[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter S, PART II: TAX TREATMENT OF SHAREHOLDERS
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26 USC Subtitle A, CHAPTER 1, Subchapter S, PART II: TAX TREATMENT OF SHAREHOLDERS
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle A—Income TaxesCHAPTER 1—NORMAL TAXES AND SURTAXESSubchapter S—Tax Treatment of S Corporations and Their Shareholders

PART II—TAX TREATMENT OF SHAREHOLDERS

Sec.
1366.
Pass-thru of items to shareholders.
1367.
Adjustments to basis of stock of shareholders, etc.
1368.
Distributions.

        

§1366. Pass-thru of items to shareholders

(a) Determination of shareholder's tax liability

(1) In general

In determining the tax under this chapter of a shareholder for the shareholder's taxable year in which the taxable year of the S corporation ends (or for the final taxable year of a shareholder who dies, or of a trust or estate which terminates, before the end of the corporation's taxable year), there shall be taken into account the shareholder's pro rata share of the corporation's—

(A) items of income (including tax-exempt income), loss, deduction, or credit the separate treatment of which could affect the liability for tax of any shareholder, and

(B) nonseparately computed income or loss.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the items referred to in subparagraph (A) shall include amounts described in paragraph (4) or (6) of section 702(a).

(2) Nonseparately computed income or loss defined

For purposes of this subchapter, the term "nonseparately computed income or loss" means gross income minus the deductions allowed to the corporation under this chapter, determined by excluding all items described in paragraph (1)(A).

(b) Character passed thru

The character of any item included in a shareholder's pro rata share under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) shall be determined as if such item were realized directly from the source from which realized by the corporation, or incurred in the same manner as incurred by the corporation.

(c) Gross income of a shareholder

In any case where it is necessary to determine the gross income of a shareholder for purposes of this title, such gross income shall include the shareholder's pro rata share of the gross income of the corporation.

(d) Special rules for losses and deductions

(1) Cannot exceed shareholder's basis in stock and debt

The aggregate amount of losses and deductions taken into account by a shareholder under subsection (a) for any taxable year shall not exceed the sum of—

(A) the adjusted basis of the shareholder's stock in the S corporation (determined with regard to paragraphs (1) and (2)(A) of section 1367(a) for the taxable year), and

(B) the shareholder's adjusted basis of any indebtedness of the S corporation to the shareholder (determined without regard to any adjustment under paragraph (2) of section 1367(b) for the taxable year).

(2) Indefinite carryover of disallowed losses and deductions

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), any loss or deduction which is disallowed for any taxable year by reason of paragraph (1) shall be treated as incurred by the corporation in the succeeding taxable year with respect to that shareholder.

(B) Transfers of stock between spouses or incident to divorce

In the case of any transfer described in section 1041(a) of stock of an S corporation, any loss or deduction described in subparagraph (A) with respect such stock shall be treated as incurred by the corporation in the succeeding taxable year with respect to the transferee.

(3) Carryover of disallowed losses and deductions to post-termination transition period

(A) In general

If for the last taxable year of a corporation for which it was an S corporation a loss or deduction was disallowed by reason of paragraph (1), such loss or deduction shall be treated as incurred by the shareholder on the last day of any post-termination transition period.

(B) Cannot exceed shareholder's basis in stock

The aggregate amount of losses and deductions taken into account by a shareholder under subparagraph (A) shall not exceed the adjusted basis of the shareholder's stock in the corporation (determined at the close of the last day of the post-termination transition period and without regard to this paragraph).

(C) Adjustment in basis of stock

The shareholder's basis in the stock of the corporation shall be reduced by the amount allowed as a deduction by reason of this paragraph.

(D) At-risk limitations

To the extent that any increase in adjusted basis described in subparagraph (B) would have increased the shareholder's amount at risk under section 465 if such increase had occurred on the day preceding the commencement of the post-termination transition period, rules similar to the rules described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) shall apply to any losses disallowed by reason of section 465(a).

(4) Application of limitation on charitable contributions

In the case of any charitable contribution of property to which the second sentence of section 1367(a)(2) applies, paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent of the excess (if any) of—

(A) the shareholder's pro rata share of such contribution, over

(B) the shareholder's pro rata share of the adjusted basis of such property.

(e) Treatment of family group

If an individual who is a member of the family (within the meaning of section 704(e)(2) of one or more shareholders of an S corporation renders services for the corporation or furnishes capital to the corporation without receiving reasonable compensation therefor, the Secretary shall make such adjustments in the items taken into account by such individual and such shareholders as may be necessary in order to reflect the value of such services or capital.

(f) Special rules

(1) Subsection (a) not to apply to credit allowable under section 34

Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to any credit allowable under section 34 (relating to certain uses of gasoline and special fuels).

(2) Treatment of tax imposed on built-in gains

If any tax is imposed under section 1374 for any taxable year on an S corporation, for purposes of subsection (a), the amount so imposed shall be treated as a loss sustained by the S corporation during such taxable year. The character of such loss shall be determined by allocating the loss proportionately among the recognized built-in gains giving rise to such tax.

(3) Reduction in pass-thru for tax imposed on excess net passive income

If any tax is imposed under section 1375 for any taxable year on an S corporation, for purposes of subsection (a), each item of passive investment income shall be reduced by an amount which bears the same ratio to the amount of such tax as—

(A) the amount of such item, bears to

(B) the total passive investment income for the taxable year.

(Added Pub. L. 97–354, §2, Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1677; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(26), title VII, §735(c)(16), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 844, 985; Pub. L. 99–514, title VI, §632(c)(2), title VII, §701(e)(4)(K), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2277, 2343; Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1006(f)(5)(E), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3406; Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7811(c)(7), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2407; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1302(e), 1307(c)(3)(A), 1309(a)(1), 1312, Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1779, 1782, 1783, 1784; Pub. L. 108–357, title II, §235(a), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1435; Pub. L. 110–172, §3(b), Dec. 29, 2007, 121 Stat. 2474; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(192), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1193.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "section 704(e)(2)" for "section 704(e)(3)".

2007—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 110–172 added par. (4).

2004—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 108–357 reenacted heading without change and amended text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Any loss or deduction which is disallowed for any taxable year by reason of paragraph (1) shall be treated as incurred by the corporation in the succeeding taxable year with respect to that shareholder."

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–188, §1302(e), inserted ", or of a trust or estate which terminates," after "who dies" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, §1309(a)(1), substituted "paragraphs (1) and (2)(A)" for "paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (d)(3)(D). Pub. L. 104–188, §1312, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–188, §1307(c)(3)(A), struck out subsec. (g) which provided a cross reference to subchapter D of chapter 63 of this title.

1989—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "Treatment of tax imposed on built-in gains" for "Reduction in pass-thru for tax imposed on built-in gains" in heading and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "If any tax is imposed under section 1374 for any taxable year on an S corporation, for purposes of subsection (a), the amount of each recognized built-in gain (within the meaning of section 1374) for such taxable year shall be reduced by its proportionate share of such tax."

1988—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "within the meaning of section 1374" for "as defined in section 1374(d)(2)".

1986—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 99–514, §632(c)(2), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2), reduction in pass-thru for tax imposed on capital gain, read as follows: "If any tax is imposed under section 1374 for any taxable year on an S corporation, for purposes of subsection (a)—

"(A) the amount of the corporation's long-term capital gains for the taxable year shall be reduced by the amount of such tax, and

"(B) if the amount of such tax exceeds the amount of such long-term capital gains, the corporation's gains from sales or exchanges of property described in section 1231 shall be reduced by the amount of such excess.

For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'long-term capital gain' shall not include any gain from the sale or exchange of property described in section 1231."

Pub. L. 99–514, §701(e)(4)(K), struck out "56 or" before "1374".

1984—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–369, §474(r)(26), substituted "section 34" for "section 39" in heading and text.

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 98–369, §735(c)(16), substituted "and special fuels" for ", special fuels, and lubricating oil".

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–172 effective as if included in the provisions of the Pension Protection Act of 2006, Pub. L. 109–280, to which such amendment relates, see section 3(j) of Pub. L. 110–172, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–357, title II, §235(b), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1435, as amended by Pub. L. 109–135, title IV, §403(c), Dec. 21, 2005, 119 Stat. 2620, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to transfers after December 31, 2004."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1317(a) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 641 of this title.

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–239 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Technical and Miscellaneous Revenue Act of 1988, Pub. L. 100–647, to which such amendment relates, see section 7817 of Pub. L. 101–239, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–647 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provision of the Tax Reform Act of 1986, Pub. L. 99–514, to which such amendment relates, see section 1019(a) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by section 632(c)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, but only in cases where the return for the taxable year is filed pursuant to an S election made after Dec. 31, 1986, with exceptions and special and transitional rules, see section 633 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 336 of this title.

Amendment by section 701(e)(4)(K) of Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 701(f) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 55 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 474(r)(26) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1983, and to carrybacks from such years, see section 475(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 21 of this title.

Amendment by section 735(c)(16) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Highway Revenue Act of 1982, title V of Pub. L. 97–424, to which such amendment relates, see section 736 of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 4051 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, except that in the case of a taxable year beginning during 1982, subsec. (f)(3) of this section and sections 1362(d)(3) and 1375 of this title shall apply, and section 1372(e)(5) of this title as in effect on the day before Oct. 19, 1982, shall not apply, see section 6(a), (b)(3) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Applicability of Certain Amendments by Pub. L. 99–514 in Relation to Treaty Obligations of United States

For applicability of amendment by section 701(e)(4)(K) of Pub. L. 99–514 notwithstanding any treaty obligation of the United States in effect on Oct. 22, 1986, with provision that for such purposes any amendment by title I of Pub. L. 100–647 be treated as if it had been included in the provision of Pub. L. 99–514 to which such amendment relates, see section 1012(aa)(2), (4) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as a note under section 861 of this title.

§1367. Adjustments to basis of stock of shareholders, etc.

(a) General rule

(1) Increases in basis

The basis of each shareholder's stock in an S corporation shall be increased for any period by the sum of the following items determined with respect to that shareholder for such period:

(A) the items of income described in subparagraph (A) of section 1366(a)(1),

(B) any nonseparately computed income determined under subparagraph (B) of section 1366(a)(1), and

(C) the excess of the deductions for depletion over the basis of the property subject to depletion.

(2) Decreases in basis

The basis of each shareholder's stock in an S corporation shall be decreased for any period (but not below zero) by the sum of the following items determined with respect to the shareholder for such period:

(A) distributions by the corporation which were not includible in the income of the shareholder by reason of section 1368,

(B) the items of loss and deduction described in subparagraph (A) of section 1366(a)(1),

(C) any nonseparately computed loss determined under subparagraph (B) of section 1366(a)(1),

(D) any expense of the corporation not deductible in computing its taxable income and not properly chargeable to capital account, and

(E) the amount of the shareholder's deduction for depletion for any oil and gas property held by the S corporation to the extent such deduction does not exceed the proportionate share of the adjusted basis of such property allocated to such shareholder under section 613A(c)(11)(B).


The decrease under subparagraph (B) by reason of a charitable contribution (as defined in section 170(c)) of property shall be the amount equal to the shareholder's pro rata share of the adjusted basis of such property.

(b) Special rules

(1) Income items

An amount which is required to be included in the gross income of a shareholder and shown on his return shall be taken into account under subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(1) only to the extent such amount is included in the shareholder's gross income on his return, increased or decreased by any adjustment of such amount in a redetermination of the shareholder's tax liability.

(2) Adjustments in basis of indebtedness

(A) Reduction of basis

If for any taxable year the amounts specified in subparagraphs (B), (C), (D), and (E) of subsection (a)(2) exceed the amount which reduces the shareholder's basis to zero, such excess shall be applied to reduce (but not below zero) the shareholder's basis in any indebtedness of the S corporation to the shareholder.

(B) Restoration of basis

If for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982, there is a reduction under subparagraph (A) in the shareholder's basis in the indebtedness of an S corporation to a shareholder, any net increase (after the application of paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (a)) for any subsequent taxable year shall be applied to restore such reduction in basis before any of it may be used to increase the shareholder's basis in the stock of the S corporation.

(3) Coordination with sections 165(g) and 166(d)

This section and section 1366 shall be applied before the application of sections 165(g) and 166(d) to any taxable year of the shareholder or the corporation in which the security or debt becomes worthless.

(4) Adjustments in case of inherited stock

(A) In general

If any person acquires stock in an S corporation by reason of the death of a decedent or by bequest, devise, or inheritance, section 691 shall be applied with respect to any item of income of the S corporation in the same manner as if the decedent had held directly his pro rata share of such item.

(B) Adjustments to basis

The basis determined under section 1014 of any stock in an S corporation shall be reduced by the portion of the value of the stock which is attributable to items constituting income in respect of the decedent.

(Added Pub. L. 97–354, §2, Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1679; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §§721(d), (w), 722(e)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 967, 971, 974; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §§1313(a), 1702(h)(14), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1785, 1874; Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1203(a), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1066; Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §307(a), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3869; Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §752(a), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3321; Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §325(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2333; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §137(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4019; Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §115(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3049.)

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 114–113 struck out "The preceding sentence shall not apply to contributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014." at end of concluding provisions.

2014—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–295 substituted "December 31, 2014" for "December 31, 2013" in concluding provisions.

2013—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 112–240 substituted "December 31, 2013" for "December 31, 2011" in concluding provisions.

2010—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 111–312 substituted "December 31, 2011" for "December 31, 2009" in concluding provisions.

2008—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 110–343 substituted "December 31, 2009" for "December 31, 2007" in concluding provisions.

2006—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 109–280, which directed the addition of concluding provisions to section 1367(a)(2), without specifying the act to be amended, was executed to subsec. (a)(2) of this section, which is section 1367 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1996—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 104–188, §1702(h)(14), substituted "section 613A(c)(11)(B)" for "section 613A(c)(13)(B)".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 104–188, §1313(a), added par. (4).

1984—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 98–369, §722(e)(2), substituted "for any oil and gas property held by the S corporation to the extent such deduction does not exceed the proportionate share of the adjusted basis of such property allocated to such shareholder under section 613A(c)(13)(B)" for "under section 611 with respect to oil and gas wells".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(w), substituted "for any taxable year beginning after December 31, 1982, there is" for "for any taxable year there is".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(d), inserted "and 166(d)" in heading and text.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title I, §115(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3049, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2014."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title I, §137(b), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4020, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2013."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–240, title III, §325(b), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2333, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2011."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–312, title VII, §752(b), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3321, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2009."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–343, div. C, title III, §307(b), Oct. 3, 2008, 122 Stat. 3869, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2007."

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–280, title XII, §1203(b), Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1066, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to contributions made in taxable years beginning after December 31, 2005."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1313(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1785, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 20, 1996]."

Amendment by section 1702(h)(14) of Pub. L. 104–188 effective, except as otherwise expressly provided, as if included in the provision of the Revenue Reconciliation Act of 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, to which such amendment relates, see section 1702(i) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 38 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 721(d), (w) of Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–354, see section 721(y)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §722(e)(3)(B), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 974, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (2) [amending this section] shall apply to taxable years beginning after December 31, 1982."

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

§1368. Distributions

(a) General rule

A distribution of property made by an S corporation with respect to its stock to which (but for this subsection) section 301(c) would apply shall be treated in the manner provided in subsection (b) or (c), whichever applies.

(b) S corporation having no earnings and profits

In the case of a distribution described in subsection (a) by an S corporation which has no accumulated earnings and profits—

(1) Amount applied against basis

The distribution shall not be included in gross income to the extent that it does not exceed the adjusted basis of the stock.

(2) Amount in excess of basis

If the amount of the distribution exceeds the adjusted basis of the stock, such excess shall be treated as gain from the sale or exchange of property.

(c) S corporation having earnings and profits

In the case of a distribution described in subsection (a) by an S corporation which has accumulated earnings and profits—

(1) Accumulated adjustments account

That portion of the distribution which does not exceed the accumulated adjustments account shall be treated in the manner provided by subsection (b).

(2) Dividend

That portion of the distribution which remains after the application of paragraph (1) shall be treated as a dividend to the extent it does not exceed the accumulated earnings and profits of the S corporation.

(3) Treatment of remainder

Any portion of the distribution remaining after the application of paragraph (2) of this subsection shall be treated in the manner provided by subsection (b).


Except to the extent provided in regulations, if the distributions during the taxable year exceed the amount in the accumulated adjustments account at the close of the taxable year, for purposes of this subsection, the balance of such account shall be allocated among such distributions in proportion to their respective sizes.

(d) Certain adjustments taken into account

Subsections (b) and (c) shall be applied by taking into account (to the extent proper)—

(1) the adjustments to the basis of the shareholder's stock described in section 1367, and

(2) the adjustments to the accumulated adjustments account which are required by subsection (e)(1).


In the case of any distribution made during any taxable year, the adjusted basis of the stock shall be determined with regard to the adjustments provided in paragraph (1) of section 1367(a) for the taxable year.

(e) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Accumulated adjustments account

(A) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this paragraph, the term "accumulated adjustments account" means an account of the S corporation which is adjusted for the S period in a manner similar to the adjustments under section 1367 (except that no adjustment shall be made for income (and related expenses) which is exempt from tax under this title and the phrase "(but not below zero)" shall be disregarded in section 1367(a)(2)) and no adjustment shall be made for Federal taxes attributable to any taxable year in which the corporation was a C corporation.

(B) Amount of adjustment in the case of redemptions

In the case of any redemption which is treated as an exchange under section 302(a) or 303(a), the adjustment in the accumulated adjustments account shall be an amount which bears the same ratio to the balance in such account as the number of shares redeemed in such redemption bears to the number of shares of stock in the corporation immediately before such redemption.

(C) Net loss for year disregarded

(i) In general

In applying this section to distributions made during any taxable year, the amount in the accumulated adjustments account as of the close of such taxable year shall be determined without regard to any net negative adjustment for such taxable year.

(ii) Net negative adjustment

For purposes of clause (i), the term "net negative adjustment" means, with respect to any taxable year, the excess (if any) of—

(I) the reductions in the account for the taxable year (other than for distributions), over

(II) the increases in such account for such taxable year.

(2) S period

The term "S period" means the most recent continuous period during which the corporation has been an S corporation. Such period shall not include any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1983.

(3) Election to distribute earnings first

(A) In general

An S corporation may, with the consent of all of its affected shareholders, elect to have paragraph (1) of subsection (c) not apply to all distributions made during the taxable year for which the election is made.

(B) Affected shareholder

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the term "affected shareholder" means any shareholder to whom a distribution is made by the S corporation during the taxable year.

(f) Restricted bank director stock

If a director receives a distribution (not in part or full payment in exchange for stock) from an S corporation with respect to any restricted bank director stock (as defined in section 1361(f)), the amount of such distribution—

(1) shall be includible in gross income of the director, and

(2) shall be deductible by the corporation for the taxable year of such corporation in which or with which ends the taxable year in which such amount is included in the gross income of the director.

(Added Pub. L. 97–354, §2, Oct. 19, 1982, 96 Stat. 1680; amended Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §305(d)(2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2399; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title VII, §721(r), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 970; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1879(m)(1)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2910; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1309(a)(2)–(c), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1783; Pub. L. 110–28, title VIII, §8232(b), May 25, 2007, 121 Stat. 197; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(193), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1193.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "is included" for "in included".

2007—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–28 added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–188, §1309(a)(2), inserted at end "In the case of any distribution made during any taxable year, the adjusted basis of the stock shall be determined with regard to the adjustments provided in paragraph (1) of section 1367(a) for the taxable year."

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–188, §1309(c), substituted "as otherwise provided in this paragraph" for "as provided in subparagraph (B)" and "section 1367(a)(2)" for "section 1367(b)(2)(A)".

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 104–188, §1309(b), added subpar. (C).

1986—Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 99–514 inserted "and no adjustment shall be made for Federal taxes attributable to any taxable year in which the corporation was a C corporation" before period at end.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(r)(2), inserted "Except to the extent provided in regulations, if the distributions during the taxable year exceed the amount in the accumulated adjustments account at the close of the taxable year, for purposes of this subsection, the balance of such account shall be allocated among such distributions in proportion to their respective sizes."

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 98–369, §721(r)(1), substituted "(except that no adjustment shall be made for income (and related expenses) which is exempt from tax under this title and the phrase '(but not below zero)' shall be disregarded in section 1367(b)(2)(A))" for "(except that no adjustment shall be made for income which is exempt from tax under this title and no adjustment shall be made for any expense not deductible in computing the corporation's taxable income and not properly chargeable to capital account)".

1983—Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 97–448 added par. (3).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–28 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2006, with special rule for treatment as second class of stock, see section 8232(c) of Pub. L. 110–28, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–188 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1996, see section 1317(a) of Pub. L. 104–188, set out as a note under section 641 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 1879(m)(2) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective as if included in the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982, Pub. L. 97–354, see section 721(y)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–448, title III, §311(c)(4), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2411, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (d) of section 305 [amending this section and sections 221, 1374, and 4975 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1361 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1361 of this title] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of the Subchapter S Revision Act of 1982 [Oct. 19, 1982]."

Effective Date

Section applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 6(a) of Pub. L. 97–354, set out as a note under section 1361 of this title.

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.