[USC02] 29 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER II: ADULT EDUCATION AND LITERACY
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29 USC CHAPTER 32, SUBCHAPTER II: ADULT EDUCATION AND LITERACY
From Title 29—LABORCHAPTER 32—WORKFORCE INNOVATION AND OPPORTUNITY

SUBCHAPTER II—ADULT EDUCATION AND LITERACY

§3271. Purpose

It is the purpose of this subchapter to create a partnership among the Federal Government, States, and localities to provide, on a voluntary basis, adult education and literacy activities, in order to—

(1) assist adults to become literate and obtain the knowledge and skills necessary for employment and economic self-sufficiency;

(2) assist adults who are parents or family members to obtain the education and skills that—

(A) are necessary to becoming full partners in the educational development of their children; and

(B) lead to sustainable improvements in the economic opportunities for their family;


(3) assist adults in attaining a secondary school diploma and in the transition to postsecondary education and training, including through career pathways; and

(4) assist immigrants and other individuals who are English language learners in—

(A) improving their—

(i) reading, writing, speaking, and comprehension skills in English; and

(ii) mathematics skills; and


(B) acquiring an understanding of the American system of Government, individual freedom, and the responsibilities of citizenship.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §202, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1608.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Short Title

For short title of this subchapter as the "Adult Education and Family Literacy Act", see section 201 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 13445. Strengthening Adult Education

Ex. Ord. No. 13445, Sept. 27, 2007, 72 F.R. 56165, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the United States to use existing Federal programs that serve adults, including new Americans, to strengthen literacy skills, improve opportunities for postsecondary education and employment, and facilitate participation in American life.

Sec. 2. Definitions. As used in this order:

(a) "agency" means an executive agency as defined in section 105 of title 5, United States Code, other than the Government Accountability Office; and

(b) "adult education" means teaching or instruction below the postsecondary level, for individuals who are 16 years of age or older, designed to provide:

(i) mastery of basic education skills needed to function effectively in society;

(ii) a secondary school diploma or its equivalent; or

(iii) the ability to speak, read, or write the English language.

Sec. 3. Establishment of Interagency Adult Education Working Group. The Secretary of Education shall establish within the Department of Education for administrative purposes only, an Interagency Adult Education Working Group (Working Group), consistent with this order.

Sec. 4. Membership and Operation of the Working Group.

(a) The Working Group shall consist exclusively of:

(i) the Secretary of Education, who shall serve as Chair;

(ii) the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney General, and the Secretaries of the Interior, Labor, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, and Veterans Affairs; and

(iii) other officers or full-time or permanent part-time employees of the United States, as determined by the Chair, with the concurrence of the head of the agency concerned.

(b) The Chair, or the Chair's designee under subsection (c) of this section, in implementing section 5 of this order, shall convene and preside at the meetings of the Working Group, determine its agenda, direct its work, and establish and direct subgroups of the Working Group, as appropriate to deal with particular subject matters, that shall consist exclusively of members of the Working Group or their designees under subsection (c) of this section.

(c) A member of the Working Group may designate, to perform the Working Group or Working Group subgroup functions of the member, any person who is a part of the member's agency and who is either an officer of the United States appointed by the President or a member of the Senior Executive Service.

Sec. 5. Functions of the Working Group. Consistent with the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the Working Group shall:

(a) identify Federal programs that:

(i) focus primarily on improving the basic education skills of adults;

(ii) have the goal of transitioning adults from basic literacy to postsecondary education, training, or employment; or

(iii) constitute programs of adult education;

(b) as appropriate, review the programs identified under subsection (a) of this section and submit to the heads of the agencies administering those programs recommendations to:

(i) promote the transition of adults from such programs to postsecondary education, training, or employment;

(ii) increase the effectiveness, efficiency, and availability of such programs;

(iii) minimize unnecessary duplication among such programs;

(iv) measure and evaluate the performance of such programs; and

(v) undertake and disseminate the results of research related to such programs;

(c) identify gaps in the research about effective ways to teach adult education for postsecondary readiness, recommend areas for further research to improve adult education programs and services, and identify promising practices in disseminating valid existing and future research findings; and

(d) obtain information and advice as appropriate, in a manner that seeks individual advice and does not involve collective judgment or consensus advice or deliberation, concerning adult education from:

(i) State, local, territorial, and tribal officials; and

(ii) representatives of entities or other individuals;

(e) at the request of the head of an agency, unless the Chair declines the request, promptly review and provide advice on a proposed action by that agency relating to adult education; and

(f) report to the President, through the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy, on its work, and on the implementation of any recommendations arising from its work, at such times and in such formats as the Chair may specify, with the first such report to be submitted no later than 9 months after the date of this order.

Sec. 6. Administration of the Working Group. (a) To the extent permitted by law, the Department of Education shall provide the funding and administrative support the Working Group needs, as determined by the Chair, to implement this order.

(b) The heads of agencies shall provide, as appropriate, such assistance and information as the Chair may request to implement this order.

Sec. 7. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) authority granted by law to an agency or the head thereof; or

(ii) functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity, by any party against the United States, its agencies or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

George W. Bush.      

Establishing a Task Force on Skills for America's Future

Memorandum of President of the United States, Oct. 4, 2010, 75 F.R. 62309, provided:

Memorandum for the Heads of Executive Departments and Agencies

In order to compete in the global economy, the United States needs the most educated workforce in the world. The high-wage jobs of the 21st century will require more knowledge and skills than the jobs of the past. We therefore must develop innovative strategies to train more Americans with the skills that businesses and the economy will need to ensure American competitiveness.

Community colleges are a key part of our education system, providing a flexible and affordable place to sharpen relevant workforce skills and align them with the needs of employers in their communities. Traditional four-year colleges, on-line institutions, and nontraditional educational outlets also can play an essential role in providing training opportunities. To prepare students for 21st-century jobs, these institutions need to develop flexible, affordable, and responsive training programs that meet regional and national economic needs. An important way to ensure that training programs meet such needs is through partnerships between these institutions and labor unions, small businesses, and other regional employers. As educational institutions develop these innovative programs, we should assess what works and what does not, so that we reward excellent outcomes and true innovation that meets the needs of entrepreneurs and other employers in every part of the country, from rural communities to urban centers.

Therefore, I am establishing a task force to develop skills for America's future by identifying, developing, and increasing the scale of promising approaches to improving the skills of our Nation's workers. By coordinating the work of relevant agencies with that of nonprofits, labor unions, and private sector organizations, and by leveraging the assets of these entities, this effort will build better partnerships between businesses, community colleges, and other training providers to get Americans trained for the jobs of today and tomorrow.

Section 1. Establishment. There is established an interagency Task Force on Skills for America's Future (Task Force) to ensure that Federal policies promote innovative training programs and curricula, including successful public-private partnerships, at community colleges as well as in other settings, that will prepare the American workforce for 21st-century jobs. The Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers, the Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, and the Assistant to the President for Domestic Policy shall serve as Co-Chairs of the Task Force.

Sec. 2. Membership. In addition to the Co-Chairs, the Task Force shall consist of the following members, or any senior official designated by one of the following members who is a part of the member's department, agency, or office, and who is a full time employee of the Federal Government:

(a) the Secretary of Defense;

(b) the Secretary of Agriculture;

(c) the Secretary of Commerce;

(d) the Secretary of Labor;

(e) the Secretary of Health and Human Services;

(f) the Secretary of Transportation;

(g) the Secretary of Energy;

(h) the Secretary of Education;

(i) the Secretary of Veterans Affairs;

(j) the Director of the Office of Management and Budget;

(k) the Administrator of the Small Business Administration;

(l) the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy; and

(m) the heads of other executive departments, agencies, or offices as the Co-Chairs may designate.

Sec. 3. Administration. The Council of Economic Advisers shall provide administrative support for the Task Force to the extent permitted by law and within existing appropriations.

Sec. 4. Mission and Functions. The Task Force shall work across executive departments and agencies to ensure that Federal policies facilitate, and offer incentives for, innovative career-training and education opportunities at community colleges as well as in other settings, and that these opportunities are directly related to skills and job requirements across a range of industries. Using the best evidence available regarding effective practice, the Task Force shall develop recommendations and options for meeting the following objectives:

(a) improved public-private collaboration to develop career pathway and training programs with effective curricula, certifiable skills, and industry-recognized credentials and degrees;

(b) identification of opportunities to amplify, accelerate, or increase the scale of, successful public-private partnerships that match trained workers with prospective employers;

(c) identification and development of stackable credentials that provide entry to and advancement along a career pathway in an in-demand occupation;

(d) outreach to relevant stakeholders—including industry, the adult workforce, younger students, educational institutions, labor unions, policymakers, and community leaders—with expertise in skill development;

(e) alignment of workforce training programs funded by the Departments of Education and Labor, as well as other Federal agencies, with innovative practices and regional market demands, to build on effective skills-based training for adult workers and younger students, including individuals with disabilities;

(f) partnership with appropriate non-profit entities to engage the private sector in developing effective training programs that provide students with recognizable and portable skills that are needed in the marketplace; and

(g) greater use of technology to improve training, skills assessment, and labor market information.

Sec. 5. General Provisions.

(a) This memorandum shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of any necessary appropriations.

(b) This memorandum is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

(c) The heads of executive departments and agencies shall assist and provide information to the Task Force, consistent with applicable law, as may be necessary to carry out the functions of the Task Force. Each executive department, agency, and office shall bear its own expenses of participating in the Task Force.

(d) The Chair of the Council of Economic Advisers is hereby authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§3272. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Adult education

The term "adult education" means academic instruction and education services below the postsecondary level that increase an individual's ability to—

(A) read, write, and speak in English and perform mathematics or other activities necessary for the attainment of a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent;

(B) transition to postsecondary education and training; and

(C) obtain employment.

(2) Adult education and literacy activities

The term "adult education and literacy activities" means programs, activities, and services that include adult education, literacy, workplace adult education and literacy activities, family literacy activities, English language acquisition activities, integrated English literacy and civics education, workforce preparation activities, or integrated education and training.

(3) Eligible agency

The term "eligible agency" means the sole entity or agency in a State or an outlying area responsible for administering or supervising policy for adult education and literacy activities in the State or outlying area, respectively, consistent with the law of the State or outlying area, respectively.

(4) Eligible individual

The term "eligible individual" means an individual—

(A) who has attained 16 years of age;

(B) who is not enrolled or required to be enrolled in secondary school under State law; and

(C) who—

(i) is basic skills deficient;

(ii) does not have a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent, and has not achieved an equivalent level of education; or

(iii) is an English language learner.

(5) Eligible provider

The term "eligible provider" means an organization that has demonstrated effectiveness in providing adult education and literacy activities that may include—

(A) a local educational agency;

(B) a community-based organization or faith-based organization;

(C) a volunteer literacy organization;

(D) an institution of higher education;

(E) a public or private nonprofit agency;

(F) a library;

(G) a public housing authority;

(H) a nonprofit institution that is not described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (G) and has the ability to provide adult education and literacy activities to eligible individuals;

(I) a consortium or coalition of the agencies, organizations, institutions, libraries, or authorities described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (H); and

(J) a partnership between an employer and an entity described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (I).

(6) English language acquisition program

The term "English language acquisition program" means a program of instruction—

(A) designed to help eligible individuals who are English language learners achieve competence in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehension of the English language; and

(B) that leads to—

(i)(I) attainment of a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent; and

(II) transition to postsecondary education and training; or

(ii) employment.

(7) English language learner

The term "English language learner" when used with respect to an eligible individual, means an eligible individual who has limited ability in reading, writing, speaking, or comprehending the English language, and—

(A) whose native language is a language other than English; or

(B) who lives in a family or community environment where a language other than English is the dominant language.

(8) Essential components of reading instruction

The term "essential components of reading instruction" means explicit and systematic instruction in—

(A) phonemic awareness;

(B) phonics;

(C) vocabulary development;

(D) reading fluency, including oral reading skills; and

(E) reading comprehension strategies.

(9) Family literacy activities

The term "family literacy activities" means activities that are of sufficient intensity and quality, to make sustainable improvements in the economic prospects for a family and that better enable parents or family members to support their children's learning needs, and that integrate all of the following activities:

(A) Parent or family adult education and literacy activities that lead to readiness for postsecondary education or training, career advancement, and economic self-sufficiency.

(B) Interactive literacy activities between parents or family members and their children.

(C) Training for parents or family members regarding how to be the primary teacher for their children and full partners in the education of their children.

(D) An age-appropriate education to prepare children for success in school and life experiences.

(10) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001 of title 20.

(11) Integrated education and training

The term "integrated education and training" means a service approach that provides adult education and literacy activities concurrently and contextually with workforce preparation activities and workforce training for a specific occupation or occupational cluster for the purpose of educational and career advancement.

(12) Integrated English literacy and civics education

The term "integrated English literacy and civics education" means education services provided to English language learners who are adults, including professionals with degrees and credentials in their native countries, that enables such adults to achieve competency in the English language and acquire the basic and more advanced skills needed to function effectively as parents, workers, and citizens in the United States. Such services shall include instruction in literacy and English language acquisition and instruction on the rights and responsibilities of citizenship and civic participation, and may include workforce training.

(13) Literacy

The term "literacy" means an individual's ability to read, write, and speak in English, compute, and solve problems, at levels of proficiency necessary to function on the job, in the family of the individual, and in society.

(14) Postsecondary educational institution

The term "postsecondary educational institution" means—

(A) an institution of higher education that provides not less than a 2-year program of instruction that is acceptable for credit toward a bachelor's degree;

(B) a tribally controlled college or university; or

(C) a nonprofit educational institution offering certificate or apprenticeship programs at the postsecondary level.

(15) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Education.

(16) Workplace adult education and literacy activities

The term "workplace adult education and literacy activities" means adult education and literacy activities offered by an eligible provider in collaboration with an employer or employee organization at a workplace or an off-site location that is designed to improve the productivity of the workforce.

(17) Workforce preparation activities

The term "workforce preparation activities" means activities, programs, or services designed to help an individual acquire a combination of basic academic skills, critical thinking skills, digital literacy skills, and self-management skills, including competencies in utilizing resources, using information, working with others, understanding systems, and obtaining skills necessary for successful transition into and completion of postsecondary education or training, or employment.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §203, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1609; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(c), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2166.)

Amendments

2015—Par. (8). Pub. L. 114–95, which directed general amendment of "Paragraph (8) of section 203 of the Adult Education and Literacy Act", was executed by amending par. (8) of this section, which is section 203 of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act, Pub. L. 113–128, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'essential components of reading instruction' has the meaning given the term in section 6368 of title 20."

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3273. Home schools

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to affect home schools, whether a home school is treated as a home school or a private school under State law, or to compel a parent or family member engaged in home schooling to participate in adult education and literacy activities.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §204, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1611.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3274. Rule of construction regarding postsecondary transition and concurrent enrollment activities

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to prohibit or discourage the use of funds provided under this subchapter for adult education and literacy activities that help eligible individuals transition to postsecondary education and training or employment, or for concurrent enrollment activities.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §205, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1612.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3275. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter $577,667,000 for fiscal year 2015, $622,286,000 for fiscal year 2016, $635,198,000 for fiscal year 2017, $649,287,000 for fiscal year 2018, $664,552,000 for fiscal year 2019, and $678,640,000 for fiscal year 2020.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §206, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1612.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Part A—Federal Provisions

§3291. Reservation of funds; grants to eligible agencies; allotments

(a) Reservation of funds

From the sum appropriated under section 3275 of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary—

(1) shall reserve 2 percent to carry out section 3332 of this title, except that the amount so reserved shall not exceed $15,000,000; and

(2) shall reserve 12 percent of the amount that remains after reserving funds under paragraph (1) to carry out section 3333 of this title.

(b) Grants to eligible agencies

(1) In general

From the sum appropriated under section 3275 of this title and not reserved under subsection (a) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall award a grant to each eligible agency having a unified State plan approved under section 3112 of this title or a combined State plan approved under section 3113 of this title in an amount equal to the sum of the initial allotment under subsection (c)(1) and the additional allotment under subsection (c)(2) for the eligible agency for the fiscal year, subject to subsections (f) and (g), to enable the eligible agency to carry out the activities assisted under this subchapter.

(2) Purpose of grants

The Secretary may award a grant under paragraph (1) only if the eligible entity involved agrees to expend the grant for adult education and literacy activities in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter.

(c) Allotments

(1) Initial allotments

From the sum appropriated under section 3275 of this title and not reserved under subsection (a) for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allot to each eligible agency having a unified State plan approved under section 3112 of this title or a combined State plan approved under section 3113 of this title

(A) $100,000, in the case of an eligible agency serving an outlying area; and

(B) $250,000, in the case of any other eligible agency.

(2) Additional allotments

From the sum appropriated under section 3275 of this title, not reserved under subsection (a), and not allotted under paragraph (1), for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allot to each eligible agency that receives an initial allotment under paragraph (1) an additional amount that bears the same relationship to such sum as the number of qualifying adults in the State or outlying area served by the eligible agency bears to the number of such adults in all States and outlying areas.

(d) Qualifying adult

For the purpose of subsection (c)(2), the term "qualifying adult" means an adult who—

(1) is at least 16 years of age;

(2) is beyond the age of compulsory school attendance under the law of the State or outlying area;

(3) does not have a secondary school diploma or its recognized equivalent; and

(4) is not enrolled in secondary school.

(e) Special rule

(1) In general

From amounts made available under subsection (c) for the Republic of Palau, the Secretary shall award grants to Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, or the Republic of Palau to carry out activities described in this subchapter in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter, as determined by the Secretary.

(2) Award basis

The Secretary shall award grants pursuant to paragraph (1) on a competitive basis and pursuant to the recommendations from the Pacific Region Educational Laboratory in Honolulu, Hawaii.

(3) Termination of eligibility

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Republic of Palau shall be eligible to receive a grant under this subchapter except during the period described in section 3102(45) of this title.

(4) Administrative costs

The Secretary may provide not more than 5 percent of the funds made available for grants under this subsection to pay the administrative costs of the Pacific Region Educational Laboratory regarding activities assisted under this subsection.

(f) Hold-harmless provisions

(1) In general

Notwithstanding subsection (c), for fiscal year 2015 and each succeeding fiscal year, no eligible agency shall receive an allotment under this section that is less than 90 percent of the allotment the eligible agency received for the preceding fiscal year under this section.

(2) Ratable reduction

If for any fiscal year the amount available for allotment under this subchapter is insufficient to satisfy the provisions of paragraph (1) the Secretary shall ratably reduce the payments to all eligible agencies, as necessary.

(g) Reallotment

The portion of any eligible agency's allotment under this subchapter for a fiscal year that the Secretary determines will not be required for the period such allotment is available for carrying out activities under this subchapter, shall be available for reallotment from time to time, on such dates during such period as the Secretary shall fix, to other eligible agencies in proportion to the original allotments to such agencies under this subchapter for such year.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §211, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1612.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3292. Performance accountability system

Programs and activities authorized in this subchapter are subject to the performance accountability provisions described in section 3141 of this title.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §212, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1614.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3293. Educational assistance and training

(a) Use of fund

The Secretary of Labor shall provide for grants to States to provide educational assistance and training for United States workers. The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Education in making grants under this section.

(b) Allocation of funds

Within the purposes described in subsection (a), funds in the account used under this section shall be allocated among the States based on a formula, established jointly by the Secretaries of Labor and Education, that takes into consideration—

(1) the location of foreign workers admitted into the United States,

(2) the location of individuals in the United States requiring and desiring the educational assistance and training for which the funds can be applied, and

(3) the location of unemployed and underemployed United States workers.

(c) Disbursement to States

(1) Within the purposes and allocations established under this section, disbursements shall be made to the States, in accordance with grant applications submitted to and approved jointly by the Secretaries of Labor and Education, to be applied in a manner consistent with the guidelines established by such Secretaries in consultation with the States. In applying such grants, the States shall consider providing funding to joint labor-management trust funds and other such non-profit organizations which have demonstrated capability and experience in directly training and educating workers.

(2) Not more than 5 percent of the funds disbursed to any State under this section may be used for administrative expenses.

(d) Limitation on Federal overhead

The Secretaries shall provide that not more than 2 percent of the amount of funds disbursed to States under this section may be used by the Federal Government in the administration of this section.

(e) Annual report

The Secretary of Labor shall report annually to the Congress on the grants to States provided under this section.

(f) "State" defined

In this section, the term "State" has the meaning given such term in section 1101(a)(36) of title 8.

(Pub. L. 101–649, title VIII, §801, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 5087.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Immigration Act of 1990, and not as part of the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act which comprises this subchapter.

Section was formerly classified to section 2920 of this title and to section 1506 of this title.

Part B—State Provisions

§3301. State administration

Each eligible agency shall be responsible for the State or outlying area administration of activities under this subchapter, including—

(1) the development, implementation, and monitoring of the relevant components of the unified State plan in section 3112 of this title or the combined State plan in section 3113 of this title;

(2) consultation with other appropriate agencies, groups, and individuals that are involved in, or interested in, the development and implementation of activities assisted under this subchapter; and

(3) coordination and nonduplication with other Federal and State education, training, corrections, public housing, and social service programs.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §221, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1614.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3302. State distribution of funds; matching requirement

(a) State distribution of funds

Each eligible agency receiving a grant under section 3291(b) of this title for a fiscal year—

(1) shall use not less than 82.5 percent of the grant funds to award grants and contracts under section 3321 of this title and to carry out section 3305 of this title, of which not more than 20 percent of such amount shall be available to carry out section 3305 of this title;

(2) shall use not more than 12.5 percent of the grant funds to carry out State leadership activities under section 3303 of this title; and

(3) shall use not more than 5 percent of the grant funds, or $85,000, whichever is greater, for the administrative expenses of the eligible agency.

(b) Matching requirement

(1) In general

In order to receive a grant from the Secretary under section 3291(b) of this title each eligible agency shall provide, for the costs to be incurred by the eligible agency in carrying out the adult education and literacy activities for which the grant is awarded, a non-Federal contribution in an amount that is not less than—

(A) in the case of an eligible agency serving an outlying area, 12 percent of the total amount of funds expended for adult education and literacy activities in the outlying area, except that the Secretary may decrease the amount of funds required under this subparagraph for an eligible agency; and

(B) in the case of an eligible agency serving a State, 25 percent of the total amount of funds expended for adult education and literacy activities in the State.

(2) Non-Federal contribution

An eligible agency's non-Federal contribution required under paragraph (1) may be provided in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, and shall include only non-Federal funds that are used for adult education and literacy activities in a manner that is consistent with the purpose of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §222, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1614.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3303. State leadership activities

(a) Activities

(1) Required

Each eligible agency shall use funds made available under section 3302(a)(2) of this title for the following adult education and literacy activities to develop or enhance the adult education system of the State or outlying area:

(A) The alignment of adult education and literacy activities with other core programs and one-stop partners, including eligible providers, to implement the strategy identified in the unified State plan under section 3112 of this title or the combined State plan under section 3113 of this title, including the development of career pathways to provide access to employment and training services for individuals in adult education and literacy activities.

(B) The establishment or operation of high quality professional development programs to improve the instruction provided pursuant to local activities required under section 3321(b) of this title, including instruction incorporating the essential components of reading instruction as such components relate to adults, instruction related to the specific needs of adult learners, instruction provided by volunteers or by personnel of a State or outlying area, and dissemination of information about models and promising practices related to such programs.

(C) The provision of technical assistance to eligible providers of adult education and literacy activities receiving funds under this subchapter, including—

(i) the development and dissemination of instructional and programmatic practices based on the most rigorous or scientifically valid research available and appropriate, in reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, English language acquisition programs, distance education, and staff training;

(ii) the role of eligible providers as a one-stop partner to provide access to employment, education, and training services; and

(iii) assistance in the use of technology, including for staff training, to eligible providers, especially the use of technology to improve system efficiencies.


(D) The monitoring and evaluation of the quality of, and the improvement in, adult education and literacy activities and the dissemination of information about models and proven or promising practices within the State.

(2) Permissible activities

Each eligible agency may use funds made available under section 3302(a)(2) of this title for 1 or more of the following adult education and literacy activities:

(A) The support of State or regional networks of literacy resource centers.

(B) The development and implementation of technology applications, translation technology, or distance education, including professional development to support the use of instructional technology.

(C) Developing and disseminating curricula, including curricula incorporating the essential components of reading instruction as such components relate to adults.

(D) Developing content and models for integrated education and training and career pathways.

(E) The provision of assistance to eligible providers in developing and implementing programs that achieve the objectives of this subchapter and in measuring the progress of those programs in achieving such objectives, including meeting the State adjusted levels of performance described in section 3141(b)(3) of this title.

(F) The development and implementation of a system to assist in the transition from adult education to postsecondary education, including linkages with postsecondary educational institutions or institutions of higher education.

(G) Integration of literacy and English language instruction with occupational skill training, including promoting linkages with employers.

(H) Activities to promote workplace adult education and literacy activities.

(I) Identifying curriculum frameworks and aligning rigorous content standards that—

(i) specify what adult learners should know and be able to do in the areas of reading and language arts, mathematics, and English language acquisition; and

(ii) take into consideration the following:

(I) State adopted academic standards.

(II) The current adult skills and literacy assessments used in the State or outlying area.

(III) The primary indicators of performance described in section 3141 of this title.

(IV) Standards and academic requirements for enrollment in nonremedial, for-credit courses in postsecondary educational institutions or institutions of higher education supported by the State or outlying area.

(V) Where appropriate, the content of occupational and industry skill standards widely used by business and industry in the State or outlying area.


(J) Developing and piloting of strategies for improving teacher quality and retention.

(K) The development and implementation of programs and services to meet the needs of adult learners with learning disabilities or English language learners, which may include new and promising assessment tools and strategies that are based on scientifically valid research, where appropriate, and identify the needs and capture the gains of such students at the lowest achievement levels.

(L) Outreach to instructors, students, and employers.

(M) Other activities of statewide significance that promote the purpose of this subchapter.

(b) Collaboration

In carrying out this section, eligible agencies shall collaborate where possible, and avoid duplicating efforts, in order to maximize the impact of the activities described in subsection (a).

(c) State-imposed requirements

Whenever a State or outlying area implements any rule or policy relating to the administration or operation of a program authorized under this subchapter that has the effect of imposing a requirement that is not imposed under Federal law (including any rule or policy based on a State or outlying area interpretation of a Federal statute, regulation, or guideline), the State or outlying area shall identify, to eligible providers, the rule or policy as being imposed by the State or outlying area.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §223, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1615.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3304. State plan

Each State desiring to receive funds under this subchapter for any fiscal year shall submit and have approved a unified State plan in accordance with section 3112 of this title or a combined State plan in accordance with section 3113 of this title.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §224, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1617.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3305. Programs for corrections education and other institutionalized individuals

(a) Program authorized

From funds made available under section 3302(a)(1) of this title for a fiscal year, each eligible agency shall carry out corrections education and education for other institutionalized individuals.

(b) Uses of funds

The funds described in subsection (a) shall be used for the cost of educational programs for criminal offenders in correctional institutions and for other institutionalized individuals, including academic programs for—

(1) adult education and literacy activities;

(2) special education, as determined by the eligible agency;

(3) secondary school credit;

(4) integrated education and training;

(5) career pathways;

(6) concurrent enrollment;

(7) peer tutoring; and

(8) transition to re-entry initiatives and other postrelease services with the goal of reducing recidivism.

(c) Priority

Each eligible agency that is using assistance provided under this section to carry out a program for criminal offenders within a correctional institution shall give priority to serving individuals who are likely to leave the correctional institution within 5 years of participation in the program.

(d) Report

In addition to any report required under section 3141 of this title, each eligible agency that receives assistance provided under this section shall annually prepare and submit to the Secretary a report on the progress, as described in section 3141 of this title, of the eligible agency with respect to the programs and activities carried out under this section, including the relative rate of recidivism for the criminal offenders served.

(e) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Correctional institution

The term "correctional institution" means any—

(A) prison;

(B) jail;

(C) reformatory;

(D) work farm;

(E) detention center; or

(F) halfway house, community-based rehabilitation center, or any other similar institution designed for the confinement or rehabilitation of criminal offenders.

(2) Criminal offender

The term "criminal offender" means any individual who is charged with or convicted of any criminal offense.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §225, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1617.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Part C—Local Provisions

§3321. Grants and contracts for eligible providers

(a) Grants and contracts

From grant funds made available under section 3302(a)(1) of this title, each eligible agency shall award multiyear grants or contracts, on a competitive basis, to eligible providers within the State or outlying area to enable the eligible providers to develop, implement, and improve adult education and literacy activities within the State.

(b) Required local activities

The eligible agency shall require that each eligible provider receiving a grant or contract under subsection (a) use the grant or contract to establish or operate programs that provide adult education and literacy activities, including programs that provide such activities concurrently.

(c) Direct and equitable access; same process

Each eligible agency receiving funds under this subchapter shall ensure that—

(1) all eligible providers have direct and equitable access to apply and compete for grants or contracts under this section; and

(2) the same grant or contract announcement process and application process is used for all eligible providers in the State or outlying area.

(d) Special rule

Each eligible agency awarding a grant or contract under this section shall not use any funds made available under this subchapter for adult education and literacy activities for the purpose of supporting or providing programs, services, or activities for individuals who are not individuals described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of section 3272(4) of this title, except that such agency may use such funds for such purpose if such programs, services, or activities are related to family literacy activities. In providing family literacy activities under this subchapter, an eligible provider shall attempt to coordinate with programs and services that are not assisted under this subchapter prior to using funds for adult education and literacy activities under this subchapter for activities other than activities for eligible individuals.

(e) Considerations

In awarding grants or contracts under this section, the eligible agency shall consider—

(1) the degree to which the eligible provider would be responsive to—

(A) regional needs as identified in the local plan under section 3123 of this title; and

(B) serving individuals in the community who were identified in such plan as most in need of adult education and literacy activities, including individuals—

(i) who have low levels of literacy skills; or

(ii) who are English language learners;


(2) the ability of the eligible provider to serve eligible individuals with disabilities, including eligible individuals with learning disabilities;

(3) past effectiveness of the eligible provider in improving the literacy of eligible individuals, to meet State-adjusted levels of performance for the primary indicators of performance described in section 3141 of this title, especially with respect to eligible individuals who have low levels of literacy;

(4) the extent to which the eligible provider demonstrates alignment between proposed activities and services and the strategy and goals of the local plan under section 3123 of this title, as well as the activities and services of the one-stop partners;

(5) whether the eligible provider's program—

(A) is of sufficient intensity and quality, and based on the most rigorous research available so that participants achieve substantial learning gains; and

(B) uses instructional practices that include the essential components of reading instruction;


(6) whether the eligible provider's activities, including whether reading, writing, speaking, mathematics, and English language acquisition instruction delivered by the eligible provider, are based on the best practices derived from the most rigorous research available and appropriate, including scientifically valid research and effective educational practice;

(7) whether the eligible provider's activities effectively use technology, services, and delivery systems, including distance education in a manner sufficient to increase the amount and quality of learning and how such technology, services, and systems lead to improved performance;

(8) whether the eligible provider's activities provide learning in context, including through integrated education and training, so that an individual acquires the skills needed to transition to and complete postsecondary education and training programs, obtain and advance in employment leading to economic self-sufficiency, and to exercise the rights and responsibilities of citizenship;

(9) whether the eligible provider's activities are delivered by well-trained instructors, counselors, and administrators who meet any minimum qualifications established by the State, where applicable, and who have access to high quality professional development, including through electronic means;

(10) whether the eligible provider's activities coordinate with other available education, training, and social service resources in the community, such as by establishing strong links with elementary schools and secondary schools, postsecondary educational institutions, institutions of higher education, local workforce investment boards, one-stop centers, job training programs, and social service agencies, business, industry, labor organizations, community-based organizations, nonprofit organizations, and intermediaries, for the development of career pathways;

(11) whether the eligible provider's activities offer flexible schedules and coordination with Federal, State, and local support services (such as child care, transportation, mental health services, and career planning) that are necessary to enable individuals, including individuals with disabilities or other special needs, to attend and complete programs;

(12) whether the eligible provider maintains a high-quality information management system that has the capacity to report measurable participant outcomes (consistent with section 3141 of this title) and to monitor program performance; and

(13) whether the local areas in which the eligible provider is located have a demonstrated need for additional English language acquisition programs and civics education programs.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §231, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1618.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3322. Local application

Each eligible provider desiring a grant or contract from an eligible agency shall submit an application to the eligible agency containing such information and assurances as the eligible agency may require, including—

(1) a description of how funds awarded under this subchapter will be spent consistent with the requirements of this subchapter;

(2) a description of any cooperative arrangements the eligible provider has with other agencies, institutions, or organizations for the delivery of adult education and literacy activities;

(3) a description of how the eligible provider will provide services in alignment with the local plan under section 3123 of this title, including how such provider will promote concurrent enrollment in programs and activities under subchapter I, as appropriate;

(4) a description of how the eligible provider will meet the State adjusted levels of performance described in section 3141(b)(3) of this title, including how such provider will collect data to report on such performance indicators;

(5) a description of how the eligible provider will fulfill one-stop partner responsibilities as described in section 3151(b)(1)(A) of this title, as appropriate;

(6) a description of how the eligible provider will provide services in a manner that meets the needs of eligible individuals; and

(7) information that addresses the considerations described under section 3321(e) of this title, as applicable.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §232, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1620.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3323. Local administrative cost limits

(a) In general

Subject to subsection (b), of the amount that is made available under this subchapter to an eligible provider—

(1) not less than 95 percent shall be expended for carrying out adult education and literacy activities; and

(2) the remaining amount, not to exceed 5 percent, shall be used for planning, administration (including carrying out the requirements of section 3141 of this title), professional development, and the activities described in paragraphs (3) and (5) of section 3322 of this title.

(b) Special rule

In cases where the cost limits described in subsection (a) are too restrictive to allow for the activities described in subsection (a)(2), the eligible provider shall negotiate with the eligible agency in order to determine an adequate level of funds to be used for noninstructional purposes.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §233, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1620.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

Part D—General Provisions

§3331. Administrative provisions

(a) Supplement not supplant

Funds made available for adult education and literacy activities under this subchapter shall supplement and not supplant other State or local public funds expended for adult education and literacy activities.

(b) Maintenance of effort

(1) In general

(A) Determination

An eligible agency may receive funds under this subchapter for any fiscal year if the Secretary finds that the fiscal effort per student or the aggregate expenditures of such eligible agency for activities under this subchapter, in the second preceding fiscal year, were not less than 90 percent of the fiscal effort per student or the aggregate expenditures of such eligible agency for adult education and literacy activities in the third preceding fiscal year.

(B) Proportionate reduction

Subject to paragraphs (2), (3), and (4), for any fiscal year with respect to which the Secretary determines under subparagraph (A) that the fiscal effort or the aggregate expenditures of an eligible agency for the preceding program year were less than such effort or expenditures for the second preceding program year, the Secretary—

(i) shall determine the percentage decreases in such effort or in such expenditures; and

(ii) shall decrease the payment made under this subchapter for such program year to the agency for adult education and literacy activities by the lesser of such percentages.

(2) Computation

In computing the fiscal effort and aggregate expenditures under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall exclude capital expenditures and special one-time project costs.

(3) Decrease in Federal support

If the amount made available for adult education and literacy activities under this subchapter for a fiscal year is less than the amount made available for adult education and literacy activities under this subchapter for the preceding fiscal year, then the fiscal effort per student and the aggregate expenditures of an eligible agency required in order to avoid a reduction under paragraph (1)(B) shall be decreased by the same percentage as the percentage decrease in the amount so made available.

(4) Waiver

The Secretary may waive the requirements of this subsection for not more than 1 fiscal year, if the Secretary determines that a waiver would be equitable due to exceptional or uncontrollable circumstances, such as a natural disaster or an unforeseen and precipitous decline in the financial resources of the State or outlying area of the eligible agency. If the Secretary grants a waiver under the preceding sentence for a fiscal year, the level of effort required under paragraph (1) shall not be reduced in the subsequent fiscal year because of the waiver.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §241, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1620.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3332. National leadership activities

(a) In general

The Secretary shall establish and carry out a program of national leadership activities to enhance the quality and outcomes of adult education and literacy activities and programs nationwide.

(b) Required activities

The national leadership activities described in subsection (a) shall include technical assistance, including—

(1) assistance to help States meet the requirements of section 3141 of this title;

(2) upon request by a State, assistance provided to eligible providers in using performance accountability measures based on indicators described in section 3141 of this title, and data systems for the improvement of adult education and literacy activities;

(3) carrying out rigorous research and evaluation on effective adult education and literacy activities, as well as estimating the number of adults functioning at the lowest levels of literacy proficiency, which shall be coordinated across relevant Federal agencies, including the Institute of Education Sciences; and

(4) carrying out an independent evaluation at least once every 4 years of the programs and activities under this subchapter, taking into consideration the evaluation subjects referred to in section 3224(a)(2) of this title.

(c) Allowable activities

The national leadership activities described in subsection (a) may include the following:

(1) Technical assistance, including—

(A) assistance related to professional development activities, and assistance for the purposes of developing, improving, identifying, and disseminating the most successful methods and techniques for providing adult education and literacy activities, based on scientifically valid research where available;

(B) assistance in distance education and promoting and improving the use of technology in the classroom, including instruction in English language acquisition for English language learners;

(C) assistance in the development and dissemination of proven models for addressing the digital literacy needs of adults, including older adults; and

(D) supporting efforts aimed at strengthening programs at the State and local levels, such as technical assistance in program planning, assessment, evaluation, and monitoring of activities carried out under this subchapter.


(2) Funding national leadership activities either directly or through grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements awarded on a competitive basis to or with postsecondary educational institutions, institutions of higher education, public or private organizations or agencies (including public libraries), or consortia of such institutions, organizations, or agencies, which may include—

(A) developing, improving, and identifying the most successful methods and techniques for addressing the education needs of adults, including instructional practices using the essential components of reading instruction based on the work of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development;

(B) supporting national, regional, or local networks of private nonprofit organizations, public libraries, or institutions of higher education to strengthen the ability of such networks' members to meet the performance requirements described in section 3141 of this title of eligible providers;

(C) increasing the effectiveness, and improving the quality, of adult education and literacy activities, which may include—

(i) carrying out rigorous research;

(ii) carrying out demonstration programs;

(iii) accelerating learning outcomes for eligible individuals with the lowest literacy levels;

(iv) developing and promoting career pathways for eligible individuals;

(v) promoting concurrent enrollment programs in adult education and credit bearing postsecondary coursework;

(vi) developing high-quality professional development activities for eligible providers; and

(vii) developing, replicating, and disseminating information on best practices and innovative programs, such as—

(I) the identification of effective strategies for working with adults with learning disabilities and with adults who are English language learners;

(II) integrated education and training programs;

(III) workplace adult education and literacy activities; and

(IV) postsecondary education and training transition programs;


(D) providing for the conduct of an independent evaluation and assessment of adult education and literacy activities through grants and contracts awarded on a competitive basis, which shall include descriptions of—

(i) the effect of performance accountability measures and other measures of accountability on the delivery of adult education and literacy activities;

(ii) the extent to which the adult education and literacy activities increase the literacy skills of eligible individuals, lead to involvement in education and training, enhance the employment and earnings of such participants, and, if applicable, lead to other positive outcomes, such as success in re-entry and reductions in recidivism in the case of prison-based adult education and literacy activities;

(iii) the extent to which the provision of support services to eligible individuals enrolled in adult education and literacy activities increase the rate of enrollment in, and successful completion of, such programs; and

(iv) the extent to which different types of providers measurably improve the skills of eligible individuals in adult education and literacy activities;


(E) collecting data, such as data regarding the improvement of both local and State data systems, through technical assistance and development of model performance data collection systems;

(F) determining how participation in adult education and literacy activities prepares eligible individuals for entry into postsecondary education and employment and, in the case of programs carried out in correctional institutions, has an effect on recidivism; and

(G) other activities designed to enhance the quality of adult education and literacy activities nationwide.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §242, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1621.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.

§3333. Integrated English literacy and civics education

(a) In general

From funds made available under section 3291(a)(2) of this title for each fiscal year, the Secretary shall award grants to States, from allotments under subsection (b), for integrated English literacy and civics education, in combination with integrated education and training activities.

(b) Allotment

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), from amounts made available under section 3291(a)(2) of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allocate—

(A) 65 percent to the States on the basis of a State's need for integrated English literacy and civics education, as determined by calculating each State's share of a 10-year average of the data of the Office of Immigration Statistics of the Department of Homeland Security for immigrants admitted for legal permanent residence for the 10 most recent years; and

(B) 35 percent to the States on the basis of whether the State experienced growth, as measured by the average of the 3 most recent years for which the data of the Office of Immigration Statistics of the Department of Homeland Security for immigrants admitted for legal permanent residence are available.

(2) Minimum

No State shall receive an allotment under paragraph (1) in an amount that is less than $60,000.

(c) Goal

Each program that receives funding under this section shall be designed to—

(1) prepare adults who are English language learners for, and place such adults in, unsubsidized employment in in-demand industries and occupations that lead to economic self-sufficiency; and

(2) integrate with the local workforce development system and its functions to carry out the activities of the program.

(d) Report

The Secretary shall prepare and submit to the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and make available to the public, a report on the activities carried out under this section.

(Pub. L. 113–128, title II, §243, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1623.)

Change of Name

Committee on Education and the Workforce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Education and Labor of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Sixteenth Congress, Jan. 9, 2019.

Effective Date

Section effective on the first day of the first full program year after July 22, 2014 (July 1, 2015), see section 506 of Pub. L. 113–128, set out as a note under section 3101 of this title.