[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle B, CHAPTER 11, Subchapter A, PART III: GROSS ESTATE
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26 USC Subtitle B, CHAPTER 11, Subchapter A, PART III: GROSS ESTATE
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle B—Estate and Gift TaxesCHAPTER 11—ESTATE TAXSubchapter A—Estates of Citizens or Residents

PART III—GROSS ESTATE

Sec.
2031.
Definition of gross estate.
2032.
Alternate valuation.
2032A.
Valuation of certain farm, etc., real property.
2033.
Property in which the decedent had an interest.
[2033A.
Renumbered.]
2034.
Dower or curtesy interests.
2035.
Adjustments for certain gifts made within 3 years of decedent's death.
2036.
Transfers with retained life estate.
2037.
Transfers taking effect at death.
2038.
Revocable transfers.
2039.
Annuities.
2040.
Joint interests.
2041.
Powers of appointment.
2042.
Proceeds of life insurance.
2043.
Transfers for insufficient consideration.
2044.
Certain property for which marital deduction was previously allowed.
2045.
Prior interests.
2046.
Disclaimers.

        

Amendments

1998Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6007(b)(1)(E), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 808, struck out item 2033A "Family-owned business exclusion".

1997Pub. L. 105–34, title V, §502(b), title XIII, §1310(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 852, 1044, added item 2033A and substituted "certain gifts" for "gifts" in item 2035.

1981Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(d)(3)(A)(ii), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 304, added item 2044 and redesignated former items 2044 and 2045 as items 2045 and 2046, respectively.

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §§2001(c)(1)(N)(iii), 2003(d)(1), 2009(b)(3)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1853, 1862, 1894, added items 2032A and 2045 and substituted "Adjustments for gifts made within 3 years of decedent's death" for "Transactions in contemplation of death" in item 2035.

§2031. Definition of gross estate

(a) General

The value of the gross estate of the decedent shall be determined by including to the extent provided for in this part, the value at the time of his death of all property, real or personal, tangible or intangible, wherever situated.

(b) Valuation of unlisted stock and securities

In the case of stock and securities of a corporation the value of which, by reason of their not being listed on an exchange and by reason of the absence of sales thereof, cannot be determined with reference to bid and asked prices or with reference to sales prices, the value thereof shall be determined by taking into consideration, in addition to all other factors, the value of stock or securities of corporations engaged in the same or a similar line of business which are listed on an exchange.

(c) Estate tax with respect to land subject to a qualified conservation easement

(1) In general

If the executor makes the election described in paragraph (6), then, except as otherwise provided in this subsection, there shall be excluded from the gross estate the lesser of—

(A) the applicable percentage of the value of land subject to a qualified conservation easement, reduced by the amount of any deduction under section 2055(f) with respect to such land, or

(B) $500,000.

(2) Applicable percentage

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "applicable percentage" means 40 percent reduced (but not below zero) by 2 percentage points for each percentage point (or fraction thereof) by which the value of the qualified conservation easement is less than 30 percent of the value of the land (determined without regard to the value of such easement and reduced by the value of any retained development right (as defined in paragraph (5))). The values taken into account under the preceding sentence shall be such values as of the date of the contribution referred to in paragraph (8)(B).

[(3) Repealed. Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(96), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4051]

(4) Treatment of certain indebtedness

(A) In general

The exclusion provided in paragraph (1) shall not apply to the extent that the land is debt-financed property.

(B) Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Debt-financed property

The term "debt-financed property" means any property with respect to which there is an acquisition indebtedness (as defined in clause (ii)) on the date of the decedent's death.

(ii) Acquisition indebtedness

The term "acquisition indebtedness" means, with respect to debt-financed property, the unpaid amount of—

(I) the indebtedness incurred by the donor in acquiring such property,

(II) the indebtedness incurred before the acquisition of such property if such indebtedness would not have been incurred but for such acquisition,

(III) the indebtedness incurred after the acquisition of such property if such indebtedness would not have been incurred but for such acquisition and the incurrence of such indebtedness was reasonably foreseeable at the time of such acquisition, and

(IV) the extension, renewal, or refinancing of an acquisition indebtedness.

(5) Treatment of retained development right

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to the value of any development right retained by the donor in the conveyance of a qualified conservation easement.

(B) Termination of retained development right

If every person in being who has an interest (whether or not in possession) in the land executes an agreement to extinguish permanently some or all of any development rights (as defined in subparagraph (D)) retained by the donor on or before the date for filing the return of the tax imposed by section 2001, then any tax imposed by section 2001 shall be reduced accordingly. Such agreement shall be filed with the return of the tax imposed by section 2001. The agreement shall be in such form as the Secretary shall prescribe.

(C) Additional tax

Any failure to implement the agreement described in subparagraph (B) not later than the earlier of—

(i) the date which is 2 years after the date of the decedent's death, or

(ii) the date of the sale of such land subject to the qualified conservation easement,


shall result in the imposition of an additional tax in the amount of the tax which would have been due on the retained development rights subject to such agreement. Such additional tax shall be due and payable on the last day of the 6th month following such date.

(D) Development right defined

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "development right" means any right to use the land subject to the qualified conservation easement in which such right is retained for any commercial purpose which is not subordinate to and directly supportive of the use of such land as a farm for farming purposes (within the meaning of section 2032A(e)(5)).

(6) Election

The election under this subsection shall be made on or before the due date (including extensions) for filing the return of tax imposed by section 2001 and shall be made on such return. Such an election, once made, shall be irrevocable.

(7) Calculation of estate tax due

An executor making the election described in paragraph (6) shall, for purposes of calculating the amount of tax imposed by section 2001, include the value of any development right (as defined in paragraph (5)) retained by the donor in the conveyance of such qualified conservation easement. The computation of tax on any retained development right prescribed in this paragraph shall be done in such manner and on such forms as the Secretary shall prescribe.

(8) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Land subject to a qualified conservation easement

The term "land subject to a qualified conservation easement" means land—

(i) which is located in the United States or any possession of the United States,

(ii) which was owned by the decedent or a member of the decedent's family at all times during the 3-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death, and

(iii) with respect to which a qualified conservation easement has been made by an individual described in subparagraph (C), as of the date of the election described in paragraph (6).

(B) Qualified conservation easement

The term "qualified conservation easement" means a qualified conservation contribution (as defined in section 170(h)(1)) of a qualified real property interest (as defined in section 170(h)(2)(C)), except that clause (iv) of section 170(h)(4)(A) shall not apply, and the restriction on the use of such interest described in section 170(h)(2)(C) shall include a prohibition on more than a de minimis use for a commercial recreational activity.

(C) Individual described

An individual is described in this subparagraph if such individual is—

(i) the decedent,

(ii) a member of the decedent's family,

(iii) the executor of the decedent's estate, or

(iv) the trustee of a trust the corpus of which includes the land to be subject to the qualified conservation easement.

(D) Member of family

The term "member of the decedent's family" means any member of the family (as defined in section 2032A(e)(2)) of the decedent.

(9) Treatment of easements granted after death

In any case in which the qualified conservation easement is granted after the date of the decedent's death and on or before the due date (including extensions) for filing the return of tax imposed by section 2001, the deduction under section 2055(f) with respect to such easement shall be allowed to the estate but only if no charitable deduction is allowed under chapter 1 to any person with respect to the grant of such easement.

(10) Application of this section to interests in partnerships, corporations, and trusts

This section shall apply to an interest in a partnership, corporation, or trust if at least 30 percent of the entity is owned (directly or indirectly) by the decedent, as determined under the rules described in section 2057(e)(3) (as in effect before its repeal).

(d) Cross reference

For executor's right to be furnished on request a statement regarding any valuation made by the Secretary within the gross estate, see section 7517.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 380; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(1), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2008(a)(2)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1891; Pub. L. 105–34, title V, §508(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 857; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6007(g), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 810; Pub. L. 105–277, div. J, title IV, §4006(c)(3), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–913; Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §551(a), (b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 86; Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(96), (97)(B), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4051; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(200), (201), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1193.)

References in Text

Section 2057, referred to in subsec. (c)(10), was repealed by Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(97)(A), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4051, effective Dec. 19, 2014.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(200), substituted "(B) $500,000." for "(II) $500,000."

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–141, §401(a)(201), substituted "paragraph (5)))." for "paragraph (5))."

2014—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(96), substituted "(II) $500,000." for "(B) the exclusion limitation."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(96), struck out par. (3), which set out table of exclusion limitations.

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 113–295, §221(a)(97)(B), inserted "(as in effect before its repeal)" before period at end.

2001—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 107–16, §551(b), inserted at end "The values taken into account under the preceding sentence shall be such values as of the date of the contribution referred to in paragraph (8)(B)."

Subsec. (c)(8)(A)(i). Pub. L. 107–16, §551(a), amended cl. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (i) read as follows: "which is located—

"(I) in or within 25 miles of an area which, on the date of the decedent's death, is a metropolitan area (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget),

"(II) in or within 25 miles of an area which, on the date of the decedent's death, is a national park or wilderness area designated as part of the National Wilderness Preservation System (unless it is determined by the Secretary that land in or within 25 miles of such a park or wilderness area is not under significant development pressure), or

"(III) in or within 10 miles of an area which, on the date of the decedent's death, is an Urban National Forest (as designated by the Forest Service),".

1998—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 105–206, §6007(g)(2), substituted "on or before the due date (including extensions) for filing the return of tax imposed by section 2001 and shall be made on such return." for "on the return of the tax imposed by section 2001."

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 105–206, §6007(g)(1), added par. (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (10).

Subsec. (c)(10). Pub. L. 105–277, §4006(c)(3), substituted "section 2057(e)(3)" for "section 2033A(e)(3)".

Pub. L. 105–206, §6007(g)(1), redesignated par. (9) as (10).

1997—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 105–34 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1976—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455 added subsec. (c).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside the United States.

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §551(c), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 86, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 2000."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 508(e)(1) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 1014 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Pub. L. 87–834, §18(b), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052, provided that:

"(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and sections 2033, 2034, 2035, 2036, 2037, 2038, 2040, and 2041 of this title] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 1962].

"(2) In the case of a decedent dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 16, 1962] and before July 1, 1964, the value of real property situated outside of the United States shall not be included in the gross estate (as defined in section 2031(a)) of the decedent—

"(A) under section 2033, 2034, 2035(a), 2036(a), 2037(a), or 2038(a) to the extent the real property, or the decedent's interest in it, was acquired by the decedent before February 1, 1962;

"(B) under section 2040 to the extent such property or interest was acquired by the decedent before February 1, 1962, or was held by the decedent and the survivor in a joint tenancy or tenancy by the entirety before February 1, 1962; or

"(C) under section 2041(a) to the extent that before February 1, 1962, such property or interest was subject to a general power of appointment (as defined in section 2041) possessed by the decedent.

In the case of real property, or an interest therein, situated outside of the United States (including a general power of appointment in respect of such property or interest, and including property held by the decedent and the survivor in a joint tenancy or tenancy by the entirety) which was acquired by the decedent after January 31, 1962, by gift within the meaning of section 2511, or from a prior decedent by devise or inheritance, or by reason of death, form of ownership, or other conditions (including the exercise or nonexercise of a power of appointment), for purposes of this paragraph such property or interest therein shall be deemed to have been acquired by the decedent before February 1, 1962, if before that date the donor or prior decedent had acquired the property or his interest therein or had possessed a power of appointment in respect of the property or interest."

§2032. Alternate valuation

(a) General

The value of the gross estate may be determined, if the executor so elects, by valuing all the property included in the gross estate as follows:

(1) In the case of property distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, within 6 months after the decedent's death such property shall be valued as of the date of distribution, sale, exchange, or other disposition.

(2) In the case of property not distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, within 6 months after the decedent's death such property shall be valued as of the date 6 months after the decedent's death.

(3) Any interest or estate which is affected by mere lapse of time shall be included at its value as of the time of death (instead of the later date) with adjustment for any difference in its value as of the later date not due to mere lapse of time.

(b) Special rules

No deduction under this chapter of any item shall be allowed if allowance for such items is in effect given by the alternate valuation provided by this section. Wherever in any other subsection or section of this chapter reference is made to the value of property at the time of the decedent's death, such reference shall be deemed to refer to the value of such property used in determining the value of the gross estate. In case of an election made by the executor under this section, then—

(1) for purposes of the charitable deduction under section 2055 or 2106(a)(2), any bequest, legacy, devise, or transfer enumerated therein, and

(2) for the purpose of the marital deduction under section 2056, any interest in property passing to the surviving spouse,


shall be valued as of the date of the decedent's death with adjustment for any difference in value (not due to mere lapse of time or the occurrence or nonoccurrence of a contingency) of the property as of the date 6 months after the decedent's death (substituting, in the case of property distributed by the executor or trustee, or sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, during such 6-month period, the date thereof).

(c) Election must decrease gross estate and estate tax

No election may be made under this section with respect to an estate unless such election will decrease—

(1) the value of the gross estate, and

(2) the sum of the tax imposed by this chapter and the tax imposed by chapter 13 with respect to property includible in the decedent's gross estate (reduced by credits allowable against such taxes).

(d) Election

(1) In general

The election provided for in this section shall be made by the executor on the return of the tax imposed by this chapter. Such election, once made, shall be irrevocable.

(2) Exception

No election may be made under this section if such return is filed more than 1 year after the time prescribed by law (including extensions) for filing such return.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 381; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §101(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1836; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §§1023(a), 1024(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1030; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIV, §1432(c)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2730.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 99–514 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "the amount of the tax imposed by this chapter (reduced by credits allowable against such tax)."

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §1023(a), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §1024(a), substituted "Election" for "Time of election" in heading, designated existing text as par. (1), inserted heading "In general", substituted "shall be made by the executor on the return of the tax imposed by this chapter" for "shall be exercised by the executor on his return if filed within the time prescribed by law or before the expiration of any extension of time granted pursuant to law for the filing of the return", inserted sentence providing that an election, once made, is irrevocable, and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 98–369, §1023(a), redesignated subsec. (c) as (d).

1970Pub. L. 91–614 substituted "6 months" for "1 year" in four places and substituted "6-month" for "1-year".

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to generation-skipping transfers (within the meaning of section 2611 of this title) made after Oct. 22, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1433 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2601 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1023(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1030, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]."

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1024(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1030, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

"(2) Transitional rule.—In the case of an estate of a decedent dying before the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984] if—

"(A) a credit or refund of the tax imposed by chapter 11 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] is not prevented on the date of the enactment of this Act by the operation of any law or rule of law,

"(B) the election under section 2032 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 would have met the requirements of such section (as amended by this section and section 1023) had the decedent died after the date of enactment of this Act, and

"(C) a claim for credit or refund of such tax with respect to such estate is filed not later than the 90th day after the date of the enactment of this Act,

then such election shall be treated as a valid election under such section 2032. The statutory period for the assessment of any deficiency which is attributable to an election under this paragraph shall not expire before the close of the 2-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §101(j), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1838, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 6905 of this title, amending this section and sections 1223, 2055, 2204, 6040, 6075, 6091, 6161, 6314, 6324, and 6504 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 2204 and 6905 of this title] (other than subsection (f)) [amending sections 2204 and 6905 of this title] shall apply with respect to decedents dying after December 31, 1970."

§2032A. Valuation of certain farm, etc., real property

(a) Value based on use under which property qualifies

(1) General rule

If—

(A) the decedent was (at the time of his death) a citizen or resident of the United States, and

(B) the executor elects the application of this section and files the agreement referred to in subsection (d)(2),


then, for purposes of this chapter, the value of qualified real property shall be its value for the use under which it qualifies, under subsection (b), as qualified real property.

(2) Limitation on aggregate reduction in fair market value

The aggregate decrease in the value of qualified real property taken into account for purposes of this chapter which results from the application of paragraph (1) with respect to any decedent shall not exceed $750,000.

(3) Inflation adjustment

In the case of estates of decedents dying in a calendar year after 1998, the $750,000 amount contained in paragraph (2) shall be increased by an amount equal to—

(A) $750,000, multiplied by

(B) the cost-of-living adjustment determined under section 1(f)(3) for such calendar year by substituting "calendar year 1997" for "calendar year 2016" in subparagraph (A)(ii) thereof.


If any amount as adjusted under the preceding sentence is not a multiple of $10,000, such amount shall be rounded to the next lowest multiple of $10,000.

(b) Qualified real property

(1) In general

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified real property" means real property located in the United States which was acquired from or passed from the decedent to a qualified heir of the decedent and which, on the date of the decedent's death, was being used for a qualified use by the decedent or a member of the decedent's family, but only if—

(A) 50 percent or more of the adjusted value of the gross estate consists of the adjusted value of real or personal property which—

(i) on the date of the decedent's death, was being used for a qualified use by the decedent or a member of the decedent's family, and

(ii) was acquired from or passed from the decedent to a qualified heir of the decedent.


(B) 25 percent or more of the adjusted value of the gross estate consists of the adjusted value of real property which meets the requirements of subparagraphs (A)(ii) and (C),

(C) during the 8-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death there have been periods aggregating 5 years or more during which—

(i) such real property was owned by the decedent or a member of the decedent's family and used for a qualified use by the decedent or a member of the decedent's family, and

(ii) there was material participation by the decedent or a member of the decedent's family in the operation of the farm or other business, and


(D) such real property is designated in the agreement referred to in subsection (d)(2).

(2) Qualified use

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified use" means the devotion of the property to any of the following:

(A) use as a farm for farming purposes, or

(B) use in a trade or business other than the trade or business of farming.

(3) Adjusted value

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "adjusted value" means—

(A) in the case of the gross estate, the value of the gross estate for purposes of this chapter (determined without regard to this section), reduced by any amounts allowable as a deduction under paragraph (4) of section 2053(a), or

(B) in the case of any real or personal property, the value of such property for purposes of this chapter (determined without regard to this section), reduced by any amounts allowable as a deduction in respect of such property under paragraph (4) of section 2053(a).

(4) Decedents who are retired or disabled

(A) In general

If, on the date of the decedent's death, the requirements of paragraph (1)(C)(ii) with respect to the decedent for any property are not met, and the decedent—

(i) was receiving old-age benefits under title II of the Social Security Act for a continuous period ending on such date, or

(ii) was disabled for a continuous period ending on such date,


then paragraph (1)(C)(ii) shall be applied with respect to such property by substituting "the date on which the longer of such continuous periods began" for "the date of the decedent's death" in paragraph (1)(C).

(B) Disabled defined

For purposes of subparagraph (A), an individual shall be disabled if such individual has a mental or physical impairment which renders him unable to materially participate in the operation of the farm or other business.

(C) Coordination with recapture

For purposes of subsection (c)(6)(B)(i), if the requirements of paragraph (1)(C)(ii) are met with respect to any decedent by reason of subparagraph (A), the period ending on the date on which the continuous period taken into account under subparagraph (A) began shall be treated as the period immediately before the decedent's death.

(5) Special rules for surviving spouses

(A) In general

If property is qualified real property with respect to a decedent (hereinafter in this paragraph referred to as the "first decedent") and such property was acquired from or passed from the first decedent to the surviving spouse of the first decedent, for purposes of applying this subsection and subsection (c) in the case of the estate of such surviving spouse, active management of the farm or other business by the surviving spouse shall be treated as material participation by such surviving spouse in the operation of such farm or business.

(B) Special rule

For the purposes of subparagraph (A), the determination of whether property is qualified real property with respect to the first decedent shall be made without regard to subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) and without regard to whether an election under this section was made.

(C) Coordination with paragraph (4)

In any case in which to do so will enable the requirements of paragraph (1)(C)(ii) to be met with respect to the surviving spouse, this subsection and subsection (c) shall be applied by taking into account any application of paragraph (4).

(c) Tax treatment of dispositions and failures to use for qualified use

(1) Imposition of additional estate tax

If, within 10 years after the decedent's death and before the death of the qualified heir—

(A) the qualified heir disposes of any interest in qualified real property (other than by a disposition to a member of his family), or

(B) the qualified heir ceases to use for the qualified use the qualified real property which was acquired (or passed) from the decedent,


then, there is hereby imposed an additional estate tax.

(2) Amount of additional tax

(A) In general

The amount of the additional tax imposed by paragraph (1) with respect to any interest shall be the amount equal to the lesser of—

(i) the adjusted tax difference attributable to such interest, or

(ii) the excess of the amount realized with respect to the interest (or, in any case other than a sale or exchange at arm's length, the fair market value of the interest) over the value of the interest determined under subsection (a).

(B) Adjusted tax difference attributable to interest

For purposes of subparagraph (A), the adjusted tax difference attributable to an interest is the amount which bears the same ratio to the adjusted tax difference with respect to the estate (determined under subparagraph (C)) as—

(i) the excess of the value of such interest for purposes of this chapter (determined without regard to subsection (a)) over the value of such interest determined under subsection (a), bears to

(ii) a similar excess determined for all qualified real property.

(C) Adjusted tax difference with respect to the estate

For purposes of subparagraph (B), the term "adjusted tax difference with respect to the estate" means the excess of what would have been the estate tax liability but for subsection (a) over the estate tax liability. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "estate tax liability" means the tax imposed by section 2001 reduced by the credits allowable against such tax.

(D) Partial dispositions

For purposes of this paragraph, where the qualified heir disposes of a portion of the interest acquired by (or passing to) such heir (or a predecessor qualified heir) or there is a cessation of use of such a portion—

(i) the value determined under subsection (a) taken into account under subparagraph (A)(ii) with respect to such portion shall be its pro rata share of such value of such interest, and

(ii) the adjusted tax difference attributable to the interest taken into account with respect to the transaction involving the second or any succeeding portion shall be reduced by the amount of the tax imposed by this subsection with respect to all prior transactions involving portions of such interest.

(E) Special rule for disposition of timber

In the case of qualified woodland to which an election under subsection (e)(13)(A) applies, if the qualified heir disposes of (or severs) any standing timber on such qualified woodland—

(i) such disposition (or severance) shall be treated as a disposition of a portion of the interest of the qualified heir in such property, and

(ii) the amount of the additional tax imposed by paragraph (1) with respect to such disposition shall be an amount equal to the lesser of—

(I) the amount realized on such disposition (or, in any case other than a sale or exchange at arm's length, the fair market value of the portion of the interest disposed or severed), or

(II) the amount of additional tax determined under this paragraph (without regard to this subparagraph) if the entire interest of the qualified heir in the qualified woodland had been disposed of, less the sum of the amount of the additional tax imposed with respect to all prior transactions involving such woodland to which this subparagraph applied.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, the disposition of a right to sever shall be treated as the disposition of the standing timber. The amount of additional tax imposed under paragraph (1) in any case in which a qualified heir disposes of his entire interest in the qualified woodland shall be reduced by any amount determined under this subparagraph with respect to such woodland.

(3) Only 1 additional tax imposed with respect to any 1 portion

In the case of an interest acquired from (or passing from) any decedent, if subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1) applies to any portion of an interest, subparagraph (B) or (A), as the case may be, of paragraph (1) shall not apply with respect to the same portion of such interest.

(4) Due date

The additional tax imposed by this subsection shall become due and payable on the day which is 6 months after the date of the disposition or cessation referred to in paragraph (1).

(5) Liability for tax; furnishing of bond

The qualified heir shall be personally liable for the additional tax imposed by this subsection with respect to his interest unless the heir has furnished bond which meets the requirements of subsection (e)(11).

(6) Cessation of qualified use

For purposes of paragraph (1)(B), real property shall cease to be used for the qualified use if—

(A) such property ceases to be used for the qualified use set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(2) under which the property qualified under subsection (b), or

(B) during any period of 8 years ending after the date of the decedent's death and before the date of the death of the qualified heir, there had been periods aggregating more than 3 years during which—

(i) in the case of periods during which the property was held by the decedent, there was no material participation by the decedent or any member of his family in the operation of the farm or other business, and

(ii) in the case of periods during which the property was held by any qualified heir, there was no material participation by such qualified heir or any member of his family in the operation of the farm or other business.

(7) Special rules

(A) No tax if use begins within 2 years

If the date on which the qualified heir begins to use the qualified real property (hereinafter in this subparagraph referred to as the commencement date) is before the date 2 years after the decedent's death—

(i) no tax shall be imposed under paragraph (1) by reason of the failure by the qualified heir to so use such property before the commencement date, and

(ii) the 10-year period under paragraph (1) shall be extended by the period after the decedent's death and before the commencement date.

(B) Active management by eligible qualified heir treated as material participation

For purposes of paragraph (6)(B)(ii), the active management of a farm or other business by—

(i) an eligible qualified heir, or

(ii) a fiduciary of an eligible qualified heir described in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (C),


shall be treated as material participation by such eligible qualified heir in the operation of such farm or business. In the case of an eligible qualified heir described in clause (ii), (iii), or (iv) of subparagraph (C), the preceding sentence shall apply only during periods during which such heir meets the requirements of such clause.

(C) Eligible qualified heir

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "eligible qualified heir" means a qualified heir who—

(i) is the surviving spouse of the decedent,

(ii) has not attained the age of 21,

(iii) is disabled (within the meaning of subsection (b)(4)(B)), or

(iv) is a student.

(D) Student

For purposes of subparagraph (C), an individual shall be treated as a student with respect to periods during any calendar year if (and only if) such individual is a student (within the meaning of section 152(f)(2)) for such calendar year.

(E) Certain rents treated as qualified use

For purposes of this subsection, a surviving spouse or lineal descendant of the decedent shall not be treated as failing to use qualified real property in a qualified use solely because such spouse or descendant rents such property to a member of the family of such spouse or descendant on a net cash basis. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a legally adopted child of an individual shall be treated as the child of such individual by blood.

(8) Qualified conservation contribution is not a disposition

A qualified conservation contribution (as defined in section 170(h)) by gift or otherwise shall not be deemed a disposition under subsection (c)(1)(A).

(d) Election; agreement

(1) Election

The election under this section shall be made on the return of the tax imposed by section 2001. Such election shall be made in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. Such an election, once made, shall be irrevocable.

(2) Agreement

The agreement referred to in this paragraph is a written agreement signed by each person in being who has an interest (whether or not in possession) in any property designated in such agreement consenting to the application of subsection (c) with respect to such property.

(3) Modification of election and agreement to be permitted

The Secretary shall prescribe procedures which provide that in any case in which the executor makes an election under paragraph (1) (and submits the agreement referred to in paragraph (2)) within the time prescribed therefor, but—

(A) the notice of election, as filed, does not contain all required information, or

(B) signatures of 1 or more persons required to enter into the agreement described in paragraph (2) are not included on the agreement as filed, or the agreement does not contain all required information,


the executor will have a reasonable period of time (not exceeding 90 days) after notification of such failures to provide such information or signatures.

(e) Definitions; special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified heir

The term "qualified heir" means, with respect to any property, a member of the decedent's family who acquired such property (or to whom such property passed) from the decedent. If a qualified heir disposes of any interest in qualified real property to any member of his family, such member shall thereafter be treated as the qualified heir with respect to such interest.

(2) Member of family

The term "member of the family" means, with respect to any individual, only—

(A) an ancestor of such individual,

(B) the spouse of such individual,

(C) a lineal descendant of such individual, of such individual's spouse, or of a parent of such individual, or

(D) the spouse of any lineal descendant described in subparagraph (C).


For purposes of the preceding sentence, a legally adopted child of an individual shall be treated as the child of such individual by blood.

(3) Certain real property included

In the case of real property which meets the requirements of subparagraph (C) of subsection (b)(1), residential buildings and related improvements on such real property occupied on a regular basis by the owner or lessee of such real property or by persons employed by such owner or lessee for the purpose of operating or maintaining such real property, and roads, buildings, and other structures and improvements functionally related to the qualified use shall be treated as real property devoted to the qualified use.

(4) Farm

The term "farm" includes stock, dairy, poultry, fruit, furbearing animal, and truck farms, plantations, ranches, nurseries, ranges, greenhouses or other similar structures used primarily for the raising of agricultural or horticultural commodities, and orchards and woodlands.

(5) Farming purposes

The term "farming purposes" means—

(A) cultivating the soil or raising or harvesting any agricultural or horticultural commodity (including the raising, shearing, feeding, caring for, training, and management of animals) on a farm;

(B) handling, drying, packing, grading, or storing on a farm any agricultural or horticultural commodity in its unmanufactured state, but only if the owner, tenant, or operator of the farm regularly produces more than one-half of the commodity so treated; and

(C)(i) the planting, cultivating, caring for, or cutting of trees, or

(ii) the preparation (other than milling) of trees for market.

(6) Material participation

Material participation shall be determined in a manner similar to the manner used for purposes of paragraph (1) of section 1402(a) (relating to net earnings from self-employment).

(7) Method of valuing farms

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the value of a farm for farming purposes shall be determined by dividing—

(i) the excess of the average annual gross cash rental for comparable land used for farming purposes and located in the locality of such farm over the average annual State and local real estate taxes for such comparable land, by

(ii) the average annual effective interest rate for all new Federal Land Bank loans.


For purposes of the preceding sentence, each average annual computation shall be made on the basis of the 5 most recent calendar years ending before the date of the decedent's death.

(B) Value based on net share rental in certain cases

(i) In general

If there is no comparable land from which the average annual gross cash rental may be determined but there is comparable land from which the average net share rental may be determined, subparagraph (A)(i) shall be applied by substituting "average annual net share rental" for "average annual gross cash rental".

(ii) Net share rental

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "net share rental" means the excess of—

(I) the value of the produce received by the lessor of the land on which such produce is grown, over

(II) the cash operating expenses of growing such produce which, under the lease, are paid by the lessor.

(C) Exception

The formula provided by subparagraph (A) shall not be used—

(i) where it is established that there is no comparable land from which the average annual gross cash rental may be determined, or

(ii) where the executor elects to have the value of the farm for farming purposes determined and that there is no comparable land from which the average net share rental may be determined under paragraph (8).

(8) Method of valuing closely held business interests, etc.

In any case to which paragraph (7)(A) does not apply, the following factors shall apply in determining the value of any qualified real property:

(A) The capitalization of income which the property can be expected to yield for farming or closely held business purposes over a reasonable period of time under prudent management using traditional cropping patterns for the area, taking into account soil capacity, terrain configuration, and similar factors,

(B) The capitalization of the fair rental value of the land for farm land or closely held business purposes,

(C) Assessed land values in a State which provides a differential or use value assessment law for farmland or closely held business,

(D) Comparable sales of other farm or closely held business land in the same geographical area far enough removed from a metropolitan or resort area so that nonagricultural use is not a significant factor in the sales price, and

(E) Any other factor which fairly values the farm or closely held business value of the property.

(9) Property acquired from decedent

Property shall be considered to have been acquired from or to have passed from the decedent if—

(A) such property is so considered under section 1014(b) (relating to basis of property acquired from a decedent),

(B) such property is acquired by any person from the estate, or

(C) such property is acquired by any person from a trust (to the extent such property is includible in the gross estate of the decedent).

(10) Community property

If the decedent and his surviving spouse at any time held qualified real property as community property, the interest of the surviving spouse in such property shall be taken into account under this section to the extent necessary to provide a result under this section with respect to such property which is consistent with the result which would have obtained under this section if such property had not been community property.

(11) Bond in lieu of personal liability

If the qualified heir makes written application to the Secretary for determination of the maximum amount of the additional tax which may be imposed by subsection (c) with respect to the qualified heir's interest, the Secretary (as soon as possible, and in any event within 1 year after the making of such application) shall notify the heir of such maximum amount. The qualified heir, on furnishing a bond in such amount and for such period as may be required, shall be discharged from personal liability for any additional tax imposed by subsection (c) and shall be entitled to a receipt or writing showing such discharge.

(12) Active management

The term "active management" means the making of the management decisions of a business (other than the daily operating decisions).

(13) Special rules for woodlands

(A) In general

In the case of any qualified woodland with respect to which the executor elects to have this subparagraph apply, trees growing on such woodland shall not be treated as a crop.

(B) Qualified woodland

The term "qualified woodland" means any real property which—

(i) is used in timber operations, and

(ii) is an identifiable area of land such as an acre or other area for which records are normally maintained in conducting timber operations.

(C) Timber operations

The term "timber operations" means—

(i) the planting, cultivating, caring for, or cutting of trees, or

(ii) the preparation (other than milling) of trees for market.

(D) Election

An election under subparagraph (A) shall be made on the return of the tax imposed by section 2001. Such election shall be made in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. Such an election, once made, shall be irrevocable.

(14) Treatment of replacement property acquired in section 1031 or 1033 transactions

(A) In general

In the case of any qualified replacement property, any period during which there was ownership, qualified use, or material participation with respect to the replaced property by the decedent or any member of his family shall be treated as a period during which there was such ownership, use, or material participation (as the case may be) with respect to the qualified replacement property.

(B) Limitation

Subparagraph (A) shall not apply to the extent that the fair market value of the qualified replacement property (as of the date of its acquisition) exceeds the fair market value of the replaced property (as of the date of its disposition).

(C) Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Qualified replacement property

The term "qualified replacement property" means any real property which is—

(I) acquired in an exchange which qualifies under section 1031, or

(II) the acquisition of which results in the nonrecognition of gain under section 1033.


 Such term shall only include property which is used for the same qualified use as the replaced property was being used before the exchange.

(ii) Replaced property

The term "replaced property" means—

(I) the property transferred in the exchange which qualifies under section 1031, or

(II) the property compulsorily or involuntarily converted (within the meaning of section 1033).

(f) Statute of limitations

If qualified real property is disposed of or ceases to be used for a qualified use, then—

(1) the statutory period for the assessment of any additional tax under subsection (c) attributable to such disposition or cessation shall not expire before the expiration of 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified (in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe) of such disposition or cessation (or if later in the case of an involuntary conversion or exchange to which subsection (h) or (i) applies, 3 years from the date the Secretary is notified of the replacement of the converted property or of an intention not to replace or of the exchange of property), and

(2) such additional tax may be assessed before the expiration of such 3-year period notwithstanding the provisions of any other law or rule of law which would otherwise prevent such assessment.

(g) Application of this section and section 6324B to interests in partnerships, corporations, and trusts

The Secretary shall prescribe regulations setting forth the application of this section and section 6324B in the case of an interest in a partnership, corporation, or trust which, with respect to the decedent, is an interest in a closely held business (within the meaning of paragraph (1) of section 6166(b)). For purposes of the preceding sentence, an interest in a discretionary trust all the beneficiaries of which are qualified heirs shall be treated as a present interest.

(h) Special rules for involuntary conversions of qualified real property

(1) Treatment of converted property

(A) In general

If there is an involuntary conversion of an interest in qualified real property—

(i) no tax shall be imposed by subsection (c) on such conversion if the cost of the qualified replacement property equals or exceeds the amount realized on such conversion, or

(ii) if clause (i) does not apply, the amount of the tax imposed by subsection (c) on such conversion shall be the amount determined under subparagraph (B).

(B) Amount of tax where there is not complete reinvestment

The amount determined under this subparagraph with respect to any involuntary conversion is the amount of the tax which (but for this subsection) would have been imposed on such conversion reduced by an amount which—

(i) bears the same ratio to such tax, as

(ii) the cost of the qualified replacement property bears to the amount realized on the conversion.

(2) Treatment of replacement property

For purposes of subsection (c)—

(A) any qualified replacement property shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a portion of the interest in qualified real property which was involuntarily converted; except that with respect to such qualified replacement property the 10-year period under paragraph (1) of subsection (c) shall be extended by any period, beyond the 2-year period referred to in section 1033(a)(2)(B)(i), during which the qualified heir was allowed to replace the qualified real property,

(B) any tax imposed by subsection (c) on the involuntary conversion shall be treated as a tax imposed on a partial disposition, and

(C) paragraph (6) of subsection (c) shall be applied—

(i) by not taking into account periods after the involuntary conversion and before the acquisition of the qualified replacement property, and

(ii) by treating material participation with respect to the converted property as material participation with respect to the qualified replacement property.

(3) Definitions and special rules

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Involuntary conversion

The term "involuntary conversion" means a compulsory or involuntary conversion within the meaning of section 1033.

(B) Qualified replacement property

The term "qualified replacement property" means—

(i) in the case of an involuntary conversion described in section 1033(a)(1), any real property into which the qualified real property is converted, or

(ii) in the case of an involuntary conversion described in section 1033(a)(2), any real property purchased by the qualified heir during the period specified in section 1033(a)(2)(B) for purposes of replacing the qualified real property.


Such term only includes property which is to be used for the qualified use set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(2) under which the qualified real property qualified under subsection (a).

(4) Certain rules made applicable

The rules of the last sentence of section 1033(a)(2)(A) shall apply for purposes of paragraph (3)(B)(ii).

(i) Exchanges of qualified real property

(1) Treatment of property exchanged

(A) Exchanges solely for qualified exchange property

If an interest in qualified real property is exchanged solely for an interest in qualified exchange property in a transaction which qualifies under section 1031, no tax shall be imposed by subsection (c) by reason of such exchange.

(B) Exchanges where other property received

If an interest in qualified real property is exchanged for an interest in qualified exchange property and other property in a transaction which qualifies under section 1031, the amount of the tax imposed by subsection (c) by reason of such exchange shall be the amount of tax which (but for this subparagraph) would have been imposed on such exchange under subsection (c)(1), reduced by an amount which—

(i) bears the same ratio to such tax, as

(ii) the fair market value of the qualified exchange property bears to the fair market value of the qualified real property exchanged.


For purposes of clause (ii) of the preceding sentence, fair market value shall be determined as of the time of the exchange.

(2) Treatment of qualified exchange property

For purposes of subsection (c)—

(A) any interest in qualified exchange property shall be treated in the same manner as if it were a portion of the interest in qualified real property which was exchanged,

(B) any tax imposed by subsection (c) by reason of the exchange shall be treated as a tax imposed on a partial disposition, and

(C) paragraph (6) of subsection (c) shall be applied by treating material participation with respect to the exchanged property as material participation with respect to the qualified exchange property.

(3) Qualified exchange property

For purposes of this subsection, the term "qualified exchange property" means real property which is to be used for the qualified use set forth in subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (b)(2) under which the real property exchanged therefor originally qualified under subsection (a).

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2003(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1856; amended Pub. L. 95–472, §4(a), (c), Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1334, 1336; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(d)(1), (2), (4), (5), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2928, 2929; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §421(a)–(d)(2)(A), (e), (f), (h)–(j)(2)(A), (3), (4), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 306–313; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(b)(1), (2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2381; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1025(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1030; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §104(b)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2105; Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6151(a), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3724; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11802(f)(5), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–530; Pub. L. 105–34, title V, §§501(b), 504(a), (b), 508(c), title XIII, §1313(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 845, 853, 854, 860, 1045; Pub. L. 108–311, title II, §207(22), Oct. 4, 2004, 118 Stat. 1178; Pub. L. 115–97, title I, §11002(d)(1)(DD), Dec. 22, 2017, 131 Stat. 2060.)

Inflation Adjusted Items for Certain Years

For inflation adjustment of certain items in this section, see Revenue Procedures listed in a table under section 1 of this title.

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(A)(i), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Title II of the Social Security Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§401 et seq.) of chapter 7 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

2017—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 115–97 substituted "for 'calendar year 2016' in subparagraph (A)(ii)" for "for 'calendar year 1992' in subparagraph (B)".

2004—Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 108–311 substituted "section 152(f)(2)" for "section 151(c)(4)".

1997—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §501(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 105–34, §504(b), struck out at end "For purposes of subsection (c), such surviving spouse shall not be treated as failing to use such property in a qualified use solely because such spouse rents such property to a member of such spouse's family on a net cash basis."

Subsec. (c)(7)(E). Pub. L. 105–34, §504(a), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 105–34, §508(c), added par. (8).

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–34, §1313(a), amended heading and text of par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary shall prescribe procedures which provide that in any case in which—

"(A) the executor makes an election under paragraph (1) within the time prescribed for filing such election, and

"(B) substantially complies with the regulations prescribed by the Secretary with respect to such election, but—

"(i) the notice of election, as filed, does not contain all required information, or

"(ii) signatures of 1 or more persons required to enter into the agreement described in paragraph (2) are not included on the agreement as filed, or the agreement does not contain all required information,

the executor will have a reasonable period of time (not exceeding 90 days) after notification of such failures to provide such information or agreements."

1990—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–508 amended par. (2) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which established graduated increase in applicable limit on aggregate reduction in fair market value from $600,000 in the case of decedents dying in 1981 to $750,000 in the case of decedents dying in 1983 or thereafter.

1988—Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 100–647 inserted at end "For purposes of subsection (c), such surviving spouse shall not be treated as failing to use such property in a qualified use solely because such spouse rents such property to a member of such spouse's family on a net cash basis."

1986—Subsec. (c)(7)(D). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "section 151(c)(4)" for "section 151(e)(4)".

1984—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 98–369 added par. (3).

1983—Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(b)(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (i)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(b)(2)(A), substituted "the qualified exchange property" for "the other property".

Subsec. (i)(3). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(b)(2)(B), substituted "subparagraph (A) or (B)" for "subparagraph (A), (B), or (C)".

1981—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(a), substituted "Limit on aggregate reduction in fair market value" for "Limitation" in heading "shall not exceed the applicable limit set forth in the following table:" for "shall not exceed $500,000" in text, and inserted table.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(b)(1), substituted "qualified use by the decedent or a member of the decedent's family" for "qualified use" in provision preceding subpar. (A), and in subpars. (A)(i) and (C)(i).

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(b)(2), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(1)(A), substituted "10 years" for "15 years".

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(h)(2), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(1)(B)(i), redesignated par. (4) as (3) and struck out former par. (3), which provided for a phaseout of additional tax between the 10th and 15th years.

Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(1)(B)(i), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (4) and (5), respectively. Former par. (4) redesignated (3).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(2)(B)(ii), in subpar. (B) substituted "more than 3 years" for "3 years or more".

Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(1)(B)(i), redesignated par. (7) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(1)(B)(i), (2)(A), added par. (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (6).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(j)(3), substituted "The election under this section shall be made on the return of the tax imposed by section 2001. Such election shall be made in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. Such an election, once made, shall be irrevocable." for "The election under this section shall be made not later than the time prescribed by section 6075(a) for filing the return of tax imposed by section 2001 (including extensions thereof), and shall be made in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe."

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(i), substituted provisions designated subpars. (A) through (D) for "such individual's ancestor or lineal descendant, a lineal descendant of a grandparent of such individual, the spouse of such individual, or the spouse of any such descendant".

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(f), added subpar. (B), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C), and inserted "and that there is no comparable land from which the average net share rental may be determined" after "determined" in subpar. (C), without specifying whether the language was to be inserted in cl. (i) or (ii) of subpar. (C). In view of H. Rept. No. 97–201, 97th Cong., July 14, 1981, p. 492, the language was inserted in cl. (ii) as the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(j)(2)(A), struck out from subpar. (B) "in satisfaction of the right of such person to a pecuniary bequest" after "from the estate" and in subpar. (C) substituted "(to the extent such property is includible in the gross estate of the decedent)" for "in satisfaction of a right (which such person has by reason of the death of the decedent) to receive from the trust a specific dollar amount which is the equivalent of a pecuniary bequest".

Subsec. (e)(12). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(2)(B)(i), added par. (12).

Subsec. (e)(13), (14). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(h)(1), (j)(4), added pars. (13) and (14).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(e)(2), substituted "to which subsection (h)" for "to which an election under subsection (h)".

Pub. L. 97–34, §421(d)(2)(A), substituted "conversion or exchange", "(h) or (i)", and "replace or of the exchange of property" for "conversion", "(h)", and "replace".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(j)(1), inserted provision that for purposes of the preceding sentence, an interest in a discretionary trust all the beneficiaries of which are qualified heirs shall be treated as a present interest.

Subsec. (h)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(e)(1)(A), struck out "and the qualified heir makes an election under this subsection" after "qualified real property".

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(1)(B)(ii), substituted "; except that" for ", except that" and "the 10-year period" for "the 15-year period", deleted cl. (i) designation, and struck out cl. (ii), which provided the phaseout period under par. (3) of subsec. (c) be appropriately adjusted to take into account the extension referred to in cl. (i).

Subsec. (h)(2)(C). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(c)(1)(B)(iii), substituted "(6)" for "(7)" in provisions preceding cl. (i).

Subsec. (h)(5). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(e)(1)(B), struck out par. (5) which provided for making a subsec. (h) election at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 97–34, §421(d)(1), added subsec. (i).

1978—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(d)(1), inserted "which was acquired from or passed from the decedent to a qualified heir of the decedent and" after "located in the United States".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(d)(5)(A), inserted "unless the heir has furnished bond which meets the requirements of subsection (e)(11)" after "respect to his interest".

Subsec. (e)(9). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(d)(2), added par. (9).

Subsec. (e)(10). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(d)(4), added par. (10).

Subsec. (e)(11). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(d)(5)(B), added par. (11).

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 95–472, §4(c), inserted provision relating to the expiration of the statutory period for the assessment of additional tax due under subsec. (c) in the case of an involuntary conversion to which an election under subsec. (h) is applicable.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–472, §4(a), added subsec. (h).

Effective Date of 2017 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–97 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2017, see section 11002(e) of Pub. L. 115–97, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–311 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2004, see section 208 of Pub. L. 108–311, set out as a note under section 2 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by section 501(b) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying, and gifts made, after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 501(f) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–34, title V, §504(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 854, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to leases entered into after December 31, 1976."

Amendment by section 508(c) of Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to easements granted after Dec. 31, 1997, see section 508(e)(2) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–34, title XIII, §1313(b), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1045, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997]."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title VI, §6151(b), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3724, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to rentals occurring after December 31, 1976.

"(2) Waiver of statute of limitations.—If on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988] (or at any time within 1 year after such date of enactment) refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the application of the amendment made by subsection (a) is barred by any law or rule of law, refund or credit of such overpayment shall, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefore is filed before the date 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1986, see section 151(a) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1025(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1031, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976.

"(2) Refund or credit of overpayment barred by statute of limitations.—Notwithstanding section 6511(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] or any other period of limitation or lapse of time, a claim for credit or refund of overpayment of the tax imposed by such Code which arises by reason of this section may be filed by any person at any time within the 1-year period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]. Sections 6511(b) and 6514 of such Code shall not apply to any claim for credit or refund filed under this subsection within such 1-year period."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §421(k), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 313, as amended by Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(b)(4), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2382; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1016, 1040, and 6324B of this title] shall apply with respect to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1981.

"(2) Increase in limitation.—The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1980.

"(3) Subsection (d).—The amendments made by subsection (d) [amending this section and section 6324B of this title] shall apply with respect to exchanges after December 31, 1981.

"(4) Subsection (e).—The amendments made by subsection (e) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to involuntary conversions after December 31, 1981.

"(5) Certain amendments made retroactive to 1976.—

"(A) In general.—The amendments made by subsections (b)(1), (j)(1), and (j)(2) [amending this section and section 1040 of this title] and the provisions of subparagraph (A) of section 2032A(c)(7) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (as added by subsection (c)(2)) shall apply with respect to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976.

"(B) Timely election required.—Subparagraph (A) shall only apply in the case of an estate if a timely election under section 2032A was made with respect to such estate. If the estate of any decedent would not qualify under section 2032A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 but for the amendments described in subparagraph (A) and the time for making an election under section 2032A with respect to such estate would (but for this sentence) expire after July 28, 1980, the time for making such election shall not expire before the close of February 16, 1982.

"(C) Reinstatement of elections.—If any election under section 2032A was revoked before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981], such election may be reinstated at any time before February 17, 1982.

"(D) Statute of limitations.—If on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 13, 1981] (or at any time before February 17, 1982) the making of a credit or refund of any overpayment of tax resulting from the amendments described in subparagraph (A) is barred by any law or rule of law, such credit or refund shall nevertheless be made if claim therefor is made before February 17, 1982."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(d)(6), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2929, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 1040 of this title] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976."

Amendment of section by Pub. L. 95–472 applicable with respect to involuntary conversions after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 4(d) of Pub. L. 95–472, set out as a note under section 1016 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2003(e), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1862, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6324B of this title and amending section 2013 of this title] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976."

Savings Provision

For provisions that nothing in amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 be construed to affect treatment of certain transactions occurring, property acquired, or items of income, loss, deduction, or credit taken into account prior to Nov. 5, 1990, for purposes of determining liability for tax for periods ending after Nov. 5, 1990, see section 11821(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 45K of this title.

Waiver of Statute of Limitation for Taxes on Certain Farm Valuations

Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §581, June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 93, provided that: "If on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 7, 2001] (or at any time within 1 year after the date of the enactment) a refund or credit of any overpayment of tax resulting from the application of section 2032A(c)(7)(E) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 is barred by any law or rule of law, the refund or credit of such overpayment shall, nevertheless, be made or allowed if claim therefor is filed before the date 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act."

Information Necessary for Valid Special Use Valuation Election

Pub. L. 99–514, title XIV, §1421, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2716, as amended by Pub. L. 100–647, title I, §1014(f), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3562, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In the case of any decedent dying before January 1, 1986, if the executor—

"(1) made an election under section 2032A of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] on the return of tax imposed by section 2001 of such Code, and

"(2) provided substantially all the information with respect to such election required on such return of tax,

such election shall be a valid election for purposes of section 2032A of such Code.

"(b) Executor Must Provide Information.—An election described in subsection (a) shall not be valid if the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] requests information from the executor with respect to such election and the executor does not provide such information within 90 days of receipt of such request.

"(c) Effective Date.—The provisions of this section shall not apply to the estate of any decedent if before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986] the statute of limitations has expired with respect to—

"(1) the return of tax imposed by section 2001 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986], and

"(2) the period during which a claim for credit or refund may be timely filed.

"(d) Special Rule for Certain Estate.—Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2), the provisions of this section shall apply to the estate of an individual who died on January 30, 1984, and with respect to which—

"(1) a Federal estate tax return was filed on October 30, 1984, electing current use valuation, and

"(2) the agreement required under section 2032A was filed on November 9, 1984."

Land Diverted Under 1983 Payment-in-Kind Program

Land diverted from production of agricultural commodities under a 1983 payment-in-kind program to be treated, for purposes of this section, as used during the 1983 crop year by qualified taxpayers in the active conduct of the trade or business of farming, with qualified taxpayers who materially participate in the diversion and devotion to conservation uses under a 1983 payment-in-kind program to be treated as materially participating in the operation of such land during the 1983 crop year, see section 3 of Pub. L. 98–4, set out as a note under section 61 of this title.

§2033. Property in which the decedent had an interest

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property to the extent of the interest therein of the decedent at the time of his death.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 381; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(A), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052.)

Amendments

1962Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside of the United States.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

[§2033A. Renumbered §2057]

§2034. Dower or curtesy interests

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property to the extent of any interest therein of the surviving spouse, existing at the time of the decedent's death as dower or curtesy, or by virtue of a statute creating an estate in lieu of dower or curtesy.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 381; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(B), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052.)

Amendments

1962Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside of the United States.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

§2035. Adjustments for certain gifts made within 3 years of decedent's death

(a) Inclusion of certain property in gross estate

If—

(1) the decedent made a transfer (by trust or otherwise) of an interest in any property, or relinquished a power with respect to any property, during the 3-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death, and

(2) the value of such property (or an interest therein) would have been included in the decedent's gross estate under section 2036, 2037, 2038, or 2042 if such transferred interest or relinquished power had been retained by the decedent on the date of his death,


the value of the gross estate shall include the value of any property (or interest therein) which would have been so included.

(b) Inclusion of gift tax on gifts made during 3 years before decedent's death

The amount of the gross estate (determined without regard to this subsection) shall be increased by the amount of any tax paid under chapter 12 by the decedent or his estate on any gift made by the decedent or his spouse during the 3-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death.

(c) Other rules relating to transfers within 3 years of death

(1) In general

For purposes of—

(A) section 303(b) (relating to distributions in redemption of stock to pay death taxes),

(B) section 2032A (relating to special valuation of certain farms, etc., real property), and

(C) subchapter C of chapter 64 (relating to lien for taxes),


the value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property to the extent of any interest therein of which the decedent has at any time made a transfer, by trust or otherwise, during the 3-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death.

(2) Coordination with section 6166

An estate shall be treated as meeting the 35 percent of adjusted gross estate requirement of section 6166(a)(1) only if the estate meets such requirement both with and without the application of subsection (a).

(3) Marital and small transfers

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any transfer (other than a transfer with respect to a life insurance policy) made during a calendar year to any donee if the decedent was not required by section 6019 (other than by reason of section 6019(2)) to file any gift tax return for such year with respect to transfers to such donee.

(d) Exception

Subsection (a) and paragraph (1) of subsection (c) shall not apply to any bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

(e) Treatment of certain transfers from revocable trusts

For purposes of this section and section 2038, any transfer from any portion of a trust during any period that such portion was treated under section 676 as owned by the decedent by reason of a power in the grantor (determined without regard to section 672(e)) shall be treated as a transfer made directly by the decedent.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 381; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(C), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2001(a)(5), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1848; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(f)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2930; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §§403(b)(3)(B), 424(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 301, 317; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(a)(9), (d)(1)(A), (C), (2), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2381, 2383; Pub. L. 105–34, title XIII, §1310(a), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1043; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(14)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-646.)

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(14)(A)], substituted "subsection (a)" for "paragraph (1)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(14)(B)], inserted "and paragraph (1) of subsection (c)" after "Subsection (a)".

1997Pub. L. 105–34 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) relating to adjustments for gifts made within 3 years of decedent's death.

1983—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(a)(9), substituted "section 6019(2)" for "section 6019(a)(2)".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(d)(2), inserted "of this subsection and paragraph (2) of subsection (b)" after "Paragraph (1)", and struck out "2041," after "2038,".

Subsec. (d)(3)(C), (D). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(d)(1)(C), redesignated subpar. (D) as (C). Former subpar. (C), which referred to section 6166 (relating to extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business), was struck out.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(d)(1)(A), added par. (4).

1981—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §403(b)(3)(B), inserted "(other than by reason of section 6019(a)(2))" after "section 6019".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–34, §424(a), added subsec. (d).

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–600 substituted in par. (2) provisions relating to gifts for which donee was not required by section 6019 to file gift tax returns for provisions relating to gifts excludable in computing taxable gifts by reason of section 2503(b) and inserted provisions following par. (2) relating to inapplicability of par. (2) to transfers respecting life insurance policies.

1976Pub. L. 94–455 substituted provisions covering adjustments for gifts made within 3 years of decedent's death for provisions under which transfers by the decedent within 3 years of the decedent's death were deemed to have been made in contemplation of death and included in the value of the gross estate.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside of the United States.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–34, title XIII, §1310(c), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 1044, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 5, 1997]."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 403(b)(3)(B) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 403(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 2056 of this title.

Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §424(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 317, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1981."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(f)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2930, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976, except that it shall not apply to transfers made before January 1, 1977."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976, but not to transfers made before Jan. 1, 1977, see section 2001(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

Transfers Made by Decedent During 1977; Election Available to Executor On or Before Due Date for Filing Estate Tax Return

Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §107(a)(2)(F), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 223, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(i) If the executor elects the benefits of this subparagraph with respect to any estate, section 2035(b) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] (relating to adjustments for gifts made within 3 years of decedent's death) shall be applied with respect to transfers made by the decedent during 1977 as if paragraph (2) of such section 2035(b) read as follows:

" '(2) to any gift to a donee made during 1977 to the extent of the amount of such gift which was excludable in computing taxable gifts by reason of section 2503(b) (relating to $3,000 annual exclusion for purposes of the gift tax) determined without regard to section 2513(a).'

"(ii) The election under clause (i) with respect to any estate shall be made on or before the later of—

"(I) the due date for filing the estate tax return, or

"(II) the day which is 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 1, 1980]."

§2036. Transfers with retained life estate

(a) General rule

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property to the extent of any interest therein of which the decedent has at any time made a transfer (except in case of a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth), by trust or otherwise, under which he has retained for his life or for any period not ascertainable without reference to his death or for any period which does not in fact end before his death—

(1) the possession or enjoyment of, or the right to the income from, the property, or

(2) the right, either alone or in conjunction with any person, to designate the persons who shall possess or enjoy the property or the income therefrom.

(b) Voting rights

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(1), the retention of the right to vote (directly or indirectly) shares of stock of a controlled corporation shall be considered to be a retention of the enjoyment of transferred property.

(2) Controlled corporation

For purposes of paragraph (1), a corporation shall be treated as a controlled corporation if, at any time after the transfer of the property and during the 3-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death, the decedent owned (with the application of section 318), or had the right (either alone or in conjunction with any person) to vote, stock possessing at least 20 percent of the total combined voting power of all classes of stock.

(3) Coordination with section 2035

For purposes of applying section 2035 with respect to paragraph (1), the relinquishment or cessation of voting rights shall be treated as a transfer of property made by the decedent.

(c) Limitation on application of general rule

This section shall not apply to a transfer made before March 4, 1931; nor to a transfer made after March 3, 1931, and before June 7, 1932, unless the property transferred would have been includible in the decedent's gross estate by reason of the amendatory language of the joint resolution of March 3, 1931 (46 Stat. 1516).

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 382; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(D), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1893; Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(i)(1), (2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2931; Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10402(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–431; Pub. L. 100–647, title III, §3031(a)(1), (b)–(e), (g), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3634–3638; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11601(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–490.)

Amendments

1990—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 101–508 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c) and struck out former subsec. (c) which enunciated a rule that retention of retained interest would be considered to be a retention of enjoyment of transferred property if a person held a substantial interest in an enterprise, and such person in effect transferred after Dec. 17, 1987, property having a disproportionately large share of the potential appreciation in such person's interest in the enterprise while retaining an interest in the income of, or rights in, the enterprise.

1988—Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–647, §3031(e), substituted "an interest" for "a disproportionately large share" after "whole retaining".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–647, §3031(g)(1), substituted "consideration furnished by" for "sales to" in heading, and amended text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The exception contained in subsection (a) for a bona fide sale shall not apply to a transfer described in paragraph (1) if such transfer is to a member of the transferor's family."

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 100–647, §3031(d), substituted "Except as provided in regulations, an" for "An".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 100–647, §3031(a)(1), amended par. (4) generally, substituting provisions relating to treatment of certain transfers for provisions relating to coordination with section 2035.

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 100–647, §3031(g)(2), amended par. (5) generally, substituting provisions relating to the making of appropriate adjustments in amounts included in gross estate for provisions relating to coordination with section 2043.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 100–647, §3031(b), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c)(7), (8). Pub. L. 100–647, §3031(b)[(c)], added pars. (7) and (8).

1987—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 100–203 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1978—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(i)(2), struck out provision following par. (2) relating to the retention of voting rights in retained stock.

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(i)(1), added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455 provided that, for purposes of par. (1), the retention of voting rights in retained stock be considered to be a retention of the enjoyment of that stock.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside of the United States.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11601(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–491, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 2207B and 2501 of this title] shall apply in the case of property transferred after December 17, 1987."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–647, title III, §3031(h), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3639, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in this subsection, any amendment made by this section [enacting section 2207B of this title and amending this section and section 2501 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1987 [Pub. L. 100–203, title X] to which such amendment relates.

"(2) Subsection (a).—The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 2501 of this title] shall apply in cases where the transfer referred to in section 2036(c)(1)(B) of the 1986 Code is on or after June 21, 1988.

"(3) Subsection (f).—If an amount is included in the gross estate of a decedent under section 2036 of the 1986 Code other than solely by reason of section 2036(c) of the 1986 Code, the amendments made by subsection (f) [enacting section 2207B of this title] shall apply to such amount only with respect to property transferred after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 10, 1988].

"(4) Correction period.—If section 2036(c)(1) of the 1986 Code would (but for this paragraph) apply to any interest arising from a transaction entered into during the period beginning after December 17, 1987, and ending before January 1, 1990, such section shall not apply to such interest if—

"(A) during such period, such actions are taken as are necessary to have such section 2036(c)(1) not apply to such transaction (and any such interest), or

"(B) the original transferor and his spouse on January 1, 1990 (or, if earlier, the date of the original transferor's death), does not hold any interest in the enterprise involved.

"(5) Clarification of effective date.—For purposes of section 10402(b) of the Revenue Act of 1987 [Pub. L. 100–203, set out as an Effective Date of 1987 Amendment note below], with respect to property transferred on or before December 17, 1987—

"(A) any failure to exercise a right of conversion,

"(B) any failure to pay dividends, and

"(c) [sic] failures to exercise other rights specified in regulations,

shall not be treated as a subsequent transfer."

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–203, title X, §10402(b), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–432, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1987, but only in the case of property transferred after December 17, 1987." [For clarification of this note, see section 3031(h)(5) of Pub. L. 100–647, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note above.]

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(i)(3), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2931, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to transfers made after June 22, 1976."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(e)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1896, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers made after June 22, 1976."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

§2037. Transfers taking effect at death

(a) General rule

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property to the extent of any interest therein of which the decedent has at any time after September 7, 1916, made a transfer (except in case of a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth), by trust or otherwise, if—

(1) possession or enjoyment of the property can, through ownership of such interest, be obtained only by surviving the decedent, and

(2) the decedent has retained a reversionary interest in the property (but in the case of a transfer made before October 8, 1949, only if such reversionary interest arose by the express terms of the instrument of transfer), and the value of such reversionary interest immediately before the death of the decedent exceeds 5 percent of the value of such property.

(b) Special rules

For purposes of this section, the term "reversionary interest" includes a possibility that property transferred by the decedent—

(1) may return to him or his estate, or

(2) may be subject to a power of disposition by him,


but such term does not include a possibility that the income alone from such property may return to him or become subject to a power of disposition by him. The value of a reversionary interest immediately before the death of the decedent shall be determined (without regard to the fact of the decedent's death) by usual methods of valuation, including the use of tables of mortality and actuarial principles, under regulations prescribed by the Secretary. In determining the value of a possibility that property may be subject to a power of disposition by the decedent, such possibility shall be valued as if it were a possibility that such property may return to the decedent or his estate. Notwithstanding the foregoing, an interest so transferred shall not be included in the decedent's gross estate under this section if possession or enjoyment of the property could have been obtained by any beneficiary during the decedent's life through the exercise of a general power of appointment (as defined in section 2041) which in fact was exercisable immediately before the decedent's death.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 382; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(E), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside of the United States.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

§2038. Revocable transfers

(a) In general

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property—

(1) Transfers after June 22, 1936

To the extent of any interest therein of which the decedent has at any time made a transfer (except in case of a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth), by trust or otherwise, where the enjoyment thereof was subject at the date of his death to any change through the exercise of a power (in whatever capacity exercisable) by the decedent alone or by the decedent in conjunction with any other person (without regard to when or from what source the decedent acquired such power), to alter, amend, revoke, or terminate, or where any such power is relinquished during the 3 year period ending on the date of the decedent's death.

(2) Transfers on or before June 22, 1936

To the extent of any interest therein of which the decedent has at any time made a transfer (except in case of a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth), by trust or otherwise, where the enjoyment thereof was subject at the date of his death to any change through the exercise of a power, either by the decedent alone or in conjunction with any person, to alter, amend, or revoke, or where the decedent relinquished any such power during the 3 year period ending on the date of the decedent's death. Except in the case of transfers made after June 22, 1936, no interest of the decedent of which he has made a transfer shall be included in the gross estate under paragraph (1) unless it is includible under this paragraph.

(b) Date of existence of power

For purposes of this section, the power to alter, amend, revoke, or terminate shall be considered to exist on the date of the decedent's death even though the exercise of the power is subject to a precedent giving of notice or even though the alteration, amendment, revocation, or termination takes effect only on the expiration of a stated period after the exercise of the power, whether or not on or before the date of the decedent's death notice has been given or the power has been exercised. In such cases proper adjustment shall be made representing the interests which would have been excluded from the power if the decedent had lived, and for such purpose, if the notice has not been given or the power has not been exercised on or before the date of his death, such notice shall be considered to have been given, or the power exercised, on the date of his death.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 383; Pub. L. 86–141, §1, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 288; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(F), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1902(a)(3), title XX, §2001(c)(1)(K), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1804, 1852.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §2001(c)(1)(K)(i), substituted "during the 3-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death" for "in contemplation of decedent's death".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §2001(c)(1)(K)(ii), substituted "during the 3-year period ending on the date of the decedent's death" for "in contemplation of his death".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1902(a)(3), struck out subsec. (c) which covered the effect of a disability in certain cases by relating a mental disability to relinquish a power to a power, the relinquishment of which would be deemed not to be a transfer for purposes of chapter 4 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside of the United States.

1959—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 86–141 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1902(a)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1902(c)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Amendment by section 2001(c)(1)(K)(i), (ii) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976 but not to transfers made before Jan. 1, 1977, see section 2001(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–141, §2, Aug. 7, 1959, 73 Stat. 289, provided that: "The amendment made by the first section of this Act [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to estates of decedents dying after August 16, 1954. No interest shall be allowed or paid on any overpayment resulting from the application of the amendment made by the first section of this Act with respect to any payment made before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 7, 1959]."

§2039. Annuities

(a) General

The gross estate shall include the value of an annuity or other payment receivable by any beneficiary by reason of surviving the decedent under any form of contract or agreement entered into after March 3, 1931 (other than as insurance under policies on the life of the decedent), if, under such contract or agreement, an annuity or other payment was payable to the decedent, or the decedent possessed the right to receive such annuity or payment, either alone or in conjunction with another for his life or for any period not ascertainable without reference to his death or for any period which does not in fact end before his death.

(b) Amount includible

Subsection (a) shall apply to only such part of the value of the annuity or other payment receivable under such contract or agreement as is proportionate to that part of the purchase price therefor contributed by the decedent. For purposes of this section, any contribution by the decedent's employer or former employer to the purchase price of such contract or agreement (whether or not to an employee's trust or fund forming part of a pension, annuity, retirement, bonus or profit sharing plan) shall be considered to be contributed by the decedent if made by reason of his employment.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 384; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §§23(e), 67(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1622, 1658; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(i), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 830; Pub. L. 89–365, §2(a), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 33; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(23), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 92–580, §2(a), Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1276; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §2007(b)(4), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 994; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(c)(1)–(3), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1894, 1895; Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §§142(a), (b), 156(c)(4), title VII, §702(j)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2796, 2803, 2931; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §101(a)(8)(B), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §§311(d)(1), (h)(4), 313(b)(3), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 280, 282, 286; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §245(a), (b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 524; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §103(c)(9), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2377; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(d)(34), title V, §525(a), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 851, 873; Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §§1848(d), 1852(e)(1)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2857, 2868.)

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–514, §1852(e)(1), struck out subsec. (c) which provided an exclusion from gross estate of certain annuity interests created by community property laws.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–514, §1848(d), struck out "or a bond described in paragraph (3)" after "an annuity described in paragraph (2)" in concluding provisions as such provisions were applicable to obligations issued after Dec. 31, 1983, and prior to repeal of subsec. (e) by Pub. L. 98–369, §525(a), see Effective Date of 1984 Amendment note below.

1984—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–369, §525(a), substituted provisions relating to exception of certain annuity interests created by community property laws for provisions which related to exemption of annuities under certain trusts and plans.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 98–369, §525(a), struck out subsec. (d) which related to exemption of certain annuity interests created by community property laws. See subsec. (c) of this section.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 98–369, §525(a), struck out subsec. (e) which related to exclusion of individual retirement accounts.

Pub. L. 98–369, §491(d)(34), inserted "or" at end of par. (1), substituted a period for ", or" at end of par. (2), struck out par. (3) which excluded from the value of the gross estate the value of an annuity receivable by any beneficiary, other than the executor, under a retirement bond described in section 409(a), and substituted in provision following par. (2) "or 408(d)(3)" for "405(d)(3), 408(d)(3), or 409(b)(3)(C)", and substituted "or annuity" for ", annuity, or bond" wherever appearing.

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 98–369, §525(a), struck out subsec. (f) which related to lump sum distributions and an exception where the recipient elects not to take 10-year averaging, and subsec. (g) which related to a $100,000 limitation on the exclusions under subsecs. (c) and (e).

1983—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 97–448, §103(c)(9)(A), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted "without regard to the third sentence of section 402(e)(4)(A))" for "without regard to the next to the last sentence of section 402(e)(4)(A)" in subpar. (A) as so designated, and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 97–448, §103(c)(9)(B), substituted "An amount described" for "A lump sum distribution described".

1982—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–248, §245(b), substituted "Subject to the limitation of subsection (g), notwithstanding any other provision of this section" for "Notwithstanding the provisions of this section".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–248, §245(b), substituted "Subject to the limitation of subsection (g), notwithstanding any other provision of this section" for "Notwithstanding the provisions of this section".

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 97–248, §245(a), added subsec. (g).

1981—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–34, §311(d)(1), provided that for purposes of subsec. (c), any deductible employee contributions, within the meaning of par. (5) of section 72(o), shall be considered as made by a person other than the decedent.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–34, §313(b)(3), inserted reference to rollover contribution described in section 405(d)(3).

Pub. L. 97–34, §311(h)(4), substituted "section 219" for "section 219 or 220".

1980—Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 96–222 substituted "(without the application of paragraph (2) thereof), except to the extent that section 402(e)(4)(J) applies to such distribution" for "without the application of paragraph (2) thereof".

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–600, §142(a), substituted "(other than an amount described in subsection (f))" for "(other than a lump sum distribution described in section 402(e)(4), determined without regard to the next to the last sentence of section 402(e)(4)(A))" in provisions preceding par. (1).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–600, §§156(c)(4), 702(j)(1), inserted "section 403(b)(8) (but only to the extent such contribution is attributed to a distribution from a contract described in subsection (c)(3))," after "403(a)(4)" and inserted "or 220" after "section 219" wherever appearing in provisions following par. (3).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–600, §142(b), added subsec. (f).

1976—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §2009(c)(2), (3), substituted "other payment (other than a lump sum distribution described in section 402(e)(4), determined without regard to the next to the last sentence of section 402(e)(4)(A)) receivable by any beneficiary" for "other payment receivable by any beneficiary" in provisions preceding par. (1) and substituted "For purposes of this subsection, contributions or payments on behalf of the decedent while he was an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) made under a trust or plan described in paragraph (1) or (2) shall, to the extent allowable as a deduction under section 404, be considered to be made by a person other than the decedent and, to the extent not so allowable, shall be considered to be made by the decedent" for "For purposes of this subsection, contributions or payments on behalf of the decedent while he was an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) made under a trust or plan described in paragraph (1) or (2) shall be considered to be contributions or payments made by the decedent" in provisions following par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 94–455, §2009(c)(1), added subsec. (e).

1974—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–406 inserted reference to section 1452(d) in provisions following par. (4).

1972—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–580 added subsec. (d).

1969—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 91–172 substituted "section 170(b)(1)(A)(ii) or (vi), or which is a religious organization (other than a trust)," for "section 503(b) (1), (2), or (3),".

1966—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 89–365 added par. (4), inserted reference to chapter 73 of title 10 of the United States Code in the enumeration of the plans and contracts set out in the prohibition against allowance of exclusion for that part of the value of the amount payable under the plan or contract in the proportion that the total payments or contributions made by the decedent bear to the total payments or contributions made, and provided that, for purposes of this section, amounts payable under chapter 73 of title 10 are attributable to payments or contributions made by the decedent only to the extent of amounts deposited by him pursuant to section 1438 of title 10.

1962—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 87–792 substituted "was a plan described in section 403(a)" for "met the requirements of section 401(a)(3), (4), (5), and (6)" in par. (2), and inserted sentence providing, for purposes of this subsection, that contributions or payments on behalf of the decedent while he was an employee within the meaning of section 401(c)(1) made under a trust or plan described in paragraph (1) or (2) shall be considered to be contributions or payments made by the decedent.

1958—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 85–866, §67(a), inserted "(4), (5), and (6)" after "section 401(a)(3)".

Subsec. (c)(3) and closing sentences. Pub. L. 85–866, §23(e), added par. (3), inserted "or under contract described in paragraph (3)" in second sentence of subsec. (c) and substituted "paragraph (1) or (2) shall not be considered to be contributed by the decedent, and contributions or payments made by the decedent's employer or former employer toward the purchase of an annuity contract described in paragraph (3) shall, to the extent excludable from gross income under section 403(b)," for "this subsection shall" in third sentence of subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1852(e)(1)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2868, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Amendment by section 1848(d) of Pub. L. 99–514 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Tax Reform Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, to which such amendment relates, see section 1881 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 48 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 491(d)(34) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to obligations issued after Dec. 31, 1983, see section 491(f)(1) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 62 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §525(b)(1), (2), (4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 874, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1852(e)(3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2868, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1984.

"(2) Exception for participants in pay status.—The amendments made by this section shall not apply to the estate of any decedent who—

"(A) was a participant in any plan who was in pay status on December 31, 1984, and

"(B) irrevocably elected the form of the benefit before the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

"(4) Irrevocable election.—For purposes of paragraph (2) [set out above] and section 245(c) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982 [see Effective Date of 1982 Amendment note below], an individual who—

"(A) separated from service before January 1, 1985, with respect to paragraph (2), or January 1, 1983, with respect to section 245(c) of the Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1982, and

"(B) meets the requirements of such paragraph or such section other than the requirement that there be an irrevocable election, and that the individual be in pay status,

shall be treated as having made an irrevocable election and as being in pay status within the time prescribed with respect to a form of benefit if such individual does not change such form of benefit before death."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §245(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 525, as amended by Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §525(b)(3), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 874, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1982, except that such amendments shall not apply to the estate of any decedent who was a participant in any plan who was in pay status on December 31, 1982, and irrevocably elected before January 1, 1983, the form of benefit."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by section 311(d)(1), (h)(4) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 311(i)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 219 of this title.

Amendment by section 313(b)(3) of Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to redemptions after Aug. 13, 1981, in taxable years ending after such date, see section 313(c) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 219 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 applicable with respect to the estates of decedents dying after Apr. 1, 1980, see section 101(b)(1)(D) of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 691 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §142(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2796, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1978."

Amendment by section 156(c)(4) of Pub. L. 95–600 applicable to distributions or transfers made after Dec. 31, 1977, in taxable years beginning after such date, see section 156(d) of Pub. L. 95–600, set out as a note under section 403 of this title.

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(j)(3)(A), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2932, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(e)(3)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1896, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (c) [amending this section] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976."

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable to taxable years ending on or after Sept. 21, 1972, with respect to individuals dying on or after Sept. 21, 1972, see section 2007(c) of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as a note under section 122 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–580, §2(b), Oct. 27, 1972, 86 Stat. 1276, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to estate of decedents for which the period prescribed by the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] for filing of a claim for credit or refund of an overpayment of estate tax ends on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 27, 1972]. No interest shall be allowed or paid on any overpayment of estate tax resulting from the application of the amendment made by subsection (a) for any period prior to the expiration of the one hundred and eightieth day following the date of the enactment of this Act."

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–365, §2(c), Mar. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 33, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to decedents dying after December 31, 1965. The amendments made by subsection (b) [amending section 2517 of this title] shall apply with respect to calendar years after 1965."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–792 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1962, see section 8 of Pub. L. 87–792, set out as a note under section 22 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by section 23(e) of Pub. L. 85–866 applicable with respect to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1957, see section 23(g) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 403 of this title.

Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §67(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1659, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1953."

Plan Amendments Not Required Until January 1, 1989

For provisions directing that if any amendments made by subtitle A or subtitle C of title XI [§§1101–1147 and 1171–1177] or title XVIII [§§1800–1899A] of Pub. L. 99–514 require an amendment to any plan, such plan amendment shall not be required to be made before the first plan year beginning on or after Jan. 1, 1989, see section 1140 of Pub. L. 99–514, as amended, set out as a note under section 401 of this title.

§2040. Joint interests

(a) General rule

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property to the extent of the interest therein held as joint tenants with right of survivorship by the decedent and any other person, or as tenants by the entirety by the decedent and spouse, or deposited, with any person carrying on the banking business, in their joint names and payable to either or the survivor, except such part thereof as may be shown to have originally belonged to such other person and never to have been received or acquired by the latter from the decedent for less than an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth: Provided, That where such property or any part thereof, or part of the consideration with which such property was acquired, is shown to have been at any time acquired by such other person from the decedent for less than an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth, there shall be excepted only such part of the value of such property as is proportionate to the consideration furnished by such other person: Provided further, That where any property has been acquired by gift, bequest, devise, or inheritance, as a tenancy by the entirety by the decedent and spouse, then to the extent of one-half of the value thereof, or, where so acquired by the decedent and any other person as joint tenants with right of survivorship and their interests are not otherwise specified or fixed by law, then to the extent of the value of a fractional part to be determined by dividing the value of the property by the number of joint tenants with right of survivorship.

(b) Certain joint interests of husband and wife

(1) Interests of spouse excluded from gross estate

Notwithstanding subsection (a), in the case of any qualified joint interest, the value included in the gross estate with respect to such interest by reason of this section is one-half of the value of such qualified joint interest.

(2) Qualified joint interest defined

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "qualified joint interest" means any interest in property held by the decedent and the decedent's spouse as—

(A) tenants by the entirety, or

(B) joint tenants with right of survivorship, but only if the decedent and the spouse of the decedent are the only joint tenants.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 385; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(G), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2002(c)(1), (3), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1855, 1856; Pub. L. 95–600, title V, §511(a), title VII, §702(k)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2881, 2932; Pub. L. 96–222, title I, §105(a)(3), Apr. 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 218; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(c)(1)–(3)(A), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 301, 302.)

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–34, §403(c)(2), substituted "joint tenants with right of survivorship" for "joint tenants" in three places.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §403(c)(1), in redefining "qualified joint interest" substituted provision defining term as meaning any interest in property held by the decedent and the decedent's spouse as tenants by the entirety, or joint tenants with right of survivorship, but only if the decedent and the spouse of the decedent are the only joint tenants for provision defining the term as meaning any interest in property held by the decedent and the decedent's spouse as joint tenants or as tenants by the entirety, but only if such joint interest was created by the decedent, the decedent's spouse, or both, in the case of personal property, the creation of such joint interest constituted in whole or in part a gift for purposes of chapter 12, or in the case of real property, an election under section 2515 applies with respect to the creation of such joint interest, and in the case of a joint tenancy, only the decedent and the decedent's spouse are joint tenants.

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 97–34, §403(c)(3)(A), repealed subsec. (c) respecting value where spouse of decedent materially participated in farm or other business, subsec. (d) relating to joint interests of husband and wife created before 1977, and subsec. (e) covering treatment of certain post-1976 terminations.

1980—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 96–222, §105(a)(3)(B), substituted "subsection (a)" for "subsections (a)".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 96–222, §105(a)(3)(A), added subpar. (C).

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–600, §511(a), added subsec. (c).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 95–600, §702(k)(2), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1976Pub. L. 94–455 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added heading for subsec. (a), and added subsec. (b).

1962Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property outside of the United States.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 403(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 2056 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–222 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provisions of the Revenue Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, to which such amendment relates, see section 201 of Pub. L. 96–222, set out as a note under section 32 of this title.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title V, §511(b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2882, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1978."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2002(d)(3), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1856, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (c) [amending this section and section 2515 of this title] shall apply to joint interests created after December 31, 1976."

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

Consideration Given Before July 14, 1988 by Decedent to Noncitizen Spouse Treated as Originally Belonging to Spouse

Pub. L. 101–239, title VII, §7815(d)(16), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2419, as amended by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11701(l)(3), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–513, provided that: "For purposes of applying section 2040(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 with respect to any joint interest to which section 2040(b) of such Code does not apply solely by reason of section 2056(d)(1)(B) of such Code, any consideration furnished before July 14, 1988, by the decedent for such interest to the extent treated as a gift to the spouse of the decedent for purposes of chapter 12 of such Code (or would have been so treated if the donor were a citizen of the United States) shall be treated as consideration originally belonging to such spouse and never acquired by such spouse from the decedent."

§2041. Powers of appointment

(a) In general

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property—

(1) Powers of appointment created on or before October 21, 1942

To the extent of any property with respect to which a general power of appointment created on or before October 21, 1942, is exercised by the decedent—

(A) by will, or

(B) by a disposition which is of such nature that if it were a transfer of property owned by the decedent, such property would be includible in the decedent's gross estate under sections 2035 to 2038, inclusive;


but the failure to exercise such a power or the complete release of such a power shall not be deemed an exercise thereof. If a general power of appointment created on or before October 21, 1942, has been partially released so that it is no longer a general power of appointment, the exercise of such power shall not be deemed to be the exercise of a general power of appointment if—

(i) such partial release occurred before November 1, 1951, or

(ii) the donee of such power was under a legal disability to release such power on October 21, 1942, and such partial release occurred not later than 6 months after the termination of such legal disability.

(2) Powers created after October 21, 1942

To the extent of any property with respect to which the decedent has at the time of his death a general power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, or with respect to which the decedent has at any time exercised or released such a power of appointment by a disposition which is of such nature that if it were a transfer of property owned by the decedent, such property would be includible in the decedent's gross estate under sections 2035 to 2038, inclusive. For purposes of this paragraph (2), the power of appointment shall be considered to exist on the date of the decedent's death even though the exercise of the power is subject to a precedent giving of notice or even though the exercise of the power takes effect only on the expiration of a stated period after its exercise, whether or not on or before the date of the decedent's death notice has been given or the power has been exercised.

(3) Creation of another power in certain cases

To the extent of any property with respect to which the decedent—

(A) by will, or

(B) by a disposition which is of such nature that if it were a transfer of property owned by the decedent such property would be includible in the decedent's gross estate under section 2035, 2036, or 2037,


exercises a power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, by creating another power of appointment which under the applicable local law can be validly exercised so as to postpone the vesting of any estate or interest in such property, or suspend the absolute ownership or power of alienation of such property, for a period ascertainable without regard to the date of the creation of the first power.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) General power of appointment

The term "general power of appointment" means a power which is exercisable in favor of the decedent, his estate, his creditors, or the creditors of his estate; except that—

(A) A power to consume, invade, or appropriate property for the benefit of the decedent which is limited by an ascertainable standard relating to the health, education, support, or maintenance of the decedent shall not be deemed a general power of appointment.

(B) A power of appointment created on or before October 21, 1942, which is exercisable by the decedent only in conjunction with another person shall not be deemed a general power of appointment.

(C) In the case of a power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, which is exercisable by the decedent only in conjunction with another person—

(i) If the power is not exercisable by the decedent except in conjunction with the creator of the power—such power shall not be deemed a general power of appointment.

(ii) If the power is not exercisable by the decedent except in conjunction with a person having a substantial interest in the property, subject to the power, which is adverse to exercise of the power in favor of the decedent—such power shall not be deemed a general power of appointment. For the purposes of this clause a person who, after the death of the decedent, may be possessed of a power of appointment (with respect to the property subject to the decedent's power) which he may exercise in his own favor shall be deemed as having an interest in the property and such interest shall be deemed adverse to such exercise of the decedent's power.

(iii) If (after the application of clauses (i) and (ii)) the power is a general power of appointment and is exercisable in favor of such other person—such power shall be deemed a general power of appointment only in respect of a fractional part of the property subject to such power, such part to be determined by dividing the value of such property by the number of such persons (including the decedent) in favor of whom such power is exercisable.


For purposes of clauses (ii) and (iii), a power shall be deemed to be exercisable in favor of a person if it is exercisable in favor of such person, his estate, his creditors, or the creditors of his estate.

(2) Lapse of power

The lapse of a power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, during the life of the individual possessing the power shall be considered a release of such power. The preceding sentence shall apply with respect to the lapse of powers during any calendar year only to the extent that the property, which could have been appointed by exercise of such lapsed powers, exceeded in value, at the time of such lapse, the greater of the following amounts:

(A) $5,000, or

(B) 5 percent of the aggregate value, at the time of such lapse, of the assets out of which, or the proceeds of which, the exercise of the lapsed powers could have been satisfied.

(3) Date of creation of power

For purposes of this section, a power of appointment created by a will executed on or before October 21, 1942, shall be considered a power created on or before such date if the person executing such will dies before July 1, 1949, without having republished such will, by codicil or otherwise, after October 21, 1942.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 385; Pub. L. 87–834, §18(a)(2)(H), Oct. 16, 1962, 76 Stat. 1052; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(b)(4)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1894.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out provision that a disclaimer or renunciation of a power of appointment not be deemed a release of that power.

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–834 struck out provisions which excepted real property situated outside of the United States.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to transfers creating an interest in person disclaiming made after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 2009(e)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2518 of this title.

Effective Date of 1962 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 87–834 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 16, 1962, except as otherwise provided, see section 18(b) of Pub. L. 87–834, set out as a note under section 2031 of this title.

§2042. Proceeds of life insurance

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of all property—

(1) Receivable by the executor

To the extent of the amount receivable by the executor as insurance under policies on the life of the decedent.

(2) Receivable by other beneficiaries

To the extent of the amount receivable by all other beneficiaries as insurance under policies on the life of the decedent with respect to which the decedent possessed at his death any of the incidents of ownership, exercisable either alone or in conjunction with any other person. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "incident of ownership" includes a reversionary interest (whether arising by the express terms of the policy or other instrument or by operation of law) only if the value of such reversionary interest exceeded 5 percent of the value of the policy immediately before the death of the decedent. As used in this paragraph, the term "reversionary interest" includes a possibility that the policy, or the proceeds of the policy, may return to the decedent or his estate, or may be subject to a power of disposition by him. The value of a reversionary interest at any time shall be determined (without regard to the fact of the decedent's death) by usual methods of valuation, including the use of tables of mortality and actuarial principles, pursuant to regulations prescribed by the Secretary. In determining the value of a possibility that the policy or proceeds thereof may be subject to a power of disposition by the decedent, such possibility shall be valued as if it were a possibility that such policy or proceeds may return to the decedent or his estate.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 387; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13) (A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

§2043. Transfers for insufficient consideration

(a) In general

If any one of the transfers, trusts, interests, rights, or powers enumerated and described in sections 2035 to 2038, inclusive, and section 2041 is made, created, exercised, or relinquished for a consideration in money or money's worth, but is not a bona fide sale for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth, there shall be included in the gross estate only the excess of the fair market value at the time of death of the property otherwise to be included on account of such transaction, over the value of the consideration received therefor by the decedent.

(b) Marital rights not treated as consideration

(1) In general

For purposes of this chapter, a relinquishment or promised relinquishment of dower or curtesy, or of a statutory estate created in lieu of dower or curtesy, or of other marital rights in the decedent's property or estate, shall not be considered to any extent a consideration "in money or money's worth".

(2) Exception

For purposes of section 2053 (relating to expenses, indebtedness, and taxes), a transfer of property which satisfies the requirements of paragraph (1) of section 2516 (relating to certain property settlements) shall be considered to be made for an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 388; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §425(a)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 803.)

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369 amended subsec. (b) generally, designating existing provisions as par. (1) and adding par. (2).

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §425(c)(1), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 804, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section and section 2053 of this title] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]."

§2044. Certain property for which marital deduction was previously allowed

(a) General rule

The value of the gross estate shall include the value of any property to which this section applies in which the decedent had a qualifying income interest for life.

(b) Property to which this section applies

This section applies to any property if—

(1) a deduction was allowed with respect to the transfer of such property to the decedent—

(A) under section 2056 by reason of subsection (b)(7) thereof, or

(B) under section 2523 by reason of subsection (f) thereof, and


(2) section 2519 (relating to dispositions of certain life estates) did not apply with respect to a disposition by the decedent of part or all of such property.

(c) Property treated as having passed from decedent

For purposes of this chapter and chapter 13, property includible in the gross estate of the decedent under subsection (a) shall be treated as property passing from the decedent.

(Added Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(d)(3)(A)(i), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 304; amended Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(a)(1)(B), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2380.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2044 was renumbered section 2045 of this title.

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–448 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 403(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 2056 of this title.

§2045. Prior interests

Except as otherwise specifically provided by law, sections 2034 to 2042, inclusive, shall apply to the transfers, trusts, estates, interests, rights, powers, and relinquishment of powers, as severally enumerated and described therein, whenever made, created, arising, existing, exercised, or relinquished.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 388, §2044; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2001(c)(1)(M), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1853; renumbered §2045, Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(d)(3)(A)(i), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 304.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2045 was renumbered section 2046 of this title.

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 substituted "specifically provided by law" for "specifically provided therein".

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 2001(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

§2046. Disclaimers

For provisions relating to the effect of a qualified disclaimer for purposes of this chapter, see section 2518.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(b)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1893, §2045; renumbered §2046, Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(d)(3)(A)(i), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 304.)

Effective Date

Section applicable to transfers creating an interest in person disclaiming made after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 2009(e)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2518 of this title.