[USC02] 30 USC CHAPTER 22, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL
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30 USC CHAPTER 22, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL
From Title 30—MINERAL LANDS AND MININGCHAPTER 22—MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL

§811. Mandatory safety and health standards

(a) Development, promulgation, and revision

The Secretary shall by rule in accordance with procedures set forth in this section and in accordance with section 553 of title 5 (without regard to any reference in such section to sections 556 and 557 of such title), develop, promulgate, and revise as may be appropriate, improved mandatory health or safety standards for the protection of life and prevention of injuries in coal or other mines.

(1) Whenever the Secretary, upon the basis of information submitted to him in writing by an interested person, a representative of any organization of employers or employees, a nationally recognized standards-producing organization, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, or a State or political subdivision, or on the basis of information developed by the Secretary or otherwise available to him, determines that a rule should be promulgated in order to serve the objectives of this chapter, the Secretary may request the recommendation of an advisory committee appointed under section 812(c) of this title. The Secretary shall provide such an advisory committee with any proposals of his own or of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, together with all pertinent factual information developed by the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services, or otherwise available, including the results of research, demonstrations, and experiments. An advisory committee shall submit to the Secretary its recommendations regarding the rule to be promulgated within 60 days from the date of its appointment or within such longer or shorter period as may be prescribed by the Secretary, but in no event for a period which is longer than 180 days. When the Secretary receives a recommendation, accompanied by appropriate criteria, from the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health that a rule be promulgated, modified, or revoked, the Secretary must, within 60 days after receipt thereof, refer such recommendation to an advisory committee pursuant to this paragraph, or publish such as a proposed rule pursuant to paragraph (2), or publish in the Federal Register his determination not to do so, and his reasons therefor. The Secretary shall be required to request the recommendations of an advisory committee appointed under section 812(c) of this title if the rule to be promulgated is, in the discretion of the Secretary which shall be final, new in effect or application and has significant economic impact.

(2) The Secretary shall publish a proposed rule promulgating, modifying, or revoking a mandatory health or safety standard in the Federal Register. If the Secretary determines that a rule should be proposed and in connection therewith has appointed an advisory committee as provided by paragraph (1), the Secretary shall publish a proposed rule, or the reasons for his determination not to publish such rule, within 60 days following the submission of the advisory committee's recommendation or the expiration of the period of time prescribed by the Secretary in such submission. In either event, the Secretary shall afford interested persons a period of 30 days after any such publication to submit written data or comments on the proposed rule. Such comment period may be extended by the Secretary upon a finding of good cause, which the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register. Publication shall include the text of such rules proposed in their entirety, a comparative text of the proposed changes in existing rules, and shall include a comprehensive index to the rules, cross-referenced by subject matter.

(3) On or before the last day of the period provided for the submission of written data or comments under paragraph (2), any interested person may file with the Secretary written objections to the proposed mandatory health or safety standard, stating the grounds therefor and requesting a public hearing on such objections. Within 60 days after the last day for filing such objections, the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register a notice specifying the mandatory health or safety standard to which objections have been filed and a hearing requested, and specifying a time and place for such hearing. Any hearing under this subsection for the purpose of hearing relevant information shall commence within 60 days after the date of publication of the notice of hearing. Hearings required by this subsection shall be conducted by the Secretary, who may prescribe rules and make rulings concerning procedures in such hearings to avoid unnecessary cost or delay. Subject to the need to avoid undue delay, the Secretary shall provide for procedures that will afford interested parties the right to participate in the hearing, including the right to present oral statements and to offer written comments and data. The Secretary may require by subpoena the attendance of witnesses and the production of evidence in connection with any proceeding initiated under this section. If a person refuses to obey a subpoena under this subsection, a United States district court within the jurisdiction of which a proceeding under this subsection is conducted may, upon petition by the Secretary, issue an order requiring compliance with such subpoena. A transcript shall be taken of any such hearing and shall be available to the public.

(4)(A) Within 90 days after certification of the record of the hearing held pursuant to paragraph (3), the Secretary shall by rule promulgate, modify, or revoke such mandatory health or safety standards, and publish his reasons therefor.

(B) In the case of a proposed mandatory health or safety standard to which objections requesting a public hearing have not been filed, the Secretary, within 90 days after the period for filing such objections has expired, shall by rule promulgate, modify, or revoke such mandatory standards, and publish his reasons therefor.

(C) In the event the Secretary determines that a proposed mandatory health or safety standard should not be promulgated he shall, within the times specified in subparagraphs (A) and (B) publish his reasons for his determination.

(5) Any mandatory health or safety standard promulgated as a final rule under this section shall be effective upon publication in the Federal Register unless the Secretary specifies a later date.

(6)(A) The Secretary, in promulgating mandatory standards dealing with toxic materials or harmful physical agents under this subsection, shall set standards which most adequately assure on the basis of the best available evidence that no miner will suffer material impairment of health or functional capacity even if such miner has regular exposure to the hazards dealt with by such standard for the period of his working life. Development of mandatory standards under this subsection shall be based upon research, demonstrations, experiments, and such other information as may be appropriate. In addition to the attainment of the highest degree of health and safety protection for the miner, other considerations shall be the latest available scientific data in the field, the feasibility of the standards, and experience gained under this and other health and safety laws. Whenever practicable, the mandatory health or safety standard promulgated shall be expressed in terms of objective criteria and of the performance desired.

(B) The Secretary of Health and Human Services, as soon as possible after November 9, 1977, but in no event later than 18 months after such date and on a continuing basis thereafter, shall, for each toxic material or harmful physical agent which is used or found in a mine, determine whether such material or agent is potentially toxic at the concentrations in which it is used or found in a mine. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall submit such determinations with respect to such toxic substances or harmful physical agents to the Secretary. Thereafter, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall submit to the Secretary all pertinent criteria regarding any such substances determined to be toxic or any such harmful agents as such criteria are developed. Within 60 days after receiving any criteria in accordance with the preceding sentence relating to a toxic material or harmful physical agent which is not adequately covered by a mandatory health or safety standard promulgated under this section, the Secretary shall either appoint an advisory committee to make recommendations with respect to a mandatory health or safety standard covering such material or agent in accordance with paragraph (1), or publish a proposed rule promulgating such a mandatory health or safety standard in accordance with paragraph (2), or shall publish his determination not to do so.

(7) Any mandatory health or safety standard promulgated under this subsection shall prescribe the use of labels or other appropriate forms of warning as are necessary to insure that miners are apprised of all hazards to which they are exposed, relevant symptoms and appropriate emergency treatment, and proper conditions and precautions of safe use or exposure. Where appropriate, such mandatory standard shall also prescribe suitable protective equipment and control or technological procedures to be used in connection with such hazards and shall provide for monitoring or measuring miner exposure at such locations and intervals, and in such manner so as to assure the maximum protection of miners. In addition, where appropriate, any such mandatory standard shall prescribe the type and frequency of medical examinations or other tests which shall be made available, by the operator at his cost, to miners exposed to such hazards in order to most effectively determine whether the health of such miners is adversely affected by such exposure. Where appropriate, the mandatory standard shall provide that where a determination is made that a miner may suffer material impairment of health or functional capacity by reason of exposure to the hazard covered by such mandatory standard, that miner shall be removed from such exposure and reassigned. Any miner transferred as a result of such exposure shall continue to receive compensation for such work at no less than the regular rate of pay for miners in the classification such miner held immediately prior to his transfer. In the event of the transfer of a miner pursuant to the preceding sentence, increases in wages of the transferred miner shall be based upon the new work classification. In the event such medical examinations are in the nature of research, as determined by the Secretary of Health and Human Services, such examinations may be furnished at the expense of the Secretary of Health and Human Services. The results of examinations or tests made pursuant to the preceding sentence shall be furnished only to the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and, at the request of the miner, to his designated physician.

(8) The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, promulgate separate mandatory health or safety standards applicable to mine construction activity on the surface.

(9) No mandatory health or safety standard promulgated under this subchapter shall reduce the protection afforded miners by an existing mandatory health or safety standard.

(b) Emergency temporary mandatory standards

(1) The Secretary shall provide, without regard to the requirements of chapter 5 of title 5 for an emergency temporary mandatory health or safety standard to take immediate effect upon publication in the Federal Register if he determines (A) that miners are exposed to grave danger from exposure to substances or agents determined to be toxic or physically harmful, or to other hazards, and (B) that such emergency standard is necessary to protect miners from such danger.

(2) A temporary mandatory health or safety standard shall be effective until superseded by a mandatory standard promulgated in accordance with the procedures prescribed in paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(3) Upon publication of such standard in the Federal Register, the Secretary shall commence a proceeding in accordance with subsection (a), and the standards as published shall also serve as a proposed rule for the proceeding. The Secretary shall promulgate a mandatory health or safety standard under this paragraph no later than nine months after publication of the emergency temporary standard as provided in paragraph (2).

(c) Modification of standards

Upon petition by the operator or the representative of miners, the Secretary may modify the application of any mandatory safety standard to a coal or other mine if the Secretary determines that an alternative method of achieving the result of such standard exists which will at all times guarantee no less than the same measure of protection afforded the miners of such mine by such standard, or that the application of such standard to such mine will result in a diminution of safety to the miners in such mine. Upon receipt of such petition the Secretary shall publish notice thereof and give notice to the operator or the representative of miners in the affected mine, as appropriate, and shall cause such investigation to be made as he deems appropriate. Such investigation shall provide an opportunity for a public hearing at the request of such operator or representative or other interested party, to enable the operator or the representative of miners in such mine or other interested party to present information relating to the modification of such standard. Before granting any exception to a mandatory safety standard, the findings of the Secretary or his authorized representative shall be made public and shall be available to the representative of the miners at the affected mine. The Secretary shall issue a decision incorporating his findings of fact therein, and send a copy thereof to the operator or the representative of the miners, as appropriate. Any such hearing shall be of record and shall be subject to section 554 of title 5.

(d) Judicial review

Any person who may be adversely affected by a mandatory health or safety standard promulgated under this section may, at any time prior to the sixtieth day after such standard is promulgated, file a petition challenging the validity of such mandatory standard with the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit or the circuit wherein such person resides or has his principal place of business, for a judicial review of such standard. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Secretary. The filing of such petition shall not, unless otherwise ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the standard. No objection that has not been urged before the Secretary shall be considered by the court, unless the failure or neglect to urge such objection shall be excused for good cause shown. The validity of any mandatory health or safety standard shall not be subject to challenge on the grounds that any of the time limitations in this section have been exceeded. The procedures of this subsection shall be the exclusive means of challenging the validity of a mandatory health or safety standard.

(e) Distribution of copies of proposed standards or regulations

The Secretary shall send a copy of every proposed mandatory health or safety standard or regulation at the time of publication in the Federal Register to the operator of each coal or other mine and the representative of the miners at such mine and such copy shall be immediately posted on the bulletin board of the mine by the operator or his agent, but failure to receive such notice shall not relieve anyone of the obligation to comply with such standard or regulation.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §101, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 745; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1291; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions revising and setting out in detail the procedures to be followed by the Secretary of Labor in developing, promulgating, and revising mandatory health and safety standards covering coal and other mines for provisions which had charged the Secretary of the Interior with the responsibility of developing standards for the protection of life and the prevention of injuries in coal mines.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to emergency temporary mandatory standards for provisions requiring that improved standards not reduce the previously existing level of health and safety in coal mines.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to the modification of standards for provisions covering the consultative and research steps in the promulgation of safety standards.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to judicial review of standards for provisions covering the consultative and research steps in the promulgation of health standards.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (k) as (e) and substituted "proposed mandatory health or safety standard or regulation" for "proposed standard or regulation" and "coal or other mine" for "coal mine".

Subsecs. (f) to (j). Pub. L. 95–164 struck out subsecs. (f) to (j) which had related to the submission of objections to proposed standards, hearings, the effective date of standards, mandatory standards for surface coal mines, and the publication of pre-existing consistent regulations in the Federal Register and the continuing effectiveness of those regulations until modified or superseded, and incorporated those provisions, as altered to apply to coal and other mines and as otherwise revised, into subsec. (a).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (k) as (e).

Change of Name

"Secretary of Health and Human Services" substituted for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare" in subsec. (a)(1), (6)(B), and (7) pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Sealing of Abandoned Areas

Pub. L. 109–236, §10, June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 501, provided that:"Not later than 18 months after the issuance by the Mine Safety and Health Administration of a final report on the Sago Mine accident or the date of enactment of the Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 [June 15, 2006], whichever occurs earlier, the Secretary of Labor shall finalize mandatory heath and safety standards relating to the sealing of abandoned areas in underground coal mines. Such health and safety standards shall provide for an increase in the 20 psi standard currently set forth in section 75.335(a)(2) of title 30, Code of Federal Regulations."

§812. Advisory committees

(a) Committee on coal or other mine safety research; establishment; membership; chairman; functions; conflicts of interest

(1) The Secretary of the Interior shall appoint an advisory committee on coal or other mine safety research composed of—

(A) the Director of the Office of Science and Technology or his delegate, with the consent of the Director;

(B) the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce, or his delegate, with the consent of the Director;

(C) the Director of the National Science Foundation, or his delegate, with the consent of the Director; and

(D) such other persons as the Secretary of the Interior may appoint who are knowledgeable in the field of coal or other mine safety research.


The Secretary of the Interior shall designate the chairman of the committee.

(2) The advisory committee shall consult with, and make recommendations to, the Secretary of the Interior on matters involving or relating to coal or other mine safety research. The Secretary of the Interior shall consult with, and consider the recommendations of, such committee in the conduct of such research, the making of any grants, and the entering into of contracts for such research.

(3) The chairman of the committee and a majority of the persons appointed by the Secretary of the Interior pursuant to paragraph (1)(D) shall be individuals who have no economic interests in the coal or other mining industry, and who are not operators, miners, or officers or employees of the Federal Government or any State or local government.

(b) Committee on coal or other mine health research; establishment; membership; chairman; functions; conflicts of interest

(1) The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall appoint an advisory committee on coal or other mine health research composed of—

(A) the Director, United States Bureau of Mines, or his delegate, with the consent of the Director;

(B) the Director of the National Science Foundation, or his delegate, with the consent of the Director;

(C) the Director of the National Institutes of Health, or his delegate, with the consent of the Director; and

(D) such other persons as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may appoint who are knowledgeable in the field of coal or other mine health research.


The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall designate the chairman of the committee.

(2) The advisory committee shall consult with, and make recommendations to, the Secretary of Health and Human Services on matters involving or relating to coal or other mine health research. The Secretary of Health and Human Services shall consult with, and consider the recommendations of, such committee in the conduct of such research, the making of any grants, and the entering into of contracts for such research.

(3) The chairman of the committee and a majority of the persons appointed by the Secretary of Health and Human Services pursuant to paragraph (1)(D) shall be individuals who have no economic interests in the coal or other mining industry, and who are not operators, miners, or officers or employees of the Federal Government or any State or local government.

(c) Additional advisory committees; chairman; conflicts of interest

The Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services may appoint other advisory committees as he deems appropriate to advise him in carrying out the provisions of this chapter. The Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services, as the case may be, shall appoint the chairman of each such committee. A majority of the members (including the chairman) of any such advisory committee appointed pursuant to this subsection shall be composed of individuals who have no economic interests in the coal or other mining industry, and who are not operators, miners, or officers or employees of the Federal Government or any State or local government.

(d) Compensation; travel and subsistence expenses

Advisory committee members, other than officers or employees of Federal, State, or local governments, shall be, for each day (including traveltime) during which they are performing committee business, entitled to receive compensation at a rate fixed by the appropriate Secretary but not in excess of the maximum rate of pay for grade GS–18 as provided in the General Schedule under section 5332 of title 5, and shall, notwithstanding the limitations of sections 5703 and 5704 of title 5, be fully reimbursed for travel, subsistence, and related expenses.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §102, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 747; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1295; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 100–418, title V, §5115(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1433; Pub. L. 102–285, §10(b), May 18, 1992, 106 Stat. 172.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (a)(1)(B). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "National Institute of Standards and Technology" for "National Bureau of Standards".

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–164 expanded the area of coverage for the committee on mine safety research from "coal mines" to "coal or other mines".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–164 expanded the area of coverage for the advisory committee on mine health research from "coal mines" to "coal or other mines".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–164 struck out ", who shall be an individual who has no economic interest in the coal mining industry, and who is not an operator, miner, or an officer or employee of the Federal Government or any State or local government" after "chairman of each such committee" and inserted "(including the chairman)" after "A majority of the members".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–164 reenacted subsec. (d) without change.

Change of Name

"United States Bureau of Mines" substituted for "Bureau of Mines" in subsec. (b)(1)(A) pursuant to section 10(b) of Pub. L. 102–285, set out as a note under section 1 of this title. For provisions relating to closure and transfer of functions of the United States Bureau of Mines, see Transfer of Functions note set out under section 1 of this title.

"Secretary of Health and Human Services" substituted for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare" in subsecs. (b) and (c) pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

Functions vested by law in Office of Science and Technology and in Director or Deputy Director of Office of Science and Technology transferred to Director of National Science Foundation, and Office of Science and Technology, including offices of Director and Deputy Director, provided for by sections 1 and 2 of Reorg. Plan No. 2, of 1962, eff. June 8, 1962, 27 F.R. 5419, 76 Stat. 1253, abolished by sections 2 and 3(a)(5) of Reorg. Plan No. 1 of 1973, eff. July 1, 1973, 38 F.R. 9579, 87 Stat. 1089, both set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§813. Inspections, investigations, and recordkeeping

(a) Purposes; advance notice; frequency; guidelines; right of access

Authorized representatives of the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall make frequent inspections and investigations in coal or other mines each year for the purpose of (1) obtaining, utilizing, and disseminating information relating to health and safety conditions, the causes of accidents, and the causes of diseases and physical impairments originating in such mines, (2) gathering information with respect to mandatory health or safety standards, (3) determining whether an imminent danger exists, and (4) determining whether there is compliance with the mandatory health or safety standards or with any citation, order, or decision issued under this subchapter or other requirements of this chapter. In carrying out the requirements of this subsection, no advance notice of an inspection shall be provided to any person, except that in carrying out the requirements of clauses (1) and (2) of this subsection, the Secretary of Health and Human Services may give advance notice of inspections. In carrying out the requirements of clauses (3) and (4) of this subsection, the Secretary shall make inspections of each underground coal or other mine in its entirety at least four times a year, and of each surface coal or other mine in its entirety at least two times a year. The Secretary shall develop guidelines for additional inspections of mines based on criteria including, but not limited to, the hazards found in mines subject to this chapter, and his experience under this chapter and other health and safety laws. For the purpose of making any inspection or investigation under this chapter, the Secretary, or the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with respect to fulfilling his responsibilities under this chapter, or any authorized representative of the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall have a right of entry to, upon, or through any coal or other mine.

(b) Notice and hearing; subpoenas; witnesses; contempt

For the purpose of making any investigation of any accident or other occurrence relating to health or safety in a coal or other mine, the Secretary may, after notice, hold public hearings, and may sign and issue subpoenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents, and administer oaths. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpoena served upon any person under this section, the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Secretary or to appear and produce documents before the Secretary, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(c) Records of employee exposure to toxic materials or harmful physical agents; undue exposure

The Secretary, in cooperation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall issue regulations requiring operators to maintain accurate records of employee exposures to potentially toxic materials or harmful physical agents which are required to be monitored or measured under any applicable mandatory health or safety standard promulgated under this chapter. Such regulations shall provide miners or their representatives with an opportunity to observe such monitoring or measuring, and to have access to the records thereof. Such regulations shall also make appropriate provisions for each miner or former miner to have access to such records as will indicate his own exposure to toxic materials or harmful physical agents. Each operator shall promptly notify any miner who has been or is being exposed to toxic materials or harmful physical agents in concentrations or at levels which exceed those prescribed by an applicable mandatory health or safety standard promulgated under section 811 of this title, or mandated under subchapter II, and shall inform any miner who is being thus exposed of the corrective action being taken.

(d) Accident investigations; records

All accidents, including unintentional roof falls (except in any abandoned panels or in areas which are inaccessible or unsafe for inspections), shall be investigated by the operator or his agent to determine the cause and the means of preventing a recurrence. Records of such accidents and investigations shall be kept and the information shall be made available to the Secretary or his authorized representative and the appropriate State agency. Such records shall be open for inspection by interested persons. Such records shall include man-hours worked and shall be reported at a frequency determined by the Secretary, but at least annually.

(e) Collecting information without unreasonable burden on operators

Any information obtained by the Secretary or by the Secretary of Health and Human Services under this chapter shall be obtained in such a manner as not to impose an unreasonable burden upon operators, especially those operating small businesses, consistent with the underlying purposes of this chapter. Unnecessary duplication of effort in obtaining information shall be reduced to the maximum extent feasible.

(f) Participation of representatives of operators and miners in inspections

Subject to regulations issued by the Secretary, a representative of the operator and a representative authorized by his miners shall be given an opportunity to accompany the Secretary or his authorized representative during the physical inspection of any coal or other mine made pursuant to the provisions of subsection (a), for the purpose of aiding such inspection and to participate in pre- or post-inspection conferences held at the mine. Where there is no authorized miner representative, the Secretary or his authorized representative shall consult with a reasonable number of miners concerning matters of health and safety in such mine. Such representative of miners who is also an employee of the operator shall suffer no loss of pay during the period of his participation in the inspection made under this subsection. To the extent that the Secretary or authorized representative of the Secretary determines that more than one representative from each party would further aid the inspection, he can permit each party to have an equal number of such additional representatives. However, only one such representative of miners who is an employee of the operator shall be entitled to suffer no loss of pay during the period of such participation under the provisions of this subsection. Compliance with this subsection shall not be a jurisdictional prerequisite to the enforcement of any provision of this chapter.

(g) Immediate inspection; notice of violation or danger; determination

(1) Whenever a repersentative 1 of the miners or a miner in the case of a coal or other mine where there is no such representative has reasonable grounds to believe that a violation of this chapter or a mandatory health or safety standard exists, or an imminent danger exists, such miner or representative shall have a right to obtain an immediate inspection by giving notice to the Secretary or his authorized representative of such violation or danger. Any such notice shall be reduced to writing, signed by the representative of the miners or by the miner, and a copy shall be provided the operator or his agent no later than at the time of inspection, except that the operator or his agent shall be notified forthwith if the complaint indicates that an imminent danger exists. The name of the person giving such notice and the names of individual miners referred to therein shall not appear in such copy or notification. Upon receipt of such notification, a special inspection shall be made as soon as possible to determine if such violation or danger exists in accordance with the provisions of this subchapter. If the Secretary determines that a violation or danger does not exist, he shall notify the miner or representative of the miners in writing of such determination.

(2) Prior to or during any inspection of a coal or other mine, any representative of miners or a miner in the case of a coal or other mine where there is no such representative, may notify the Secretary or any representative of the Secretary responsible for conducting the inspection, in writing, of any violation of this chapter or of any imminent danger which he has reason to believe exists in such mine. The Secretary shall, by regulation, establish procedures for informal review of any refusal by a representative of the Secretary to issue a citation with respect to any such alleged violation or order with respect to such danger and shall furnish the representative of miners or miner requesting such review a written statement of the reasons for the Secretary's final disposition of the case.

(h) Records and reports; compilation and publication; availability

In addition to such records as are specifically required by this chapter, every operator of a coal or other mine shall establish and maintain such records, make such reports, and provide such information, as the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services may reasonably require from time to time to enable him to perform his functions under this chapter. The Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services is authorized to compile, analyze, and publish, either in summary or detailed form, such reports or information so obtained. Except to the extent otherwise specifically provided by this chapter, all records, information, reports, findings, citations, notices, orders, or decisions required or issued pursuant to or under this chapter may be published from time to time, may be released to any interested person, and shall be made available for public inspection.

(i) Spot inspections

Whenever the Secretary finds that a coal or other mine liberates excessive quantities of methane or other explosive gases during its operations, or that a methane or other gas ignition or explosion has occurred in such mine which resulted in death or serious injury at any time during the previous five years, or that there exists in such mine some other especially hazardous condition, he shall provide a minimum of one spot inspection by his authorized representative of all or part of such mine during every five working days at irregular intervals. For purposes of this subsection, "liberation of excessive quantities of methane or other explosive gases" shall mean liberation of more than one million cubic feet of methane or other explosive gases during a 24-hour period. When the Secretary finds that a coal or other mine liberates more than five hundred thousand cubic feet of methane or other explosive gases during a 24-hour period, he shall provide a minimum of one spot inspection by his authorized representative of all or part of such mine every 10 working days at irregular intervals. When the Secretary finds that a coal or other mine liberates more than two hundred thousand cubic feet of methane or other explosive gases during a 24-hour period, he shall provide a minimum of one spot inspection by his authorized representative of all or part of such mine every 15 working days at irregular intervals.

(j) Accident notification; rescue and recovery activities

In the event of any accident occurring in any coal or other mine, the operator shall notify the Secretary thereof and shall take appropriate measures to prevent the destruction of any evidence which would assist in investigating the cause or causes thereof. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the notification required shall be provided by the operator within 15 minutes of the time at which the operator realizes that the death of an individual at the mine, or an injury or entrapment of an individual at the mine which has a reasonable potential to cause death, has occurred. In the event of any accident occurring in a coal or other mine, where rescue and recovery work is necessary, the Secretary or an authorized representative of the Secretary shall take whatever action he deems appropriate to protect the life of any person, and he may, if he deems it appropriate, supervise and direct the rescue and recovery activities in such mine.

(k) Safety orders; recovery plans

In the event of any accident occurring in a coal or other mine, an authorized representative of the Secretary, when present, may issue such orders as he deems appropriate to insure the safety of any person in the coal or other mine, and the operator of such mine shall obtain the approval of such representative, in consultation with appropriate State representatives, when feasible, of any plan to recover any person in such mine or to recover the coal or other mine or return affected areas of such mine to normal.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §103, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 749; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1297; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 109–236, §5(a), June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 498.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (c), and (e) to (h), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–236 inserted second sentence.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–164 inserted provisions authorizing representatives of the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare to make inspections, expanded the area of inspection and investigation to include mines other than coal mines, inserted provisions requiring the inspection of surface mines at least two times a year, inserted provisions requiring the development of guidelines for additional inspections of mines, and inserted provisions, formerly contained in subsec. (b), authorizing the entry to, upon, or through, any coal or other mine for the purpose of making inspection or investigation.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (d) as (b) and substituted "coal or other mine" for "coal mine". Provisions of former subsec. (b) were incorporated into subsec. (a).

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsecs. (c) to (e), struck out former subsec. (c) which provided for the utilization of facilities and personnel of other Federal agencies, and redesignated former subsecs. (d) and (e) as (b) and (j), respectively.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (h) as (f), inserted provision for a representative of the operator to accompany the Secretary or his representative in the physical inspection of a mine, extended the provisions to cover mines other than coal mines, and inserted provisions relating to the choice of the authorized representative of the miners, the representative's duties, and the choice of more than one representative. Former subsec. (f) redesignated (k).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–164 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted provisions to par. (1) as so designated which extended the right to an immediate inspection to individual miners when there is no representative of the miners, provided for immediate notification to the mine operator or his agent if the complaint indicates that the danger is imminent, kept the name of the person giving the notice and the names of the individual miners off the copy or notification, and required the Secretary to notify the miners or their representatives if he determines that a violation or danger does not exist, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsec. (h). The provisions of former subsec. (h), relating to the right of the miners' representative to accompany the authorized representative of the Secretary on the inspection, were incorporated into subsec. (f).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–164 inserted definition of "liberation of excessive quantities of methane or other explosive gases" and inserted provisions for a reduced schedule of one spot inspections in mines with liberation rates for methane or other explosive gases lower than that required to qualify as "excessive".

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated former subsecs. (e) and (f) as (j) and (k), respectively.

Change of Name

"Secretary of Health and Human Services" substituted for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare" in subsecs. (a), (c), (e), and (h) pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "representative".

§814. Citations and orders

(a) Issuance and form of citations; prompt issuance

If, upon inspection or investigation, the Secretary or his authorized representative believes that an operator of a coal or other mine subject to this chapter has violated this chapter, or any mandatory health or safety standard, rule, order, or regulation promulgated pursuant to this chapter, he shall, with reasonable promptness, issue a citation to the operator. Each citation shall be in writing and shall describe with particularity the nature of the violation, including a reference to the provision of the chapter, standard, rule, regulation, or order alleged to have been violated. In addition, the citation shall fix a reasonable time for the abatement of the violation. The requirement for the issuance of a citation with reasonable promptness shall not be a jurisdictional prerequisite to the enforcement of any provision of this chapter.

(b) Follow-up inspections; findings

If, upon any follow-up inspection of a coal or other mine, an authorized representative of the Secretary finds (1) that a violation described in a citation issued pursuant to subsection (a) has not been totally abated within the period of time as originally fixed therein or as subsequently extended, and (2) that the period of time for the abatement should not be further extended, he shall determine the extent of the area affected by the violation and shall promptly issue an order requiring the operator of such mine or his agent to immediately cause all persons, except those persons referred to in subsection (c), to be withdrawn from, and to be prohibited from entering, such area until an authorized representative of the Secretary determines that such violation has been abated.

(c) Exempt persons

The following persons shall not be required to be withdrawn from, or prohibited from entering, any area of the coal or other mine subject to an order issued under this section:

(1) any person whose presence in such area is necessary, in the judgment of the operator or an authorized representative of the Secretary, to eliminate the condition described in the order;

(2) any public official whose official duties require him to enter such area;

(3) any representative of the miners in such mine who is, in the judgment of the operator or an authorized representative of the Secretary, qualified to make such mine examinations or who is accompanied by such a person and whose presence in such area is necessary for the investigation of the conditions described in the order; and

(4) any consultant to any of the foregoing.

(d) Findings of violations; withdrawal order

(1) If, upon any inspection of a coal or other mine, an authorized representative of the Secretary finds that there has been a violation of any mandatory health or safety standard, and if he also finds that, while the conditions created by such violation do not cause imminent danger, such violation is of such nature as could significantly and substantially contribute to the cause and effect of a coal or other mine safety or health hazard, and if he finds such violation to be caused by an unwarrantable failure of such operator to comply with such mandatory health or safety standards, he shall include such finding in any citation given to the operator under this chapter. If, during the same inspection or any subsequent inspection of such mine within 90 days after the issuance of such citation, an authorized representative of the Secretary finds another violation of any mandatory health or safety standard and finds such violation to be also caused by an unwarrantable failure of such operator to so comply, he shall forthwith issue an order requiring the operator to cause all persons in the area affected by such violation, except those persons referred to in subsection (c) to be withdrawn from, and to be prohibited from entering, such area until an authorized representative of the Secretary determines that such violation has been abated.

(2) If a withdrawal order with respect to any area in a coal or other mine has been issued pursuant to paragraph (1), a withdrawal order shall promptly be issued by an authorized representative of the Secretary who finds upon any subsequent inspection the existence in such mine of violations similar to those that resulted in the issuance of the withdrawal order under paragraph (1) until such time as an inspection of such mine discloses no similar violations. Following an inspection of such mine which discloses no similar violations, the provisions of paragraph (1) shall again be applicable to that mine.

(e) Pattern of violations; abatement; termination of pattern

(1) If an operator has a pattern of violations of mandatory health or safety standards in the coal or other mine which are of such nature as could have significantly and substantially contributed to the cause and effect of coal or other mine health or safety hazards, he shall be given written notice that such pattern exists. If, upon any inspection within 90 days after the issuance of such notice, an authorized representative of the Secretary finds any violation of a mandatory health or safety standard which could significantly and substantially contribute to the cause and effect of a coal or other mine safety or health hazard, the authorized representative shall issue an order requiring the operator to cause all persons in the area affected by such violation, except those persons referred to in subsection (c), to be withdrawn from, and to be prohibited from entering, such area until an authorized representative of the Secretary determines that such violation has been abated.

(2) If a withdrawal order with respect to any area in a coal or other mine has been issued pursuant to paragraph (1), a withdrawal order shall be issued by an authorized representative of the Secretary who finds upon any subsequent inspection the existence in such mine of any violation of a mandatory health or safety standard which could significantly and substantially contribute to the cause and effect of a coal or other mine health or safety hazard. The withdrawal order shall remain in effect until an authorized representative of the Secretary determines that such violation has been abated.

(3) If, upon an inspection of the entire coal or other mine, an authorized representative of the Secretary finds no violations of mandatory health or safety standards that could significantly and substantially contribute to the cause and effect of a coal or other mine health and safety hazard, the pattern of violations that resulted in the issuance of a notice under paragraph (1) shall be deemed to be terminated and the provisions of paragraphs (1) and (2) shall no longer apply. However, if as a result of subsequent violations, the operator reestablishes a pattern of violations, paragraphs (1) and (2) shall again be applicable to such operator.

(4) The Secretary shall make such rules as he deems necessary to establish criteria for determining when a pattern of violations of mandatory health or safety standards exists.

(f) Respirable dust concentrations; dust control person or team

If, based upon samples taken, analyzed, and recorded pursuant to section 842(a) of this title, or samples taken during an inspection by an authorized representative of the Secretary, the applicable limit on the concentration of respirable dust required to be maintained under this chapter is exceeded and thereby violated, the Secretary or his authorized representative shall issue a citation fixing a reasonable time for the abatement of the violation. During such time, the operator of the mine shall cause samples described in section 842(a) of this title to be taken of the affected area during each production shift. If, upon the expiration of the period of time as originally fixed or subsequently extended, the Secretary or his authorized representative finds that the period of time should not be further extended, he shall determine the extent of the area affected by the violation and shall promptly issue an order requiring the operator of such mine or his agent to cause immediately all persons, except those referred to in subsection (c), to be withdrawn from, and to be prohibited from entering, such area until the Secretary or his authorized representative has reason to believe, based on actions taken by the operator, that such limit will be complied with upon the resumption of production in such mine. As soon as possible after an order is issued, the Secretary, upon request of the operator, shall dispatch to the mine involved a person, or team of persons, to the extent such persons are available, who are knowledgeable in the methods and means of controlling and reducing respirable dust. Such person or team of persons shall remain at the mine involved for such time as they shall deem appropriate to assist the operator in reducing respirable dust concentrations. While at the mine, such persons may require the operator to take such actions as they deem appropriate to insure the health of any person in the coal or other mine.

(g) Untrained miners

(1) If, upon any inspection or investigation pursuant to section 813 of this title, the Secretary or an authorized representative shall find employed at a coal or other mine a miner who has not received the requisite safety training as determined under section 825 of this title, the Secretary or an authorized representative shall issue an order under this section which declares such miner to be a hazard to himself and to others, and requiring that such miner be immediately withdrawn from the coal or other mine, and be prohibited from entering such mine until an authorized representative of the Secretary determines that such miner has received the training required by section 825 of this title.

(2) No miner who is ordered withdrawn from a coal or other mine under paragraph (1) shall be discharged or otherwise discriminated against because of such order; and no miner who is ordered withdrawn from a coal or other mine under paragraph (1) shall suffer a loss of compensation during the period necessary for such miner to receive such training and for an authorized representative of the Secretary to determine that such miner has received the requisite training.

(h) Duration of citations and orders

Any citation or order issued under this section shall remain in effect until modified, terminated or vacated by the Secretary or his authorized representative, or modified, terminated or vacated by the Commission or the courts pursuant to section 815 or 816 of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §104, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 750; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1300.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d)(1), and (f), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions directing the Secretary to issue a citation to the operator based upon the belief of the Secretary or his authorized representative, after inspection or investigation, that there has been a violation of this chapter or any mandatory health or safety standard, rule, order, or regulation for provisions that had related to the issuance of a withdrawal order upon a finding that an imminent danger existed.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions setting out the steps to be taken if, upon any follow-up inspection of a coal or other mine, the authorized representative of the Secretary finds that a citation violation has not been abated and that the time for abatement should not be extended for provisions that had set out the steps to be taken in the case of a violation that did not create an imminent danger.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (d) as (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (c) as (d) and substituted reference to "citation" for reference to "notice". Former subsec. (d) redesignated (c).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to the steps to be taken if an operator has a pattern of violations of mandatory health or safety standards for provisions setting out the requisites of notices and orders issued pursuant to this section.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (i) as (f). Former subsec. (f), relating to the delivery of notices and orders issued under this section, was incorporated into subsec. (a).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsec. (g). Former subsec. (g), relating to the modification and termination of notice, was incorporated into subsec. (h).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsec. (h). Provisions of former subsec. (h), which related to steps to be taken when a condition existed which could not be abated through the use of existing technology, were covered in the general revision of subsecs. (d) and (e).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (i) as (f).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§815. Procedure for enforcement

(a) Notification of civil penalty; contest

If, after an inspection or investigation, the Secretary issues a citation or order under section 814 of this title, he shall, within a reasonable time after the termination of such inspection or investigation, notify the operator by certified mail of the civil penalty proposed to be assessed under section 820(a) of this title for the violation cited and that the operator has 30 days within which to notify the Secretary that he wishes to contest the citation or proposed assessment of penalty. A copy of such notification shall be sent by mail to the representative of miners in such mine. If, within 30 days from the receipt of the notification issued by the Secretary, the operator fails to notify the Secretary that he intends to contest the citation or the proposed assessment of penalty, and no notice is filed by any miner or representative of miners under subsection (d) of this section within such time, the citation and the proposed assessment of penalty shall be deemed a final order of the Commission and not subject to review by any court or agency. Refusal by the operator or his agent to accept certified mail containing a citation and proposed assessment of penalty under this subsection shall constitute receipt thereof within the meaning of this subsection.

(b) Failure of operator to correct violation; notification; contest; temporary relief

(1)(A) If the Secretary has reason to believe that an operator has failed to correct a violation for which a citation has been issued within the period permitted for its correction, the Secretary shall notify the operator by certified mail of such failure and of the penalty proposed to be assessed under section 820(b) of this title by reason of such failure and that the operator has 30 days within which to notify the Secretary that he wishes to contest the Secretary's notification of the proposed assessment of penalty. A copy of such notification of the proposed assessment of penalty shall at the same time be sent by mail to the representative of the mine employees. If, within 30 days from the receipt of notification of proposed assessment of penalty issued by the Secretary, the operator fails to notify the Secretary that he intends to contest the notification of proposed assessment of penalty, such notification shall be deemed a final order of the Commission and not subject to review by any court or agency. Refusal by the operator or his agent to accept certified mail containing a notification of proposed assessment of penalty issued under this subsection shall constitute receipt thereof within the meaning of this subsection.

(B) In determining whether to propose a penalty to be assessed under section 820(b) of this title, the Secretary shall consider the operator's history of previous violations, the appropriateness of such penalty to the size of the business of the operator charged, whether the operator was negligent, the effect on the operator's ability to continue in business, the gravity of the violation, and the demonstrated good faith of the operator charged in attempting to achieve rapid compliance after notification of a violation.

(2) An applicant may file with the Commission a written request that the Commission grant temporary relief from any modification or termination of any order or from any order issued under section 814 of this title together with a detailed statement giving the reasons for granting such relief. The Commission may grant such relief under such conditions as it may prescribe, if—

(A) a hearing has been held in which all parties were given an opportunity to be heard;

(B) the applicant shows that there is substantial likelihood that the findings of the Commission will be favorable to the applicant; and

(C) such relief will not adversely affect the health and safety of miners.


No temporary relief shall be granted in the case of a citation issued under subsection (a) or (f) of section 814 of this title. The Commission shall provide a procedure for expedited consideration of applications for temporary relief under this paragraph.

(c) Discrimination or interference prohibited; complaint; investigation; determination; hearing

(1) No person shall discharge or in any manner discriminate against or cause to be discharged or cause discrimination against or otherwise interfere with the exercise of the statutory rights of any miner, representative of miners or applicant for employment in any coal or other mine subject to this chapter because such miner, representative of miners or applicant for employment has filed or made a complaint under or related to this chapter, including a complaint notifying the operator or the operator's agent, or the representative of the miners at the coal or other mine of an alleged danger or safety or health violation in a coal or other mine, or because such miner, representative of miners or applicant for employment is the subject of medical evaluations and potential transfer under a standard published pursuant to section 811 of this title or because such miner, representative of miners or applicant for employment has instituted or caused to be instituted any proceeding under or related to this chapter or has testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding, or because of the exercise by such miner, representative of miners or applicant for employment on behalf of himself or others of any statutory right afforded by this chapter.

(2) Any miner or applicant for employment or representative of miners who believes that he has been discharged, interfered with, or otherwise discriminated against by any person in violation of this subsection may, within 60 days after such violation occurs, file a complaint with the Secretary alleging such discrimination. Upon receipt of such complaint, the Secretary shall forward a copy of the complaint to the respondent and shall cause such investigation to be made as he deems appropriate. Such investigation shall commence within 15 days of the Secretary's receipt of the complaint, and if the Secretary finds that such complaint was not frivolously brought, the Commission, on an expedited basis upon application of the Secretary, shall order the immediate reinstatement of the miner pending final order on the complaint. If upon such investigation, the Secretary determines that the provisions of this subsection have been violated, he shall immediately file a complaint with the Commission, with service upon the alleged violator and the miner, applicant for employment, or representative of miners alleging such discrimination or interference and propose an order granting appropriate relief. The Commission shall afford an opportunity for a hearing (in accordance with section 554 of title 5 but without regard to subsection (a)(3) of such section) and thereafter shall issue an order, based upon findings of fact, affirming, modifying, or vacating the Secretary's proposed order, or directing other appropriate relief. Such order shall become final 30 days after its issuance. The Commission shall have authority in such proceedings to require a person committing a violation of this subsection to take such affirmative action to abate the violation as the Commission deems appropriate, including, but not limited to, the rehiring or reinstatement of the miner to his former position with back pay and interest. The complaining miner, applicant, or representative of miners may present additional evidence on his own behalf during any hearing held pursuant to his 1 paragraph.

(3) Within 90 days of the receipt of a complaint filed under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall notify, in writing, the miner, applicant for employment, or representative of miners of his determination whether a violation has occurred. If the Secretary, upon investigation, determines that the provisions of this subsection have not been violated, the complainant shall have the right, within 30 days of notice of the Secretary's determination, to file an action in his own behalf before the Commission, charging discrimination or interference in violation of paragraph (1). The Commission shall afford an opportunity for a hearing (in accordance with section 554 of title 5 but without regard to subsection (a)(3) of such section), and thereafter shall issue an order, based upon findings of fact, dismissing or sustaining the complainant's charges and, if the charges are sustained, granting such relief as it deems appropriate, including, but not limited to, an order requiring the rehiring or reinstatement of the miner to his former position with back pay and interest or such remedy as may be appropriate. Such order shall become final 30 days after its issuance. Whenever an order is issued sustaining the complainant's charges under this subsection, a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all costs and expenses (including attorney's fees) as determined by the Commission to have been reasonably incurred by the miner, applicant for employment or representative of miners for, or in connection with, the institution and prosecution of such proceedings shall be assessed against the person committing such violation. Proceedings under this section shall be expedited by the Secretary and the Commission. Any order issued by the Commission under this paragraph shall be subject to judicial review in accordance with section 816 of this title. Violations by any person of paragraph (1) shall be subject to the provisions of sections 818 and 820(a) of this title.

(d) Contest proceedings; hearing; findings of fact; affirmance, modification, or vacatur of citation, order, or proposed penalty; procedure before Commission

If, within 30 days of receipt thereof, an operator of a coal or other mine notifies the Secretary that he intends to contest the issuance or modification of an order issued under section 814 of this title, or citation or a notification of proposed assessment of a penalty issued under subsection (a) or (b) of this section, or the reasonableness of the length of abatement time fixed in a citation or modification thereof issued under section 814 of this title, or any miner or representative of miners notifies the Secretary of an intention to contest the issuance, modification, or termination of any order issued under section 814 of this title, or the reasonableness of the length of time set for abatement by a citation or modification thereof issued under section 814 of this title, the Secretary shall immediately advise the Commission of such notification, and the Commission shall afford an opportunity for a hearing (in accordance with section 554 of title 5, but without regard to subsection (a)(3) of such section), and thereafter shall issue an order, based on findings of fact, affirming, modifying, or vacating the Secretary's citation, order, or proposed penalty, or directing other appropriate relief. Such order shall become final 30 days after its issuance. The rules of procedure prescribed by the Commission shall provide affected miners or representatives of affected miners an opportunity to participate as parties to hearings under this section. The Commission shall take whatever action is necessary to expedite proceedings for hearing appeals of orders issued under section 814 of this title.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §105, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 753; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1303.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions under which the Secretary must notify the operator of the civil penalty he proposes to assess following the issuance of a citation or order and the operator must give notice that he will contest the citation or proposed assessment for provisions under which an operator was required to apply for review of an order issued under section 814 of this title and under which an investigation was made, hearings held, and information presented.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to the steps to be taken following the failure of the operator to correct violations, including provisions relating to temporary relief formerly contained in subsec. (d), for provisions requiring the Secretary to make findings of fact and to issue a written decision upon receiving the report of an investigation.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c), directing the Secretary to take action under this section as promptly as possible, was incorporated into a part of par. (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (b)(2).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "this".

§816. Judicial review of Commission orders

(a) Petition by person adversely affected or aggrieved; temporary relief

(1) Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by an order of the Commission issued under this chapter may obtain a review of such order in any United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the violation is alleged to have occurred or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, by filing in such court within 30 days following the issuance of such order a written petition praying that the order be modified or set aside. A copy of such petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Commission and to the other parties, and thereupon the Commission shall file in the court the record in the proceeding as provided in section 2112 of title 28. Upon such filing, the court shall have exclusive jurisdiction of the proceeding and of the questions determined therein, and shall have the power to make and enter upon the pleadings, testimony, and proceedings set forth in such record a decree affirming, modifying, or setting aside, in whole or in part, the order of the Commission and enforcing the same to the extent that such order is affirmed or modified. No objection that has not been urged before the Commission shall be considered by the court, unless the failure or neglect to urge such objection shall be excused because of extraordinary circumstances. The findings of the Commission with respect to questions of fact, if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole, shall be conclusive. If any party shall apply to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence and shall show to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the hearing before the Commission, the court may order such additional evidence to be taken before the Commission and to be made a part of the record. The Commission may modify its findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of additional evidence so taken and filed, and it shall file such modified or new findings, which findings with respect to questions of fact, if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole, shall be conclusive. The Commission may modify or set aside its original order by reason of such modified or new findings of fact. Upon the filing of the record after such remand proceedings, the jurisdiction of the court shall be exclusive and its judgment and degree shall be final, except that the same shall be subject to review by the Supreme Court of the United States, as provided in section 1254 of title 28.

(2) In the case of a proceeding to review any order or decision issued by the Commission under this chapter, except an order or decision pertaining to an order issued under section 817(a) of this title or an order or decision pertaining to a citation issued under section 814(a) or (f) of this title, the court may, under such conditions as it may prescribe, grant such temporary relief as it deems appropriate pending final determination of the proceeding, if—

(A) all parties to the proceeding have been notified and given an opportunity to be heard on a request for temporary relief;

(B) the person requesting such relief shows that there is a substantial likelihood that he will prevail on the merits of the final determination of the proceeding; and

(C) such relief will not adversely affect the health and safety of miners in the coal or other mine.


(3) In the case of a proceeding to review any order or decision issued by the Panel under this chapter, the court may, under such conditions as it may prescribe, grant such temporary relief as it deems appropriate pending final determination of the proceeding, if—

(A) all parties to the proceeding have been notified and given an opportunity to be heard on a request for temporary relief; and

(B) the person requesting such relief shows that there is a substantial likelihood that he will prevail on the merits of the final determination of the proceeding.

(b) Petition by Secretary for review or enforcement of final Commission orders

The Secretary may also obtain review or enforcement of any final order of the Commission by filing a petition for such relief in the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the alleged violation occurred or in the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, and the provisions of subsection (a) shall govern such proceedings to the extent applicable. If no petition for review, as provided in subsection (a), is filed within 30 days after issuance of the Commission's order, the Commission's findings of fact and order shall be conclusive in connection with any petition for enforcement which is filed by the Secretary after the expiration of such 30-day period. In any such case, as well as in the case of a noncontested citation or notification by the Secretary which has become a final order of the Commission under subsection (a) or (b) of section 815 of this title, the clerk of the court, unless otherwise ordered by the court, shall forthwith enter a decree enforcing the order and shall transmit a copy of such decree to the Secretary and the operator named in the petition. In any contempt proceeding brought to enforce a decree of a court of appeals entered pursuant to this subsection or subsection (a), the court of appeals may assess the penalties provided in section 820 of this title, in addition to invoking any other available remedies.

(c) Stay of order or decision of Commission or Panel

The commencement of a proceeding under this section shall not, unless specifically ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the order or decision of the Commission or the Panel.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §106, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 754; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1306; Pub. L. 98–620, title IV, §402(34), Nov. 8, 1984, 98 Stat. 3360.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1984—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 98–620 struck out provision that petitions filed under this subsection had to be heard expeditiously.

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsec. (a)(1) consisting of a revision of the provisions of former subsecs. (a), (b), (d), and (f) with additions to cover the proceedings in the reviewing court.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (c)(1) as (a)(2) and substituted "issued by the Commission" for "issued by the Secretary" and "under section 817(a) of this title or an order or decision pertaining to a citation issued under section 814(a) or (f) of this title" for "under section 814(a) of this title or an order or decision pertaining to a notice issued under section 814(b) or (i) of this title" in the provisions preceding subpar. (A).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (c)(2) as (a)(3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–164 added subsec. (b). Provisions of former subsec. (b) were incorporated as revised into subsec. (a)(1).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (e) as (c). Former subsec. (c), which consisted of pars. (1) and (2), redesignated (a)(2) and (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–164 struck out subsec. (d) and incorporated its provisions, relating to review by the Supreme Court, into subsec. (a)(1).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated subsec. (e) as (c).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–164 struck out subsec. (f) which related to the appointment of attorneys by the Secretary to represent him in proceedings instituted under this section.

Effective Date of 1984 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 98–620 not applicable to cases pending on Nov. 8, 1984, see section 403 of Pub. L. 98–620, set out as a note under section 1657 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§817. Procedures to counteract dangerous conditions

(a) Withdrawal orders

If, upon any inspection or investigation of a coal or other mine which is subject to this chapter, an authorized representative of the Secretary finds that an imminent danger exists, such representative shall determine the extent of the area of such mine throughout which the danger exists, and issue an order requiring the operator of such mine to cause all persons, except those referred to in section 814(c) of this title, to be withdrawn from, and to be prohibited from entering, such area until an authorized representative of the Secretary determines that such imminent danger and the conditions or practices which caused such imminent danger no longer exist. The issuance of an order under this subsection shall not preclude the issuance of a citation under section 814 of this title or the proposing of a penalty under section 820 of this title.

(b) Notice to mine operators; further investigation; findings and decision by Secretary

(1) If, upon any inspection of a coal or other mine, an authorized representative of the Secretary finds (A) that conditions exist therein which have not yet resulted in an imminent danger, (B) that such conditions cannot be effectively abated through the use of existing technology, and (C) that reasonable assurance cannot be provided that the continuance of mining operations under such conditions will not result in an imminent danger, he shall determine the area throughout which such conditions exist, and thereupon issue a notice to the operator of the mine or his agent of such conditions, and shall file a copy thereof, incorporating his findings therein, with the Secretary and with the representative of the miners of such mine. Upon receipt of such copy, the Secretary shall cause such further investigation to be made as he deems appropriate, including an opportunity for the operator or a representative of the miners to present information relating to such notice.

(2) Upon the conclusion of an investigation pursuant to paragraph (1), and an opportunity for a public hearing upon request by any interested party, the Secretary shall make findings of fact, and shall by decision incorporating such findings therein, either cancel the notice issued under this subsection or issue an order requiring the operator of such mine to cause all persons in the area affected, except those persons referred to in subsection (c) of section 814 of this title to be withdrawn from, and be prohibited from entering, such area until the Secretary, after a public hearing affording all interested persons an opportunity to present their views, determines that such conditions have been abated. Any hearing under this paragraph shall be of record and shall be subject to section 554 of title 5.

(c) Form and content of orders

Orders issued pursuant to subsection (a) shall contain a detailed description of the conditions or practices which cause and constitute an imminent danger and a description of the area of the coal or other mine from which persons must be withdrawn and prohibited from entering.

(d) Findings; duration of orders

Each finding made and order issued under this section shall be given promptly to the operator of the coal or other mine to which it pertains by the person making such finding or order, and all of such findings and orders shall be in writing, and shall be signed by the person making them. Any order issued pursuant to subsection (a) may be modified or terminated by an authorized representative of the Secretary. Any order issued under subsection (a) or (b) shall remain in effect until vacated, modified, or terminated by the Secretary, or modified or vacated by the Commission pursuant to subsection (e), or by the courts pursuant to section 816(a) of this title.

(e) Reinstatement, modification, and vacatur of orders

(1) Any operator notified of an order under this section or any representative of miners notified of the issuance, modification, or termination of such an order may apply to the Commission within 30 days of such notification for reinstatement, modification or vacation of such order. The Commission shall forthwith afford an opportunity for a hearing (in accordance with section 554 of title 5 but without regard to subsection (a)(3) of such section) and thereafter shall issue an order, based upon findings of fact, vacating, affirming, modifying, or terminating the Secretary's order. The Commission and the courts may not grant temporary relief from the issuance of any order under subsection (a).

(2) The Commission shall take whatever action is necessary to expedite proceedings under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §107, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 755; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1307.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1977Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to the procedures to be followed to counteract dangerous conditions in coal or other mines for provisions relating to the posting of notices, orders, and decisions at coal mines, see section 819 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§818. Injunctions

(a) Civil action by Secretary

(1) The Secretary may institute a civil action for relief, including a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or any other appropriate order in the district court of the United States for the district in which a coal or other mine is located or in which the operator of such mine has his principal office, whenever such operator or his agent—

(A) violates or fails or refuses to comply with any order or decision issued under this chapter, or fails or refuses to comply with any order or decision, including a civil penalty assessment order, that is issued under this chapter,

(B) interferes with, hinders, or delays the Secretary or his authorized representative, or the Secretary of Health and Human Services or his authorized representative, in carrying out the provisions of this chapter,

(C) refuses to admit such representatives to the coal or other mine,

(D) refuses to permit the inspection of the coal or other mine, or the investigation of an accident or occupational disease occurring in, or connected with, such mine,

(E) refuses to furnish any information or report requested by the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services in furtherance of the provisions of this chapter, or

(F) refuses to permit access to, and copying of, such records as the Secretary or the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines necessary in carrying out the provisions of this chapter.


(2) The Secretary may institute a civil action for relief, including permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or any other appropriate order in the district court of the United States for the district in which the coal or other mine is located or in which the operator of such mine has his principal office whenever the Secretary believes that the operator of a coal or other mine is engaged in a pattern of violation of the mandatory health or safety standards of this chapter, which in the judgment of the Secretary constitutes a continuing hazard to the health or safety of miners.

(b) Jurisdiction; relief; findings of Commission or Secretary

In any action brought under subsection (a), the court shall have jurisdiction to provide such relief as may be appropriate. In the case of an action under subsection (a)(2), the court shall in its order require such assurance or affirmative steps as it deems necessary to assure itself that the protection afforded to miners under this chapter shall be provided by the operator. Temporary restraining orders shall be issued in accordance with rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, as amended, except that the time limit in such orders, when issued without notice, shall be seven days from the date of entry. Except as otherwise provided herein, any relief granted by the court to enforce any order under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) shall continue in effect until the completion or final termination of all proceedings for review of such order under this subchapter, unless prior thereto, the district court granting such relief sets it aside or modifies it. In any action instituted under this section to enforce an order or decision issued by the Commission or the Secretary after a public hearing in accordance with section 554 of title 5, the findings of the Commission or the Secretary, as the case may be, if supported by substantial evidence on the record considered as a whole, shall be conclusive.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §108, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 756; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1309; Pub. L. 96–88, title V, §509(b), Oct. 17, 1979, 93 Stat. 695; Pub. L. 109–236, §9, June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 501.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (B), (E), (F), (2) and (b), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Rule 65 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (b), is set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–236 inserted before comma at end ", or fails or refuses to comply with any order or decision, including a civil penalty assessment order, that is issued under this chapter".

1977Pub. L. 95–164 redesignated existing provisions as subsecs. (a)(1) and (b), added subsec. (a)(2), and in the redesignated provisions inserted references to findings of the Commission, inserted requirement that in actions brought under subsec. (a)(2) the courts require such assurances or affirmative action as they deem necessary to assure that the protections offered by this chapter to the miners be provided by the operator, and struck out provisions relating to the appointment of attorneys by the Secretary to represent him in actions under this section.

Change of Name

"Secretary of Health and Human Services" substituted for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare" in subsec. (a)(1)(B), (F) pursuant to section 509(b) of Pub. L. 96–88 which is classified to section 3508(b) of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§819. Posting of orders and decisions

(a) Mine office; bulletin board

At each coal or other mine there shall be maintained an office with a conspicuous sign designating it as the office of such mine. There shall be a bulletin board at such office or located at a conspicuous place near an entrance of such mine, in such manner that orders, citations, notices and decisions required by law or regulation to be posted, may be posted thereon, and be easily visible to all persons desiring to read them, and be protected against damage by weather and against unauthorized removal. A copy of any order, citation, notice or decision required by this chapter to be given to an operator shall be delivered to the office of the affected mine, and a copy shall be immediately posted on the bulletin board of such mine by the operator or his agent.

(b) Distribution of orders, citations, notices, and decisions

The Secretary shall (1) cause a copy of any order, citation, notice, or decision required by this chapter to be given to an operator to be mailed immediately to a representative of the miners in the affected coal or other mine, and (2) cause a copy thereof to be mailed to the public official or agency of the State charged with administering State laws, if any, relating to health or safety in such mine. Such notice, order, citation, or decision shall be available for public inspection.

(c) Compliance

In order to insure prompt compliance with any notice, order, citation, or decision issued under this chapter, the authorized representative of the Secretary may deliver such notice, order, citation, or decision to an agent of the operator, and such agent shall immediately take appropriate measures to insure compliance with such notice, order, citation, or decision.

(d) Filing; designation of health and safety officers

Each operator of a coal or other mine subject to this chapter shall file with the Secretary the name and address of such mine and the name and address of the person who controls or operates the mine. Any revisions in such names or addresses shall be promptly filed with the Secretary. Each operator of a coal or other mine subject to this chapter shall designate a responsible official at such mine as the principal officer in charge of health and safety at such mine, and such official shall receive a copy of any notice, order, citation, or decision issued under this chapter affecting such mine. In any case where the mine is subject to the control of any person not directly involved in the daily operations of the coal or other mine, there shall be filed with the Secretary the name and address of such person and the name and address of a principal official of such person who shall have overall responsibility for the conduct of an effective health and safety program at any coal or other mine subject to the control of such person, and such official shall receive a copy of any notice, order, citation, or decision issued affecting any such mine. The mere designation of a health and safety official under this subsection shall not be construed as making such official subject to any penalty under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §109, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 756; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1310.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1977Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to the posting of orders and decisions for provisions setting out an enumeration of penalties, which provisions, as revised, were transferred to section 820 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§820. Penalties

(a) Civil penalty for violation of mandatory health or safety standards

(1) The operator of a coal or other mine in which a violation occurs of a mandatory health or safety standard or who violates any other provision of this chapter, shall be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary which penalty shall not be more than $50,000 for each such violation. Each occurrence of a violation of a mandatory health or safety standard may constitute a separate offense.

(2) The operator of a coal or other mine who fails to provide timely notification to the Secretary as required under section 813(j) of this title (relating to the 15 minute requirement) shall be assessed a civil penalty by the Secretary of not less than $5,000 and not more than $60,000.

(3)(A) The minimum penalty for any citation or order issued under section 814(d)(1) of this title shall be $2,000.

(B) The minimum penalty for any order issued under section 814(d)(2) of this title shall be $4,000.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to prevent an operator from obtaining a review, in accordance with section 816 of this title, of an order imposing a penalty described in this subsection. If a court, in making such review, sustains the order, the court shall apply at least the minimum penalties required under this subsection.

(b) Civil penalty for failure to correct violation for which citation has been issued

(1) Any operator who fails to correct a violation for which a citation has been issued under section 814(a) of this title within the period permitted for its correction may be assessed a civil penalty of not more than $$5,000 1 for each day during which such failure or violation continues.

(2) Violations under this section that are deemed to be flagrant may be assessed a civil penalty of not more than $220,000. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "flagrant" with respect to a violation means a reckless or repeated failure to make reasonable efforts to eliminate a known violation of a mandatory health or safety standard that substantially and proximately caused, or reasonably could have been expected to cause, death or serious bodily injury.

(c) Liability of corporate directors, officers, and agents

Whenever a corporate operator violates a mandatory health or safety standard or knowingly violates or fails or refuses to comply with any order issued under this chapter or any order incorporated in a final decision issued under this chapter, except an order incorporated in a decision issued under subsection (a) or section 815(c) of this title, any director, officer, or agent of such corporation who knowingly authorized, ordered, or carried out such violation, failure, or refusal shall be subject to the same civil penalties, fines, and imprisonment that may be imposed upon a person under subsections (a) and (d).

(d) Criminal penalties

Any operator who willfully violates a mandatory health or safety standard, or knowingly violates or fails or refuses to comply with any order issued under section 814 of this title and section 817 of this title, or any order incorporated in a final decision issued under this subchapter, except an order incorporated in a decision under subsection (a)(1) or section 815(c) of this title, shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $250,000, or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both, except that if the conviction is for a violation committed after the first conviction of such operator under this chapter, punishment shall be by a fine of not more than $500,000, or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or both.

(e) Unauthorized advance notice of inspections

Unless otherwise authorized by this chapter, any person who gives advance notice of any inspection to be conducted under this chapter shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $1,000 or by imprisonment for not more than six months, or both.

(f) False statements, representations, or certifications

Whoever knowingly makes any false statement, representation, or certification in any application, record, report, plan, or other document filed or required to be maintained pursuant to this chapter shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000, or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or both.

(g) Violation by miners of safety standards relating to smoking

Any miner who willfully violates the mandatory safety standards relating to smoking or the carrying of smoking materials, matches, or lighters shall be subject to a civil penalty assessed by the Commission, which penalty shall not be more than $250 for each occurrence of such violation.

(h) Equipment falsely represented as complying with statute, specification, or regulations

Whoever knowingly distributes, sells, offers for sale, introduces, or delivers in commerce any equipment for use in a coal or other mine, including, but not limited to, components and accessories of such equipment, which is represented as complying with the provisions of this chapter, or with any specification or regulation of the Secretary applicable to such equipment, and which does not so comply, shall, upon conviction, be subject to the same fine and imprisonment that may be imposed upon a person under subsection (f) of this section.

(i) Authority to assess civil penalties

The Commission shall have authority to assess all civil penalties provided in this chapter. In assessing civil monetary penalties, the Commission shall consider the operator's history of previous violations, the appropriateness of such penalty to the size of the business of the operator charged, whether the operator was negligent, the effect on the operator's ability to continue in business, the gravity of the violation, and the demonstrated good faith of the person charged in attempting to achieve rapid compliance after notification of a violation. In proposing civil penalties under this chapter, the Secretary may rely upon a summary review of the information available to him and shall not be required to make findings of fact concerning the above factors.

(j) Payment of penalties; interest

Civil penalties owed under this chapter shall be paid to the Secretary for deposit into the Treasury of the United States and shall accrue to the United States and may be recovered in a civil action in the name of the United States brought in the United States district court for the district where the violation occurred or where the operator has its principal office. Interest at the rate of 8 percent per annum shall be charged against a person on any final order of the Commission, or the court. Interest shall begin to accrue 30 days after the issuance of such order.

(k) Compromise, mitigation, and settlement of penalty

No proposed penalty which has been contested before the Commission under section 815(a) of this title shall be compromised, mitigated, or settled except with the approval of the Commission. No penalty assessment which has become a final order of the Commission shall be compromised, mitigated, or settled except with the approval of the court.

(l) Inapplicability to black lung benefit provisions

The provisions of this section shall not be applicable with respect to subchapter IV of this chapter.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §110, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 758; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1311; Pub. L. 101–508, title III, §3102, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–29; Pub. L. 109–236, §5(b), §8(a), June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 498, 500; Pub. L. 109–280, title XIII, §1301, Aug. 17, 2006, 120 Stat. 1108.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1), (c) to (f), and (h) to (j), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–280, §1301(2), substituted "(1) The operator" for "(1)(1) The operator" in par. (1), substituted "subsection (a)(1)" for "paragraph (1)" in par. (2), relating to criminal penalties, and redesignated that par. as subsec. (d).

Pub. L. 109–236, §8(a)(1), inserted "(1)" after subsec. heading, added par. (2), relating to criminal penalties, and added pars. (3) and (4).

Pub. L. 109–236, §5(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2), relating to civil penalties.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–280, §1301(3), inserted par. (1) and (2) designations.

Pub. L. 109–236, §8(a)(2), inserted at end "Violations under this section that are deemed to be flagrant may be assessed a civil penalty of not more than $220,000. For purposes of the preceding sentence, the term 'flagrant' with respect to a violation means a reckless or repeated failure to make reasonable efforts to eliminate a known violation of a mandatory health or safety standard that substantially and proximately caused, or reasonably could have been expected to cause, death or serious bodily injury."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–280, §1301(2)(B)(ii), redesignated subsec. (a)(2), relating to criminal penalties, as (d).

Pub. L. 109–280, §1301(1), struck out subsec. (d) which read as follows: "Any operator who willfully violates a mandatory health or safety standard, or knowingly violates or fails or refuses to comply with any order issued under section 814 of this title and section 817 of this title, or any order incorporated in a final decision issued under this subchapter, except an order incorporated in a decision under subsection (a) of this section or section 815(c) of this title, shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $25,000, or by imprisonment for not more than one year, or by both, except that if the conviction is for a violation committed after the first conviction of such operator under this chapter, punishment shall be by a fine of not more than $50,000, or by imprisonment for not more than five years, or both."

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–508, §3102(1), substituted "$50,000" for "$10,000".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–508, §3102(2), substituted "$5,000" for "1,000".

1977Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions setting the civil and criminal penalties with regard to violations of this chapter for provisions relating to claims of idled miners, which provisions, as revised, were transferred to section 821 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 109–236, §8(b), June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 501, provided that: "Not later than December 30, 2006, the Secretary of Labor shall promulgate final regulations with respect to penalties."

1 So in original.

§821. Entitlement of miners to full compensation

If a coal or other mine or area of such mine is closed by an order issued under section 813 of this title, section 814 of this title, or section 817 of this title, all miners working during the shift when such order was issued who are idled by such order shall be entitled, regardless of the result of any review of such order, to full compensation by the operator at their regular rates of pay for the period they are idled, but for not more than the balance of such shift. If such order is not terminated prior to the next working shift, all miners on that shift who are idled by such order shall be entitled to full compensation by the operator at their regular rates of pay for the period they are idled, but for not more than four hours of such shift. If a coal or other mine or area of such mine is closed by an order issued under section 814 of this title or section 817 of this title for a failure of the operator to comply with any mandatory health or safety standards, all miners who are idled due to such order shall be fully compensated after all interested parties are given an opportunity for a public hearing, which shall be expedited in such cases, and after such order is final, by the operator for lost time at their regular rates of pay for such time as the miners are idled by such closing, or for one week, whichever is the lesser. Whenever an operator violates or fails or refuses to comply with any order issued under section 813 of this title, section 814 of this title, or section 817 of this title, all miners employed at the affected mine who would have been withdrawn from, or prevented from entering, such mine or area thereof as a result of such order shall be entitled to full compensation by the operator at their regular rates of pay, in addition to pay received for work performed after such order was issued, for the period beginning when such order was issued and ending when such order is complied with, vacated, or terminated. The Commission shall have authority to order compensation due under this section upon the filing of a complaint by a miner or his representative and after opportunity for hearing subject to section 554 of title 5.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §111, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 759; Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1312.)

Amendments

1977Pub. L. 95–164 substituted provisions relating to the entitlement of miners to their full compensation when they are idled as the result of the operation of this chapter for provisions relating to the maintenance of records, which provisions, as revised, were transferred to section 813 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–164 effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, except as otherwise provided, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

Effective Date

Section operative 90 days after Dec. 30, 1969, except to the extent an earlier date is specifically provided for in Pub. L. 91–173, see section 509 of Pub. L. 91–173, set out as a note under section 801 of this title.

§822. Representation of Secretary in civil litigation by Solicitor of Labor

Except as provided in section 518(a) of title 28, relating to litigation before the Supreme Court, the Solicitor of Labor may appear for and represent the Secretary in any civil litigation brought under this chapter but all such litigation shall be subject to the direction and control of the Attorney General.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §112, as added Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1313.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 816(f) of this title prior to the amendment of this subchapter by Pub. L. 95–164.

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 801 of this title.

§823. Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission

(a) Establishment; membership; chairman

The Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission is hereby established. The Commission shall consist of five members, appointed by the President by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, from among persons who by reason of training, education, or experience are qualified to carry out the functions of the Commission under this chapter. The President shall designate one of the members of the Commission to serve as Chairman.

(b) Terms; personnel; administrative law judges

(1) The terms of the members of the Commission shall be six years, except that—

(A) members of the Commission first taking office after November 9, 1977, shall serve, as designated by the President at the time of appointment, one for a term of two years, two for a term of four years and two for a term of six years; and

(B) a vacancy caused by the death, resignation, or removal of any member prior to the expiration of the term for which he was appointed shall be filled only for the remainder of such unexpired term.


Any member of the Commission may be removed by the President for inefficiency, neglect of duty, or malfeasance in office.

(2) The Chairman shall be responsible on behalf of the Commission for the administrative operations of the Commission. The Commission shall appoint such employees as it deems necessary to assist in the performance of the Commission's functions and to fix their compensation in accordance with the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5, relating to classification and general pay rates. Upon the effective date of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977, the administrative law judges assigned to the Arlington, Virginia, facility of the Office of Hearings and Appeals, United States Department of the Interior, shall be automatically transferred in grade and position to the Federal Mine Safety and Health Review Commission. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 559 of title 5, the incumbent Chief Administrative Law Judge of the Office of Hearings and Appeals of the Department of the Interior assigned to the Arlington, Virginia facility shall have the option, on the effective date of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977, of transferring to the Commission as an administrative law judge, in the same grade and position as the other administrative law judges. The administrative law judges (except those presiding over Indian Probate Matters) assigned to the Western facilities of the Office of Hearings and Appeals of the Department of the Interior shall remain with that Department at their present grade and position or they shall have the right to transfer on an equivalent basis to that extended in this paragraph to the Arlington, Virginia administrative law judges in accordance with procedures established by the Director of the Office of Personnel Management. The Commission shall appoint such additional administrative law judges as it deems necessary to carry out the functions of the Commission. Assignment, removal, and compensation of administrative law judges shall be in accordance with sections 3105, 3344, 5362 and 7521 of title 5.

(c) Delegation of powers

The Commission is authorized to delegate to any group of three or more members any or all of the powers of the Commission, except that two members shall constitute a quorum of any group designated pursuant to this paragraph.

(d) Proceedings before administrative law judge; administrative review

(1) An administrative law judge appointed by the Commission to hear matters under this chapter shall hear, and make a determination upon, any proceeding instituted before the Commission and any motion in connection therewith, assigned to such administrative law judge by the chief administrative law judge of the Commission or by the Commission, and shall make a decision which constitutes his final disposition of the proceedings. The decision of the administrative law judge of the Commission shall become the final decision of the Commission 40 days after its issuance unless within such period the Commission has directed that such decision shall be reviewed by the Commission in accordance with paragraph (2). An administrative law judge shall not be assigned to prepare a recommended decision under this chapter.

(2) The Commission shall prescribe rules of procedure for its review of the decisions of administrative law judges in cases under this chapter which shall meet the following standards for review:

(A)(i) Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by a decision of an administrative law judge, may file and serve a petition for discretionary review by the Commission of such decision within 30 days after the issuance of such decision. Review by the Commission shall not be a matter of right but of the sound discretion of the Commission.

(ii) Petitions for discretionary review shall be filed only upon one or more of the following grounds:

(I) A finding or conclusion of material fact is not supported by substantial evidence.

(II) A necessary legal conclusion is erroneous.

(III) The decision is contrary to law or to the duly promulgated rules or decisions of the Commission.

(IV) A substantial question of law, policy or discretion is involved.

(V) A prejudicial error of procedure was committed.


(iii) Each issue shall be separately numbered and plainly and concisely stated, and shall be supported by detailed citations to the record when assignments of error are based on the record, and by statutes, regulations, or principal authorities relied upon. Except for good cause shown, no assignment of error by any party shall rely on any question of fact or law upon which the administrative law judge had not been afforded an opportunity to pass. Review by the Commission shall be granted only by affirmative vote of two of the Commissioners present and voting. If granted, review shall be limited to the questions raised by the petition.

(B) At any time within 30 days after the issuance of a decision of an administrative law judge, the Commission may in its discretion (by affirmative vote of two of the Commissioners present and voting) order the case before it for review but only upon the ground that the decision may be contrary to law or Commission policy, or that a novel question of policy has been presented. The Commission shall state in such order the specific issue of law, Commission policy, or novel question of policy involved. If a party's petition for discretionary review has been granted, the Commission shall not raise or consider additional issues in such review proceedings except in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph.

(C) For the purpose of review by the Commission under paragraph (A) or (B) of this subsection, the record shall include: (i) all matters constituting the record upon which the decision of the administrative law judge was based; (ii) the rulings upon proposed findings and conclusions; (iii) the decision of the administrative law judge; (iv) the petition or petitions for discretionary review, responses thereto, and the Commission's order for review; and (v) briefs filed on review. No other material shall be considered by the Commission upon review. The Commission either may remand the case to the administrative law judge for further proceedings as it may direct or it may affirm, set aside, or modify the decision or order of the administrative law judge in conformity with the record. If the Commission determines that further evidence is necessary on an issue of fact it shall remand the case for further proceedings before the administrative law judge.

(The provisions of section 557(b) of title 5 with regard to the review authority of the Commission are expressly superseded to the extent that they are inconsistent with the provisions of subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph.)

(e) Witnesses and evidence; subpoenas; contempt

In connection with hearings before the Commission or its administrative law judges under this chapter, the Commission and its administrative law judges may compel the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of books, papers, or documents, or objects, and order testimony to be taken by deposition at any stage of the proceedings before them. Any person may be compelled to appear and depose and produce similar documentary or physical evidence, in the same manner as witnesses may be compelled to appear and produce evidence before the Commission and its administrative law judges. Witnesses shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States and at depositions ordered by such courts. In case of contumacy, failure, or refusal of any person to obey a subpoena or order of the Commission or an administrative law judge, respectively, to appear, to testify, or to produce documentary or physical evidence, any district court of the United States or the United States courts of any territory or possession, within the jurisdiction of which such person is found, or resides, or transacts business, shall, upon the application of the Commission, or the administrative law judge, respectively, have jurisdiction to issue to such person an order requiring such person to appear, to testify, or to produce evidence as ordered by the Commission or the administrative law judge, respectively, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt thereof.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §113, as added Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1313; 1978 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §102, eff. Jan. 1, 1979, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d), and (e), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

For the effective date of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 801 of this title.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 729 of this title prior to its repeal by Pub. L. 95–164.

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 801 of this title.

Transfer of Functions

"Director of the Office of Personnel Management" substituted for "Civil Service Commission" in subsec. (b)(2) pursuant to Reorg. Plan No. 2 of 1978, §102, 43 F.R. 36037, 92 Stat. 3783, set out under section 1101 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, which transferred all functions vested by statute in United States Civil Service Commission to Director of Office of Personnel Management (except as otherwise specified), effective Jan. 1, 1979, as provided by section 1–102 of Ex. Ord. No. 12107, Dec. 28, 1978, 44 F.R. 1055, set out under section 1101 of Title 5.

§823a. Principal office in District of Columbia; proceedings held elsewhere

The principal office of the Commission shall be in the District of Columbia. Whenever the Commission deems that convenience of the public or the parties may be promoted, or delay or expense may be minimized, it may hold hearings or conduct other proceedings at any other place.

(Pub. L. 95–164, title III, §302(d), Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1320.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of Pub. L. 95–164, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977, and not as part of Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 801 of this title.

§824. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated, out of any moneys in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §114, as added Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1315.)

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 801 of this title.

§825. Mandatory health and safety training

(a) Approved program; regulations

Each operator of a coal or other mine shall have a health and safety training program which shall be approved by the Secretary. The Secretary shall promulgate regulations with respect to such health and safety training programs not more than 180 days after the effective date of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977. Each training program approved by the Secretary shall provide as a minimum that—

(1) new miners having no underground mining experience shall receive no less than 40 hours of training if they are to work underground. Such training shall include instruction in the statutory rights of miners and their representatives under this chapter, use of the self-rescue device and use of respiratory devices, hazard recognition, escapeways, walk around training, emergency procedures, basic ventilation, basic roof control, electrical hazards, first aid, and the health and safety aspects of the task to which he will be assigned;

(2) new miners having no surface mining experience shall receive no less than 24 hours of training if they are to work on the surface. Such training shall include instruction in the statutory rights of miners and their representatives under this chapter, use of the self-rescue device where appropriate and use of respiratory devices where appropriate, hazard recognition, emergency procedures, electrical hazards, first aid, walk around training and the health and safety aspects of the task to which he will be assigned;

(3) all miners shall receive no less than eight hours of refresher training no less frequently than once each 12 months, except that miners already employed on the effective date of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977 shall receive this refresher training no more than 90 days after the date of approval of the training plan required by this section;

(4) any miner who is reassigned to a new task in which he has had no previous work experience shall receive training in accordance with a training plan approved by the Secretary under this subsection in the safety and health aspects specific to that task prior to performing that task;

(5) any training required by paragraphs (1), (2) or (4) shall include a period of training as closely related as is practicable to the work in which the miner is to be engaged.

(b) Training compensation

Any health and safety training provided under subsection (a) shall be provided during normal working hours. Miners shall be paid at their normal rate of compensation while they take such training, and new miners shall be paid at their starting wage rate when they take the new miner training. If such training shall be given at a location other than the normal place of work, miners shall also be compensated for the additional costs they may incur in attending such training sessions.

(c) Certificate

Upon completion of each training program, each operator shall certify, on a form approved by the Secretary, that the miner has received the specified training in each subject area of the approved health and safety training plan. A certificate for each miner shall be maintained by the operator, and shall be available for inspection at the mine site, and a copy thereof shall be given to each miner at the completion of such training. When a miner leaves the operator's employ, he shall be entitled to a copy of his health and safety training certificates. False certification by an operator that training was given shall be punishable under section 820(a) and (f) of this title; and each health and safety training certificate shall indicate on its face, in bold letters, printed in a conspicuous manner the fact that such false certification is so punishable.

(d) Standards

The Secretary shall promulgate appropriate standards for safety and health training for coal or other mine construction workers.

(e) Proposed regulations

(1) Within 180 days after the effective date of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977, the Secretary shall publish proposed regulations which shall provide that mine rescue teams shall be available for rescue and recovery work to each underground coal or other mine in the event of an emergency. The costs of making advance arrangements for such teams shall be borne by the operator of each such mine.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall issue regulations with regard to mine rescue teams which shall be finalized and in effect not later than 18 months after June 15, 2006.

(B) Such regulations shall provide for the following:

(i) That such regulations shall not be construed to waive operator training requirements applicable to existing mine rescue teams.

(ii) That the Mine Safety and Health Administration shall establish, and update every 5 years thereafter, criteria to certify the qualifications of mine rescue teams.

(iii)(I) That the operator of each underground coal mine with more than 36 employees—

(aa) have an employee knowledgeable in mine emergency response who is employed at the mine on each shift at each underground mine; and

(bb) make available two certified mine rescue teams whose members—

(AA) are familiar with the operations of such coal mine;

(BB) participate at least annually in two local mine rescue contests;

(CC) participate at least annually in mine rescue training at the underground coal mine covered by the mine rescue team; and

(DD) are available at the mine within one hour ground travel time from the mine rescue station.


(II)(aa) For the purpose of complying with subclause (I), an operator shall employ one team that is either an individual mine site mine rescue team or a composite team as provided for in item (bb)(BB).

(bb) The following options may be used by an operator to comply with the requirements of item (aa):

(AA) An individual mine-site mine rescue team.

(BB) A multi-employer composite team that is made up of team members who are knowledgeable about the operations and ventilation of the covered mines and who train on a semi-annual basis at the covered underground coal mine—

(aaa) which provides coverage for multiple operators that have team members which include at least two active employees from each of the covered mines;

(bbb) which provides coverage for multiple mines owned by the same operator which members include at least two active employees from each mine; or

(ccc) which is a State-sponsored mine rescue team comprised of at least two active employees from each of the covered mines.


(CC) A commercial mine rescue team provided by contract through a third-party vendor or mine rescue team provided by another coal company, if such team—

(aaa) trains on a quarterly basis at covered underground coal mines;

(bbb) is knowledgeable about the operations and ventilation of the covered mines; and

(ccc) is comprised of individuals with a minimum of 3 years underground coal mine experience that shall have occurred within the 10-year period preceding their employment on the contract mine rescue team.


(DD) A State-sponsored team made up of State employees.


(iv) That the operator of each underground coal mine with 36 or less employees shall—

(I) have an employee on each shift who is knowledgeable in mine emergency responses; and

(II) make available two certified mine rescue teams whose members—

(aa) are familiar with the operations of such coal mine;

(bb) participate at least annually in two local mine rescue contests;

(cc) participate at least semi-annually in mine rescue training at the underground coal mine covered by the mine rescue team;

(dd) are available at the mine within one hour ground travel time from the mine rescue station;

(ee) are knowledgeable about the operations and ventilation of the covered mines; and

(ff) are comprised of individuals with a minimum of 3 years underground coal mine experience that shall have occurred within the 10-year period preceding their employment on the contract mine rescue team.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §115, as added Pub. L. 95–164, title II, §201, Nov. 9, 1977, 91 Stat. 1315; amended Pub. L. 109–236, §4, June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 497.)

References in Text

For the effective date of the Federal Mine Safety and Health Amendments Act of 1977, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (e)(1), see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 801 of this title.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (2), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–236 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Effective Date

Section effective 120 days after Nov. 9, 1977, see section 307 of Pub. L. 95–164, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 801 of this title.

§826. Limitation on certain liability for rescue operations

(a) In general

No person shall bring an action against any covered individual or his or her regular employer for property damage or an injury (or death) sustained as a result of carrying out activities relating to mine accident rescue or recovery operations. This subsection shall not apply where the action that is alleged to result in the property damages or injury (or death) was the result of gross negligence, reckless conduct, or illegal conduct or, where the regular employer (as such term is used in this chapter) is the operator of the mine at which the rescue activity takes place. Nothing in this section shall be construed to preempt State workers' compensation laws.

(b) Covered individual

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "covered individual" means an individual—

(1) who is a member of a mine rescue team or who is otherwise a volunteer with respect to a mine accident; and

(2) who is carrying out activities relating to mine accident rescue or recovery operations.

(c) Regular employer

For purposes of subsection (a), the term "regular employer" means the entity that is the covered employee's legal or statutory employer pursuant to applicable State law.

(Pub. L. 91–173, title I, §116, as added Pub. L. 109–236, §3, June 15, 2006, 120 Stat. 496.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 91–173, Dec. 30, 1969, 83 Stat. 742, known as the Federal Mine Safety and Health Act of 1977, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 801 of this title and Tables.