[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle B, CHAPTER 12, Subchapter B: Transfers
Result 1 of 1
   
 
26 USC Subtitle B, CHAPTER 12, Subchapter B: Transfers
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle B—Estate and Gift TaxesCHAPTER 12—GIFT TAX

Subchapter B—Transfers

Sec.
2511.
Transfers in general.
2512.
Valuation of gifts.
2513.
Gift by husband or wife to third party.
2514.
Powers of appointment.
2515.
Treatment of generation-skipping transfer tax.
[2515A.
Repealed.]
2516.
Certain property settlements.
[2517.
Repealed.]
2518.
Disclaimers.
2519.
Dispositions of certain life estates.

        

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–514, title XIV, §1432(d)(2), title XVIII, §1852(e)(2)(B), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2730, 2868, added item 2515 and struck out item 2517 "Certain annuities under qualified plans".

1981Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(c)(3)(C), (d)(3)(B)(ii), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 302, 304, as amended Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(a)(3)(B), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2380, struck out items 2515 "Tenancies by the entirety in real property" and 2515A "Tenancies by the entirety in personal property" and added item 2519.

1978Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(k)(1)(C), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2932, substituted in item 2515 "Tenancies by the entirety in real property" for "Tenancies by the entirety" and added item 2515A.

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(b)(3)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1894, added item 2518.

1958Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §68(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1659, added item 2517.

§2511. Transfers in general

(a) Scope

Subject to the limitations contained in this chapter, the tax imposed by section 2501 shall apply whether the transfer is in trust or otherwise, whether the gift is direct or indirect, and whether the property is real or personal, tangible or intangible; but in the case of a nonresident not a citizen of the United States, shall apply to a transfer only if the property is situated within the United States.

(b) Intangible property

For purposes of this chapter, in the case of a nonresident not a citizen of the United States who is excepted from the application of section 2501(a)(2)—

(1) shares of stock issued by a domestic corporation, and

(2) debt obligations of—

(A) a United States person, or

(B) the United States, a State or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia,


which are owned and held by such nonresident shall be deemed to be property situated within the United States.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 406; Pub. L. 89–809, title I, §109(b), Nov. 13, 1966, 80 Stat. 1575; Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §511(e), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 71; Pub. L. 107–147, title IV, §411(g)(1), Mar. 9, 2002, 116 Stat. 46; Pub. L. 111–312, title III, §302(e), Dec. 17, 2010, 124 Stat. 3302.)

Amendments

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–312 struck out subsec. (c). Text read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of this section and except as provided in regulations, a transfer in trust shall be treated as a transfer of property by gift, unless the trust is treated as wholly owned by the donor or the donor's spouse under subpart E of part I of subchapter J of chapter 1."

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–147 substituted "transfer of property by gift," for "taxable gift under section 2503,".

2001—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–16 added subsec. (c).

1966—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–809 inserted reference to nonresidents who are excepted from the application of section 2501(a)(2) and expanded section to include debt obligations of United States persons or the United States, a State or any political subdivision thereof, or the District of Columbia.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 111–312 applicable to estates of decedents dying, generation-skipping transfers, and gifts made, after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 302(f) of Pub. L. 111–312, set out as a note under section 2001 of this title.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–147 effective as if included in the provisions of the Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act of 2001, Pub. L. 107–16, to which such amendment relates, see section 411(x) of Pub. L. 107–147, set out as a note under section 25B of this title.

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–16 applicable to gifts made after Dec. 31, 2009, see section 511(f)(3) of Pub. L. 107–16, set out as a note under section 2502 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–809 applicable with respect to calendar year 1967 and all calendar years thereafter, see section 109(c) of Pub. L. 89–809, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

§2512. Valuation of gifts

(a) If the gift is made in property, the value thereof at the date of the gift shall be considered the amount of the gift.

(b) Where property is transferred for less than an adequate and full consideration in money or money's worth, then the amount by which the value of the property exceeded the value of the consideration shall be deemed a gift, and shall be included in computing the amount of gifts made during the calendar year.

(c) Cross reference

For individual's right to be furnished on request a statement regarding any valuation made by the Secretary of a gift by that individual, see section 7517.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 406; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §102(b)(1), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1840; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2008(a)(2)(B), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1891; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §442(b)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 322.)

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–34 substituted "calendar year" for "calendar quarters".

1976—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455 added subsec. (c).

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–614 substituted "calendar quarter" for "calendar year".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 442(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–614 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 102(e) of Pub. L. 91–614, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

§2513. Gift by husband or wife to third party

(a) Considered as made one-half by each

(1) In general

A gift made by one spouse to any person other than his spouse shall, for the purposes of this chapter, be considered as made one-half by him and one-half by his spouse, but only if at the time of the gift each spouse is a citizen or resident of the United States. This paragraph shall not apply with respect to a gift by a spouse of an interest in property if he creates in his spouse a general power of appointment, as defined in section 2514(c), over such interest. For purposes of this section, an individual shall be considered as the spouse of another individual only if he is married to such individual at the time of the gift and does not remarry during the remainder of the calendar year.

(2) Consent of both spouses

Paragraph (1) shall apply only if both spouses have signified (under the regulations provided for in subsection (b)) their consent to the application of paragraph (1) in the case of all such gifts made during the calendar year by either while married to the other.

(b) Manner and time of signifying consent

(1) Manner

A consent under this section shall be signified in such manner as is provided under regulations prescribed by the Secretary.

(2) Time

Such consent may be so signified at any time after the close of the calendar year in which the gift was made, subject to the following limitations—

(A) The consent may not be signified after the 15th day of April following the close of such year, unless before such 15th day no return has been filed for such year by either spouse, in which case the consent may not be signified after a return for such year is filed by either spouse.

(B) The consent may not be signified after a notice of deficiency with respect to the tax for such year has been sent to either spouse in accordance with section 6212(a).

(c) Revocation of consent

Revocation of a consent previously signified shall be made in such manner as in provided under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, but the right to revoke a consent previously signified with respect to a calendar year—

(1) shall not exist after the 15th day of April following the close of such year if the consent was signified on or before such 15th day; and

(2) shall not exist if the consent was not signified until after such 15th day.

(d) Joint and several liability for tax

If the consent required by subsection (a)(2) is signified with respect to a gift made in any calendar year, the liability with respect to the entire tax imposed by this chapter of each spouse for such year shall be joint and several.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 406; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §102(b)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1840; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §442(b)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 322.)

Amendments

1981—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 97–34, §442(b)(2)(A), substituted "calendar year" for "calendar quarter".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 97–34, §442(b)(2)(B)–(D), in introductory text, substituted "calendar year" for "calendar quarter", in subpar. (A), substituted "The consent" for "the consent", "15th day of April following the close of such year" for "15th day of the second month following the close of such calendar quarter", and "such year" for "such calendar quarter" in two other places, and in subpar. (B) substituted "The consent" and "such year" for "the consent" and "such calendar quarter".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–34, §442(b)(2)(E), in provision preceding par. (1) substituted "calendar year" for "calendar quarter" and in par. (1) "15th day of April following the close of such year" for "15th day of the second month following the close of such quarter".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–34, §442(b)(2)(F), substituted "any calendar year" and "such year" for "any calendar quarter" and "such calendar quarter".

1976—Subsecs. (b)(1), (c). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1970—Subsecs. (a), (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–614, §102(b)(2)(A), substituted "calendar quarter" for "calendar year".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 91–614, §102(b)(2)(B), substituted "the 15th day of the second month" for "the 15th day of April" and substituted "such calendar quarter" for "such year".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 91–614, §102(b)(2)(C), substituted "such calendar quarter" for "such year".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–614, §102(b)(2)(A), substituted "calendar quarter" for "calendar year".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 91–614, §102(b)(2)(D), substituted "15th day of the second month following the close of such calendar quarter" for "15th day of April following the close of such year".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–614, §102(b)(2)(A), (E), substituted "calendar quarter" for "calendar year" and "such calendar quarter" for "such year".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 442(e) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–614 applicable with respect to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 102(e) of Pub. L. 91–614, set out as a note under section 2501 of this title.

§2514. Powers of appointment

(a) Powers created on or before October 21, 1942

An exercise of a general power of appointment created on or before October 21, 1942, shall be deemed a transfer of property by the individual possessing such power; but the failure to exercise such a power or the complete release of such a power shall not be deemed an exercise thereof. If a general power of appointment created on or before October 21, 1942, has been partially released so that it is no longer a general power of appointment, the subsequent exercise of such power shall not be deemed to be the exercise of a general power of appointment if—

(1) such partial release occurred before November 1, 1951, or

(2) the donee of such power was under a legal disability to release such power on October 21, 1942, and such partial release occurred not later than six months after the termination of such legal disability.

(b) Powers created after October 21, 1942

The exercise or release of a general power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, shall be deemed a transfer of property by the individual possessing such power.

(c) Definition of general power of appointment

For purposes of this section, the term "general power of appointment" means a power which is exercisable in favor of the individual possessing the power (hereafter in this subsection referred to as the "possessor"), his estate, his creditors, or the creditors of his estate; except that—

(1) A power to consume, invade, or appropriate property for the benefit of the possessor which is limited by an ascertainable standard relating to the health, education, support, or maintenance of the possessor shall not be deemed a general power of appointment.

(2) A power of appointment created on or before October 21, 1942, which is exercisable by the possessor only in conjunction with another person shall not be deemed a general power of appointment.

(3) In the case of a power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, which is exercisable by the possessor only in conjunction with another person—

(A) if the power is not exercisable by the possessor except in conjunction with the creator of the power—such power shall not be deemed a general power of appointment;

(B) if the power is not exercisable by the possessor except in conjunction with a person having a substantial interest, in the property subject to the power, which is adverse to exercise of the power in favor of the possessor—such power shall not be deemed a general power of appointment. For the purposes of this subparagraph a person who, after the death of the possessor, may be possessed of a power of appointment (with respect to the property subject to the possessor's power) which he may exercise in his own favor shall be deemed as having an interest in the property and such interest shall be deemed adverse to such exercise of the possessor's power;

(C) if (after the application of subparagraphs (A) and (B)) the power is a general power of appointment and is exercisable in favor of such other person—such power shall be deemed a general power of appointment only in respect of a fractional part of the property subject to such power, such part to be determined by dividing the value of such property by the number of such persons (including the possessor) in favor of whom such power is exercisable.


For purposes of subparagraphs (B) and (C), a power shall be deemed to be exercisable in favor of a person if it is exercisable in favor of such person, his estate, his creditors, or the creditors of his estate.

(d) Creation of another power in certain cases

If a power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, is exercised by creating another power of appointment which, under the applicable local law, can be validly exercised so as to postpone the vesting of any estate or interest in the property which was subject to the first power, or suspend the absolute ownership or power of alienation of such property, for a period ascertainable without regard to the date of the creation of the first power, such exercise of the first power shall, to the extent of the property subject to the second power, be deemed a transfer of property by the individual possessing such power.

(e) Lapse of power

The lapse of a power of appointment created after October 21, 1942, during the life of the individual possessing the power shall be considered a release of such power. The rule of the preceding sentence shall apply with respect to the lapse of powers during any calendar year only to the extent that the property which could have been appointed by exercise of such lapsed powers exceeds in value the greater of the following amounts:

(1) $5,000, or

(2) 5 percent of the aggregate value of the assets out of which, or the proceeds of which, the exercise of the lapsed powers could be satisfied.

(f) Date of creation of power

For purposes of this section a power of appointment created by a will executed on or before October 21, 1942, shall be considered a power created on or before such date if the person executing such will dies before July 1, 1949, without having republished such will, by codicil or otherwise, after October 21, 1942.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 407; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(b)(4)(F), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1894.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "A disclaimer or renunciation of such a power of appointment shall not be deemed a release of such power."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to transfers creating an interest in person disclaiming made after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 2009(e)(2) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2518 of this title.

§2515. Treatment of generation-skipping transfer tax

In the case of any taxable gift which is a direct skip (within the meaning of chapter 13), the amount of such gift shall be increased by the amount of any tax imposed on the transferor under chapter 13 with respect to such gift.

(Added Pub. L. 99–514, title XIV, §1432(d)(1), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2730.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section, acts Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 409; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §102(b)(3), 84 Stat. 1841; Oct. 4, 1976, Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2002(c)(2), 90 Stat. 1855; Nov. 6, 1978, Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(k)(1)(B), 92 Stat. 2932, related to tenancies by the entirety in real property, prior to repeal applicable to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, by Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(c)(3)(B), (e)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 302, 305.

Effective Date

Section applicable to generation-skipping transfers (within the meaning of section 2611 of this title) made after Oct. 22, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1433 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as a note under section 2601 of this title.

[§2515A. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(c)(3)(B), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 302]

Section, added Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(k)(1)(A), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2932, related to tenancies by the entirety in personal property.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 403(e)(2) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 2056 of this title.

§2516. Certain property settlements

Where a husband and wife enter into a written agreement relative to their marital and property rights and divorce occurs within the 3-year period beginning on the date 1 year before such agreement is entered into (whether or not such agreement is approved by the divorce decree), any transfers of property or interests in property made pursuant to such agreement—

(1) to either spouse in settlement of his or her marital or property rights, or

(2) to provide a reasonable allowance for the support of issue of the marriage during minority,


shall be deemed to be transfers made for a full and adequate consideration in money or money's worth.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 409; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §425(b), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 804.)

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–369 substituted in introductory text "within the 3-year period beginning on the date 1 year before such agreement is entered into" for "within 2 years thereafter".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §425(c)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 804, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984]."

[§2517. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–514, title XVIII, §1852(e)(2)(A), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2868]

Section, added and amended Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §§23(f), 68(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1623, 1659; Pub. L. 87–792, §7(j), Oct. 10, 1962, 76 Stat. 830; Mar. 8, 1966, Pub. L. 89–365, §2(b), 80 Stat. 33; Dec. 30, 1969, Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(24), 83 Stat. 528; Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(c) (4), (5), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1895, 1896; Pub. L. 97–34, title III, §311(d)(2), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 280; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §491(d)(35), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 851, related to the transfers of certain annuities under qualified plans.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to transfers after Oct. 22, 1986, see section 1852(e)(2)(E) of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 406 of this title.

§2518. Disclaimers

(a) General rule

For purposes of this subtitle, if a person makes a qualified disclaimer with respect to any interest in property, this subtitle shall apply with respect to such interest as if the interest had never been transferred to such person.

(b) Qualified disclaimer defined

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "qualified disclaimer" means an irrevocable and unqualified refusal by a person to accept an interest in property but only if—

(1) such refusal is in writing,

(2) such writing is received by the transferor of the interest, his legal representative, or the holder of the legal title to the property to which the interest relates not later than the date which is 9 months after the later of—

(A) the day on which the transfer creating the interest in such person is made, or

(B) the day on which such person attains age 21,


(3) such person has not accepted the interest or any of its benefits, and

(4) as a result of such refusal, the interest passes without any direction on the part of the person making the disclaimer and passes either—

(A) to the spouse of the decedent, or

(B) to a person other than the person making the disclaimer.

(c) Other rules

For purposes of subsection (a)—

(1) Disclaimer of undivided portion of interest

A disclaimer with respect to an undivided portion of an interest which meets the requirements of the preceding sentence shall be treated as a qualified disclaimer of such portion of the interest.

(2) Powers

A power with respect to property shall be treated as an interest in such property.

(3) Certain transfers treated as disclaimers

A written transfer of the transferor's entire interest in the property—

(A) which meets requirements similar to the requirements of paragraphs (2) and (3) of subsection (b), and

(B) which is to a person or persons who would have received the property had the transferor made a qualified disclaimer (within the meaning of subsection (b)),


shall be treated as a qualified disclaimer.

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(b)(1), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1893; amended Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(m)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2935; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §426(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 318; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(e), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2384.)

Amendments

1983—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–448 substituted "A written transfer" for "For purposes of subsection (a), a written transfer".

1981—Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 97–34 added par. (3).

1978—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–600 inserted provision relating to spouse of decedent.

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §426(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 318, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers creating an interest in the person disclaiming made after December 31, 1981."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title VII, §702(m)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2935, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers creating an interest in the person disclaiming made after December 31, 1976."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2009(e)(2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1896, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (b) [enacting this section and section 2046 of this title and amending sections 2041, 2055, 2056, and 2514 of this title] shall apply with respect to transfers creating an interest in the person disclaiming made after December 31, 1976."

§2519. Dispositions of certain life estates

(a) General rule

For purposes of this chapter and chapter 11, any disposition of all or part of a qualifying income interest for life in any property to which this section applies shall be treated as a transfer of all interests in such property other than the qualifying income interest.

(b) Property to which this subsection applies

This section applies to any property if a deduction was allowed with respect to the transfer of such property to the donor—

(1) under section 2056 by reason of subsection (b)(7) thereof, or

(2) under section 2523 by reason of subsection (f) thereof.

(c) Cross reference

For right of recovery for gift tax in the case of property treated as transferred under this section, see section 2207A(b).

(Added Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §403(d)(3)(B)(i), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 304; amended Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(a)(3), (7), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2380, 2381.)

Amendments

1983Pub. L. 97–448, §104(a)(3)(B), amended directory language of Pub. L. 97–34, §403(d)(3)(B)(i), to clarify that this section be inserted at end of subchapter B of chapter 12, rather than at end of subchapter B of chapter 11, and did not involve any change in text.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(a)(3)(A), substituted "For purposes of this chapter and chapter 11, any disposition" for "Any disposition" and "treated as a transfer of all interests in such property other than the qualifying income interest" for "treated as a transfer of such property".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(a)(7), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable to gifts made after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 403(e)(2) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 2056 of this title.