[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter N, PART III, Subpart D: Possessions of the United States
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter N, PART III, Subpart D: Possessions of the United States
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter N—Tax Based on Income From Sources Within or Without the United StatesPART III—INCOME FROM SOURCES WITHOUT THE UNITED STATES

Subpart D—Possessions of the United States

Sec.
931.
Income from sources within Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands.
932.
Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes.
933.
Income from sources within Puerto Rico.
934.
Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands.
[934A, 935. Repealed.]
[936.
Repealed.] 1

        

937.
Residence and source rules involving possessions.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(C), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1206, which directed that the table of sections for subpart C of part III of subchapter N of this chapter be amended by striking out item 936, could not be executed because item 936 "Puerto Rico and possession tax credit" had been editorially supplied.

2004Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(6), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1657, added item 937.

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §§1272(d)(12), 1274(d), 1275(c)(8), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2595, 2598, 2599, substituted "Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands" for "possessions of the United States" in item 931, added item 932, and struck out former item 932 "Citizens of possessions of the United States", item 934A "Income tax rate on Virgin Islands source income" and item 935 "Coordination of United States and Guam individual income taxes".

1983Pub. L. 97–455, §1(d)(1), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2498, added item 934A.

1972Pub. L. 92–606, §1(f)(5), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497, added item 935.

1960Pub. L. 86–779, §4(a)(2), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 999, added item 934.

1 See 2018 Amendment note below.

§931. Income from sources within Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands

(a) General rule

In the case of an individual who is a bona fide resident of a specified possession during the entire taxable year, gross income shall not include—

(1) income derived from sources within any specified possession, and

(2) income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business by such individual within any specified possession.

(b) Deductions, etc. allocable to excluded amounts not allowable

An individual shall not be allowed—

(1) as a deduction from gross income any deductions (other than the deduction under section 151, relating to personal exemptions), or

(2) any credit,


properly allocable or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under this section.

(c) Specified possession

For purposes of this section, the term "specified possession" means Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(d) Employees of the United States

Amounts paid for services performed as an employee of the United States (or any agency thereof) shall be treated as not described in paragraph (1) or (2) of subsection (a).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 291; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §107(a), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1571; Pub. L. 92–178, title V, §502(d), Dec. 10, 1971, 85 Stat. 550; Pub. L. 92–606, §1(f)(1), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497; Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1051(c), title XIX, §§1901(a)(117), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1645, 1784, 1834; Pub. L. 95–30, title I, §101(d)(12), May 23, 1977, 91 Stat. 134; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §711(c)(2)(A)(iv), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 945; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2593; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(1), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–357 amended heading and text of subsec. (d) generally, substituting provisions relating to employees of the United States for provisions consisting of pars. (1) to (3) relating to special rules concerning employees of the United States, determination of source of income, and determination of residency.

1986Pub. L. 99–514 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to income from sources within Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands, for former provisions relating to income from sources within possessions of the United States, which had declared in: subsec. (a), general rule as to gross income, including requirements relating to 3-year period and trade or business; subsec. (b), rule as to amounts received in United States; subsec. (c), definition of "possession of the United States"; subsec. (d), general rule allowing deductions only to extent connected with income from sources within United States, and specific exceptions to limitations of general rule; subsec. (e), deduction for personal exemption; subsec. (f), allowance of deductions and credits; subsec. (g), foreign tax credit; subsec. (h), provisions relating to employees of United States.

1984—Subsec. (d)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369 substituted "for losses" for ", for losses of property not connected with the trade or business if arising from certain casualties or theft,".

1977—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–30 struck out par. (3) which made a cross reference to section 142(b)(2) for disallowance of the standard deduction.

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1051(c)(1), struck out all references to domestic corporations and made subsection applicable only to individual citizens.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1051(c)(2), substituted "Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands of the United States, or Guam" for "Virgin Islands of the United States, and such term when used with respect to citizens of the United States does not include Puerto Rico or Guam" after "does not include the".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1051(c)(3), 1906(b)(13)(A), substituted "a citizen of the United States" for "persons" after "in the case of" and struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1051(c)(3), 1906(b)(13)(A), substituted "A citizen of the United States" for "Persons" after "Allowance of deductions and credits" and struck out in two places "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsecs. (h), (i). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(117), redesignated subsec. (i) as (h). Former subsec. (h), relating to the status of a citizen of the United States who has been interned by the enemy, was struck out.

1972—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 92–606 substituted "Puerto Rico or Guam" for "Puerto Rico".

1971—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 92–178 provided for non-application of section in the case of a corporation for a taxable year for which it is a DISC or in which it owns at any time stock in a DISC or former DISC.

1966—Subsec (d). Pub. L. 89–809 made applicable to United States citizens and domestic corporations engaged in trade or business in possessions, who qualify for the special tax treatment of income qualifying for the exclusion relating to income from United States possessions, provisions which allow deductions to nonresident aliens or foreign corporations engaged in trade or business in the United States by allowing deductions only where they are allocable to income effectively connected with the trade or business in the United States and by spelling out the exceptions allowing deductions whether or not connected with income from sources within the United States in the case of losses not connected with the trade or business but incurred in transactions entered into for profit, casualty losses, and charitable contributions.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1277, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2600, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(z), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3530, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle G (§§1271–1277) of title XII of Pub. L. 99–514, enacting section 932 of this title, amending this section and sections 28, 32, 48, 63, 153, 246, 338, 864, 876, 881, 933, 934, 936, 957, 1402, 1442, 3401, 6091, 7651, 7654, and 7655 of this title, repealing sections 932, 934A, and 935 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and section 932 of this title] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986.

"(b) Special Rule for Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands.—The amendments made by this subtitle shall apply with respect to Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands (and to residents thereof and corporations created or organized therein) only if (and so long as) an implementing agreement under section 1271 [set out below] is in effect between the United States and such possession.

"(c) Special Rules for the Virgin Islands.—

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by section 1275(c) [amending sections 28, 48, 338, 864, and 934 of this title and repealing section 934A of this title] shall apply with respect to the Virgin Islands (and residents thereof and corporations created or organized therein) only if (and so long as) an implementing agreement is in effect between the United States and the Virgin Islands with respect to the establishment of rules under which the evasion or avoidance of United States income tax shall not be permitted or facilitated by such possession. Any such implementing agreement shall be executed on behalf of the United States by the Secretary of the Treasury, after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior.

"(2) Section 1275(b).—

"(A) In general.—The amendment made by section 1275(b) [amending section 7651 of this title] shall apply with respect to—

"(i) any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1986, and

"(ii) any pre-1987 open year.

"(B) Special rules.—In the case of any pre-1987 open year—

"(i) the amendment made by section 1275(b) shall not apply to income from sources in the Virgin Islands or income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business in the Virgin Islands, and

"(ii) the taxpayer shall be allowed a credit—

     "(I) against any additional tax imposed by subtitle A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] (by reason of the amendment made by section 1275(b)) on income not described in clause (i),

     "(II) for any tax paid to the Virgin Islands before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] and attributable to such income.

 For purposes of clause (ii)(II), any tax paid before January 1, 1987, pursuant to a process in effect before August 16, 1986, shall be treated as paid before the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(C) Pre-1987 open year.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term 'pre-1987 open year' means any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1987, if on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] the assessment of a deficiency of income tax for such taxable year is not barred by any law or rule of law.

"(D) Exception.—In the case of any pre-1987 open year, the amendment made by section 1275(b) shall not apply to any domestic corporation if—

"(i) during the fiscal year which ended May 31, 1986, such corporation was actively engaged directly or through a subsidiary in the conduct of a trade or business in the Virgin Islands and such trade or business consists of business related to marine activities, and

"(ii) such corporation was incorporated on March 31, 1983, in Delaware.

"(E) Exception for certain transactions.—

"(i) In general.—In the case of any pre-1987 open year, the amendment made by section 1275(b) shall not apply to any income derived from transactions described in clause (ii) by 1 or more corporations which were formed in Delaware on or about March 6, 1981, and which have owned 1 or more office buildings in St. Thomas, United States Virgin Islands, for at least 5 years before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986].

"(ii) Description of transactions.—The transactions described in this clause are—

     "(I) the redemptions of limited partnership interests for cash and property described in an agreement (as amended) dated March 12, 1981,

     "(II) the subsequent disposition of the properties distributed in such redemptions, and

     "(III) interest earned before January 1, 1987, on bank deposits of proceeds received from such redemptions to the extent such deposits are located in the United States Virgin Islands.

"(iii) Limitation.—The aggregate reduction in tax by reason of this subparagraph shall not exceed $8,312,000. If the taxes which would be payable as the result of the application of the amendment made by section 1275(b) to pre-1987 open years exceeds the limitation of the preceding sentence, such excess shall be treated as attributable to income received in taxable years in reverse chronological order.

"(d) Report on Implementing Agreements.—If, during the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986], any implementing agreement described in subsection (b) or (c) is not executed, the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall report to the Committee on Finance of the United States Senate, the Committee on Ways and Means, and the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs [now Committee on Natural Resources] of the House of Representatives with respect to—

"(1) the status of such negotiations, and

"(2) the reason why such agreement has not been executed.

"(e) Treatment of Certain United States Persons.—Except as otherwise provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate, if a United States person becomes a resident of Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands, the rules of section 877(c) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] shall apply to such person during the 10-year period beginning when such person became such a resident. Notwithstanding subsection (b), the preceding sentence shall apply to dispositions after December 31, 1985, in taxable years ending after such date.

"(f) Exemption From Withholding.—Notwithstanding subsection (b), the modification of section 884 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 by reason of the amendment to section 881 of such Code by section 1273(b)(1) of this Act shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1986."

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 711(c)(2)(A)(v) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 165 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–30 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 106(a) of Pub. L. 95–30, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1051(c) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, with certain exceptions, see section 1051(i) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 27 of this title.

Amendment by section 1901(a)(117) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–606, §2, Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1497, provided in part that: "The amendments made by section 1 [enacting sections 935 and 6688 of this title, amending this section, sections 932, 7654, and 7701 of this title, and section 1421i of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 881 and 1442 of this title] (other than section 1(e)) [amending sections 881 and 1442 of this title] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1972."

Effective Date of 1971 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 92–178 applicable with respect to taxable years ending after Dec. 31, 1971, except that a corporation may not be a DISC for any taxable year beginning before Jan. 1, 1972, see section 507 of Pub. L. 92–178, set out as an Effective Date note under section 991 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §107(b), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1571, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1966."

Authority of Guam, American Samoa, and the Northern Mariana Islands To Enact Revenue Laws

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1271, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2591, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), nothing in the laws of the United States shall prevent Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands from enacting tax laws (which shall apply in lieu of the mirror system) with respect to income—

"(1) from sources within, or effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within, any such possession, or

"(2) received or accrued by any resident of such possession.

"(b) Agreements To Alleviate Certain Problems Relating to Tax Administration.—Subsection (a) shall apply to Guam, American Samoa, or the Northern Mariana Islands only if (and so long as) an implementing agreement is in effect between the United States and such possession with respect to—

"(1) the elimination of double taxation involving taxation by such possession and taxation by the United States,

"(2) the establishment of rules under which the evasion or avoidance of United States income tax shall not be permitted or facilitated by such possession,

"(3) the exchange of information between such possession and the United States for purposes of tax administration, and

"(4) the resolution of other problems arising in connection with the administration of the tax laws of such possession or the United States.

Any such implementing agreement shall be executed on behalf of the United States by the Secretary of the Treasury after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior.

"(c) Revenues Not To Decrease.—The total amount of the revenue received by any possession referred to in subsection (a) pursuant to its tax laws during the implementation year and each of the 4 fiscal years thereafter shall not be less than the revenue (adjusted for inflation) which was received by such possession pursuant to tax laws for its last fiscal year before the implementation year.

"(d) Nondiscriminatory Treatment Required.—Nothing in any tax law of a possession referred to in subsection (a) may discriminate against any United States person or any resident (corporate or otherwise) of any other possession.

"(e) Enforcement.—

"(1) In general.—If the Secretary of the Treasury (after consultation with the Secretary of the Interior) determines that any possession has failed to comply with subsection (c) or (d), the Secretary of the Treasury shall so notify the Governor of such possession in writing. If such possession does not comply with subsection (c) or (d) (as the case may be) within 90 days of such notification, the Secretary of the Treasury shall notify the Congress of such noncompliance. Unless the Congress by law provides otherwise, the mirror system of taxation shall be reinstated in such possession and shall be in full force and effect for taxable years beginning after such notification to the Congress.

"(2) Special rule for revenue requirements.—If the failure to comply with subsection (c) is for good cause and does not jeopardize the fiscal integrity of the possession, the Secretary may waive the requirements of subsection (c) for such period as he determines appropriate.

"(f) Definitions and Special Rules.—

"(1) Implementation year.—For purposes of this section, the term "implementation year" means the 1st fiscal year of the possession in which the tax laws authorized by subsection (a) take effect.

"(2) Mirror system.—For purposes of this section, the mirror system of taxation consists of the provisions of law (in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]) which make the provisions of the income tax laws of the United States (as in effect from time to time) in effect in a possession of the United States.

"(3) Special rule for northern mariana islands.—Notwithstanding the provisions of the last clause of section 601(a) of Public Law 94–241 [48 U.S.C. 1801 note], the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands may elect to continue its mirror system of taxation without regard to whether Guam enacts tax laws under the authority provided in subsection (a)."

§932. Coordination of United States and Virgin Islands income taxes

(a) Treatment of United States residents

(1) Application of subsection

This subsection shall apply to an individual for the taxable year if—

(A) such individual—

(i) is a citizen or resident of the United States (other than a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands during the entire taxable year), and

(ii) has income derived from sources within the Virgin Islands, or effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within such possession, for the taxable year, or


(B) such individual files a joint return for the taxable year with an individual described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Filing requirement

Each individual to whom this subsection applies for the taxable year shall file his income tax return for the taxable year with both the United States and the Virgin Islands.

(3) Extent of income tax liability

In the case of an individual to whom this subsection applies in a taxable year for purposes of so much of this title (other than this section and section 7654) as relates to the taxes imposed by this chapter, the United States shall be treated as including the Virgin Islands.

(b) Portion of United States tax liability payable to the Virgin Islands

(1) In general

Each individual to whom subsection (a) applies for the taxable year shall pay the applicable percentage of the taxes imposed by this chapter for such taxable year (determined without regard to paragraph (3)) to the Virgin Islands.

(2) Applicable percentage

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "applicable percentage" means the percentage which Virgin Islands adjusted gross income bears to adjusted gross income.

(B) Virgin Islands adjusted gross income

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "Virgin Islands adjusted gross income" means adjusted gross income determined by taking into account only income derived from sources within the Virgin Islands and deductions properly apportioned or allocable thereto.

(3) Amounts paid allowed as credit

There shall be allowed as a credit against the tax imposed by this chapter for the taxable year an amount equal to the taxes required to be paid to the Virgin Islands under paragraph (1) which are so paid.

(c) Treatment of Virgin Islands residents

(1) Application of subsection

This subsection shall apply to an individual for the taxable year if—

(A) such individual is a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands during the entire taxable year, or

(B) such individual files a joint return for the taxable year with an individual described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Filing requirement

Each individual to whom this subsection applies for the taxable year shall file an income tax return for the taxable year with the Virgin Islands.

(3) Extent of income tax liability

In the case of an individual to whom this subsection applies in a taxable year for purposes of so much of this title (other than this section and section 7654) as relates to the taxes imposed by this chapter, the Virgin Islands shall be treated as including the United States.

(4) Residents of the Virgin Islands

In the case of an individual—

(A) who is a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands during the entire taxable year,

(B) who, on his return of income tax to the Virgin Islands, reports income from all sources and identifies the source of each item shown on such return, and

(C) who fully pays his tax liability referred to in section 934(a) to the Virgin Islands with respect to such income,


for purposes of calculating income tax liability to the United States, gross income shall not include any amount included in gross income on such return, and allocable deductions and credits shall not be taken into account.

(d) Special rule for joint returns

In the case of a joint return, this section shall be applied on the basis of the residence of the spouse who has the greater adjusted gross income (determined without regard to community property laws) for the taxable year.

(e) Special rule for applying section to tax imposed in Virgin Islands

In applying this section for purposes of determining income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands, the provisions of this section shall not be affected by the provisions of Federal law referred to in section 934(a).

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1274(a), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2596; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(w)(1)–(3), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3530; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 932, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 292; Nov. 13, 1966, Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §103(m), 80 Stat. 1554; Oct. 31, 1972, Pub. L. 92–606, §1(f)(2), (3), 86 Stat. 1497; Apr. 7, 1986, Pub. L. 99–272, title XII, §12103(a), 100 Stat. 285, related to income taxation of citizens of possessions of the United States, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(d)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2594.

Amendments

2004—Subsecs. (a)(1)(A)(i), (c)(1)(A), (4)(A). Pub. L. 108–357 substituted "during the entire taxable year" for "at the close of the taxable year".

1988—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(w)(3), substituted "an income tax return" for "his income tax return".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(w)(2), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "In the case of an individual who is a bona fide resident of the Virgin Islands at the close of the taxable year and who, on his return of income tax to the Virgin Islands, reports income from all sources and identifies the source of each item shown on such return, for purposes of calculating income tax liability to the United States gross income shall not include any amount included in gross income on such return."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–647, §1012(w)(1), substituted current heading for "Section not to apply to tax imposed in Virgin Islands" and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "This section shall not apply for purposes of determining income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands."

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Enactment of section 932 and repeal of prior section 932 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 931 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1274(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2598, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1012(w)(4), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3530, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate for applying the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [this title] for purposes of determining tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands."

Authority To Impose Nondiscriminatory Local Income Taxes

Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1274(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2597, provided that: "Nothing in any provision of Federal law shall prevent the Virgin Islands from imposing on any person nondiscriminatory local income taxes. Any taxes so imposed shall be treated in the same manner as State and local income taxes under section 164 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] and shall not be treated as taxes to which section 901 of such Code applies."

§933. Income from sources within Puerto Rico

The following items shall not be included in gross income and shall be exempt from taxation under this subtitle:

(1) Resident of Puerto Rico for entire taxable year

In the case of an individual who is a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico during the entire taxable year, income derived from sources within Puerto Rico (except amounts received for services performed as an employee of the United States or any agency thereof); but such individual shall not be allowed as a deduction from his gross income any deductions (other than the deduction under section 151, relating to personal exemptions), or any credit, properly allocable to or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under this paragraph.

(2) Taxable year of change of residence from Puerto Rico

In the case of an individual citizen of the United States who has been a bona fide resident of Puerto Rico for a period of at least 2 years before the date on which he changes his residence from Puerto Rico, income derived from sources therein (except amounts received for services performed as an employee of the United States or any agency thereof) which is attributable to that part of such period of Puerto Rican residence before such date; but such individual shall not be allowed as a deduction from his gross income any deductions (other than the deduction for personal exemptions under section 151), or any credit, properly allocable to or chargeable against amounts excluded from gross income under this paragraph.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 293; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(d)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2594.)

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514 inserted ", or any credit," in pars. (1) and (2).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

§934. Limitation on reduction in income tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands

(a) General rule

Tax liability incurred to the Virgin Islands pursuant to this subtitle, as made applicable in the Virgin Islands by the Act entitled "An Act making appropriations for the naval service for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1922, and for other purposes", approved July 12, 1921 (48 U.S.C. 1397), or pursuant to section 28(a) of the Revised Organic Act of the Virgin Islands, approved July 22, 1954 (48 U.S.C. 1642), shall not be reduced or remitted in any way, directly or indirectly, whether by grant, subsidy, or other similar payment, by any law enacted in the Virgin Islands, except to the extent provided in subsection (b).

(b) Reductions permitted with respect to certain income

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to so much of the tax liability referred to in subsection (a) as is attributable to income derived from sources within the Virgin Islands or income effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the Virgin Islands.

(2) Exception for liability paid by citizens or residents of the United States

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any liability payable to the Virgin Islands under section 932(b).

(3) Special rule for non-United States income of certain foreign corporations

(A) In general

In the case of a qualified foreign corporation, subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to so much of the tax liability referred to in subsection (a) as is attributable to income which is derived from sources outside the United States and which is not effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States.

(B) Qualified foreign corporation

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "qualified foreign corporation" means any foreign corporation if less than 10 percent of—

(i) the total voting power of the stock of such corporation, and

(ii) the total value of the stock of such corporation, is owned or treated as owned (within the meaning of section 958) by 1 or more United States persons.

(4) Determination of income source, etc.

The determination as to whether income is derived from sources within the United States or is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall be made under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(Added Pub. L. 86–779, §4(a)(1), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 998; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1901(a)(118), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1784, 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §213(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 463; Pub. L. 97–455, §1(c), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2498; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VIII, §801(d)(7), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1275(a)(2)(A), (c)(1), (2), title XVIII, §1876(f)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2598, 2900; Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(3), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656.)

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 108–357 struck out "the Virgin Islands or" before "the United States" in two places.

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(2)(A), struck out "or (c) or in section 934A" after "subsection (b)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(1), (2)(B), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which excepted from subsec. (a) domestic or Virgin Islands corporations to the extent they derived income from sources without the United States under certain conditions.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(1), struck out subsec. (c) which provided an exception to subsec. (a) of this section for individual citizens of the United States residing in the Virgin Islands to the extent their income is derived from sources within the Virgin Islands.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(c)(1), struck out subsec. (d) which related to requirement to supply information.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(a)(2)(A), struck out subsec. (e) which provided for tax treatment of intangible property income of certain domestic corporations.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 99–514, §1275(a)(2)(A), struck out subsec. (f) which provided a transitional rule for applying subsec. (b)(2) of this section with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, and before Jan. 1, 1985.

Pub. L. 99–514, §1876(f)(2), struck out subsec. (f) which provided that subsec. (a) of this section not apply in the case of a Virgin Islands corporation which is a FSC.

1984—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369 added subsec. (f) relating to FSC.

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–455 inserted "or in section 934A" after "subsection (b) or (c)".

1982—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(b)(1), substituted "65 percent" for "50 percent".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(b)(2), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 97–248, §213(b)(2), added a temporary subsec. (f) which provided that in applying subsec. (b)(2) with respect to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982, and before January 1, 1985, "55 percent" shall be substituted for "65 percent" for taxable years beginning in calendar year 1983 and "60 percent" shall be substituted for "65 percent" for taxable years beginning in calendar year 1984.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1901(a)(118), struck out "For the purposes of this subsection, all amounts received by such corporation within the United States, whether derived from sources within or without the United States, shall be considered as being derived from sources within the United States".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" in two places.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, see section 908(d)(1) of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 937 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 1275(a)(2)(A), (c)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 931 of this title.

Amendment by section 1876(f)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to transactions after Dec. 31, 1984, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 805(a)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, as amended, set out as a note under section 245 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–455, §1(e), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2498, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting section 934A and amending this section] shall apply to amounts received after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 12, 1983] in taxable years ending after such date.

"(2) Withholding.—The amendment made by subsection (b) [enacting section 1444 of this title] shall apply to payments made after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, except that so much of this section to which former section 936(h)(6) applied by reason of subsec. (e)(4) of this section was applicable to taxable years ending after July 1, 1982, see section 213(e)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 97–248 set out as a note under section 246 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1901(a)(118) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable with respect to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 1901(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 86–779, §4(e)(1), Sept. 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 1000, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [enacting this section] shall apply to tax liability incurred with respect to taxable years beginning on or after January 1, 1960."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

[§934A. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1275(c)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2599]

Section, added Pub. L. 97–455, §1(a), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2497, related to income tax rate on Virgin Islands source income.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 931 of this title.

[§935. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XII, §1272(d)(2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2594]

Section, added Pub. L. 92–606, §1(a), Oct. 31, 1972, 86 Stat. 1494; amended Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(c)(4), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656, related to coordination of United States and Guam individual income taxes.

Amendment Subsequent to Repeal

Pub. L. 108–357, title IX, §908(c)(4), (d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1656, 1657, applicable to taxable years ending after Oct. 22, 2004, amended section, as in effect before the effective date of its repeal, in introductory provisions of subsec. (a), by substituting "who, during the entire taxable year" for "for the taxable year who", in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b)(1)(B), by inserting "bona fide" before "resident", in subsec. (b)(1)(A), by inserting "(other a bona fide resident of Guam during the entire taxable year)" after "United States", and, in subsection (b)(2), by striking out "residence and" before "citizenship".

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 1277 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 931 of this title.

[§936. Repealed. Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(d)(1)(C), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1206]

Section, added Pub. L. 94–455, title X, §1051(b), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1643; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1901(b)(37)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1803; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §701(u)(11)(A), (B), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2917; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §201(d)(8)(B), formerly §201(c)(8)(B), §213(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 420, 452, renumbered §201(d)(8)(B), Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §306(a)(1)(A)(i), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2400; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(22), title VII, §712(g), title VIII, §801(d)(11), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 843, 947, 997; Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §516(b)(1)(B), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1770; Pub. L. 99–514, title II, §231(d)(3)(G), title VII, §701(e)(4)(I), title XII, §§1231(a)–(d), (f), 1275(a)(1), title XVIII, §1812(c)(4)(C), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2179, 2343, 2561-2563, 2598, 2835; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §§1002(h)(3), 1012(h)(2)(B), (j), (n)(4), (5), title VI, §6132(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3370, 3502, 3512, 3515, 3721; Pub. L. 101–382, title II, §227(a), Aug. 20, 1990, 104 Stat. 661; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11704(a)(11), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–518; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13227(a), (b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 489, 490; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1601(a), 1704(t)(37), (80), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1827, 1889, 1891; Pub. L. 108–357, title IV, §402(b)(2), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1492; Pub. L. 110–172, §11(g)(12), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2490; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(12)(G), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4038; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §14221(a), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2218, related to Puerto Rico and possession tax credit.

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in repeal by Pub. L. 115–141 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Mar. 23, 2018, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Mar. 23, 2018, see section 401(e) of Pub. L. 115–141, set out as a note under section 23 of this title.

§937. Residence and source rules involving possessions

(a) Bona fide resident

For purposes of this subpart, section 865(g)(3), section 876, section 881(b), paragraphs (2) and (3) of section 901(b), section 957(c), section 3401(a)(8)(C), and section 7654(a), except as provided in regulations, the term "bona fide resident" means a person—

(1) who is present for at least 183 days during the taxable year in Guam, American Samoa, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands, as the case may be, and

(2) who does not have a tax home (determined under the principles of section 911(d)(3) without regard to the second sentence thereof) outside such specified possession during the taxable year and does not have a closer connection (determined under the principles of section 7701(b)(3)(B)(ii)) to the United States or a foreign country than to such specified possession.


For purposes of paragraph (1), the determination as to whether a person is present for any day shall be made under the principles of section 7701(b).

(b) Source rules

Except as provided in regulations, for purposes of this title—

(1) except as provided in paragraph (2), rules similar to the rules for determining whether income is income from sources within the United States or is effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall apply for purposes of determining whether income is from sources within a possession specified in subsection (a)(1) or effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within any such possession, and

(2) any income treated as income from sources within the United States or as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within the United States shall not be treated as income from sources within any such possession or as effectively connected with the conduct of a trade or business within any such possession.

(c) Reporting requirement

(1) In general

If, for any taxable year, an individual takes the position for United States income tax reporting purposes that the individual became, or ceases to be, a bona fide resident of a possession specified in subsection (a)(1), such individual shall file with the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe, notice of such position.

(2) Transition rule

If, for any of an individual's 3 taxable years ending before the individual's first taxable year ending after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the individual took a position described in paragraph (1), the individual shall file with the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe, notice of such position.

(Added Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1655.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–357, which was approved Oct. 22, 2004.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 108–357, title VIII, §908(d), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1657, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending sections 931, 932, 934, 935, 957, and 6688 of this title] shall apply to taxable years ending after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 2004].

"(2) 183-day rule.—Section 937(a)(1) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 (as added by this section) shall apply to taxable years beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(3) Sourcing.—Section 937(b)(2) of such Code (as so added) shall apply to income earned after the date of the enactment of this Act."