[USC02] 34 USC Ch. 203: VICTIMS OF CHILD ABUSE
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34 USC Ch. 203: VICTIMS OF CHILD ABUSE
From Title 34—CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENTSubtitle II—Protection of Children and Other Persons

CHAPTER 203—VICTIMS OF CHILD ABUSE

SUBCHAPTER I—IMPROVING INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE CASES

Sec.
20301.
Findings.
20302.
Definitions.
20303.
Regional children's advocacy centers.
20304.
Local children's advocacy centers.
20305.
Grants for specialized technical assistance and training programs.
20306.
Authorization of appropriations.
20307.
Accountability.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—COURT-APPOINTED SPECIAL ADVOCATE PROGRAM

20321.
Findings.
20322.
Purpose.
20323.
Strengthening of court-appointed special advocate program.
20324.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—CHILD ABUSE TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR JUDICIAL PERSONNEL AND PRACTITIONERS

20331.
Findings and purpose.
20332.
Grants for juvenile and family court personnel.
20333.
Specialized technical assistance and training programs.
20334.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

20341.
Child abuse reporting.
20342.
Federal immunity.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—CHILD CARE WORKER EMPLOYEE BACKGROUND CHECKS

20351.
Requirement for background checks.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—IMPROVING INVESTIGATION AND PROSECUTION OF CHILD ABUSE CASES

§20301. Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) over 3,300,000 reports of suspected child abuse and neglect are made each year, and drug abuse is associated with a significant portion of these;

(2) the investigation and prosecution of child abuse cases is extremely complex, involving numerous agencies and dozens of personnel;

(3) traditionally, community agencies and professionals have different roles in the prevention, investigation, and intervention process;

(4) in such cases, too often the system does not pay sufficient attention to the needs and welfare of the child victim, aggravating the trauma that the child victim has already experienced;

(5) there is a national need to enhance coordination among community agencies and professionals involved in the intervention system;

(6) multidisciplinary child abuse investigation and prosecution programs have been developed that increase the reporting of child abuse cases, reduce the trauma to the child victim, improve positive outcomes for the child, and increase the successful prosecution of child abuse offenders;

(7) such programs have proven effective, and with targeted Federal assistance, have expanded dramatically throughout the United States; and

(8) State chapters of children's advocacy center networks are needed to—

(A) assist local communities in coordinating their multidisciplinary child abuse investigation, prosecution, and intervention services; and

(B) provide oversight of, and training and technical assistance in, the effective delivery of evidence-informed programming.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §211, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4792; Pub. L. 102–586, §6(a), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5029; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(a), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5465.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13001 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2019—Par. (1). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(a)(1), substituted "3,300,000" for "2,000,000".

Par. (6). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(a)(2), inserted "improve positive outcomes for the child," before "and increase" and substituted semicolon for "; and" at end.

Par. (7). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(a)(3), substituted "have expanded dramatically throughout the United States; and" for "could be duplicated in many jurisdictions throughout the country."

Par. (8). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(a)(4), added par. (8).

1992—Pars. (3) to (7). Pub. L. 102–586 added pars. (3) and (5) and redesignated former pars. (3), (4), and (5) as (4), (6), and (7), respectively.

§20302. Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter—

(1) the term "Administrator" means the agency head designated under section 11111(b) of this title;

(2) the term "applicant" means a child protective service, law enforcement, legal, medical and mental health agency or other agency that responds to child abuse cases;

(3) the term "census region" means 1 of the 4 census regions (northeast, south, midwest, and west) that are designated as census regions by the Bureau of the Census as of November 4, 1992;

(4) the term "child abuse" means physical or sexual abuse or neglect of a child, including human trafficking and the production of child pornography;

(5) the term "multidisciplinary response to child abuse" means a response to child abuse that is based on mutually agreed upon procedures among the community agencies and professionals involved in the intervention, prevention, prosecution, and investigation systems that best meets the needs of child victims and their nonoffending family members;

(6) the term "nonoffending family member" means a member of the family of a victim of child abuse other than a member who has been convicted or accused of committing an act of child abuse;

(7) the term "regional children's advocacy program" means the children's advocacy program established under section 20303(a) of this title; and

(8) the term "State chapter" means a membership organization that provides technical assistance, training, coordination, grant administration, oversight, and support to local children's advocacy centers, multidisciplinary teams, and communities working to implement a multidisciplinary response to child abuse in the provision of evidence-informed initiatives, including mental health counseling, forensic interviewing, multidisciplinary team coordination, and victim advocacy.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §212, as added Pub. L. 102–586, §6(b)(2), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5029; amended Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §104(1), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(b), (h)(1), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5465, 5470.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13001a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 212 of Pub. L. 101–647 was renumbered section 214 and is classified to section 20304 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Par. (1). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(h)(1), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 11111(b) of this title.

Pars. (3) to (9). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(b), redesignated pars. (4), (5), and (7) to (9) as (3) to (7), respectively, added par. (8), and struck out former pars. (3) and (6) which defined the terms "board" and "Director", respectively.

2015—Par. (5). Pub. L. 114–22 inserted ", including human trafficking and the production of child pornography" before semicolon at end.

§20303. Regional children's advocacy centers

(a) Establishment of regional children's advocacy program

The Administrator, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Victims of Crime, shall establish a children's advocacy program to—

(1) focus attention on child victims by assisting communities in developing child-focused, community-oriented, facility-based programs designed to improve the resources available to children and families;

(2) enhance coordination among community agencies and professionals involved in the intervention, prevention, prosecution, and investigation systems that respond to child abuse cases;

(3) train physicians and other health care and mental health care professionals, law enforcement officers, child protective service workers, forensic interviewers, prosecutors, and victim advocates, in the multidisciplinary approach to child abuse so that trained personnel will be available to provide support to community agencies and professionals involved in the intervention, prevention, prosecution, and investigation systems that respond to child abuse cases; and

(4) collaborate with State chapters to provide training, technical assistance, coordination, and oversight to—

(A) local children's advocacy centers; and

(B) communities that want to develop local children's advocacy centers.

(b) Activities of regional children's advocacy program

(1) Administrator

The Administrator shall—

(A) establish regional children's advocacy program centers; and

(B) fund existing regional centers with expertise in multidisciplinary team investigation, trauma-informed interventions, and evidence-informed treatment,


for the purpose of enabling grant recipients to provide information, services, and technical assistance to aid communities in establishing multidisciplinary programs that respond to child abuse.

(2) Grant recipients

A grant recipient under this section shall—

(A) assist communities, local children's advocacy centers, multidisciplinary teams, and State chapters—

(i) in developing and expanding a comprehensive, multidisciplinary response to child abuse that is designed to meet the needs of child victims and their families;

(ii) in promoting the effective delivery of the evidence-informed Children's Advocacy Model and the multidisciplinary response to child abuse, including best practices in—

(I) organizational support and development;

(II) programmatic evaluation; and

(III) financial oversight of Federal funding;


(iii) in establishing child-friendly facilities for the investigation of, assessment of, and intervention in abuse;

(iv) in preventing or reducing trauma to children caused by duplicative contacts with community professionals;

(v) in providing families with needed services and assisting them in regaining maximum functioning;

(vi) in maintaining open communication and case coordination among community professionals and agencies involved in child protection efforts;

(vii) in coordinating and tracking investigative, preventive, prosecutorial, and treatment efforts;

(viii) in obtaining information useful for criminal and civil proceedings;

(ix) in holding offenders accountable through improved prosecution of child abuse cases;

(x) in enhancing professional skills necessary to effectively respond to cases of child abuse through training; and

(xi) in enhancing community understanding of child abuse; and


(B) provide training and technical assistance to local children's advocacy centers and interested communities in its census region that are grant recipients under section 20304 of this title.

(c) Operation of regional children's advocacy program

(1) Solicitation of proposals

Not later than 1 year after November 4, 1992, the Administrator shall solicit proposals for assistance under this section.

(2) Minimum qualifications

In order for a proposal to be selected, the Administrator may require an applicant to have in existence, at the time the proposal is submitted, 1 or more of the following:

(A) A proven record in conducting activities of the kinds described in subsection (c).

(B) A facility where children who are victims of sexual or physical abuse and their nonoffending family members can go for the purpose of evaluation, intervention, evidence gathering, and counseling.

(C) Multidisciplinary staff experienced in providing evidence-informed services for children and families.

(D) Experience in serving as a center for training and education and as a resource facility.

(E) National expertise in providing technical assistance to communities with respect to the judicial handling of child abuse and neglect.

(3) Proposal requirements

(A) In general

A proposal submitted in response to the solicitation under paragraph (1) shall—

(i) include a single or multiyear management plan that outlines how the applicant will provide information, services, and technical assistance to communities so that communities can establish multidisciplinary programs that respond to child abuse;

(ii) demonstrate the ability of the applicant to operate successfully a children's advocacy center or provide training to allow others to do so; and

(iii) state the annual cost of the proposal and a breakdown of those costs.

(B) Content of management plan

A management plan described in paragraph (3)(A) shall—

(i) outline the basic activities expected to be performed;

(ii) describe the entities that will conduct the basic activities;

(iii) establish the period of time over which the basic activities will take place; and

(iv) define the overall program management and direction by—

(I) identifying managerial, organizational, and administrative procedures and responsibilities;

(II) demonstrating how implementation and monitoring of the progress of the children's advocacy program after receipt of funding will be achieved; and

(III) providing sufficient rationale to support the costs of the plan.

(4) Selection of proposals

(A) Competitive basis

Proposals shall be selected under this section on a competitive basis.

(B) Criteria

The Administrator shall select proposals for funding that—

(i) best result in developing and establishing multidisciplinary programs that respond to child abuse by assisting, training, and teaching community agencies and professionals called upon to respond to child abuse cases;

(ii) assist in resolving problems that may occur during the development, operation, and implementation of a multidisciplinary program that responds to child abuse;

(iii) to the greatest extent possible and subject to available appropriations, ensure that at least 1 applicant is selected from each of the 4 census regions of the country; and

(iv) otherwise best carry out the purposes of this section.

(5) Funding of program

From amounts made available in separate appropriation Acts, the Administrator shall provide to each grant recipient the financial and technical assistance and other incentives that are necessary and appropriate to carry out this section.

(6) Coordination of effort

In order to carry out activities that are in the best interests of abused and neglected children, a grant recipient shall consult with other grant recipients on a regular basis to exchange ideas, share information, and review children's advocacy program activities.

(d) Review

(1) Evaluation of regional children's advocacy program activities

The Administrator shall regularly monitor and evaluate the activities of grant recipients and shall determine whether each grant recipient has complied with the original proposal and any modifications.

(2) Annual report

A grant recipient shall provide an annual report to the Administrator that—

(A) describes the progress made in satisfying the purpose of the children's advocacy program; and

(B) states whether changes are needed and are being made to carry out the purpose of the children's advocacy program.

(3) Discontinuation of funding

Upon discontinuation of funding of a grant recipient under this section, the Administrator shall solicit new proposals in accordance with subsection (c).

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §213, as added Pub. L. 102–586, §6(b)(2), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5030; amended Pub. L. 108–21, title III, §381(a), Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5466.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13001b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 213 of Pub. L. 101–647 was renumbered section 214A and is classified to section 20305 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(1)(A), struck out "with the Director and" after "coordination" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(1)(B)–(F), redesignated pars. (3) and (4) as (2) and (3), respectively, in par. (3) as redesignated, inserted ", law enforcement officers, child protective service workers, forensic interviewers, prosecutors, and victim advocates," after "health care professionals" and struck out "medical" before "personnel" and "support", added par. (4), and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows; "provide support for nonoffending family members;".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(A)(i), struck out ", in coordination with the Director," after "Administrator" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(A)(iii), substituted "multidisciplinary team investigation, trauma-informed interventions, and evidence-informed treatment," for "the prevention, judicial handling, and treatment of child abuse and neglect; and".

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(A)(ii), (iv), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows: "fund the establishment of freestanding facilities in multidisciplinary programs within communities that have yet to establish such facilities,".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(B)(i)(I), substituted "communities, local children's advocacy centers, multidisciplinary teams, and State chapters" for "communities" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(B)(i)(II), inserted "and expanding" after "developing".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(B)(i)(IV), added cl. (ii). Former cl. (ii) redesignated (iii).

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(B)(i)(III), (V), redesignated cl. (ii) as (iii) and substituted "child-friendly facilities for the investigation of, assessment of, and intervention in abuse" for "a freestanding facility where interviews of and services for abused children can be provided". Former cl. (iii) redesignated (iv).

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(iv). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(B)(i)(III), (VI), redesignated cl. (iii) as (iv) and substituted "duplicative" for "multiple". Former cl. (iv) redesignated (v).

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(v) to (xi). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(B)(i)(III), redesignated cls. (iv) to (x) as (v) to (xi), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(2)(B)(ii), inserted "and interested communities" after "advocacy centers".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(3)(A), substituted "evidence-informed services for" for "remedial counseling to".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(3)(B), substituted "children's advocacy center" for "multidisciplinary child abuse program".

Subsec. (c)(4)(B). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(3)(C)(i), struck out ", in coordination with the Director," after "Administrator" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(B)(iii) to (v). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(3)(C)(ii), (iii), redesignated cls. (iv) and (v) as (iii) and (iv), respectively, and struck out former cl. (iii) which read as follows: "carry out the objectives developed by the board under subsection (e)(2)(A);".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(4)(A), struck out ", in coordination with the Director," after "Administrator".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(4)(B), struck out "and the Director" after "Administrator" in intoductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(4)(C), struck out subpar. (B) designation and heading before "Upon discontinuation" and struck out subpar. (A). Prior to amendment, text of subpar. (A) read as follows: "If a grant recipient under this section substantially fails in the implementation of the program activities, the Administrator shall not discontinue funding until reasonable notice and an opportunity for reconsideration is given."

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(c)(5), struck out subsecs. (e) and (f) which related to the children's advocacy advisory board and annual report on the progress of regional children's advocacy program activities, respectively.

2003—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 108–21, §381(a)(1), struck out "and" at end of cl. (ii) of subpar. (B), substituted "board" for "Board" in cl. (iii) of subpar. (B), and redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as cls. (iv) and (v), respectively, of subpar. (B).

Subsec. (e)(1)(B)(ii), (2)(A), (3). Pub. L. 108–21, §381(a)(2), substituted "board" for "Board".

Termination of Advisory Boards

Advisory boards established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a board established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such board is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a board established by Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§20304. Local children's advocacy centers

(a) In general

The Administrator, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Victims of Crime, shall make grants to—

(1) develop and enhance multidisciplinary child abuse investigations, intervention, and prosecution; and

(2) promote the effective delivery of the evidence-informed Children's Advocacy Model and the multidisciplinary response to child abuse, including best practices in programmatic evaluation and financial oversight of Federal funding.

(b) Direct services for child victims of a severe form of trafficking in persons and victims of human trafficking and child pornography

The Administrator, in coordination with the Director of the Office of Victims of Crime, may make grants to develop and implement specialized programs to identify and provide direct services to victims of a severe form of trafficking (as defined in section 7102(9)(A) 1 of title 22) who were under the age of 18 at the time of the offense and victims of human trafficking and child pornography.

(c) Grant criteria

(1) The Administrator shall establish the criteria to be used in evaluating applications for grants under subsections (a) and (b) consistent with sections 11183 and 11186 of this title.

(2) In general, the grant criteria established pursuant to paragraph (1) may require that a program include any of the following elements:

(A) A written agreement between local law enforcement, child protective service, health, and other related agencies to coordinate child abuse investigation, prosecution, treatment, and counseling services.

(B) An appropriate site for referring, interviewing, treating, and counseling child victims of sexual and serious physical abuse and neglect and nonoffending family members (referred to as a "children's advocacy center").

(C) Referral of all child abuse cases that meet designated referral criteria to the children's advocacy center not later than 24 hours after notification of an incident of abuse.

(D) Joint initial forensic interviews of child victims by personnel from law enforcement, health, and child protective service agencies.

(E) A requirement that, to the extent practicable, all interviews and meetings with a child victim occur at the children's advocacy center or an agency with which there is a linkage agreement regarding the delivery of multidisciplinary child abuse investigation, prosecution, and intervention services.

(F) Coordination of each step of the investigation process to eliminate duplicative forensic interviews with a child victim.

(G) Designation of a director for the children's advocacy center.

(H) Assignment of a volunteer or staff advocate to each child in order to assist the child and, when appropriate, the child's family, throughout each step of intervention and judicial proceedings.

(I) Such other criteria as the Administrator shall establish by regulation.

(d) Distribution of grants

In awarding grants under this section, the Administrator shall ensure that grants are distributed to all States that are eligible for such grants, including large and small States, and to rural, suburban, and urban jurisdictions.

(e) Consultation with regional children's advocacy centers

A grant recipient under this section shall consult from time to time with regional children's advocacy centers in its census region that are grant recipients under section 20303 of this title.

(f) Grants to State chapters for assistance to local children's advocacy centers

In awarding grants under this section, the Administrator shall ensure that a portion of the grants is distributed to State chapters to enable State chapters to provide technical assistance, training, coordination, and oversight to other recipients of grants under this section in providing evidence-informed initiatives, including mental health counseling, forensic interviewing, multidisciplinary team coordination, and victim advocacy.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §214, formerly §212, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4793; renumbered §214 and amended Pub. L. 102–586, §6(b)(1), (c), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5029, 5034; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12221(b)(1)(A), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1894; Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §104(2), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 115–392, §6, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5253; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d), (h)(2), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5467, 5470.)

References in Text

Section 7102(9)(A) of title 22, referred to in subsec. (b), was redesignated section 7102(11)(A) of title 22 by Pub. L. 115–427, §2(1), Jan. 9, 2019, 132 Stat. 5503.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13002 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 214 of Pub. L. 101–647 was renumbered section 214B and is classified to section 20306 of this title.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out former subsec. (a). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Administrator, in coordination with the Director and with the Director of the Office of Victims of Crime, shall make grants to develop and implement multidisciplinary child abuse investigation and prosecution programs."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(2), in heading, inserted "human trafficking and" before "child pornography", and in text, struck out "with the Director and" after "coordination" and inserted "human trafficking and" before "child pornography".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(h)(2), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to sections 11183 and 11186 of this title.

Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(A), substituted "Administrator" for "Director" and "subsections (a) and (b)" for "this section".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(i), substituted "child protective service" for "social service".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(ii), substituted "a 'children's advocacy center' " for "the 'counseling center' ".

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(iii), substituted "child abuse cases that meet designated referral criteria to the children's advocacy center" for "sexual and serious physical abuse and neglect cases to the counseling center".

Subsec. (c)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(iv), substituted "forensic" for "investigative" and "child protective service" for "social service".

Subsec. (c)(2)(E). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(v)–(vii), redesignated subpar. (F) as (E), substituted "children's advocacy center or an agency with which there is a linkage agreement regarding the delivery of multidisciplinary child abuse investigation, prosecution, and intervention services" for "counseling center", and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: "A requirement that, to the extent practicable, the same agency representative who conducts an initial interview conduct all subsequent interviews."

Subsec. (c)(2)(F). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(vi), (viii), redesignated subpar. (G) as (F) and substituted "eliminate duplicative forensic interviews with a child victim" for "minimize the number of interviews that a child victim must attend". Former subpar. (F) redesignated (E).

Subsec. (c)(2)(G). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(vi), (ix), redesignated subpar. (H) as (G) and substituted "children's advocacy center" for "multidisciplinary program". Former subpar. (G) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (c)(2)(H). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(vi), (x), redesignated subpar. (I) as (H) and inserted "intervention and" before "judicial proceedings". Former subpar. (H) redesignated (G).

Subsec. (c)(2)(I), (J). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(3)(B)(vi), (xi), redesignated subpar. (J) as (I) and substituted "Administrator" for "Director". Former subpar. (I) redesignated (H).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(4), substituted "the Administrator" for "the Director" and "all States that are eligible for such grants, including large and small States," for "both large and small States".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(d)(5), added subsec. (f).

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–392 inserted "child victims of a severe form of trafficking in persons and" before "victims of child pornography" in heading and "victims of a severe form of trafficking (as defined in section 7102(9)(A) of title 22) who were under the age of 18 at the time of the offense and" before "victims of child pornography" in text.

2015—Subsecs. (b) to (e). Pub. L. 114–22 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) to (d) as (c) to (e), respectively.

2002—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "sections 5673 and 5676 of this title" for "sections 5665a, 5673, and 5676 of this title".

1992Pub. L. 102–586, §6(c)(1), substituted "Local children's advocacy centers" for "Authority of Director to make grants" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–586, §6(c)(2), substituted "The Administrator, in coordination with the Director and with the Director of the Office of Victims of Crime," for "The Director of the Office of Victims of Crime (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the 'Director'), in consultation with officials of the Department of Health and Human Services,".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–586, §6(c)(3), inserted "and nonoffending family members" after "neglect".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–586, §6(c)(4), added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–273 effective on the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, and applicable only with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, see section 12223 of Pub. L. 107–273, as amended, set out as a note under section 11101 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§20305. Grants for specialized technical assistance and training programs

(a) In general

The Administrator shall make grants to national organizations to provide technical assistance and training to—

(1) attorneys and other allied professionals instrumental to the criminal prosecution of child abuse cases in State or Federal courts, for the purpose of improving the quality of criminal prosecution of such cases; and

(2) child abuse professionals instrumental to the protection of children, intervention in child abuse cases, and treatment of victims of child abuse, for the purpose of—

(A) improving the quality of such protection, intervention, and treatment; and

(B) promoting the effective delivery of the evidence-informed Children's Advocacy Model and the multidisciplinary response to child abuse, including best practices in programmatic evaluation and financial oversight of Federal funding.

(b) Grantee organizations

(1) Prosecutors

An organization to which a grant is made for specific training and technical assistance for prosecutors under subsection (a)(1) shall be one that has—

(A) a broad representation of attorneys who prosecute criminal cases in State courts; and

(B) demonstrated experience in providing training and technical assistance for prosecutors.

(2) Child abuse professionals

An organization to which a grant is made for specific training and technical assistance for child abuse professionals under subsection (a)(2) shall be one that has—

(A) a diverse portfolio of training and technical resources for the diverse professionals responding to child abuse, including a digital library to promote evidence-informed practice; and

(B) demonstrated experience in providing training and technical assistance for child abuse professionals, especially law enforcement officers, child protective service workers, prosecutors, forensic interviewers, medical professionals, victim advocates, and mental health professionals.

(c) Grant criteria

(1) The Administrator shall establish the criteria to be used for evaluating applications for grants under this section, consistent with sections 11183 and 11186 of this title.

(2) The grant criteria established pursuant to paragraph (1) shall require, in the case of a grant made under subsection (a)(1), that a program provide training and technical assistance that includes information regarding improved child interview techniques, thorough investigative methods, interagency coordination and effective presentation of evidence in court, including the use of alternative courtroom procedures described in this title.1

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §214A, formerly §213, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4793; renumbered §214A and amended Pub. L. 102–586, §6(b)(1), (d), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5029, 5034; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12221(b)(1)(B), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1894; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(e), (h)(3), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5469, 5470.)

References in Text

This title, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), means title II of Pub. L. 101–647, known as the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Short Title of 1990 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13003 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(e)(1), substituted "to—" and pars. (1) and (2) for "to attorneys and others instrumental to the criminal prosecution of child abuse cases in State or Federal courts, for the purpose of improving the quality of criminal prosecution of such cases."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(e)(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "An organization to which a grant is made pursuant to subsection (a) shall be one that has, or is affiliated with one that has, broad membership among attorneys who prosecute criminal cases in State courts and has demonstrated experience in providing training and technical assistance for prosecutors."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(h)(3), made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to sections 11183 and 11186 of this title.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(e)(3), inserted ", in the case of a grant made under subsection (a)(1)," after "shall require".

2002—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "sections 5673 and 5676 of this title" for "sections 5665a, 5673, and 5676 of this title".

1992—Subsecs. (a), (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–586, §6(d), substituted "Administrator" for "Director".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–273 effective on the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, and applicable only with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, see section 12223 of Pub. L. 107–273, as amended, set out as a note under section 11101 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§20306. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Sections 20303 and 20304

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out sections 20303 and 20304 of this title, $16,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(b) Section 20305

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 20305 of this title, $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §214B, formerly §214, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4794; renumbered §214B and amended Pub. L. 102–586, §6(b)(1), (e), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5029, 5034; Pub. L. 104–235, title II, §232, Oct. 3, 1996, 110 Stat. 3092; Pub. L. 108–21, title III, §381(b), Apr. 30, 2003, 117 Stat. 667; Pub. L. 113–163, §2(a), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1864; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(f), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5469.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13004 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(f)(1), substituted "sections 20303 and 20304 of this title, $16,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023." for "sections 20303 and 20304 of this title, $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–424, §2(f)(2), substituted "section 20305 of this title, $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023." for "section 20305 of this title, $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018."

2014Pub. L. 113–163 substituted "fiscal years 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018" for "fiscal years 2004 and 2005" in subsecs. (a) and (b).

2003Pub. L. 108–21 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section authorized appropriations to carry out sections 13001b and 13002 of $15,000,000 for fiscal year 1993 and such sums as necessary in fiscal years 1994 through 2000 and appropriations to carry out section 13003 of $5,000,000 for fiscal year 1993 and such sums as necessary in fiscal years 1994 through 2000.

1996—Subsecs. (a)(2), (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–235 substituted "1996, and each of the fiscal years 1997 through 2000" for "and 1996".

1992Pub. L. 102–586, §6(e), amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section authorized appropriations to carry out this subchapter of $20,000,000 in fiscal year 1991 and such sums as may be necessary in fiscal years 1992 and 1993 and provided that not less than 90 percent was to be used for grants under section 13002 of this title.

§20307. Accountability

(a) In general

All grants awarded by the Administrator under this subchapter shall be subject to the following accountability provisions:

(1) Audit requirement

(A) Definition

In this paragraph, the term "unresolved audit finding" means a finding in the final audit report of the Inspector General of the Department of Justice that the audited grantee has utilized grant funds for an unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost that is not closed or resolved within 12 months from the date when the final audit report is issued and any appeal has been completed.

(B) Audit

The Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall conduct audits of recipients of grants under this subchapter to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse of funds by grantees. The Inspector General shall determine the appropriate number of grantees to be audited each year.

(C) Mandatory exclusion

A recipient of grant funds under this subchapter that is found to have an unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible to receive grant funds under this subchapter during the following 2 fiscal years.

(D) Priority

In awarding grants under this subchapter, the Administrator shall give priority to eligible entities that did not have an unresolved audit finding during the 3 fiscal years prior to submitting an application for a grant under this subchapter.

(E) Reimbursement

If an entity is awarded grant funds under this subchapter during the 2-fiscal-year period in which the entity is barred from receiving grants under paragraph (2), the Administrator shall—

(i) deposit an amount equal to the grant funds that were improperly awarded to the grantee into the General Fund of the Treasury; and

(ii) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the fund from the grant recipient that was erroneously awarded grant funds.

(2) Nonprofit organization requirements

(A) Definition

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "nonprofit organization" means an organization that is described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such title.

(B) Prohibition

The Administrator may not award a grant under any grant program described in this subchapter to a nonprofit organization that holds money in offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding paying the tax described in section 511(a) of title 26.

(C) Disclosure

Each nonprofit organization that is awarded a grant under this subchapter and uses the procedures prescribed in regulations to create a rebuttable presumption of reasonableness for the compensation of its officers, directors, trustees and key employees, shall disclose to the Administrator, in the application for the grant, the process for determining such compensation, including the independent persons involved in reviewing and approving such compensation, the comparability data used, and contemporaneous substantiation of the deliberation and decision. Upon request, the Administrator shall make the information disclosed under this subparagraph available for public inspection.

(3) Conference expenditures

(A) Limitation

No amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Department of Justice under this subchapter may be used by the Administrator, or by any individual or organization awarded discretionary funds through a cooperative agreement under this Act, to host or support any expenditure for conferences that uses more than $20,000 in Department funds, unless the Deputy Attorney General or such Assistant Attorney Generals, Directors, or principal deputies as the Deputy Attorney General may designate, including the Administrator, provides prior written authorization through an award process or subsequent application that the funds may be expended to host a conference.

(B) Written approval

Written approval under subparagraph (A) shall include a written estimate of all costs associated with the conference, including the cost of all food and beverages, audiovisual equipment, honoraria for speakers, and any entertainment.

(C) Report

The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an annual report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives on all approved conference expenditures referenced in this paragraph.

(b) Reporting

Not later than March 1 of each year, the Attorney General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives a report that—

(1) summarizes the efforts of the Administrator to monitor and evaluate the regional children's advocacy program activities under section 20303(d) of this title;

(2) describes—

(A) the method by which amounts are allocated to grantees and subgrantees under this subchapter, including to local children's advocacy centers, State chapters, and regional children's advocacy program centers; and

(B) steps the Attorney General has taken to minimize duplication and overlap in the awarding of amounts under this subchapter; and


(3) analyzes the extent to which both rural and urban populations are served under the regional children's advocacy program.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §214C, as added Pub. L. 113–163, §2(b), Aug. 8, 2014, 128 Stat. 1864; amended Pub. L. 115–424, §2(g), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5469.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in par. (3)(A), probably means the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990, title II of Pub. L. 101–647, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4792, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Short Title of 1990 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13005 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2019Pub. L. 115–424 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

SUBCHAPTER II—COURT-APPOINTED SPECIAL ADVOCATE PROGRAM

§20321. Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) Court Appointed Special Advocates, who may serve as guardians ad litem, are trained volunteers appointed by courts to advocate for the best interests of children who are involved in the juvenile and family court system due to abuse or neglect; and

(2) in 2003, Court Appointed Special Advocate volunteers represented 288,000 children, more than 50 percent of the estimated 540,000 children in foster care because of substantiated cases of child abuse or neglect.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §215, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4794; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §112(a), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2985.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13011 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2006—Pars. (1), (2). Pub. L. 109–162 added pars. (1) and (2) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2), which read as follows:

"(1) the National Court-Appointed Special Advocate provides training and technical assistance to a network of 13,000 volunteers in 377 programs operating in 47 States; and

"(2) in 1988, these volunteers represented 40,000 children, representing approximately 15 percent of the estimated 270,000 cases of child abuse and neglect in juvenile and family courts."

§20322. Purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to ensure that by January 1, 2015, a court-appointed special advocate shall be available to every victim of child abuse or neglect in the United States that needs such an advocate.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §216, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4794; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40156(a)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1923; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §112(b), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2986; Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §106(1), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 77.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13012 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "January 1, 2015" for "January 1, 2010".

2006Pub. L. 109–162 substituted "January 1, 2010" for "January 1, 1995".

1994Pub. L. 103–322 made technical amendment to reference to this subchapter to correct reference to corresponding provision of original act.

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§20323. Strengthening of court-appointed special advocate program

(a) In general

The Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention shall make grants to initiate, sustain, and expand the court-appointed special advocate program.

(b) Grantee organizations

(1) An organization to which a grant is made pursuant to subsection (a)—

(A) shall be a national organization that has broad membership among court-appointed special advocates and has demonstrated experience in grant administration of court-appointed special advocate programs and in providing training and technical assistance to court-appointed special advocate program; or

(B) may be a local public or not-for-profit agency that has demonstrated the willingness to initiate, sustain, and expand a court-appointed special advocate program.


(2) An organization described in paragraph (1)(A) that receives a grant may be authorized to make subgrants and enter into contracts with public and not-for-profit agencies to initiate, sustain, and expand the court-appointed special advocate program. Should a grant be made to a national organization for this purpose, the Administrator shall specify an amount not exceeding 5 percent that can be used for administrative purposes by the national organization.

(c) Grant criteria

(1) The Administrator shall establish criteria to be used in evaluating applications for grants under this section, consistent with sections 11183 and 11186 of this title.

(2) In general, the grant criteria established pursuant to paragraph (1) shall require that a court-appointed special advocate program provide screening, training, and supervision of court-appointed special advocates in accordance with standards developed by the National Court-Appointed Special Advocate Association. Such criteria may include the requirements that—

(A) a court-appointed special advocate association program have a mission and purpose in keeping with the mission and purpose of the National Court-Appointed Special Advocate Association and that it abide by the National Court-Appointed Special Advocate Association Standards for Programs;

(B) a court-appointed special advocate association program operate with access to legal counsel;

(C) the management and operation of a court-appointed special advocate program assure adequate supervision of court-appointed special advocate volunteers;

(D) a court-appointed special advocate program keep written records on the operation of the program in general and on each applicant, volunteer, and case;

(E) a court-appointed special advocate program have written management and personnel policies and procedures, screening requirements, and training curriculum;

(F) a court-appointed special advocate program not accept volunteers who have been convicted of, have charges pending for, or have in the past been charged with, a felony or misdemeanor involving a sex offense, violent act, child abuse or neglect, or related acts that would pose risks to children or to the court-appointed special advocate program's credibility;

(G) a court-appointed special advocate program have an established procedure to allow the immediate reporting to a court or appropriate agency of a situation in which a court-appointed special advocate volunteer has reason to believe that a child is in imminent danger;

(H) a court-appointed special advocate volunteer be an individual who has been screened and trained by a recognized court-appointed special advocate program and appointed by the court to advocate for children who come into the court system primarily as a result of abuse or neglect; and

(I) a court-appointed special advocate volunteer serve the function of reviewing records, facilitating prompt, thorough review of cases, and interviewing appropriate parties in order to make recommendations on what would be in the best interests of the child.


(3) In awarding grants under this section, the Administrator shall ensure that grants are distributed to localities that have no existing court-appointed special advocate program and to programs in need of expansion.

(d) Background checks

State and local Court Appointed Special Advocate programs are authorized to request fingerprint-based criminal background checks from the Federal Bureau of Investigation's criminal history database for prospective volunteers. The requesting program is responsible for the reasonable costs associated with the Federal records check.

(e) Reporting

An organization that receives a grant under this section for a fiscal year shall submit to the Administrator a report regarding the use of the grant for the fiscal year, including a discussion of outcome performance measures (which shall be established by the Administrator) to determine the effectiveness of the programs of the organization in meeting the needs of children in the child welfare system.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §217, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4794; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12221(b)(1)(C), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1894; Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §112(c), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2986; Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §106(2), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 77; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(h)(4), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5470.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13013 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–424 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to sections 11183 and 11186 of this title.

2013—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–4, §106(2)(A), substituted "Standards for Programs" for "Code of Ethics".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–4, §106(2)(B), added subsec. (e).

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–162, §112(c)(1), substituted "to initiate, sustain, and expand" for "to expand".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §112(c)(2)(A), substituted "subsection (a)—" for "subsection (a)", inserted subpar. (A) designation before "shall be", and substituted "(B) may be" for "(2) may be" and "to initiate, sustain, and expand" for "to initiate or expand".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–162, §112(c)(2)(B), substituted "(1)(A)" for "(1)(a)" and "to initiate, sustain, and expand" for "to initiate and to expand".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–162, §112(c)(3), added subsec. (d).

2002—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "sections 5673 and 5676 of this title" for "sections 5665a, 5673, and 5676 of this title".

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–273 effective on the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, and applicable only with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, see section 12223 of Pub. L. 107–273, as amended, set out as a note under section 11101 of this title.

§20324. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter $12,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(b) Limitation

No funds are authorized to be appropriated for a fiscal year to carry out this subchapter unless the aggregate amount appropriated to carry out title II of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5611 et seq.1 for such fiscal year is not less than the aggregate amount appropriated to carry out such title for the preceding fiscal year.

(c) Prohibition on lobbying

No funds authorized under this subchapter may be used for lobbying activities in contravention of OMB Circular No. A–122.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §219, formerly §218, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4796; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40156(a)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1922; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, §1302(a), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1511; renumbered §219 and amended Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §112(d)(1), (e), Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2986; Pub. L. 113–4, title I, §106(3), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 77.)

References in Text

The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 93–415, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1109. Title II of the Act was classified principally to subchapter II (§5611 et seq.) of chapter 72 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as subchapter II (§11111 et seq.) of chapter 111 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13014 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "fiscal years 2007 through 2011".

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–162, §112(e)(1), added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows: "There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter $12,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2005."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–162, §112(e)(2), added subsec. (c).

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–386 added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter—

"(1) $6,000,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(2) $6,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

"(3) $7,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

"(4) $9,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

"(5) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2000."

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322 amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter—

"(1) $5,000,000 in fiscal year 1991; and

"(2) such sums as may be necessary to carry out this subchapter in each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994."

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 113–4 not effective until the beginning of the fiscal year following Mar. 7, 2013, see section 4 of Pub. L. 113–4, set out as a note under section 2261 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Dissemination of Information

Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, §1302(d), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1511, provided that: "The Attorney General shall—

"(1) annually compile and disseminate information (including through electronic publication) about the use of amounts expended and the projects funded under section 218(a) [now 219(a)] of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13014(a)) [now 34 U.S.C. 20324(a)], section 224(a) of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13024(a)) [now 34 U.S.C. 20334(a)], and section 1007(a)(7) [1001(a)(7)] of title I of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act of 1968 (42 U.S.C. 3793(a)(7)) [now 34 U.S.C. 10261(a)(7)], including any evaluations of the projects and information to enable replication and adoption of the strategies identified in the projects; and

"(2) focus dissemination of the information described in paragraph (1) toward community-based programs, including domestic violence and sexual assault programs."

[For definitions of terms used in section 1302(d)(2) of Pub. L. 106–386, set out above, see section 1002 of Pub. L. 106–386, set out as a note under section 10447 of this title.]

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER III—CHILD ABUSE TRAINING PROGRAMS FOR JUDICIAL PERSONNEL AND PRACTITIONERS

§20331. Findings and purpose

(a) Findings

The Congress finds that—

(1) a large number of juvenile and family courts are inundated with increasing numbers of cases due to increased reports of abuse and neglect, increasing drug-related maltreatment, and insufficient court resources;

(2) the amendments made to the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.] by the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 make substantial demands on the courts handling abuse and neglect cases, but provide no assistance to the courts to meet those demands;

(3) the Adoption 1 and Child Welfare Act of 1980 requires courts to—

(A) determine whether the agency made reasonable efforts to prevent foster care placement;

(B) approve voluntary nonjudicial placement; and

(C) provide procedural safeguards for parents when their parent-child relationship is affected;


(4) social welfare agencies press the courts to meet such requirements, yet scarce resources often dictate that courts comply pro forma without undertaking the meaningful judicial inquiry contemplated by Congress in the Adoption 1 and Child Welfare Act of 1980;

(5) compliance with the Adoption 1 and Child Welfare Act of 1980 and overall improvements in the judicial response to abuse and neglect cases can best come about through action by top level court administrators and judges with administrative functions who understand the unique aspects of decisions required in child abuse and neglect cases; and

(6) the Adoption 1 and Child Welfare Act of 1980 provides financial incentives to train welfare agency staff to meet the requirements, but provides no resources to train judges.

(b) Purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to provide expanded technical assistance and training to judicial personnel and attorneys, particularly personnel and practitioners in juvenile and family courts, to improve the judicial system's handling of child abuse and neglect cases with specific emphasis on the role of the courts in addressing reasonable efforts that can safely avoid unnecessary and unnecessarily prolonged foster care placement.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §221, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4796; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40156(b)(2), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1923.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, which is classified generally to chapter 7 (§301 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 96–272, June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 500. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendments note set out under section 1305 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13021 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–322 made technical amendment to reference to this subchapter to correct reference to corresponding provision of original act.

1 So in original. Probably should be "Adoption Assistance".

§20332. Grants for juvenile and family court personnel

In order to improve the judicial system's handling of child abuse and neglect cases, the Administrator of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention shall make grants for the purpose of providing—

(1) technical assistance and training to judicial personnel and attorneys, particularly personnel and practitioners in juvenile and family courts; and

(2) administrative reform in juvenile and family courts.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §222, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4797.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13022 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§20333. Specialized technical assistance and training programs

(a) Grants to develop model programs

(1) The Administrator shall make grants to national organizations to develop 1 or more model technical assistance and training programs to improve the judicial system's handling of child abuse and neglect cases.

(2) An organization to which a grant is made pursuant to paragraph (1) shall be one that has broad membership among juvenile and family court judges and has demonstrated experience in providing training and technical assistance for judges, attorneys, child welfare personnel, and lay child advocates.

(b) Grants to juvenile and family courts

(1) In order to improve the judicial system's handling of child abuse and neglect cases, the Administrator shall make grants to State courts or judicial administrators for programs that provide or contract for, the implementation of—

(A) training and technical assistance to judicial personnel and attorneys in juvenile and family courts; and

(B) administrative reform in juvenile and family courts.


(2) The criteria established for the making of grants pursuant to paragraph (1) shall give priority to programs that improve—

(A) procedures for determining whether child service agencies have made reasonable efforts to prevent placement of children in foster care;

(B) procedures for determining whether child service agencies have, after placement of children in foster care, made reasonable efforts to reunite the family;

(C) procedures for coordinating information and services among health professionals, social workers, law enforcement professionals, prosecutors, defense attorneys, and juvenile and family court personnel, consistent with subchapter I; and

(D) procedures for improving the judicial response to children who are vulnerable to human trafficking, to the extent an appropriate screening tool exists.

(c) Grant criteria

The Administrator shall make grants under subsections (a) and (b) consistent with sections 11172, 11183, and 11186 of this title.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §223, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4797; Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title II, §12221(b)(1)(D), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1894; Pub. L. 115–393, title V, §503, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5277; Pub. L. 115–424, §2(h)(5), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5470.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13023 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 115–424 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to sections 11183 and 11186 of this title.

2018—Subsec. (b)(2)(D). Pub. L. 115–393 added subpar. (D).

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–273 substituted "sections 5666, 5673, and 5676 of this title" for "section 5665a, 5673, and 5676 of this title".

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–273 effective on the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, and applicable only with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after the first day of the first fiscal year that begins after Nov. 2, 2002, see section 12223 of Pub. L. 107–273, as amended, set out as a note under section 11101 of this title.

§20334. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter $2,300,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018.

(b) Use of funds

Of the amounts appropriated in subsection (a), not less than 80 percent shall be used for grants under section 20333(b) of this title.

(c) Limitation

No funds are authorized to be appropriated for a fiscal year to carry out this subchapter unless the aggregate amount appropriated to carry out title II of the Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5611 et seq.1 for such fiscal year is not less than the aggregate amount appropriated to carry out such title for the preceding fiscal year.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §224, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4798; Pub. L. 103–322, title IV, §40156(b)(1), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1923; Pub. L. 106–386, div. B, title III, §1302(b), Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1511; Pub. L. 113–4, title XI, §1105, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 135.)

References in Text

The Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 93–415, Sept. 7, 1974, 88 Stat. 1109. Title II of the Act was classified principally to subchapter II (§5611 et seq.) of chapter 72 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as subchapter II (§11111 et seq.) of chapter 111 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13024 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$2,300,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018." for "$2,300,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2005."

2000—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–386 added subsec. (a) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (a). Text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter—

"(1) $750,000 for fiscal year 1996;

"(2) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 1997;

"(3) $2,000,000 for fiscal year 1998;

"(4) $2,000,000 for fiscal year 1999; and

"(5) $2,300,000 for fiscal year 2000."

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322 amended heading and text of subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter—

"(1) $10,000,000 in fiscal year 1991; and

"(2) such sums as may be necessary to carry out this chapter in each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994."

1 See References in Text note below.

SUBCHAPTER IV—REPORTING REQUIREMENTS

§20341. Child abuse reporting

(a) In general

(1) Covered professionals

A person who, while engaged in a professional capacity or activity described in subsection (b) on Federal land or in a federally operated (or contracted) facility, learns of facts that give reason to suspect that a child has suffered an incident of child abuse, shall as soon as possible make a report of the suspected abuse to the agency designated under subsection (d) and to the agency or agencies provided for in subsection (e), if applicable.

(2) Covered individuals

A covered individual who learns of facts that give reason to suspect that a child has suffered an incident of child abuse, including sexual abuse, shall as soon as possible make a report of the suspected abuse to the agency designated by the Attorney General under subsection (d).

(b) Covered professionals

Persons engaged in the following professions and activities are subject to the requirements of subsection (a)(1):

(1) Physicians, dentists, medical residents or interns, hospital personnel and administrators, nurses, health care practitioners, chiropractors, osteopaths, pharmacists, optometrists, podiatrists, emergency medical technicians, ambulance drivers, undertakers, coroners, medical examiners, alcohol or drug treatment personnel, and persons performing a healing role or practicing the healing arts.

(2) Psychologists, psychiatrists, and mental health professionals.

(3) Social workers, licensed or unlicensed marriage, family, and individual counselors.

(4) Teachers, teacher's aides or assistants, school counselors and guidance personnel, school officials, and school administrators.

(5) Child care workers and administrators.

(6) Law enforcement personnel, probation officers, criminal prosecutors, and juvenile rehabilitation or detention facility employees.

(7) Foster parents.

(8) Commercial film and photo processors.

(c) Definitions

For the purposes of this section—

(1) the term "child abuse" means the physical or mental injury, sexual abuse or exploitation, or negligent treatment of a child;

(2) the term "physical injury" includes but is not limited to lacerations, fractured bones, burns, internal injuries, severe bruising or serious bodily harm;

(3) the term "mental injury" means harm to a child's psychological or intellectual functioning which may be exhibited by severe anxiety, depression, withdrawal or outward aggressive behavior, or a combination of those behaviors, which may be demonstrated by a change in behavior, emotional response or cognition;

(4) the term "sexual abuse" includes the employment, use, persuasion, inducement, enticement, or coercion of a child to engage in, or assist another person to engage in, sexually explicit conduct or the rape, molestation, prostitution, or other form of sexual exploitation of children, or incest with children;

(5) the term "sexually explicit conduct" means actual or simulated—

(A) sexual intercourse, including sexual contact in the manner of genital-genital, oral-genital, anal-genital, or oral-anal contact, whether between persons of the same or of opposite sex; sexual contact means the intentional touching, either directly or through clothing, of the genitalia, anus, groin, breast, inner thigh, or buttocks of any person with an intent to abuse, humiliate, harass, degrade, or arouse or gratify sexual desire of any person;

(B) bestiality;

(C) masturbation;

(D) lascivious exhibition of the genitals or pubic area of a person or animal; or

(E) sadistic or masochistic abuse;


(6) the term "exploitation" means child pornography or child prostitution;

(7) the term "negligent treatment" means the failure to provide, for reasons other than poverty, adequate food, clothing, shelter, or medical care so as to seriously endanger the physical health of the child;

(8) the term "child abuse" shall not include discipline administered by a parent or legal guardian to his or her child provided it is reasonable in manner and moderate in degree and otherwise does not constitute cruelty;

(9) the term "covered individual" means an adult who is authorized, by a national governing body, a member of a national governing body, or an amateur sports organization that participates in interstate or international amateur athletic competition, to interact with a minor or amateur athlete at an amateur sports organization facility or at any event sanctioned by a national governing body, a member of a national governing body, or such an amateur sports organization;

(10) the term "event" includes travel, lodging, practice, competition, and health or medical treatment;

(11) the terms "amateur athlete", "amateur athletic competition", "amateur sports organization", "international amateur athletic competition", and "national governing body" have the meanings given the terms in section 220501(b) of title 36; and

(12) the term "as soon as possible" means within a 24-hour period.

(d) Agency designated to receive report and action to be taken

For all Federal lands and all federally operated (or contracted) facilities in which children are cared for or reside and for all covered individuals, the Attorney General shall designate an agency to receive and investigate the reports described in subsection (a). By formal written agreement, the designated agency may be a non-Federal agency. When such reports are received by social services or health care agencies, and involve allegations of sexual abuse, serious physical injury, or life-threatening neglect of a child, there shall be an immediate referral of the report to a law enforcement agency with authority to take emergency action to protect the child. All reports received shall be promptly investigated, and whenever appropriate, investigations shall be conducted jointly by social services and law enforcement personnel, with a view toward avoiding unnecessary multiple interviews with the child.

(e) Reporters and recipient of report involving children and homes of members of the Armed Forces

(1) Recipients of reports

In the case of an incident described in subsection (a) involving a child in the family or home of member of the Armed Forces (regardless of whether the incident occurred on or off a military installation), the report required by subsection (a) shall be made to the appropriate child welfare services agency or agencies of the State in which the child resides. The Attorney General, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of Homeland Security (with respect to the Coast Guard when it is not operating as a service in the Navy) shall jointly, in consultation with the chief executive officers of the States, designate the child welfare service agencies of the States that are appropriate recipients of reports pursuant to this subsection. Any report on an incident pursuant to this subsection is in addition to any other report on the incident pursuant to this section.

(2) Makers of reports

For purposes of the making of reports under this section pursuant to this subsection, the persons engaged in professions and activities described in subsection (b) shall include members of the Armed Forces who are engaged in such professions and activities for members of the Armed Forces and their dependents.

(f) Reporting form

In every federally operated (or contracted) facility, on all Federal lands, and for all covered individuals, a standard written reporting form, with instructions, shall be disseminated to all mandated reporter groups. Use of the form shall be encouraged, but its use shall not take the place of the immediate making of oral reports, telephonically or otherwise, when circumstances dictate.

(g) Immunity for good faith reporting and associated actions

All persons who, acting in good faith, make a report by subsection (a), or otherwise provide information or assistance in connection with a report, investigation, or legal intervention pursuant to a report, shall be immune from civil and criminal liability arising out of such actions. There shall be a presumption that any such persons acted in good faith. If a person is sued because of the person's performance of one of the above functions, and the defendant prevails in the litigation, the court may order that the plaintiff pay the defendant's legal expenses. Immunity shall not be accorded to persons acting in bad faith.

(h) Training of prospective reporters

All individuals in the occupations listed in subsection (b)(1) who work on Federal lands, or are employed in federally operated (or contracted) facilities, and all covered individuals, shall receive periodic training in the obligation to report, as well as in the identification of abused and neglected children.

(i) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed to require a victim of child abuse to self-report the abuse.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §226, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4806; Pub. L. 114–328, div. A, title V, §575(b), Dec. 23, 2016, 130 Stat. 2142; Pub. L. 115–126, title I, §101(a), Feb. 14, 2018, 132 Stat. 318.)

Codification

Another subsec. (g) of section 226 of Pub. L. 101–647 enacted section 2258 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure, and amended analysis for part I and heading and analysis of chapter 110 of Title 18.

Section was formerly classified to section 13031 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–126, §101(a)(1), designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted heading, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–126, §101(a)(2), substituted "subsection (a)(1)" for "subsection (a)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(9) to (12). Pub. L. 115–126, §101(a)(3), added pars. (9) to (12).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 115–126, §101(a)(4), inserted "and for all covered individuals" after "reside".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–126, §101(a)(5), substituted "on all" for "and on all" and inserted "and for all covered individuals," after "lands,".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 115–126, §101(a)(6), inserted "and all covered individuals," after "facilities,".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–126, §101(a)(7), added subsec. (i).

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–328, §575(b)(1), inserted before period at end "and to the agency or agencies provided for in subsection (e), if applicable".

Subsecs. (e) to (g). Pub. L. 114–328, §575(b)(2), (3), added subsec. (e) and redesignated former subsecs. (e) and (f) as (f) and (g), respectively.

§20342. Federal immunity

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any individual making a good faith report to appropriate authorities of a suspected or known instance of child abuse or neglect, or who otherwise, in good faith, provides information or assistance, including medical evaluations or consultations, in connection with a report, investigation, or legal intervention pursuant to a good faith report of child abuse or neglect shall not be subject to civil liability or criminal prosecution, under any Federal law, rising from making such report or providing such information or assistance.

(2) Presumption of good faith

In a Federal civil action or criminal prosecution brought against a person based on the person's reporting a suspected or known instance of child abuse or neglect, or providing information or assistance with respect to such a report, as described in paragraph (1), there shall be a presumption that the person acted in good faith.

(3) Costs

If the defendant prevails in a Federal civil action described in paragraph (2), the court may award costs and reasonable attorney's fees incurred by the defendant.

(Pub. L. 115–424, §3(b), Jan. 7, 2019, 132 Stat. 5470.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Victims of Child Abuse Act Reauthorization Act of 2018, and not as part of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 which comprises this chapter.

SUBCHAPTER V—CHILD CARE WORKER EMPLOYEE BACKGROUND CHECKS

§20351. Requirement for background checks

(a) In general

(1) Each agency of the Federal Government, and every facility operated by the Federal Government (or operated under contract with the Federal Government), that hires (or contracts for hire) individuals involved with the provision to children under the age of 18 of child care services shall assure that all existing and newly-hired employees undergo a criminal history background check. All existing staff shall receive such checks not later than May 29, 1991. Except as provided in subsection (b)(3), no additional staff shall be hired without a check having been completed.

(2) For the purposes of this section, the term "child care services" means child protective services (including the investigation of child abuse and neglect reports), social services, health and mental health care, child (day) care, education (whether or not directly involved in teaching), foster care, residential care, recreational or rehabilitative programs, and detention, correctional, or treatment services.

(b) Criminal history check

(1) A background check required by subsection (a) shall be—

(A) based on a set of the employee's fingerprints obtained by a law enforcement officer and on other identifying information;

(B) conducted through the Identification Division of the Federal Bureau of Investigation and through the State criminal history repositories of all States that an employee or prospective employee lists as current and former residences in an employment application; and

(C) initiated through the personnel programs of the applicable Federal agencies.


(2) The results of the background check shall be communicated to the employing agency.

(3) An agency or facility described in subsection (a)(1) may hire a staff person provisionally prior to the completion of a background check if, at all times prior to receipt of the background check during which children are in the care of the person, the person is within the sight and under the supervision of a staff person with respect to whom a background check has been completed.

(c) Applicable criminal histories

Any conviction for a sex crime, an offense involving a child victim, or a drug felony, may be ground for denying employment or for dismissal of an employee in any of the positions listed in subsection (a)(2). In the case of an incident in which an individual has been charged with one of those offenses, when the charge has not yet been disposed of, an employer may suspend an employee from having any contact with children while on the job until the case is resolved. Conviction of a crime other than a sex crime may be considered if it bears on an individual's fitness to have responsibility for the safety and well-being of children.

(d) Employment applications

(1) Employment applications for individuals who are seeking work for an agency of the Federal Government, or for a facility or program operated by (or through contract with) the Federal Government, in any of the positions listed in subsection (a)(1), shall contain a question asking whether the individual has ever been arrested for or charged with a crime involving a child, and if so requiring a description of the disposition of the arrest or charge. An application shall state that it is being signed under penalty of perjury, with the applicable Federal punishment for perjury stated on the application.

(2) A Federal agency seeking a criminal history record check shall first obtain the signature of the employee or prospective employee indicating that the employee or prospective employee has been notified of the employer's obligation to require a record check as a condition of employment and the employee's right to obtain a copy of the criminal history report made available to the employing Federal agency and the right to challenge the accuracy and completeness of any information contained in the report.

(e) Encouragement of voluntary criminal history checks for others who may have contact with children

Federal agencies and facilities are encouraged to submit identifying information for criminal history checks on volunteers working in any of the positions listed in subsection (a) and on adult household members in places where child care or foster care services are being provided in a home.

(Pub. L. 101–647, title II, §231, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4808; Pub. L. 102–190, div. A, title X, §1094(a), Dec. 5, 1991, 105 Stat. 1488.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 13041 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–190, §1094(a)(1), substituted "May 29, 1991. Except as provided in subsection (b)(3), no additional staff" for "6 months after November 29, 1990, and no additional staff".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–190, §1094(a)(2), added par. (3).