[USC02] 26 USC Ch. 25: GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO EMPLOYMENT TAXES
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26 USC Ch. 25: GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO EMPLOYMENT TAXES
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle C—Employment Taxes

CHAPTER 25—GENERAL PROVISIONS RELATING TO EMPLOYMENT TAXES

Sec.
3501.
Collection and payment of taxes.
3502.
Nondeductibility of taxes in computing taxable income.
3503.
Erroneous payments.
3504.
Acts to be performed by agents.
3505.
Liability of third parties paying or providing for wages.
3506.
Individuals providing companion sitting placement services.
[3507.
Repealed.]
3508.
Treatment of real estate agents and direct sellers.
3509.
Determination of employer's liability for certain employment taxes.
3510.
Coordination of collection of domestic service employment taxes with collection of income taxes.
3511.
Certified professional employer organizations.
3512.
Treatment of certain persons as employers with respect to motion picture projects.

        

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §346(b), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3116, added item 3512.

2014Pub. L. 113–295, div. B, title II, §206(d)(1), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4071, added item 3511.

2010Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §219(b)(3), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2403, struck out item 3507 "Advance payment of earned income credit".

1994Pub. L. 103–387, §2(b)(2), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4074, added item 3510.

1990Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(b)(16), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–522, struck out item 3510 "Credit for increased social security employee taxes and railroad retirement tier 1 employee taxes imposed during 1984".

1983Pub. L. 98–67 repealed amendments made by section 307 of Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §123(b)(2), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 88, added item 3510.

1982Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §§269(d), 270(b), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 553, 554, added items 3508 and 3509.

Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§307(b)(5), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 591, provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983, the caption of chapter 25 is amended by inserting "AND COLLECTION OF INCOME TAXES AT SOURCE". Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

1978Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §105(b)(2), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2776, added item 3507.

1977Pub. L. 95–171, §10(b), Nov. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1356, added item 3506.

1966Pub. L. 89–719, title I, §105(c), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1139, added item 3505.

§3501. Collection and payment of taxes

(a) General rule

The taxes imposed by this subtitle shall be collected by the Secretary and shall be paid into the Treasury of the United States as internal-revenue collections.

(b) Taxes with respect to non-cash fringe benefits

The taxes imposed by this subtitle with respect to non-cash fringe benefits shall be collected (or paid) by the employer at the time and in the manner prescribed by the Secretary by regulations.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 471; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §531(d)(5), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 885.)

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–369 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), added heading, and added subsec. (b).

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective Jan. 1, 1985, see section 531(h) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 132 of this title.

§3502. Nondeductibility of taxes in computing taxable income

(a) The taxes imposed by section 3101 of chapter 21, and by sections 3201 and 3211 of chapter 22 shall not be allowed as a deduction to the taxpayer in computing taxable income under subtitle A.

(b) The tax deducted and withheld under chapter 24 shall not be allowed as a deduction either to the employer or to the recipient of the income in computing taxable income under subtitle A.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 471; Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§305(b), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 588, 591; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §102(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369.)

Amendments

1983—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 98–67 repealed amendments made by Pub. L. 97–248. See 1982 Amendment note below.

1982—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 97–248 provided that, applicable to payments of interest, dividends, and patronage dividends paid or credited after June 30, 1983, subsec. (b) is amended and a new subsec. (c) is added. Section 102(a), (b) of Pub. L. 98–67, title I, Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369, repealed subtitle A (§§301–308) of title III of Pub. L. 97–248 as of the close of June 30, 1983, and provided that the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 [now 1986] [this title] shall be applied and administered (subject to certain exceptions) as if such subtitle A (and the amendments made by such subtitle A) had not been enacted.

§3503. Erroneous payments

Any tax paid under chapter 21 or 22 by a taxpayer with respect to any period with respect to which he is not liable to tax under such chapter shall be credited against the tax, if any, imposed by such other chapter upon the taxpayer, and the balance, if any, shall be refunded.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 471.)

§3504. Acts to be performed by agents

In case a fiduciary, agent, or other person has the control, receipt, custody, or disposal of, or pays the wages of an employee or group of employees, employed by one or more employers, the Secretary, under regulations prescribed by him, is authorized to designate such fiduciary, agent, or other person to perform such acts as are required of employers under this title and as the Secretary may specify. Except as may be otherwise prescribed by the Secretary, all provisions of law (including penalties) applicable in respect of an employer shall be applicable to a fiduciary, agent, or other person so designated but, except as so provided, the employer for whom such fiduciary, agent, or other person acts shall remain subject to the provisions of law (including penalties) applicable in respect of employers.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 471; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §71, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1660; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" in three places.

1958Pub. L. 85–866 substituted "title" for "subtitle" in first sentence.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §71, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1660, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective with respect to remuneration paid after Dec. 31, 1954.

§3505. Liability of third parties paying or providing for wages

(a) Direct payment by third parties

For purposes of sections 3102, 3202, 3402, and 3403, if a lender, surety, or other person, who is not an employer under such sections with respect to an employee or group of employees, pays wages directly to such an employee or group of employees, employed by one or more employers, or to an agent on behalf of such employee or employees, such lender, surety, or other person shall be liable in his own person and estate to the United States in a sum equal to the taxes (together with interest) required to be deducted and withheld from such wages by such employer.

(b) Personal liability where funds are supplied

If a lender, surety, or other person supplies funds to or for the account of an employer for the specific purpose of paying wages of the employees of such employer, with actual notice or knowledge (within the meaning of section 6323(i)(1)) that such employer does not intend to or will not be able to make timely payment or deposit of the amounts of tax required by this subtitle to be deducted and withheld by such employer from such wages, such lender, surety, or other person shall be liable in his own person and estate to the United States in a sum equal to the taxes (together with interest) which are not paid over to the United States by such employer with respect to such wages. However, the liability of such lender, surety, or other person shall be limited to an amount equal to 25 percent of the amount so supplied to or for the account of such employer for such purpose.

(c) Effect of payment

Any amounts paid to the United States pursuant to this section shall be credited against the liability of the employer.

(Added Pub. L. 89–719, title I, §105(a), Nov. 2, 1966, 80 Stat. 1138.)

Effective Date

Section applicable only with respect to wages paid on or after Jan. 1, 1967, see section 114(c)(1) of Pub. L. 89–719, set out as an Effective Date of 1966 Amendment note under section 6323 of this title.

§3506. Individuals providing companion sitting placement services

(a) In general

For purposes of this subtitle, a person engaged in the trade or business of putting sitters in touch with individuals who wish to employ them shall not be treated as the employer of such sitters (and such sitters shall not be treated as employees of such person) if such person does not pay or receive the salary or wages of the sitters and is compensated by the sitters or the persons who employ them on a fee basis.

(b) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "sitters" means individuals who furnish personal attendance, companionship, or household care services to children or to individuals who are elderly or disabled.

(c) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out the purpose of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 95–171, §10(a), Nov. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1356.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 95–171, §10(c), Nov. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1356, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to remuneration received after December 31, 1974."

Unemployment Compensation or Social Security Benefits Based on Services Performed Before November 12, 1977, Unaffected

Pub. L. 95–171, §10(d), Nov. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1356, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall not be construed as affecting (1) any individual's right to receive unemployment compensation based on services performed before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 12, 1977], or (2) any individual's eligibility for social security benefits to the extent based on services performed before that date."

[§3507. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–226, title II, §219(a)(1), Aug. 10, 2010, 124 Stat. 2403]

Section, added Pub. L. 95–600, title I, §105(b)(1), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2773; amended Pub. L. 97–248, title III, §§307(a)(3), 308(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 589, 591; Pub. L. 98–67, title I, §102(a), Aug. 5, 1983, 97 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §474(r)(30), title X, §1042(d)(3), (4), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 845, 1044; Pub. L. 99–514, title I, §111(d)(2), (3), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2108; Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11111(c), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–412; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13131(d)(4)–(6), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 435; Pub. L. 103–465, title VII, §721(c), Dec. 8, 1994, 108 Stat. 5002, related to advance payment of earned income credit.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2010, see section 219(c) of Pub. L. 111–226, set out as an Effective Date of 2010 Amendment note under section 32 of this title.

§3508. Treatment of real estate agents and direct sellers

(a) General rule

For purposes of this title, in the case of services performed as a qualified real estate agent or as a direct seller—

(1) the individual performing such services shall not be treated as an employee, and

(2) the person for whom such services are performed shall not be treated as an employer.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Qualified real estate agent

The term "qualified real estate agent" means any individual who is a sales person if—

(A) such individual is a licensed real estate agent,

(B) substantially all of the remuneration (whether or not paid in cash) for the services performed by such individual as a real estate agent is directly related to sales or other output (including the performance of services) rather than to the number of hours worked, and

(C) the services performed by the individual are performed pursuant to a written contract between such individual and the person for whom the services are performed and such contract provides that the individual will not be treated as an employee with respect to such services for Federal tax purposes.

(2) Direct seller

The term "direct seller" means any person if—

(A) such person—

(i) is engaged in the trade or business of selling (or soliciting the sale of) consumer products to any buyer on a buy-sell basis, a deposit-commission basis, or any similar basis which the Secretary prescribes by regulations, for resale (by the buyer or any other person) in the home or otherwise than in a permanent retail establishment,

(ii) is engaged in the trade or business of selling (or soliciting the sale of) consumer products in the home or otherwise than in a permanent retail establishment, or

(iii) is engaged in the trade or business of the delivering or distribution of newspapers or shopping news (including any services directly related to such trade or business),


(B) substantially all the remuneration (whether or not paid in cash) for the performance of the services described in subparagraph (A) is directly related to sales or other output (including the performance of services) rather than to the number of hours worked, and

(C) the services performed by the person are performed pursuant to a written contract between such person and the person for whom the services are performed and such contract provides that the person will not be treated as an employee with respect to such services for Federal tax purposes.

(3) Coordination with retirement plans for self-employed

This section shall not apply for purposes of subtitle A to the extent that the individual is treated as an employee under section 401(c)(1) (relating to self-employed individuals).

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §269(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 551; amended Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1118(a), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1764.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–188 added cl. (iii).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–188, title XI, §1118(b), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1764, provided that: "The amendments made by this section shall apply to services performed after December 31, 1995."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §269(e), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 553, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 410 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] shall apply to services performed after December 31, 1982.

"(2) Subsection (c).—The amendments made by subsection (c) [amending provisions set out as a note under section 3401 of this title] shall take effect on July 1, 1982."

Rules and Regulations

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §269(c)(3), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 553, provided that: "Nothing in section 530 of the Revenue Act of 1978 [set out as a note under section 3401 of this title] shall be construed to prohibit the implementation of the amendments made by this section [enacting this section, amending section 410 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 3401 of this title]."

§3509. Determination of employer's liability for certain employment taxes

(a) In general

If any employer fails to deduct and withhold any tax under chapter 24 or subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to any employee by reason of treating such employee as not being an employee for purposes of such chapter or subchapter, the amount of the employer's liability for—

(1) Withholding taxes

Tax under chapter 24 for such year with respect to such employee shall be determined as if the amount required to be deducted and withheld were equal to 1.5 percent of the wages (as defined in section 3401) paid to such employee.

(2) Employee social security tax

Taxes under subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to such employee shall be determined as if the taxes imposed under such subchapter were 20 percent of the amount imposed under such subchapter without regard to this subparagraph.

(b) Employer's liability increased where employer disregards reporting requirements

(1) In general

In the case of an employer who fails to meet the applicable requirements of section 6041(a), 6041A, or 6051 with respect to any employee, unless such failure is due to reasonable cause and not willful neglect, subsection (a) shall be applied with respect to such employee—

(A) by substituting "3 percent" for "1.5 percent" in paragraph (1); and

(B) by substituting "40 percent" for "20 percent" in paragraph (2).

(2) Applicable requirements

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "applicable requirements" means the requirements described in paragraph (1) which would be applicable consistent with the employer's treatment of the employee as not being an employee for purposes of chapter 24 or subchapter A of chapter 21.

(c) Section not to apply in cases of intentional disregard

This section shall not apply to the determination of the employer's liability for tax under chapter 24 or subchapter A of chapter 21 if such liability is due to the employer's intentional disregard of the requirement to deduct and withhold such tax.

(d) Special rules

For purposes of this section—

(1) Determination of liability

If the amount of any liability for tax is determined under this section—

(A) the employee's liability for tax shall not be affected by the assessment or collection of the tax so determined,

(B) the employer shall not be entitled to recover from the employee any tax so determined, and

(C) section 3402(d) and section 6521 shall not apply.

(2) Section not to apply where employer deducts wage but not social security taxes

This section shall not apply to any employer with respect to any wages if—

(A) the employer deducted and withheld any amount of the tax imposed by chapter 24 on such wages, but

(B) failed to deduct and withhold the amount of the tax imposed by subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to such wages.

(3) Section not to apply to certain statutory employees

This section shall not apply to any tax under subchapter A of chapter 21 with respect to an individual described in subsection (d)(3) of section 3121 (without regard to whether such individual is described in paragraph (1) or (2) of such subsection).

(Added Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §270(a), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 553; amended Pub. L. 100–647, title II, §2003(d), Nov. 10, 1988, 102 Stat. 3598; Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5130(a)(4), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–289; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(218), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1194.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (d)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "section 3402(d)" for "sections 3402(d)".

1990—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 101–508 substituted "subsection (d)(3)" for "subsection (d)(4)".

1988—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–647 substituted "subsection (d)(4)" for "subsection (d)(3)".

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 effective as if included in the enactment of Pub. L. 100–647, §2003(d), see section 5130(b) of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as a note under section 1402 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §270(c), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 554, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 3, 1982], except that such amendments shall not apply to any assessment made before January 1, 1983."

§3510. Coordination of collection of domestic service employment taxes with collection of income taxes

(a) General rule

Except as otherwise provided in this section—

(1) returns with respect to domestic service employment taxes shall be made on a calendar year basis,

(2) any such return for any calendar year shall be filed on or before the 15th day of the fourth month following the close of the employer's taxable year which begins in such calendar year, and

(3) no requirement to make deposits (or to pay installments under section 6157) shall apply with respect to such taxes.

(b) Domestic service employment taxes subject to estimated tax provisions

(1) In general

Solely for purposes of section 6654, domestic service employment taxes imposed with respect to any calendar year shall be treated as a tax imposed by chapter 2 for the taxable year of the employer which begins in such calendar year.

(2) Employers not otherwise required to make estimated payments

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any employer for any calendar year if—

(A) no credit for wage withholding is allowed under section 31 to such employer for the taxable year of the employer which begins in such calendar year, and

(B) no addition to tax would (but for this section) be imposed under section 6654 for such taxable year by reason of section 6654(e).

(3) Annualization

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, appropriate adjustments shall be made in the application of section 6654(d)(2) in respect of the amount treated as tax under paragraph (1).

(c) Domestic service employment taxes

For purposes of this section, the term "domestic service employment taxes" means—

(1) any taxes imposed by chapter 21 or 23 on remuneration paid for domestic service in a private home of the employer, and

(2) any amount withheld from such remuneration pursuant to an agreement under section 3402(p).


For purposes of this subsection, the term "domestic service in a private home of the employer" includes domestic service described in section 3121(g)(5).

(d) Exception where employer liable for other employment taxes

To the extent provided in regulations prescribed by the Secretary, this section shall not apply to any employer for any calendar year if such employer is liable for any tax under this subtitle with respect to remuneration for services other than domestic service in a private home of the employer.

(e) General regulatory authority

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section. Such regulations may treat domestic service employment taxes as taxes imposed by chapter 1 for purposes of coordinating the assessment and collection of such employment taxes with the assessment and collection of domestic employers' income taxes.

(f) Authority to enter into agreements to collect State unemployment taxes

(1) In general

The Secretary is hereby authorized to enter into an agreement with any State to collect, as the agent of such State, such State's unemployment taxes imposed on remuneration paid for domestic service in a private home of the employer. Any taxes to be collected by the Secretary pursuant to such an agreement shall be treated as domestic service employment taxes for purposes of this section.

(2) Transfers to State account

Any amount collected under an agreement referred to in paragraph (1) shall be transferred by the Secretary to the account of the State in the Unemployment Trust Fund.

(3) Subtitle F made applicable

For purposes of subtitle F, any amount required to be collected under an agreement under paragraph (1) shall be treated as a tax imposed by chapter 23.

(4) State

For purposes of this subsection, the term "State" has the meaning given such term by section 3306(j)(1).

(Added Pub. L. 103–387, §2(b)(1), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4073; amended Pub. L. 113–295, div. A, title II, §221(a)(102), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4052.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3510, added Pub. L. 98–21, title I, §123(b)(1), Apr. 20, 1983, 97 Stat. 88, provided a credit for increased social security employee taxes and railroad retirement tier 1 employee taxes imposed during 1984, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–508, title XI, §11801(a)(42), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–521.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 113–295 struck out par. (4). Text read as follows: "In the case of any taxable year beginning before January 1, 1998, no addition to tax shall be made under section 6654 with respect to any underpayment to the extent such underpayment was created or increased by this section."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–295 effective Dec. 19, 2014, subject to a savings provision, see section 221(b) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 103–387, §2(b)(3), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4074, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [enacting this section] shall apply to remuneration paid in calendar years beginning after December 31, 1994."

Expanded Information to Employers

Pub. L. 103–387, §2(b)(4), Oct. 22, 1994, 108 Stat. 4074, provided that: "The Secretary of the Treasury or the Secretary's delegate shall prepare and make available information on the Federal tax obligations of employers with respect to employees performing domestic service in a private home of the employer. Such information shall also include a statement that such employers may have obligations with respect to such employees under State laws relating to unemployment insurance and workers compensation."

§3511. Certified professional employer organizations

(a) General rules

For purposes of the taxes, and other obligations, imposed by this subtitle—

(1) a certified professional employer organization shall be treated as the employer (and no other person shall be treated as the employer) of any work site employee performing services for any customer of such organization, but only with respect to remuneration remitted by such organization to such work site employee, and

(2) the exemptions, exclusions, definitions, and other rules which are based on type of employer and which would (but for paragraph (1)) apply shall apply with respect to such taxes imposed on such remuneration.

(b) Successor employer status

For purposes of sections 3121(a)(1), 3231(e)(2)(C), and 3306(b)(1)—

(1) a certified professional employer organization entering into a service contract with a customer with respect to a work site employee shall be treated as a successor employer and the customer shall be treated as a predecessor employer during the term of such service contract, and

(2) a customer whose service contract with a certified professional employer organization is terminated with respect to a work site employee shall be treated as a successor employer and the certified professional employer organization shall be treated as a predecessor employer.

(c) Liability of certified professional employer organization

Solely for purposes of its liability for the taxes and other obligations imposed by this subtitle—

(1) a certified professional employer organization shall be treated as the employer of any individual (other than a work site employee or a person described in subsection (f)) who is performing services covered by a contract meeting the requirements of section 7705(e)(2), but only with respect to remuneration remitted by such organization to such individual, and

(2) the exemptions, exclusions, definitions, and other rules which are based on type of employer and which would (but for paragraph (1)) apply shall apply with respect to such taxes imposed on such remuneration.

(d) Treatment of credits

(1) In general

For purposes of any credit specified in paragraph (2)—

(A) such credit with respect to a work site employee performing services for the customer applies to the customer, not the certified professional employer organization,

(B) the customer, and not the certified professional employer organization, shall take into account wages and employment taxes—

(i) paid by the certified professional employer organization with respect to the work site employee, and

(ii) for which the certified professional employer organization receives payment from the customer, and


(C) the certified professional employer organization shall furnish the customer and the Secretary with any information necessary for the customer to claim such credit.

(2) Credits specified

A credit is specified in this paragraph if such credit is allowed under—

(A) section 41 (credit for increasing research activity),

(B) section 45A (Indian employment credit),

(C) section 45B (credit for portion of employer social security taxes paid with respect to employee cash tips),

(D) section 45C (clinical testing expenses for certain drugs for rare diseases or conditions),

(E) section 45R (employee health insurance expenses of small employers),

(F) section 51 (work opportunity credit),

(G) section 1396 (empowerment zone employment credit), and

(H) any other section as provided by the Secretary.

(e) Special rule for related party

This section shall not apply in the case of a customer which bears a relationship to a certified professional employer organization described in section 267(b) or 707(b). For purposes of the preceding sentence, such sections shall be applied by substituting "10 percent" for "50 percent".

(f) Special rule for certain individuals

For purposes of the taxes imposed under this subtitle, an individual with net earnings from self-employment derived from the customer's trade or business (including a partner in a partnership that is a customer) is not a work site employee with respect to remuneration paid by a certified professional employer organization.

(g) Reporting requirements and obligations

The Secretary shall develop such reporting and recordkeeping rules, regulations, and procedures as the Secretary determines necessary or appropriate to ensure compliance with this title by certified professional employer organizations or persons that have been so certified. Such rules shall include—

(1) notification of the Secretary in such manner as the Secretary shall prescribe in the case of the commencement or termination of a service contract described in section 7705(e)(2) between such a person and a customer, and the employer identification number of such customer,

(2) such information as the Secretary determines necessary for the customer to claim the credits identified in subsection (d) and the manner in which such information is to be provided, as prescribed by the Secretary, and

(3) such other information as the Secretary determines is essential to promote compliance with respect to the credits identified in subsection (d) and section 3302, and


shall be designed in a manner which streamlines, to the extent possible, the application of requirements of this section and section 7705, the exchange of information between a certified professional employer organization and its customers, and the reporting and recordkeeping obligations of the certified professional employer organization.

(h) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 113–295, div. B, title II, §206(a), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4065.)

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to wages for services performed on or after January 1 of the first calendar year beginning more than 12 months after Dec. 19, 2014, see section 206(g)(1) of Pub. L. 113–295, set out as an Effective Date of 2014 Amendment note under section 3302 of this title.

§3512. Treatment of certain persons as employers with respect to motion picture projects

(a) In general

For purposes of sections 3121(a)(1) and 3306(b)(1), remuneration paid to a motion picture project worker by a motion picture project employer during a calendar year shall be treated as remuneration paid with respect to employment of such worker by such employer during the calendar year. The identity of such employer for such purposes shall be determined as set forth in this section and without regard to the usual common law rules applicable in determining the employer-employee relationship.

(b) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Motion picture project employer

The term "motion picture project employer" means any person if—

(A) such person (directly or through affiliates)—

(i) is a party to a written contract covering the services of motion picture project workers with respect to motion picture projects in the course of a client's trade or business,

(ii) is contractually obligated to pay remuneration to the motion picture project workers without regard to payment or reimbursement by any other person,

(iii) controls the payment (within the meaning of section 3401(d)(1)) of remuneration to the motion picture project workers and pays such remuneration from its own account or accounts,

(iv) is a signatory to one or more collective bargaining agreements with a labor organization (as defined in 29 U.S.C. 152(5)) that represents motion picture project workers, and

(v) has treated substantially all motion picture project workers that such person pays as employees and not as independent contractors during such calendar year for purposes of determining employment taxes under this subtitle, and


(B) at least 80 percent of all remuneration (to which section 3121 applies) paid by such person in such calendar year is paid to motion picture project workers.

(2) Motion picture project worker

The term "motion picture project worker" means any individual who provides services on motion picture projects for clients who are not affiliated with the motion picture project employer.

(3) Motion picture project

The term "motion picture project" means the production of any property described in section 168(f)(3). Such term does not include property with respect to which records are required to be maintained under section 2257 of title 18, United States Code.

(4) Affiliate; affiliated

A person shall be treated as an affiliate of, or affiliated with, another person if such persons are treated as a single employer under subsection (b) or (c) of section 414.

(Added Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §346(a), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3115.)

References in Text

29 U.S.C. 152, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A)(iv), is section 2 of the National Labor Relations Act, act July 5, 1935, ch. 372, 49 Stat. 450, which is classified to section 152 of Title 29, Labor.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §346(c), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3116, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall apply to remuneration paid after December 31, 2015."

Construction

Pub. L. 114–113, div. Q, title III, §346(d), Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 3116, provided that: "Nothing in the amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall be construed to create any inference on the law before the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 18, 2015]."