[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle E, CHAPTER 51, Subchapter J, PART I: PENALTY, SEIZURE, AND FORFEITURE PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO DISTILLING, RECTIFYING, AND DISTILLED AND RECTIFIED PRODUCTS
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26 USC Subtitle E, CHAPTER 51, Subchapter J, PART I: PENALTY, SEIZURE, AND FORFEITURE PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO DISTILLING, RECTIFYING, AND DISTILLED AND RECTIFIED PRODUCTS
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle E—Alcohol, Tobacco, and Certain Other Excise TaxesCHAPTER 51—DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEERSubchapter J—Penalties, Seizures, and Forfeitures Relating to Liquors

PART I—PENALTY, SEIZURE, AND FORFEITURE PROVISIONS APPLICABLE TO DISTILLING, RECTIFYING, AND DISTILLED AND RECTIFIED PRODUCTS

Sec.
5601.
Criminal penalties.
5602.
Penalty for tax fraud by distiller.
5603.
Penalty relating to records, returns, and reports.
5604.
Penalties relating to marks, brands, and containers.
5605.
Penalty relating to return of materials used in the manufacture of distilled spirits, or from which distilled spirits may be recovered.
5606.
Penalty relating to containers of distilled spirits.
5607.
Penalty and forfeiture for unlawful use, recovery, or concealment of denatured distilled spirits, or articles.
5608.
Penalty and forfeiture for fraudulent claims for export drawback or unlawful relanding.
5609.
Destruction of unregistered stills, distilling apparatus, equipment, and materials.
5610.
Disposal of forfeited equipment and material for distilling.
5611.
Release of distillery before judgment.
5612.
Forfeiture of taxpaid distilled spirits remaining on bonded premises.
5613.
Forfeiture of distilled spirits not closed, marked, or branded as required by law.
5614.
Burden of proof in cases of seizure of spirits.
5615.
Property subject to forfeiture.

        

Prior Provisions

A prior part I consisted of sections 5601 to 5650, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1313.

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §454(c)(11)(B), (12)(C), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 822, struck out "stamps," in item 5604, and substituted "closed" for "stamped" in item 5613.

§5601. Criminal penalties

(a) Offenses

Any person who—

(1) Unregistered stills

has in his possession or custody, or under his control, any still or distilling apparatus set up which is not registered, as required by section 5179(a); or

(2) Failure to file application

engages in the business of a distiller or processor without having filed application for and received notice of registration, as required by section 5171(c); or

(3) False or fraudulent application

engages, or intends to engage, in the business of distiller, warehouseman, or processor of distilled spirits, and files a false or fraudulent application under section 5171; or

(4) Failure or refusal of distiller, warehouseman, or processor to give bond

carries on the business of a distiller, warehouseman, or processor without having given bond as required by law; or

(5) False, forged, or fraudulent bond

engages, or intends to engage, in the business of distiller, warehouseman, or processor of distilled spirits, and gives any false, forged, or fraudulent bond, under subchapter B; or

(6) Distilling on prohibited premises

uses, or possesses with intent to use, any still, boiler, or other utensil for the purpose of producing distilled spirits, or aids or assists therein, or causes or procures the same to be done, in any dwelling house, or in any shed, yard, or inclosure connected with such dwelling house (except as authorized under section 5178(a)(1)(C)), or on board any vessel or boat, or on any premises where beer or wine is made or produced, or where liquors of any description are retailed, or on premises where any other business is carried on (except when authorized under section 5178(b)); or

(7) Unlawful production, removal, or use of material fit for production of distilled spirits

except as otherwise provided in this chapter, makes or ferments mash, wort, or wash, fit for distillation or for the production of distilled spirits, in any building or on any premises other than the designated premises of a distilled spirits plant lawfully qualified to produce distilled spirits, or removes, without authorization by the Secretary, any mash, wort, or wash, so made or fermented, from the designated premises of such lawfully qualified plant before being distilled; or

(8) Unlawful production of distilled spirits

not being a distiller authorized by law to produce distilled spirits, produces distilled spirits by distillation or any other process from any mash, wort, wash, or other material; or

(9) Unauthorized use of distilled spirits in manufacturing processes

except as otherwise provided in this chapter, uses distilled spirits in any process of manufacture unless such spirits—

(A) have been produced in the United States by a distiller authorized by law to produce distilled spirits and withdrawn in compliance with law; or

(B) have been imported (or otherwise brought into the United States) and withdrawn in compliance with law; or

(10) Unlawful processing

engages in or carries on the business of a processor—

(A) with intent to defraud the United States of any tax on the distilled spirits processed by him; or

(B) with intent to aid, abet, or assist any person or persons in defrauding the United States of the tax on any distilled spirits; or

(11) Unlawful purchase, receipt, or processing of distilled spirits

purchases, receives, or processes any distilled spirits, knowing or having reasonable grounds to believe that any tax due on such spirits has not been paid or determined as required by law; or

(12) Unlawful removal or concealment of distilled spirits

removes, other than as authorized by law, any distilled spirits on which the tax has not been paid or determined, from the place of manufacture or storage, or from any instrument of transportation, or conceals spirits so removed; or

(13) Creation of fictitious proof

adds, or causes to be added, any ingredient or substance (other than ingredients or substances authorized by law to be added) to any distilled spirits before the tax is paid thereon, or determined as provided by law, for the purpose of creating fictitious proof; or

(14) Distilling after notice of suspension

after the time fixed in the notice given under section 5221(a) to suspend operations as a distiller, carries on the business of a distiller on the premises covered by the notice of suspension, or has mash, wort, or beer on such premises, or on any premises connected therewith, or has in his possession or under his control any mash, wort, or beer, with intent to distill the same on such premises; or

(15) Unauthorized withdrawal, use, sale, or distribution of distilled spirits for fuel use

withdraws, uses, sells, or otherwise disposes of distilled spirits produced under section 5181 for other than fuel use;


shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both, for each such offense.

(b) Presumptions

Whenever on trial for violation of subsection (a)(4) the defendant is shown to have been at the site or place where, and at the time when, the business of a distiller or processor was so engaged in or carried on, such presence of the defendant shall be deemed sufficient evidence to authorize conviction, unless the defendant explains such presence to the satisfaction of the jury (or of the court when tried without jury).

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1398; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1905(a)(22), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1820, 1834; Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §807(a)(52), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 288; Pub. L. 96–223, title II, §232(e)(2)(A), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 280; Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(248), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1196.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5601, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 683, consisted of provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (a)(1) of this section, and also related to forfeiture for possession of unregistered still or distilling apparatus, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5615(1) of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising subsecs. (a)(2) to (8), (9)(A), (10) to (14) of this section were contained in prior sections of act Aug. 16, 1954, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859, as follows:

 
Present subd. of subsec. (a):Prior sections
(2) 5172, 5603.
(3) 5603.
(4) 5172, 5604, 5606.
(5) 5604.
(6) 5171, 5607.
(7) 5216(a)(1), (4), 5608(a).
(8) 5216(a)(1), 5608(a).
(9) 5216(a)(1), 5608(a).
(10) 5628, 5629.
(11) 5629.
(12) 5608(a), 5631, 5632, 5643, 5647.
(13) 5634.
(14) 5650.

The prior sections, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, are set out in 68A Stat. 627, 640, 641, 684, 685, 689, 690, 692, 693, 695.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 115–141 substituted "withdraws," for "Withdraws,".

1980—Subsec. (a)(15). Pub. L. 96–223 added par. (15).

1979—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(52)(A), struck out "distiller or rectifier" in heading and substituted "processor" for "rectifier" and "section 5171(c)" for "section 5171(a)" in text.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(52)(B), substituted "warehouseman, or processor" for "bonded warehouseman, rectifier, or bottler".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(52)(C), substituted "warehouseman, or processor" for "or rectifier" in heading and in text.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(52)(B), substituted "warehouseman, or processor" for "bonded warehouseman, rectifier, or bottler".

Subsec. (a)(10). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(52)(D), substituted "processing" for "rectifying or bottling" in par. (10) heading, "processor" for "rectifier, or a bottler of distilled spirits" in text preceding subpar. (A), and "processed" for "rectified or bottled" in subpar. (A).

Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(52)(E), substituted "or processing" for "rectification, or bottling" in heading and "or processes" for "rectifies, or bottles" in text.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(52)(F), substituted "processor" for "rectifier".

1976—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §1905(a)(22), struck out par. (1) relating to presumptions in the matter of unregistered stills, par. (3) relating to presumptions in the matter of unlawful production, removal, or use of material fit for production of distilled spirits, and par. (4) relating to presumptions in the matter of unlawful production of distilled spirits, and struck out the number designation "(2)" and heading for former par. (2), leaving only the text for former par. (2) relating to presumptions in the matter of failure or refusal of distiller or rectifier to give bond.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–223 effective on first day of first calendar month beginning more than 60 days after Apr. 2, 1980, see section 232(h)(3) of Pub. L. 96–223, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5181 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 810 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 94–455 effective on first day of first month which begins more than 90 days after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1905(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 5005 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective July 1, 1959, see section 210(a)(1) of Pub. L. 85–859, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.

Prosecution and Punishment of Offenses Committed and Penalties or Forfeitures Incurred; Savings Provision

Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §210(c), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1435, provided that: "All offenses committed, and all penalties or forfeitures incurred, under any provision of law amended by this title [enacting sections 5849, 5854, 5855 and 7608 of this title, amending this chapter, chapter 52 of this title and sections 5801, 5811, 5814, 7272, 7301, 7224 to 7326, 7609, 7652 and 7655 of this title, and enacting notes set out under this section and sections 5001, 5006, 5025, 5064, 5175, and 5304 of this title], may be prosecuted and punished in the same manner and with the same effect as if this title had not been enacted."

§5602. Penalty for tax fraud by distiller

Whenever any person engaged in or carrying on the business of a distiller defrauds, attempts to defraud, or engages in such business with intent to defraud the United States of the tax on the spirits distilled by him, or of any part thereof, he shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both. No discontinuance or nolle prosequi of any prosecution under this section shall be allowed without the permission in writing of the Attorney General.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1400.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5602, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 863, related to penalty and forfeiture for setting up still without a permit, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5615(2) and 5687 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior sections 5606, 5626, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 684, 688, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

§5603. Penalty relating to records, returns, and reports

(a) Fraudulent noncompliance

Any person required by this chapter (other than subchapters F and G) or regulations issued pursuant thereto to keep or file any record, return, report, summary, transcript, or other document, who, with intent to defraud the United States, shall—

(1) fail to keep any such document or to make required entries therein; or

(2) make any false entry in such document; or

(3) cancel, alter, or obliterate any part of such document or any entry therein, or destroy any part of such document or any entry therein; or

(4) hinder or obstruct any internal revenue officer from inspecting any such document or taking any abstracts therefrom; or

(5) fail or refuse to preserve or produce any such document, as required by this chapter or regulations issued pursuant thereto;


or who shall, with intent to defraud the United States, cause or procure the same to be done, shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both, for each such offense.

(b) Failure to comply

Any person required by this chapter (other than subchapters F and G) or regulations issued pursuant thereto to keep or file any record, return, report, summary, transcript, or other document, who, otherwise than with intent to defraud the United States, shall—

(1) fail to keep any such document or to make required entries therein; or

(2) make any false entry in such document; or

(3) cancel, alter, or obliterate any part of such document or any entry therein, or destroy any part of such document, or any entry therein, except as provided by this title or regulations issued pursuant thereto; or

(4) hinder or obstruct any internal revenue officer from inspecting any such document or taking any abstracts therefrom; or

(5) fail to refuse to preserve or produce any such document, as required by this chapter or regulations issued pursuant thereto;


or who shall, otherwise than with intent to defraud the United States, cause or procure the same to be done, shall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both, for each such offense.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1400; amended Pub. L. 115–141, div. U, title IV, §401(a)(249), Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1196.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5603, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 684, related to penalty for failure or refusal of distiller or rectifier to give notice of intention to engage in such business, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5601(a)(2), (3) of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior sections 5610, 5611, 5620, 5621, 5692, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685 to 687, 703, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–141 inserted comma after "returns" in section catchline.

§5604. Penalties relating to marks, brands, and containers

(a) In general

Any person who shall—

(1) transport, possess, buy, sell, or transfer any distilled spirits unless the immediate container bears the type of closure or other device required by section 5301(d),

(2) with intent to defraud the United States, empty a container bearing the closure or other device required by section 5301(d) without breaking such closure or other device,

(3) empty, or cause to be emptied, any distilled spirits from an immediate container bearing any mark or brand required by law without effacing and obliterating such mark or brand as required by section 5206(d),

(4) place any distilled spirits in any bottle, or reuse any bottle for the purpose of containing distilled spirits, which has once been filled and fitted with a closure or other device under the provisions of this chapter, without removing and destroying such closure or other device,

(5) willfully and unlawfully remove, change, or deface any mark, brand, label, or seal affixed to any case of distilled spirits, or to any bottle contained therein,

(6) with intent to defraud the United States, purchase, sell, receive with intent to transport, or transport any empty cask or package having thereon any mark or brand required by law to be affixed to any cask or package containing distilled spirits, or

(7) change or alter any mark or brand on any cask or package containing distilled spirits, or put into any cask or package spirits of greater strength than is indicated by the inspection mark thereon, or fraudulently use any cask or package having any inspection mark thereon, for the purpose of selling other spirits, or spirits of quantity or quality different from the spirits previously inspected,


shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both, for each such offense.

(b) Cross references

For provisions relating to the authority of internal revenue officers to enforce provisions of this section, see sections 5203, 5557, and 7608.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1401; amended Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §807(a)(53), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 289; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §454(c)(11)(A), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 821.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5604, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 684, related to penalty and forfeiture for failure or refusal of distiller to give bond, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5601(a)(4), (5) and 5615(3) of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior sections of act Aug. 16, 1954, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859, as follows:

 
Present subsecs.:Prior sections
(a)(1) 5008(b)(1), 5642.
(a)(2), (3) 5636.
(a)(4), (5) 5642, 5644.
(a)(6) 5642.
(a)(7) to (9) 5636.
(a)(10) 5642, 5644.
(a)(11) 5643.
(a)(12) 5642, 5643.
(a)(13) to (15) 5642.
(a)(16) 5643.
(a)(17) 5635, 5636.
(a)(18) 5637.
(a)(19) 5638.
(b) 5642.

The prior sections, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, are set out in 68A Stat. 602, 690 to 693.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–369, §454(c)(11)(A), in amending subsec. (a) generally, struck out references to stamps in pars. (1) to (3), redesignated pars. (12), (16), (17), (18) as pars. (4)–(7), respectively, in pars. (4) to (7) as so redesignated, struck out all references to stamps, and struck out former pars. (4) to (11), (13) to (15), and (19), which had consisted of additional provisions concerning penalties relating to stamps, marks, brands and containers.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369, §454(c)(11)(A), in amending subsec. (b) generally, substituted provisions relating to cross references for provisions relating to officers authorized to enforce this section.

1979—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(53)(A), substituted "section 5205(a)(1)" for "section 5205(a)(2)".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(53)(B), substituted "section 5205(a)(1)" for "section 5205(a)(1) or (2)" and "section 5205(a)(2)" for "section 5205(a)(3)".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(53)(C), substituted "section 5205(f)" for "section 5205(g)".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(53)(D), substituted "section 5205(a)(2)" for "section 5205(a)(3)".

Subsec. (a)(13). Pub. L. 96–39, §807(a)(53)(E), substituted "section 5205(a)" for "section 5205(a)(2) and (3)".

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 1, 1985, see section 456(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 810 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.

§5605. Penalty relating to return of materials used in the manufacture of distilled spirits, or from which distilled spirits may be recovered

Any person who willfully violates any provision of section 5291(a), or of any regulation issued pursuant thereto, and any officer, director, or agent of any such person who knowingly participates in such violation, shall be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than 2 years, or both.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1402.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5605, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 684, related to penalty for improper approval of distiller's bond, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 7214 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5609, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

§5606. Penalty relating to containers of distilled spirits

Whoever violates any provision of section 5301, or of any regulation issued pursuant thereto, or the terms or conditions of any permit issued pursuant to the authorization contained in such section, and any officer, director, or agent of any corporation who knowingly participates in such violation, shall, upon conviction, be fined not more than $1,000, or imprisoned not more than 1 year, or both, for each such offense.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1402.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5606, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 684, related to penalty and forfeiture for distilling without giving bond, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5601(a)(4), 5602, and 5615(3) of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5641, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 692, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

§5607. Penalty and forfeiture for unlawful use, recovery, or concealment of denatured distilled spirits, or articles

Any person who—

(1) uses denatured distilled spirits withdrawn free of tax under section 5214(a)(1) in the manufacture of any medicinal preparation or flavoring extract in violation of the provisions of section 5273(b)(1) or knowingly sells, or offers for sale, any such medicinal preparation or flavoring extract in violation of section 5273(b)(2); or

(2) knowingly withdraws any denatured distilled spirits free of tax under section 5214(a)(1) for beverage purposes; or

(3) knowingly sells any denatured distilled spirits withdrawn free of tax under section 5214(a)(1), or any articles containing such denatured distilled spirits, for beverage purposes; or

(4) recovers or attempts to recover by redistillation or by any other process or means (except as authorized in section 5223 or in section 5273(c)) any distilled spirits from any denatured distilled spirits withdrawn free of tax under section 5214(a)(1), or from any articles manufactured therefrom, or knowingly uses, sells, conceals, or otherwise disposes of distilled spirits so recovered or redistilled;


shall be fined not more than $10,000, or imprisoned not more than 5 years, or both, for each such offense; and all personal property used in connection with his business, together with the buildings and ground constituting the premises on which such unlawful acts are performed or permitted to be performed shall be forfeited to the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1402.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5607, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 684, related to penalty for distilling on prohibited premises, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5505(i) and 5601(a)(6) of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5647, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 693, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

§5608. Penalty and forfeiture for fraudulent claims for export drawback or unlawful relanding

(a) Fraudulent claim for drawback

Every person who fraudulently claims, or seeks, or obtains an allowance of drawback on any distilled spirits, or fraudulently claims any greater allowance or drawback than the tax actually paid or determined thereon, shall forfeit and pay to the Government of the United States triple the amount wrongfully and fraudulently sought to be obtained, and shall be imprisoned not more than 5 years; and every owner, agent, or master of any vessel or other person who knowingly aids or abets in the fraudulent collection or fraudulent attempts to collect any drawback upon, or knowingly aids or permits any fraudulent change in the spirits so shipped, shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than 3 years, or both, and the ship or vessel on board of which such shipment was made or pretended to be made shall be forfeited to the United States, whether a conviction of the master or owner be had or otherwise, and proceedings may be had in admiralty by libel for such forfeiture.

(b) Unlawful relanding

Every person who, with intent to defraud the United States, relands within the jurisdiction of the United States any distilled spirits which have been shipped for exportation under the provisions of this chapter, or who receives such relanded distilled spirits, and every person who aids or abets in such relanding or receiving of such spirits, shall be fined not more than $5,000, or imprisoned not more than 3 years, or both; and all distilled spirits so relanded, together with the vessel from which the same were relanded within the jurisdiction of the United States, and all vessels, vehicles, or aircraft used in relanding and removing such distilled spirits, shall be forfeited to the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1403; amended Pub. L. 89–44, title VIII, §805(e), June 21, 1965, 79 Stat. 161.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5608, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, related to penalty for making or fermenting mash on unauthorized premises, illegal use of spirits, unlawful removal of vinegar, etc., prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5505(i), 5601(a)(7), (8), (9)(A), (12), 5615(4), and 5687 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5648, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 694, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

Amendments

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–44 substituted ", with intent to defraud the United States," for "intentionally" after "Every person who".

Effective Date of 1965 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–44 effective July 1, 1965, see section 805(g)(1) of Pub. L. 89–44, set out as a note under section 5008 of this title.

§5609. Destruction of unregistered stills, distilling apparatus, equipment, and materials

(a) General

In the case of seizure elsewhere than on premises qualified under this chapter of any unregistered still, distilling or fermenting equipment or apparatus, or distilling or fermenting material, for any offense involving forfeiture of the same, where it shall be impracticable to remove the same to a place of safe storage from the place where seized, the seizing officer is authorized to destroy the same. In the case of seizure, other than on premises qualified under this chapter or in transit thereto or therefrom, of any distilled spirits on which the tax has not been paid or determined, for any offense involving forfeiture of the same, the seizing officer is authorized to destroy the distilled spirits forthwith. Any destruction under this subsection shall be in the presence of at least one credible witness. The seizing officer shall make such report of said seizure and destruction and take such samples as the Secretary may require.

(b) Claims

Within 1 year after destruction made pursuant to subsection (a) the owner of, including any person having an interest in, the property so destroyed may make application to the Secretary for reimbursement of the value of such property. If the claimant establishes to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(1) such property had not been used in violation of law; or

(2) any unlawful use of such property had been without his consent or knowledge,


the Secretary shall make an allowance to such claimant not exceeding the value of the property destroyed.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1403; amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5609, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, related to penalty in connection to return of materials used in the manufacture of distilled spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5605 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5623, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 687, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

Amendments

1976—Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

§5610. Disposal of forfeited equipment and material for distilling

All boilers, stills, or other vessels, tools and implements, used in distilling or processing, and forfeited under any of the provisions of this chapter, and all condemned material, together with any engine or other machinery connected therewith, and all empty barrels, and all grain or other material suitable for fermentation or distillation, shall be sold at public auction or otherwise disposed of as the court in which forfeiture was recovered shall in its discretion direct.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1404; amended Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §807(a)(54), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 289.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5610, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, related to penalty for using unregistered materials for producing spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5603 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5622, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 687, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

Amendments

1979Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "or processing" for "or rectifying".

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 810 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.

§5611. Release of distillery before judgment

Any distillery or distilling apparatus seized on any premises qualified under this chapter, for any violation of law, may, in the discretion of the court, be released before final judgment to a receiver appointed by the court to operate such distillery or apparatus. Such receiver shall give bond, which shall be approved in open court, with corporate surety, for the full appraised value of all the property seized, to be ascertained by three competent appraisers designated and appointed by the court. Funds obtained from such operation shall be impounded as the court shall direct pending such final judgment.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1404.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5611, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, related to penalty for using false weights and measures, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5603 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5624, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 688, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

§5612. Forfeiture of taxpaid distilled spirits remaining on bonded premises

(a) General

No distilled spirits on which tax has been paid or determined shall be stored or allowed to remain on the bonded premises of any distilled spirits plant, under the penalty of forfeiture of all spirits so found.

(b) Exceptions

Subsection (a) shall not apply in the case of—

(1) distilled spirits in the process of prompt removal from bonded premises on payment or determination of the tax; or

(2) distilled spirits returned to bonded premises in accordance with the provisions of section 5215.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1404; amended Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §807(a)(55), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 289.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5612, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, related to penalty for using material or removing spirits without supervision, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising subsec. (a) of this section were contained in prior section 5625, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 688, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

Amendments

1979—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–39 redesignated subpars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively, and struck out former subpars. (1) and (4) which excepted distilled spirits which were bottled in bond under section 5233 of this title and which were returned to bonded premises for rebottling, relabeling, or restamping in accordance with subsec. (d) of section 5233, and excepted such spirits, held on bonded premises, on which the tax had become payable by operation of law, but on which the tax had not been paid.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 810 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.

Suspension of Subsection (a) During 1980

Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §808(c)(1), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 291, set out as a note under section 5061 of this title, provided that subsec. (a) of this section was not to apply during 1980.

§5613. Forfeiture of distilled spirits not closed, marked, or branded as required by law

(a) Unmarked or unbranded casks or packages

All distilled spirits found in any cask or package required by this chapter or any regulation issued pursuant thereto to bear a mark, brand, or identification, which cask or package is not marked, branded, or identified in compliance with this chapter and regulations issued pursuant thereto, shall be forfeited to the United States.

(b) Containers without closures

All distilled spirits found in any container which is required by this chapter to bear a closure or other device and which does not bear a closure or other device in compliance with this chapter shall be forfeited to the United States.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 21, 1958, 72 Stat. 1404; amended Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §454(c)(12)(A), (B), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 822.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5613, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, related to penalty for distilling during prohibited hours, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior sections 5639 and 5640, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 691, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

Amendments

1984Pub. L. 98–369, §454(c)(12)(B), substituted "closed" for "stamped" in section catchline.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–369, §454(c)(12)(A), amended subsec. (b) generally, substituting provisions relating to forfeitures of containers without closures for provisions relating to forfeitures of unstamped containers.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective July 1, 1985, see section 456(b) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5101 of this title.

§5614. Burden of proof in cases of seizure of spirits

Whenever seizure is made of any distilled spirits found elsewhere than on the premises of a distilled spirits plant, or than in any warehouse authorized by law, or than in the store or place of business of a wholesale liquor dealer, or than in transit from any one of said places; or of any distilled spirits found in any one of the places aforesaid, or in transit therefrom, which have not been received into or sent out therefrom in conformity to law, or in regard to which any of the entries required by law, or regulations issued pursuant thereto, to be made in respect of such spirits, have not been made at the time or in the manner required, or in respect to which any owner or person having possession, control, or charge of said spirits, has omitted to do any act required to be done, or has done or committed any act prohibited in regard to said spirits, the burden of proof shall be upon the claimant of said spirits to show that no fraud has been committed, and that all the requirements of the law in relation to the payment of the tax have been complied with.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1405.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5614, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 685, related to penalty and forfeiture for removal of spirits during prohibited hours, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5687 and 7301 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior section 5649, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 694, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

§5615. Property subject to forfeiture

The following property shall be forfeited to the United States:

(1) Unregistered still or distilling apparatus

Every still or distilling apparatus not registered as required by section 5179, together with all personal property in the possession or custody or under the control of the person required by section 5179 to register the still or distilling apparatus, and found in the building or in any yard or inclosure connected with the building in which such still or distilling apparatus is set up; and

(2) Distilling apparatus removed without notice or set up without notice

Any still, boiler, or other vessel to be used for the purpose of distilling—

(A) which is removed without notice having been given when required by section 5101(a)(1), or

(B) which is set up without notice having been given when required by section 5101(a)(2); and

(3) Distilling without giving bond or with intent to defraud

Whenever any person carries on the business of a distiller without having given bond as required by law or gives any false, forged, or fraudulent bond; or engages in or carries on the business of a distiller with intent to defraud the United States of the tax on the distilled spirits distilled by him, or any part thereof; or after the time fixed in the notice declaring his intention to suspend work, filed under section 5221(a), carries on the business of a distiller on the premises covered by such notice, or has mash, wort, or beer on such premises, or on any premises connected therewith, or has in his possession or under his control any mash, wort, or beer, with intent to distill the same on such premises—

(A) all distilled spirits or wines, and all stills or other apparatus fit or intended to be used for the distillation or rectification of spirits, or for the compounding of liquors, owned by such person, wherever found; and

(B) all distilled spirits, wines, raw materials for the production of distilled spirits, and personal property found in the distillery or in any building, room, yard, or inclosure connected therewith and used with or constituting a part of the premises; and

(C) all the right, title, and interest of such person in the lot or tract of land on which the distillery is situated; and

(D) all the right, title, and interest in the lot or tract of land on which the distillery is located of every person who knowingly has suffered or permitted the business of a distiller to be there carried on, or has connived at the same; and

(E) all personal property owned by or in possession of any person who has permitted or suffered any building, yard, or inclosure, or any part thereof, to be used for purposes of ingress or egress to or from the distillery, which shall be found in any such building, yard, or inclosure; and

(F) all the right, title, and interest of every person in any premises used for ingress or egress to or from the distillery who knowingly has suffered or permitted such premises to be used for such ingress or egress; and

(4) Unlawful production and removals from vinegar plants

(A) all distilled spirits in excess of 15 percent of alcohol by volume produced on the premises of a vinegar plant; and

(B) all vinegar or other fluid or other material containing a greater proportion than 2 percent of proof spirits removed from any vinegar plant; and

(5) False or omitted entries in records, returns, and reports

Whenever any person required by section 5207 to keep or file any record, return, report, summary, transcript, or other document, shall, with intent to defraud the United States—

(A) fail to keep any such document or to make required entries therein; or

(B) make any false entry in such document; or

(C) cancel, alter, or obliterate any part of such document, or any entry therein, or destroy any part of such document, or entry therein; or

(D) hinder or obstruct any internal revenue officer from inspecting any such document or taking any abstracts therefrom; or

(E) fail or refuse to preserve or produce any such document, as required by this chapter or regulations issued pursuant thereto; or

(F) permit any of the acts described in the preceding subparagraphs to be performed;


all interest of such person in the distilled spirits plant where such acts or omissions occur, and in the equipment thereon, and in the lot or tract of land on which such distilled spirits plant stands, and in all personal property on the premises of the distilled spirits plant where such acts or omissions occur, used in the business there carried on; and

(6) Unlawful removal of distilled spirits

All distilled spirits on which the tax has not been paid or determined which have been removed, other than as authorized by law, from the place of manufacture, storage, or instrument of transportation; and

(7) Creation of fictitious proof

All distilled spirits on which the tax has not been paid or determined as provided by law to which any ingredient or substance has been added for the purpose of creating fictitious proof.

(Added Pub. L. 85–859, title II, §201, Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1405; amended Pub. L. 96–39, title VIII, §807(a)(56), July 26, 1979, 93 Stat. 289; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title IV, §451(b)(2), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 819.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5615, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 686, related to penalty for refusal or neglect of distillers and rectifiers to give assistance to officers, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5203(e) and 5687 of this title.

Provisions similar to those comprising this section were contained in prior sections of act Aug. 16, 1954, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859, as follows:

 
Present subds.:Prior sections
(1) 5601.
(2) 5602.
(3) 5604, 5606, 5626, 5650.
(4) 5608(b).
(5) 5620.
(6) 5631, 5632, 5643, 5647.
(7) 5634.

The prior sections, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, are set out in 68A Stat. 683 to 690, 692, 693, 695.

A prior section 5616, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 686, related to penalty for obstructing or refusing to admit officer to distillery premises, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5617, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 686, related to penalty for failure to keep distillery accessible, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5618, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 686, related to penalty for failure of distiller to identify fixed pipes, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5619, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 686, related to penalty for refusal or neglect to draw off water and clean condensers or worm tanks, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5620, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 686, related to penalty and forfeiture for false or omitted entries in distiller's books and records, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5603 and 5615(5) of this title.

A prior section 5621, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 687, related to penalty concerning records and returns of distiller as wholesale dealers, rectifiers, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5603 of this title.

A prior section 5622, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 687, related to disposal of forfeited equipment and material for distilling, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5610 of this title.

A prior section 5623, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 687, related to destruction of distilling apparatus, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5609 of this title.

A prior section 5624, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 688, related to release of distillery before judgment, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5611 of this title.

A prior section 5625, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 688, related to forfeiture of tax-paid distilled spirits remaining on distillery premises, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5612(a) of this title.

A prior section 5626, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 688, related to penalty and forfeiture for tax fraud by distiller, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5602 and 5615(3) of this title.

A prior section 5627, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 689, related to penalty for unlawful use of rectifying premises, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5628, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 689, related to penalty for rectification without payment of tax, increasing volume, etc., prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5601(a)(10) and 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5629, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 689, related to penalty for unlawful rectifying, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5601(a)(10), (11) of this title.

A prior section 5630, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 689, related to penalty for noncompliance by rectifiers with provisions relating to rectifying, gauging, branding, and stamping, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5631, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 689, related to penalty and forfeiture for failure to comply with warehousing and removal requirements, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5601(a)(12), 5615(6), and 5687 of this title.

A prior section 5632, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 690, related to penalty or forfeiture for unlawful removal or concealment of spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5601 and 5615 of this title.

A prior section 5633, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 690, related to penalty of officer in charge of warehouse for unlawful removal of spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 7214 of this title.

A prior section 5634, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 690, related to penalty and forfeiture for creation of fictitious proof, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5601 and 5615 of this title.

A prior section 5635, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 690, related to penalty for buying or selling used casks bearing inspection marks, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5604 of this title.

A prior section 5636, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 690, related to penalty and forfeiture for failure to efface, etc., stamps and brands on emptied packages, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5604 and 7301 of this title.

A prior section 5637, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 691, related to penalty for changing stamps or shifting spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5604 of this title.

A prior section 5638, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 691, related to penalty and forfeiture for affixing imitation stamps on packages of distilled spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5604, 5613, 7301, and 7302 of this title.

A prior section 5639, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 691, related to forfeiture of distilled spirits in unstamped casks or packages, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5613 of this title.

A prior section 5640, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 691, related to forfeiture of spirits in unstamped containers, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5613 of this title.

A prior section 5641, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 692, related to penalty and forfeiture relating to containers of distilled spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5606, 5613, 7301, 7302, and 7321 to 7323 of this title.

A prior section 5642, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 692, related to penalties for transporting, possessing, etc., distilled spirits in unstamped containers or counterfeiting of stamps, etc., prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5604 of this title.

A prior section 5643, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 692, related to penalty and forfeiture for reuse of stamps or bottles, tampering and unlawful removal, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5601, 5604, 5613, 5615, 5687, 7301 and 7302 of this title.

A prior section 5644, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 693, related to penalty for counterfeiting bottled in bond stamps, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5604 of this title.

A prior section 5645, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 693, related to penalty for unlawful affixing, canceling, or issue of stamps by officer, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 7214 of this title.

A prior section 5646, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 693, related to penalty for evasion of distilled spirits tax, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859.

A prior section 5647, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 693, related to penalty and forfeiture for unlawful use or concealment of denatured alcohol, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5273, 5601, 5607, and 5615 of this title.

A prior section 5648, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 694, related to penalty and forfeiture for fraudulent claims for export drawback or unlawful relanding, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5608 of this title.

A prior section 5649, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 694, related to burden of proof in cases of seizure of spirits, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See section 5614 of this title.

A prior section 5650, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 695, related to penalty and forfeiture for operating distillery after giving notice of suspension, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 85–859. See sections 5601 and 5615 of this title.

Amendments

1984—Par. (2). Pub. L. 98–369 amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Any still, boiler, or other vessel to be used for the purpose of distilling which is removed without notice having been given as required by section 5105(a) or which is set up without permit first having been obtained as required by such section; and".

1979—Par. (5). Pub. L. 96–39 substituted "distilled spirits plant" for "distillery, bonded warehouse, or rectifying or bottling establishment" in three places.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–369 effective on first day of first calendar month which begins more than 90 days after July 18, 1984, see section 456(a) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as an Effective Date note under section 5101 of this title.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–39 effective Jan. 1, 1980, see section 810 of Pub. L. 96–39, set out as a note under section 5001 of this title.