[USC02] 26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 62, Subchapter B: Extensions of Time for Payment
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26 USC Subtitle F, CHAPTER 62, Subchapter B: Extensions of Time for Payment
From Title 26—INTERNAL REVENUE CODESubtitle F—Procedure and AdministrationCHAPTER 62—TIME AND PLACE FOR PAYING TAX

Subchapter B—Extensions of Time for Payment

Sec.
6161.
Extension of time for paying tax.
[6162.
Repealed.]
6163.
Extension of time for payment of estate tax on value of reversionary or remainder interest in property.
6164.
Extension of time for payment of taxes by corporations expecting carrybacks.
6165.
Bonds where time to pay tax or deficiency has been extended.
6166.
Extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business.
[6166A.
Repealed.]
6167.
Extension of time for payment of tax attributable to recovery of foreign expropriation losses.

        

Amendments

1981Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §422(e)(5)(C), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 316, substituted in item 6166 "Extension of time" for "Alternate extension of time" and struck out item 6166A "Extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business".

1976Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(4), title XX, §2004(f)(5), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1833, 1872, struck out item 6162 "Extension of time for payment of tax on gain attributable to liquidation of personal holding companies", added item 6166, and renumbered former item 6166 as 6166A.

1966Pub. L. 89–384, §1(g)(2), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 104, added item 6167.

1958Pub. L. 85–866, title II, §206(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1684, added item 6166.

§6161. Extension of time for paying tax

(a) Amount determined by taxpayer on return

(1) General rule

The Secretary, except as otherwise provided in this title, may extend the time for payment of the amount of the tax shown, or required to be shown, on any return or declaration required under authority of this title (or any installment thereof), for a reasonable period not to exceed 6 months (12 months in the case of estate tax) from the date fixed for payment thereof. Such extension may exceed 6 months in the case of a taxpayer who is abroad.

(2) Estate tax

The Secretary may, for reasonable cause, extend the time for payment of—

(A) any part of the amount determined by the executor as the tax imposed by chapter 11, or

(B) any part of any installment under section 6166 (including any part of a deficiency prorated to any installment under such section).


for a reasonable period not in excess of 10 years from the date prescribed by section 6151(a) for payment of the tax (or, in the case of an amount referred to in subparagraph (B), if later, not beyond the date which is 12 months after the due date for the last installment).

(b) Amount determined as deficiency

(1) Income, gift, and certain other taxes

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the Secretary may extend the time for the payment of the amount determined as a deficiency of a tax imposed by chapter 1, 12, 41, 42, 43, or 44 for a period not to exceed 18 months from the date fixed for the payment of the deficiency, and in exceptional cases, for a further period not to exceed 12 months. An extension under this paragraph may be granted only where it is shown to the satisfaction of the Secretary that payment of a deficiency upon the date fixed for the payment thereof will result in undue hardship to the taxpayer in the case of a tax imposed by chapter 1, 41, 42, 43, or 44, or to the donor in the case of a tax imposed by chapter 12.

(2) Estate tax

Under regulations prescribed by the Secretary, the Secretary may, for reasonable cause, extend the time for the payment of any deficiency of a tax imposed by chapter 11 for a reasonable period not to exceed 4 years from the date otherwise fixed for the payment of the deficiency.

(3) No extension for certain deficiencies

No extension shall be granted under this subsection for any deficiency if the deficiency is due to negligence, to intentional disregard of rules and regulations, or to fraud with intent to evade tax.

(c) Claims in cases under title 11 of the United States Code or in receivership proceedings

Extensions of time for payment of any portion of a claim for tax under chapter 1 or chapter 12, allowed in cases under title 11 of the United States Code or in receivership proceedings, which is unpaid, may be had in the same manner and subject to the same provisions and limitations as provided in subsection (b) in respect of a deficiency in such tax.

(d) Cross references

(1) Period of limitation

For extension of the period of limitation in case of an extension under subsection (a)(2) or subsection (b)(2), see section 6503(d).

(2) Security

For authority of the Secretary to require security in case of an extension under subsection (a)(2) or subsection (b), see section 6165.

(3) Postponement of certain acts

For time for performing certain acts postponed by reason of war, see section 7508, and by reason of Presidentially declared disaster or terroristic or military action, see section 7508A.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 762; Pub. L. 85–866, title II, §206(c), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1684; Pub. L. 91–172, title I, §101(j)(37), Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 530; Pub. L. 91–614, title I, §101(h), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1838; Pub. L. 93–406, title II, §1016(a)(7), Sept. 2, 1974, 88 Stat. 929; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIII, §1307(d)(2)(C), title XVI, §1605(b)(3), title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), title XX, §2004(c)(1), (2), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1727, 1754, 1834, 1867, 1868; Pub. L. 96–223, title I, §101(f)(1)(H), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 252; Pub. L. 96–589, §6(i)(8), Dec. 24, 1980, 94 Stat. 3410; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §422(e)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 316; Pub. L. 100–418, title I, §1941(b)(2)(B)(viii), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1323; Pub. L. 107–134, title I, §112(d)(3), Jan. 23, 2002, 115 Stat. 2435.)

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 107–134 added par. (3).

1988—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "or 44" for "44, or 45" in two places.

1981—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 97–34 struck out reference to section 6166A.

1980—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 96–223 inserted references to chapter 45.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–589 substituted "Claims in cases under title 11 of the United States Code or in receivership proceedings" for "Claims in bankruptcy or receivership proceedings" in heading, and substituted reference to cases under title 11 of the United States Code, for reference to bankruptcy proceedings in text.

1976—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §2004(c)(1), struck out in subpar. (A) "that the payment, on the due date, of" before "any part of the amount", in subpar. (B) provisions relating to payment, on the date fixed for payment of any installment, and subpar. (C) which related to payment upon notice and demand of a deficiency prorated under the provisions of section 6161, inserted in subpar. (B) "or 6166A" after "section 6166", substituted in subpar. (B) "under such section" for "the date for payment for which had not arrived", and inserted in text following subpar. (B) provisions relating to extension of time for payment in the case of an amount referred to in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1307(d)(2)(C), 1605(b)(3), 2004(c)(2), among other changes, inserted reference to chapter 41, effective on or after Oct. 4, 1976, and reference to chapter 44, applicable to taxable years of real estate investment trusts beginning after Oct. 4, 1976, and struck out provisions relating to grant of extensions with respect to hardships to taxpayers, applicable to the estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1974—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–406 inserted references to chapter 43.

1970—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–614 substituted "6 months (12 months in the case of estate tax)" for "6 months".

1969—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–172 inserted references to chapter 42.

1958—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 85–866 inserted provisions allowing Secretary or his delegate to extend time for payment for reasonable period, not exceeding 10 years from date prescribed by section 6151(a), if he finds that payment on date fixed for payment of any installment under section 6166, or any part of such installment, or payment of any part of a deficiency prorated under section 6166 to installments the date for payment of which had arrived would result in undue hardship.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–134 applicable to disasters and terroristic or military actions occurring on or after Sept. 11, 2001, with respect to any action of the Secretary of the Treasury, the Secretary of Labor, or the Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation occurring on or after Jan. 23, 2002, see section 112(f) of Pub. L. 107–134, set out as a note under section 6081 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–418 applicable to crude oil removed from the premises on or after Aug. 23, 1988, see section 1941(c) of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 164 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 422(f)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as a note under section 6166 of this title.

Effective Date of 1980 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–589 effective Oct. 1, 1979, but not applicable to proceedings under Title 11, Bankruptcy, commenced before Oct. 1, 1979, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 96–589, set out as a note under section 108 of this title.

Pub. L. 96–223, title I, §101(i), Apr. 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 254, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 4986 to 4998, 6050C, 6076, and 7241 of this title and amending this section and sections 164, 6211, 6212, 6213, 6214, 6302, 6344, 6501, 6511, 6512, 6601, 6611, 6652, 6653, 6862, 7422, and 7512 of this title] shall apply to periods after February 29, 1980.

"(2) Transitional rules.—For the period ending June 30, 1980, the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate shall prescribe rules relating to the administration of chapter 45 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954]. To the extent provided in such rules, such rules shall supplement or supplant for such period the administrative provisions contained in chapter 45 of such Code (or in so much of subtitle F of such Code [section 6001 et seq. of this title] as relates to such chapter 45)."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1307(d)(2)(C) of Pub. L. 94–455 effective on and after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1307(e)(6) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 501 of this title.

For effective date of amendment by section 1605(b)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455, see section 1608(d) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 856 of this title.

Amendment by section 2004(c)(1), (2) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 2004(g) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6166 of this title.

Effective Date of 1974 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable, except as otherwise provided in section 1017(c) through (i) of Pub. L. 93–406, for plan years beginning after Sept. 2, 1974, but, in the case of plans in existence on Jan. 1, 1974, amendment by Pub. L. 93–406 applicable for plan years beginning after Dec. 31, 1975, see section 1017 of Pub. L. 93–406, set out as an Effective Date; Transitional Rules note under section 410 of this title.

Effective Date of 1970 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–614 applicable with respect to decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 101(j) of Pub. L. 91–614, set out as a note under section 2032 of this title.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–172 effective Jan. 1, 1970, see section 101(k)(1) of Pub. L. 91–172, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4940 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–866, title II, §206(f), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1685, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 6166 of this title and amending this section and sections 6503 and 6601 of this title] shall apply to estates of decedents with respect to which the date for the filing of the estate tax return (including extensions thereof) prescribed by section 6075(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] is after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958]; except that (1) section 6166(i) of such Code as added by this section shall apply to estates of decedents dying after August 16, 1954, but only if the date for the filing of the estate tax return (including extensions thereof) expired on or before the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958], and (2) notwithstanding section 6166(a) of such Code, if an election under such section is required to be made before the sixtieth day after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958] such an election shall be considered timely if made on or before such sixtieth day."

[§6162. Repealed. Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(a)(12), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1825]

Section, act Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 763, provided for an extension of time for payment of tax on gain attributable to liquidation of personal holding companies.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective on first day of month which begins more than 90 days after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1906(d)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date of 1976 Amendment note under section 6013 of this title.

§6163. Extension of time for payment of estate tax on value of reversionary or remainder interest in property

(a) Extension permitted

If the value of a reversionary or remainder interest in property is included under chapter 11 in the value of the gross estate, the payment of the part of the tax under chapter 11 attributable to such interest may, at the election of the executor, be postponed until 6 months after the termination of the precedent interest or interests in the property, under such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe.

(b) Extension for reasonable cause

At the expiration of the period of postponement provided for in subsection (a), the Secretary may, for reasonable cause, extend the time for payment for a reasonable period or periods not in excess of 3 years from the expiration of the period of postponement provided in subsection (a).

(c) Cross reference

For authority of the Secretary to require security in the case of an extension under this section, see section 6165.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 763; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §66(b)(1), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1658; Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §240(a), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 129; Pub. L. 93–625, §7(d)(1), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2115; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), title XX, §2004(c)(3), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1868.)

Amendments

1976—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–455, §2004(c)(3), substituted provisions relating to extension of time for payment for a reasonable cause for provisions relating to extension of time for payment for undue hardship to the estate.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1975—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–625 struck out par. (1) cross reference to interest provisions of section 6601(b) of this title and struck out par. (2) designation of cross reference to security, now incorporated in present subsec. (c) provision.

1964—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 88–272 substituted "or periods not in excess of 3" for "not in excess of 2".

1958—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 85–866 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 2004(c)(3) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1976, see section 2004(g) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6166 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–625 effective on July 1, 1975, and applicable to amounts outstanding on such date or arising thereafter, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 93–625, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–272, title II, §240(c), Feb. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 129, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply in the case of any reversionary or remainder interest only if the time for payment of the tax under chapter 11 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954] attributable to such interest, including any extensions thereof, has not expired on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 26, 1964].

"(2) The amendment made by subsection (b) [amending section 925 of I.R.C. 1939] shall apply in the case of any reversionary or remainder interest only if the time for payment of the tax under chapter 3 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 attributable to such interest, including any extensions thereof, has not expired on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 26, 1964]."

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §66(b)(3), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1658, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section and sections 925 and 926 of I.R.C. 1939] shall apply in the case of any reversionary or remainder interest only if the precedent interest or interests in the property did not terminate before the beginning of the 6-month period which ends on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 2, 1958]."

§6164. Extension of time for payment of taxes by corporations expecting carrybacks

(a) In general

If a corporation, in any taxable year, files with the Secretary a statement, as provided in subsection (b), with respect to an expected net operating loss carryback from such taxable year, the time for payment of all or part of any tax imposed by subtitle A for the taxable year immediately preceding such taxable year shall be extended, to the extent and subject to the conditions and limitations hereinafter provided in this section.

(b) Contents of statement

The statement shall be filed at such time and in such manner and form as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe. Such statement shall set forth that the corporation expects to have a net operating loss carryback, as provided in section 172(b), from the taxable year in which such statement is made, and shall set forth, in such detail and with such supporting data and explanation as such regulations shall require—

(1) the estimated amount of the expected net operating loss;

(2) the reasons, facts, and circumstances which cause the corporation to expect such net operating loss;

(3) the amount of the reduction of the tax previously determined attributable to the expected carryback, such tax previously determined being ascertained in accordance with the method prescribed in section 1314(a); and such reduction being determined by applying the expected carryback in the manner provided by law to the items on the basis of which such tax was determined;

(4) the tax and the part thereof the time for payment of which is to be extended; and

(5) such other information for purposes of carrying out the provisions of this section as may be required by such regulations.


The Secretary shall, upon request, furnish a receipt for any statement filed, which shall set forth the date of such filing.

(c) Amount to which extension relates and installment payments

The amount the time for payment of which may be extended under subsection (a) with respect to any tax shall not exceed the amount of such tax shown on the return, increased by any amount assessed as a deficiency (or as interest or addition to the tax) prior to the date of filing the statement and decreased by any amount paid or required to be paid prior to the date of such filing, and the total amount of the tax the time for payment of which may be extended shall not exceed the amount stated under subsection (b)(3). For purposes of this subsection, an amount shall not be considered as required to be paid unless shown on the return or assessed as a deficiency (or as interest or addition to the tax), and an amount assessed as a deficiency (or as interest or addition to the tax) shall be considered to be required to be paid prior to the date of filing of the statement if the 10th day after notice and demand for its payment occurs prior to such date. If an extension of time under this section relates to only a part of the tax, the time for payment of the remainder shall be the date on which payment would have been required if such remainder had been the tax.

(d) Period of extension

The extension of time for payment provided in this section shall expire—

(1) on the last day of the month in which falls the last date prescribed by law (including any extension of time granted the taxpayer) for the filing of the return for the taxable year of the expected net operating loss, or

(2) if an application for tentative carryback adjustment provided in section 6411 with respect to such loss is filed before the expiration of the period prescribed in paragraph (1), on the date on which notice is mailed by certified mail or registered mail by the Secretary to the taxpayer that such application is allowed or disallowed in whole or in part.

(e) Revised statements

Each statement filed under subsection (a) with respect to any taxable year shall be in lieu of the last statement previously filed with respect to such year. If the amount the time for payment of which is extended under a statement filed is less than the amount under the last statement previously filed, the extension of time shall be terminated as to the difference between the two amounts.

(f) Termination

The Secretary is not required to make any examination of the statement, but he may make such examination thereof as he deems necessary and practicable. The Secretary shall terminate the extension as to any part of the amount to which it relates which he deems should be terminated because, upon such examination, he believes that, as of the time such examination is made, all or any part of the statement clearly is in a material respect erroneous or unreasonable.

(g) Payments on termination

If an extension of time is terminated under subsection (e) or (f) with respect to any amount, then—

(1) no further extension of time shall be made under this section with respect to such amount, and

(2) the time for payment of such amount shall be considered to be the date on which payment would have been required if there had been no extension with respect to such amount.

(h) Jeopardy

If the Secretary believes that collection of the amount to which an extension under this section relates is in jeopardy, he shall immediately terminate such extension, and notice and demand shall be made by him for payment of such amount.

(i) Consolidated returns

If the corporation seeking an extension of time under this section made or was required to make a consolidated return, either for the taxable year within which the net operating loss arises or for the preceding taxable year affected by such loss, the provisions of such section shall apply only to such extent and subject to such conditions, limitations, and exceptions as the Secretary may by regulations prescribe.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 764; Pub. L. 85–866, title I, §89(b), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1665; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834; Pub. L. 97–248, title II, §234(b)(2)(C), Sept. 3, 1982, 96 Stat. 503.)

Amendments

1982—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–248, §234(b)(2)(C)(i), substituted "shall be the date on which payment would have been required if such remainder had been the tax" for "shall be considered to be the dates on which payments would have been required if such remainder had been the tax and the taxpayer had elected to pay the tax in installments as provided in section 6152" in last sentence.

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 97–248, §234(b)(2)(C)(ii), substituted "date on which payment would have been required if there had been no extension with respect to such amount" for "dates on which payments would have been required if there had been no extension with respect to such amount and the taxpayer had elected to pay the tax in installments as provided in section 6152".

1976—Subsecs. (a), (b), (d), (f), (h), (i). Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

1958—Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 85–866 inserted "certified mail or" before "registered mail".

Effective Date of 1982 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–248 applicable to taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 1982, see section 234(e) of Pub. L. 97–248, set out as a note under section 6655 of this title.

Effective Date of 1958 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 85–866 applicable only if mailing occurs after Sept. 2, 1958, see section 89(d) of Pub. L. 85–866, set out as a note under section 7502 of this title.

§6165. Bonds where time to pay tax or deficiency has been extended

In the event the Secretary grants any extension of time within which to pay any tax or any deficiency therein, the Secretary may require the taxpayer to furnish a bond in such amount (not exceeding double the amount with respect to which the extension is granted) conditioned upon the payment of the amount extended in accordance with the terms of such extension.

(Aug. 16, 1954, ch. 736, 68A Stat. 766; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834.)

Amendments

1976Pub. L. 94–455 struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary" wherever appearing.

§6166. Extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business

(a) 5-year deferral; 10-year installment payment

(1) In general

If the value of an interest in a closely held business which is included in determining the gross estate of a decedent who was (at the date of his death) a citizen or resident of the United States exceeds 35 percent of the adjusted gross estate, the executor may elect to pay part or all of the tax imposed by section 2001 in 2 or more (but not exceeding 10) equal installments.

(2) Limitation

The maximum amount of tax which may be paid in installments under this subsection shall be an amount which bears the same ratio to the tax imposed by section 2001 (reduced by the credits against such tax) as—

(A) the closely held business amount, bears to

(B) the amount of the adjusted gross estate.

(3) Date for payment of installments

If an election is made under paragraph (1), the first installment shall be paid on or before the date selected by the executor which is not more than 5 years after the date prescribed by section 6151(a) for payment of the tax, and each succeeding installment shall be paid on or before the date which is 1 year after the date prescribed by this paragraph for payment of the preceding installment.

(b) Definitions and special rules

(1) Interest in closely held business

For purposes of this section, the term "interest in a closely held business" means—

(A) an interest as a proprietor in a trade or business carried on as a proprietorship;

(B) an interest as a partner in a partnership carrying on a trade or business, if—

(i) 20 percent or more of the total capital interest in such partnership is included in determining the gross estate of the decedent, or

(ii) such partnership had 45 or fewer partners; or


(C) stock in a corporation carrying on a trade or business if—

(i) 20 percent or more in value of the voting stock of such corporation is included in determining the gross estate of the decedent, or

(ii) such corporation had 45 or fewer shareholders.

(2) Rules for applying paragraph (1)

For purposes of paragraph (1)—

(A) Time for testing

Determinations shall be made as of the time immediately before the decedent's death.

(B) Certain interests held by husband and wife

Stock or a partnership interest which—

(i) is community property of a husband and wife (or the income from which is community income) under the applicable community property law of a State, or

(ii) is held by a husband and wife as joint tenants, tenants by the entirety, or tenants in common,


shall be treated as owned by one shareholder or one partner, as the case may be.

(C) Indirect ownership

Property owned, directly or indirectly, by or for a corporation, partnership, estate, or trust shall be considered as being owned proportionately by or for its shareholders, partners, or beneficiaries. For purposes of the preceding sentence, a person shall be treated as a beneficiary of any trust only if such person has a present interest in the trust.

(D) Certain interests held by members of decedent's family

All stock and all partnership interests held by the decedent or by any member of his family (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) shall be treated as owned by the decedent.

(3) Farmhouses and certain other structures taken into account

For purposes of the 35-percent requirement of subsection (a)(1), an interest in a closely held business which is the business of farming includes an interest in residential buildings and related improvements on the farm which are occupied on a regular basis by the owner or lessee of the farm or by persons employed by such owner or lessee for purposes of operating or maintaining the farm.

(4) Value

For purposes of this section, value shall be value determined for purposes of chapter 11 (relating to estate tax).

(5) Closely held business amount

For purposes of this section, the term "closely held business amount" means the value of the interest in a closely held business which qualifies under subsection (a)(1).

(6) Adjusted gross estate

For purposes of this section, the term, "adjusted gross estate" means the value of the gross estate reduced by the sum of the amounts allowable as a deduction under section 2053 or 2054. Such sum shall be determined on the basis of the facts and circumstances in existence on the date (including extensions) for filing the return of tax imposed by section 2001 (or, if earlier, the date on which such return is filed).

(7) Partnership interests and stock which is not readily tradable

(A) In general

If the executor elects the benefits of this paragraph (at such time and in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe), then—

(i) for purposes of paragraph (1)(B)(i) or (1)(C)(i) (whichever is appropriate) and for purposes of subsection (c), any capital interest in a partnership and any non-readily-tradable stock which (after the application of paragraph (2)) is treated as owned by the decedent shall be treated as included in determining the value of the decedent's gross estate,

(ii) the executor shall be treated as having selected under subsection (a)(3) the date prescribed by section 6151(a), and

(iii) for purposes of applying section 6601(j), the 2-percent portion (as defined in such section) shall be treated as being zero.

(B) Non-readily-tradable stock defined

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "non-readily-tradable stock" means stock for which, at the time of the decedent's death, there was no market on a stock exchange or in an over-the-counter market.

(8) Stock in holding company treated as business company stock in certain cases

(A) In general

If the executor elects the benefits of this paragraph, then—

(i) Holding company stock treated as business company stock

For purposes of this section, the portion of the stock of any holding company which represents direct ownership (or indirect ownership through 1 or more other holding companies) by such company in a business company shall be deemed to be stock in such business company.

(ii) 5-year deferral for principal not to apply

The executor shall be treated as having selected under subsection (a)(3) the date prescribed by section 6151(a).

(iii) 2-percent interest rate not to apply

For purposes of applying section 6601(j), the 2-percent portion (as defined in such section) shall be treated as being zero.

(B) All stock must be non-readily-tradable stock

(i) In general

No stock shall be taken into account for purposes of applying this paragraph unless it is non-readily-tradable stock (within the meaning of paragraph (7)(B)).

(ii) Special application where only holding company stock is non-readily-tradable stock

If the requirements of clause (i) are not met, but all of the stock of each holding company taken into account is non-readily-tradable, then this paragraph shall apply, but subsection (a)(1) shall be applied by substituting "5" for "10".

(C) Application of voting stock requirement of paragraph (1)(C)(i)

For purposes of clause (i) of paragraph (1)(C), the deemed stock resulting from the application of subparagraph (A) shall be treated as voting stock to the extent that voting stock in the holding company owns directly (or through the voting stock of 1 or more other holding companies) voting stock in the business company.

(D) Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Holding company

The term "holding company" means any corporation holding stock in another corporation.

(ii) Business company

The term "business company" means any corporation carrying on a trade or business.

(9) Deferral not available for passive assets

(A) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(1) and determining the closely held business amount (but not for purposes of subsection (g)), the value of any interest in a closely held business shall not include the value of that portion of such interest which is attributable to passive assets held by the business.

(B) Passive asset defined

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) In general

The term "passive asset" means any asset other than an asset used in carrying on a trade or business.

(ii) Stock treated as passive asset

The term "passive asset" includes any stock in another corporation unless—

(I) such stock is treated as held by the decedent by reason of an election under paragraph (8), and

(II) such stock qualified under subsection (a)(1).

(iii) Exception for active corporations

If—

(I) a corporation owns 20 percent or more in value of the voting stock of another corporation, or such other corporation has 45 or fewer shareholders, and

(II) 80 percent or more of the value of the assets of each such corporation is attributable to assets used in carrying on a trade or business,


 then such corporations shall be treated as 1 corporation for purposes of clause (ii). For purposes of applying subclause (II) to the corporation holding the stock of the other corporation, such stock shall not be taken into account.

(10) Stock in qualifying lending and finance business treated as stock in an active trade or business company

(A) In general

If the executor elects the benefits of this paragraph, then—

(i) Stock in qualifying lending and finance business treated as stock in an active trade or business company

For purposes of this section, any asset used in a qualifying lending and finance business shall be treated as an asset which is used in carrying on a trade or business.

(ii) 5-year deferral for principal not to apply

The executor shall be treated as having selected under subsection (a)(3) the date prescribed by section 6151(a).

(iii) 5 equal installments allowed

For purposes of applying subsection (a)(1), "5" shall be substituted for "10".

(B) Definitions

For purposes of this paragraph—

(i) Qualifying lending and finance business

The term "qualifying lending and finance business" means a lending and finance business, if—

(I) based on all the facts and circumstances immediately before the date of the decedent's death, there was substantial activity with respect to the lending and finance business, or

(II) during at least 3 of the 5 taxable years ending before the date of the decedent's death, such business had at least 1 full-time employee substantially all of whose services were the active management of such business, 10 full-time, nonowner employees substantially all of whose services were directly related to such business, and $5,000,000 in gross receipts from activities described in clause (ii).

(ii) Lending and finance business

The term "lending and finance business" means a trade or business of—

(I) making loans,

(II) purchasing or discounting accounts receivable, notes, or installment obligations,

(III) engaging in rental and leasing of real and tangible personal property, including entering into leases and purchasing, servicing, and disposing of leases and leased assets,

(IV) rendering services or making facilities available in the ordinary course of a lending or finance business, and

(V) rendering services or making facilities available in connection with activities described in subclauses (I) through (IV) carried on by the corporation rendering services or making facilities available, or another corporation which is a member of the same affiliated group (as defined in section 1504 without regard to section 1504(b)(3)).

(iii) Limitation

The term "qualifying lending and finance business" shall not include any interest in an entity, if the stock or debt of such entity or a controlled group (as defined in section 267(f)(1)) of which such entity was a member was readily tradable on an established securities market or secondary market (as defined by the Secretary) at any time within 3 years before the date of the decedent's death.

(c) Special rule for interest in 2 or more closely held businesses

For purposes of this section, interest in 2 or more closely held businesses, with respect to each of which there is included in determining the value of the decedent's gross estate 20 percent or more of the total value of each such business, shall be treated as an interest in a single closely held business. For purposes of the 20-percent requirement of the preceding sentence, an interest in a closely held business which represents the surviving spouse's interest in property held by the decedent and the surviving spouse as community property or as joint tenants, tenants by the entirety, or tenants in common shall be treated as having been included in determining the value of the decedent's gross estate.

(d) Election

Any election under subsection (a) shall be made not later than the time prescribed by section 6075(a) for filing the return of tax imposed by section 2001 (including extensions thereof), and shall be made in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe. If an election under subsection (a) is made, the provisions of this subtitle shall apply as though the Secretary were extending the time for payment of the tax.

(e) Proration of deficiency to installments

If an election is made under subsection (a) to pay any part of the tax imposed by section 2001 in installments and a deficiency has been assessed, the deficiency shall (subject to the limitation provided by subsection (a)(2)) be prorated to the installments payable under subsection (a). The part of the deficiency so prorated to any installment the date for payment of which has not arrived shall be collected at the same time as, and as a part of, such installment. The part of the deficiency so prorated to any installment the date for payment of which has arrived shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary. This subsection shall not apply if the deficiency is due to negligence, to intentional disregard of rules and regulations, or to fraud with intent to evade tax.

(f) Time for payment of interest

If the time for payment of any amount of tax has been extended under this section—

(1) Interest for first 5 years

Interest payable under section 6601 of any unpaid portion of such amount attributable to the first 5 years after the date prescribed by section 6151(a) for payment of the tax shall be paid annually.

(2) Interest for periods after first 5 years

Interest payable under section 6601 on any unpaid portion of such amount attributable to any period after the 5-year period referred to in paragraph (1) shall be paid annually at the same time as, and as a part of, each installment payment of the tax.

(3) Interest in the case of certain deficiencies

In the case of a deficiency to which subsection (e) applies which is assessed after the close of the 5-year period referred to in paragraph (1), interest attributable to such 5-year period, and interest assigned under paragraph (2) to any installment the date for payment of which has arrived on or before the date of the assessment of the deficiency, shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(4) Selection of shorter period

If the executor has selected a period shorter than 5 years under subsection (a)(3), such shorter period shall be substituted for 5 years in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of this subsection.

(g) Acceleration of payment

(1) Disposition of interest; withdrawal of funds from business

(A) If—

(i)(I) any portion of an interest in a closely held business which qualifies under subsection (a)(1) is distributed, sold, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of, or

(II) money and other property attributable to such an interest is withdrawn from such trade or business, and

(ii) the aggregate of such distributions, sales, exchanges, or other dispositions and withdrawals equals or exceeds 50 percent of the value of such interest,


then the extension of time for payment of tax provided in subsection (a) shall cease to apply, and the unpaid portion of the tax payable in installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(B) In the case of a distribution in redemption of stock to which section 303 (or so much of section 304 as relates to section 303) applies—

(i) the redemption of such stock, and the withdrawal of money and other property distributed in such redemption, shall not be treated as a distribution or withdrawal for purposes of subparagraph (A), and

(ii) for purposes of subparagraph (A), the value of the interest in the closely held business shall be considered to be such value reduced by the value of the stock redeemed.


This subparagraph shall apply only if, on or before the date prescribed by subsection (a)(3) for the payment of the first installment which becomes due after the date of the distribution (or, if earlier, on or before the day which is 1 year after the date of the distribution), there is paid an amount of the tax imposed by section 2001 not less than the amount of money and other property distributed.

(C) Subparagraph (A)(i) does not apply to an exchange of stock pursuant to a plan of reorganization described in subparagraph (D), (E), or (F) of section 368(a)(1) nor to an exchange to which section 355 (or so much of section 356 as relates to section 355) applies; but any stock received in such an exchange shall be treated for purposes of subparagraph (A)(i) as an interest qualifying under subsection (a)(1).

(D) Subparagraph (A)(i) does not apply to a transfer of property of the decedent to a person entitled by reason of the decedent's death to receive such property under the decedent's will, the applicable law of descent and distribution, or a trust created by the decedent. A similar rule shall apply in the case of a series of subsequent transfers of the property by reason of death so long as each transfer is to a member of the family (within the meaning of section 267(c)(4)) of the transferor in such transfer.

(E) Changes in interest in holding company

If any stock in a holding company is treated as stock in a business company by reason of subsection (b)(8)(A)—

(i) any disposition of any interest in such stock in such holding company which was included in determining the gross estate of the decedent, or

(ii) any withdrawal of any money or other property from such holding company attributable to any interest included in determining the gross estate of the decedent,


shall be treated for purposes of subparagraph (A) as a disposition of (or a withdrawal with respect to) the stock qualifying under subsection (a)(1).

(F) Changes in interest in business company

If any stock in a holding company is treated as stock in a business company by reason of subsection (b)(8)(A)—

(i) any disposition of any interest in such stock in the business company by such holding company, or

(ii) any withdrawal of any money or other property from such business company attributable to such stock by such holding company owning such stock,


shall be treated for purposes of subparagraph (A) as a disposition of (or a withdrawal with respect to) the stock qualifying under subsection (a)(1).

(2) Undistributed income of estate

(A) If an election is made under this section and the estate has undistributed net income for any taxable year ending on or after the due date for the first installment, the executor shall, on or before the date prescribed by law for filing the income tax return for such taxable year (including extensions thereof), pay an amount equal to such undistributed net income in liquidation of the unpaid portion of the tax payable in installments.

(B) For purposes of subparagraph (A), the undistributed net income of the estate for any taxable year is the amount by which the distributable net income of the estate for such taxable year (as defined in section 643) exceeds the sum of—

(i) the amounts for such taxable year specified in paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 661(a) (relating to deductions for distributions, etc.);

(ii) the amount of tax imposed for the taxable year on the estate under chapter 1; and

(iii) the amount of the tax imposed by section 2001 (including interest) paid by the executor during the taxable year (other than any amount paid pursuant to this paragraph).


(C) For purposes of this paragraph, if any stock in a corporation is treated as stock in another corporation by reason of subsection (b)(8)(A), any dividends paid by such other corporation to the corporation shall be treated as paid to the estate of the decedent to the extent attributable to the stock qualifying under subsection (a)(1).

(3) Failure to make payment of principal or interest

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), if any payment of principal or interest under this section is not paid on or before the date fixed for its payment by this section (including any extension of time), the unpaid portion of the tax payable in installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(B) Payment within 6 months

If any payment of principal or interest under this section is not paid on or before the date determined under subparagraph (A) but is paid within 6 months of such date—

(i) the provisions of subparagraph (A) shall not apply with respect to such payment,

(ii) the provisions of section 6601(j) shall not apply with respect to the determination of interest on such payment, and

(iii) there is imposed a penalty in an amount equal to the product of—

(I) 5 percent of the amount of such payment, multiplied by

(II) the number of months (or fractions thereof) after such date and before payment is made.


The penalty imposed under clause (iii) shall be treated in the same manner as a penalty imposed under subchapter B of chapter 68.

(h) Election in case of certain deficiencies

(1) In general

If—

(A) a deficiency in the tax imposed by section 2001 is assessed,

(B) the estate qualifies under subsection (a)(1), and

(C) the executor has not made an election under subsection (a),


the executor may elect to pay the deficiency in installments. This subsection shall not apply if the deficiency is due to negligence, to intentional disregard of rules and regulations, or to fraud with intent to evade tax.

(2) Time of election

An election under this subsection shall be made not later than 60 days after issuance of notice and demand by the Secretary for the payment of the deficiency, and shall be made in such manner as the Secretary shall by regulations prescribe.

(3) Effect of election on payment

If an election is made under this subsection, the deficiency shall (subject to the limitation provided by subsection (a)(2)) be prorated to the installments which would have been due if an election had been timely made under subsection (a) at the time the estate tax return was filed. The part of the deficiency so prorated to any installment the date for payment of which would have arrived shall be paid at the time of the making of the election under this subsection. The portion of the deficiency so prorated to installments the date for payment of which would not have so arrived shall be paid at the time such installments would have been due if such an election had been made.

(i) Special rule for certain direct skips

To the extent that an interest in a closely held business is the subject of a direct skip (within the meaning of section 2612(c)) occurring at the same time as and as a result of the decedent's death, then for purposes of this section any tax imposed by section 2601 on the transfer of such interest shall be treated as if it were additional tax imposed by section 2001.

(j) Regulations

The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to the application of this section.

(k) Cross references

(1) Security

For authority of the Secretary to require security in the case of an extension under this section, see section 6165.

(2) Lien

For special lien (in lieu of bond) in the case of an extension under this section, see section 6324A.

(3) Period of limitation

For extension of the period of limitation in the case of an extension under this section, see section 6503(d).

(4) Interest

For provisions relating to interest on tax payable in installments under this section, see subsection (j) of section 6601.

(5) Transfers within 3 years of death

For special rule for qualifying an estate under this section where property has been transferred within 3 years of decedent's death, see section 2035(c)(2).

(Added Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2004(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1862; amended Pub. L. 95–600, title V, §512(a), (b), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2882, 2883; Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §422(a), (c), (e)(5)(A), (B), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 314–316; Pub. L. 97–448, title I, §104(c), (d)(1)(B), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2382, 2383; Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title V, §544(b)(4), title X, §1021(a)–(d), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 894, 1024-1026; Pub. L. 99–514, title XIV, §1432(e), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2730; Pub. L. 104–188, title I, §1704(t)(15), Aug. 20, 1996, 110 Stat. 1888; Pub. L. 105–34, title V, §503(c)(1), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 853; Pub. L. 105–206, title VI, §6007(c), July 22, 1998, 112 Stat. 809; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(7) [title III, §319(18)], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-647; Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §§571(a), 572(a), 573(a), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 92, 93.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6166 was renumbered section 6166A of this title and later repealed by Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §422(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 315.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii), (C)(ii). Pub. L. 107–16, §571(a), substituted "45" for "15".

Subsec. (b)(8)(B). Pub. L. 107–16, §573(a), reenacted heading without change and amended text of subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "No stock shall be taken into account for purposes of applying this paragraph unless it is non-readily-tradable stock (within the meaning of paragraph (7)(B))."

Subsec. (b)(9)(B)(iii)(I). Pub. L. 107–16, §571(a), substituted "45" for "15".

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 107–16, §572(a), added par. (10).

2000—Subsec. (k)(5). Pub. L. 106–554 substituted "2035(c)(2)" for "2035(d)(4)".

1998—Subsec. (b)(7)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–206, §6007(c)(1), amended cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (iii) read as follows: "section 6601(j) (relating to 2-percent rate of interest) shall not apply."

Subsec. (b)(8)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–206, §6007(c)(2), reenacted heading without change and amended text of cl. (iii) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Section 6601(j) (relating to 2-percent rate of interest) shall not apply."

1997—Subsec. (b)(7)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–34 substituted "2-percent" for "4-percent".

Subsec. (b)(8)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–34 substituted "2-percent" for "4-percent" in heading and text.

1996—Subsec. (k)(6). Pub. L. 104–188 struck out par. (6) which provided cross reference to former section 2210(c) of this title authorizing payment of certain portion of estate tax in installments under provisions of this section.

1986—Subsecs. (i) to (k). Pub. L. 99–514 added subsec. (i) and redesignated former subsecs. (i) and (j) as (j) and (k), respectively.

1984—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 98–369, §1021(a), added par. (8).

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 98–369, §1021(b), added par. (9).

Subsec. (g)(1)(E), (F). Pub. L. 98–369, §1021(c), added subpars. (E) and (F).

Subsec. (g)(2)(C). Pub. L. 98–369, §1021(d), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (j)(6). Pub. L. 98–369, §544(b)(4), added par. (6).

1983—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(c)(1), substituted "35-percent requirement" for "65-percent requirement".

Subsec. (g)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(c)(2), substituted "the redemption of such stock, and the withdrawal of money or other property distributed in such redemption, shall not be treated as a distribution or withdrawal for purposes of subparagraph (A), and" for "subparagraph (A)(i) does not apply with respect to the stock redeemed; and for purposes of such subparagraph the interest in the closely held business shall be considered to be such interest reduced by the value of the stock redeemed, and".

Subsec. (g)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(c)(2), substituted "for purposes of subparagraph (A), the value of the interest in the closely held business shall be considered to be such value reduced by the value of the stock redeemed" for "subparagraph (A)(ii) does not apply with respect to withdrawals of money and other property distributed; and for purposes of such subparagraph the value of the trade or business shall be considered to be such value reduced by the amount of money and other property distributed".

Subsec. (j)(5). Pub. L. 97–448, §104(d)(1)(B), added par. (5).

1981Pub. L. 97–34, §422(e)(5)(B), substituted "Extension of time" for "Alternate extension of time" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–34, §422(a)(1), (e)(5)(A), substituted in par. (1) "35 percent" for "65 percent" and struck out par. (4) which provided that no election be made under this section by the executor of the estate of any decedent if an election under section 6166A applies with respect to the estate of such decedent.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–34, §422(a)(2), substituted "20 percent or more" for "more than 20 percent".

Subsec. (g)(1)(A). Pub. L. 97–34, §422(c)(1), redesignated cl. (i) as cl. (i)(I), substituted "any portion" for "one-third or more in value", added cl. (i)(II), substituted in cl. (ii) "the aggregate of such distributions, sales, exchanges, or other dispositions and withdrawals equals or exceeds 50 percent of the value of such interest" for "aggregate withdrawals of money and other property from the trade or business, an interest in which qualifies under subsection (a)(1), made with respect to such interest, equal or exceed one-third of the value of such trade or business" and in provision following cl. (ii) substituted "the unpaid portion" for "any unpaid portion".

Subsec. (g)(1)(D). Pub. L. 97–34, §422(c)(3), inserted provision for application of a similar rule in the case of a series of subsequent transfers of the property by reason of death so long as each transfer is to a member of the family of the transferor in such transfer.

Subsec. (g)(3). Pub. L. 97–34, §422(c)(2), substituted as heading "Failure to make payment of principal or interest" for "Failure to pay installment", designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), and in subpar. (A) as so designated, substituted "Except as provided in subparagraph (B), if any payment of principal or interest" for "If any installment" and "extension of time" for "extension of time for the payment of such installment", and added subpar. (B).

1978—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 95–600, §512(a), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 95–600, §512(b), added par. (7).

Effective Date of 2001 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §571(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 92, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 2001."

Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §572(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 93, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 2001."

Pub. L. 107–16, title V, §573(b), June 7, 2001, 115 Stat. 93, provided that: "The amendment made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to estates of decedents dying after December 31, 2001."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–206 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if included in the provisions of the Taxpayer Relief Act of 1997, Pub. L. 105–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 6024 of Pub. L. 105–206, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–34 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1997, with special rule in case of estate of any decedent dying before Jan. 1, 1998, with respect to which there is an election under section 6166 of this title, see section 503(d) of Pub. L. 105–34, set out as a note under section 163 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–514 applicable to generation-skipping transfers (within the meaning of section 2611 of this title) made after Oct. 22, 1986, except as otherwise provided, see section 1433 of Pub. L. 99–514, set out as an Effective Date note under section 2601 of this title.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by section 544(b)(4) of Pub. L. 98–369 applicable to estates of decedents which are required to file returns on a date (including any extensions) after July 18, 1984, see section 544(d) of Pub. L. 98–369, set out as a note under section 2002 of this title.

Pub. L. 98–369, div. A, title X, §1021(e), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1026, as amended by Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 18, 1984].

"(2) Special rule.—

"(A) In general.—At the election of the executor, if—

"(i) a corporation has 15 or fewer shareholders on June 22, 1984, and at all times thereafter before the date of the decedent's death, and

"(ii) stock of such corporation is included in the gross estate of the decedent,

then all other corporations all of the stock of which is owned directly or indirectly by the corporation described in clauses (i) and (ii) shall be treated as one corporation for purposes of section 6166 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [formerly I.R.C. 1954].

"(B) Effect of election.—Any executor who elects the application of this paragraph shall be treated as having made the election under paragraph (8) of section 6166(b) of such Code."

Effective Date of 1983 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–448 effective, except as otherwise provided, as if it had been included in the provision of the Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981, Pub. L. 97–34, to which such amendment relates, see section 109 of Pub. L. 97–448, set out as a note under section 1 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §422(f), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 316, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 303, 2011, 2204, 2621, 6161, 6324A, 6503, and 7403 of this title and repealing section 6166A of this title] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1981.

"(2) Acceleration by reason of subsequent death.—The amendment made by subsection (c)(3) [amending this section] shall apply to transfers after December 31, 1981."

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–600, title V, §512(c), Nov. 6, 1978, 92 Stat. 2883, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply with respect to the estates of decedents dying after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1978]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 94–455, title XX, §2004(g), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1872, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 6324A of this title and amending sections 303, 2011, 2204, 6136, 6161, 6503, 6601, and 7403 of this title] shall apply to the estates of decedents dying after December 31, 1976."

Land Diverted Under 1983 Payment-in-Kind Program

Land diverted from production of agricultural commodities under a 1983 payment-in-kind program to be treated, for purposes of this section, as used during the 1983 crop year by qualified taxpayers in the active conduct of the trade or business of farming, with qualified taxpayers who materially participate in the diversion and devotion to conservation uses under a 1983 payment-in-kind program to be treated as materially participating in the operation of such land during the 1983 crop year, see section 3 of Pub. L. 98–4, set out as a note under section 61 of this title.

[§6166A. Repealed. Pub. L. 97–34, title IV, §422(d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 315]

Section, added Pub. L. 85–866, title II, §206(a), Sept. 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 1681, §6166; amended Pub. L. 93–625, §7(d)(2), (3), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2115; renumbered §6166A and amended Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §1906(b)(13)(A), title XX, §2004(a), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1834, 1862, provided for an extension of time for payment of estate tax where estate consists largely of interest in closely held business.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal applicable to estates of decedents dying after Dec. 31, 1981, see section 422(f)(1) of Pub. L. 97–34, set out as an Effective Date of 1981 Amendment note under section 6166 of this title.

§6167. Extension of time for payment of tax attributable to recovery of foreign expropriation losses

(a) Extension allowed by election

If—

(1) a corporation has a recovery of a foreign expropriation loss to which section 1351 applies, and

(2) the portion of the recovery received in money is less than 25 percent of the amount of such recovery (as defined in section 1351(c)) and is not greater than the tax attributable to such recovery,


the tax attributable to such recovery shall, at the election of the taxpayer, be payable in 10 equal installments on the 15th day of the fourth month of each of the taxable years following the taxable year of the recovery. Such election shall be made at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may prescribe by regulations. If an election is made under this subsection, the provisions of this subtitle shall apply as though the Secretary were extending the time for payment of such tax.

(b) Extension permitted by Secretary

If a corporation has a recovery of a foreign expropriation loss to which section 1351 applies and if an election is not made under subsection (a), the Secretary may, upon finding that the payment of the tax attributable to such recovery at the time otherwise provided in this subtitle would result in undue hardship, extend the time for payment of such tax for a reasonable period or periods not in excess of 9 years from the date on which such tax is otherwise payable.

(c) Acceleration of payments

If—

(1) an election is made under subsection (a),

(2) during any taxable year before the tax attributable to such recovery is paid in full—

(A) any property (other than money) received on such recovery is sold or exchanged, or

(B) any property (other than money) received on any sale or exchange described in subparagraph (A) is sold or exchanged, and


(3) the amount of money received on such sale or exchange (reduced by the amount of the tax imposed under chapter 1 with respect to such sale or exchange), when added to the amount of money—

(A) received on such recovery, and

(B) received on previous sales or exchanges described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (2) (as so reduced),


exceeds the amount of money which may be received under subsection (a)(2),


an amount of the tax attributable to such recovery equal to such excess shall be payable on the 15th day of the fourth month of the taxable year following the taxable year in which such sale or exchange occurs. The amount of such tax so paid shall be treated, for purposes of this section, as a payment of the first unpaid installment or installments (or portion thereof) which become payable under subsection (a) following such taxable year.

(d) Proration of deficiency to installments

If an election is made under subsection (a), and a deficiency attributable to the recovery of a foreign expropriation loss has been assessed, the deficiency shall be prorated to such installments. The part of the deficiency so prorated to any installment the date for payment of which has not arrived shall be collected at the same time as, and as part of, such installment. The part of the deficiency so prorated to any installment the date for payment of which has arrived shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary. This subsection shall not apply if the deficiency is due to negligence, to intentional disregard of rules and regulations, or to fraud with intent to evade tax.

(e) Time for payment of interest

If the time for payment for any amount of tax has been extended under this section, interest payable under section 6601 on any unpaid portion of such amount shall be paid annually at the same time as, and as part of, each installment payment of the tax. Interest, on that part of a deficiency prorated under this section to any installment the date for payment of which has not arrived, for the period before the date fixed for the last installment preceding the assessment of the deficiency, shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(f) Tax attributable to recovery of foreign expropriation loss

For purposes of this section, the tax attributable to a recovery of a foreign expropriation loss is the sum of—

(1) the additional tax imposed by section 1351(d)(1) on such recovery, and

(2) the amount by which the tax imposed under subtitle A is increased by reason of the gain on such recovery which under section 1351(e) is considered as gain on the involuntary conversion of property.

(g) Failure to pay installment

If any installment under this section is not paid on or before the date fixed for its payment by this section (including any extension of time for the payment of such installment), the unpaid portion of the tax payable in installments shall be paid upon notice and demand from the Secretary.

(h) Cross-references

(1) Security.—For authority of the Secretary to require security in the case of an extension under this section, see section 6165.

(2) Period of limitation.—For extension of the period of limitation in the case of an extension under this section, see section 6503(e).

(Added Pub. L. 89–384, §1(d), Apr. 8, 1966, 80 Stat. 102; amended Pub. L. 93–625, §7(d)(2), (3), Jan. 3, 1975, 88 Stat. 2115; Pub. L. 94–455, title XIX, §§1902(b)(2)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), Oct. 4, 1976, 90 Stat. 1806, 1834; Pub. L. 114–41, title II, §2006(a)(2)(D), July 31, 2015, 129 Stat. 457.)

Amendments

2015—Subsecs. (a), (c). Pub. L. 114–41 substituted "fourth month" for "third month" in concluding provisions.

1976—Subsecs. (a), (b), (d), (e), (g). Pub. L. 94–455, §1906(b)(13)(A), struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 94–455, §§1902(b)(2)(B), 1906(b)(13)(A), substituted "section 6503(e)" for "section 6503(f)", and struck out "or his delegate" after "Secretary".

1975—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 93–625, §7(d)(2), struck out provision that in applying section 6601(j) (relating to the application of the 4-percent interest rate in the case of recoveries of foreign expropriation losses to which this section applies) in the case of a deficiency, the entire amount which was prorated to installments under this section shall be treated as an amount of tax the payment of which was extended under this section.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 93–625, §7(d)(3), struck out par. (1) providing a cross reference for payment of interest at 4 percent per annum for period of an extension under section 6601(j) of this title, and redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively.

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–41 applicable to returns for taxable years beginning after Dec. 31, 2015, with special rule for certain C corporations, see section 2006(a)(3) of Pub. L. 114–41, set out as a note under section 170 of this title.

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Amendment by section 1902(b)(2)(B) of Pub. L. 94–455 applicable to estates of decedents dying after Oct. 4, 1976, see section 1902(c)(1) of Pub. L. 94–455, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 93–625 effective July 1, 1975, and applicable to amounts outstanding on such date or arising thereafter, see section 7(e) of Pub. L. 93–625, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6621 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable with respect to amounts received after Dec. 31, 1964, in respect of foreign expropriation losses (as defined in section 1351(b) of this title) sustained after Dec. 31, 1958, see section 2 of Pub. L. 89–384, set out as a note under section 1351 of this title.