [amending section 704 of this title] shall apply to liabilities incurred after December 31, 1976.

"(3) Section 709(b) of the code.—Section 709(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by the amendment made by subsection (b)(1) of this section) shall apply in the case of amounts paid or incurred in taxable years beginning after December 31, 1976."