[USC02] 34 USC Ch. 207: COMBATING DOMESTIC TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
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34 USC Ch. 207: COMBATING DOMESTIC TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS
From Title 34—CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENTSubtitle II—Protection of Children and Other Persons

CHAPTER 207—COMBATING DOMESTIC TRAFFICKING IN PERSONS

Sec.
20701.
Prevention of domestic trafficking in persons.
20702.
Establishment of a grant program to develop, expand, and strengthen assistance programs for certain persons subject to trafficking.
20703.
Victim-centered child human trafficking deterrence block grant program.
20704.
Grant accountability.
20705.
Enhancing State and local efforts to combat trafficking in persons.
20706.
Senior Policy Operating Group.
20707.
Definitions.
20708.
Grants for specialized human trafficking training and technical assistance for service providers.
20709.
Combat Human Trafficking Act.
20709a.
Holistic training for Federal law enforcement officers and prosecutors.
20709b.
Encouraging a victim-centered approach to training of Federal law enforcement personnel.
20709c.
Training of tribal law enforcement and prosecutorial personnel.
20710.
Education and outreach to trafficking survivors.
20711.
Establishing a national strategy to combat human trafficking.

        

§20701. Prevention of domestic trafficking in persons

(a) Program to reduce trafficking in persons and demand for commercial sex acts in the United States

(1) Comprehensive research and statistical review and analysis of incidents of trafficking in persons and commercial sex acts

(A) In general

The Attorney General shall use available data from State and local authorities as well as research data to carry out a biennial comprehensive research and statistical review and analysis of severe forms of trafficking in persons, and a biennial comprehensive research and statistical review and analysis of sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex acts in the United States, and shall submit to Congress separate biennial reports on the findings.

(B) Contents

The research and statistical review and analysis under this paragraph shall consist of two separate studies, utilizing the same statistical data where appropriate, as follows:

(i) The first study shall address severe forms of trafficking in persons in the United States and shall include, but need not be limited to—

(I) the estimated number and demographic characteristics of persons engaged in acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons; and

(II) the number of investigations, arrests, prosecutions, and incarcerations of persons engaged in acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons by States and their political subdivisions.


(ii) The second study shall address sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex acts in the United States and shall include, but need not be limited to—

(I) the estimated number and demographic characteristics of persons engaged in sex trafficking and commercial sex acts, including purchasers of commercial sex acts;

(II) the estimated value in dollars of the commercial sex economy, including the estimated average annual personal income derived from acts of sex trafficking;

(III) the number of investigations, arrests, prosecutions, and incarcerations of persons engaged in sex trafficking and unlawful commercial sex acts, including purchasers of commercial sex acts, by States and their political subdivisions; and

(IV) a description of the differences in the enforcement of laws relating to unlawful commercial sex acts across the United States.

(2) Trafficking conference

(A) In general

The Attorney General, in consultation and cooperation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall conduct an annual conference in each of the fiscal years 2006, 2007, and 2008, and thereafter conduct a biennial conference, addressing severe forms of trafficking in persons and commercial sex acts that occur, in whole or in part, within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States. At each such conference, the Attorney General, or his designee, shall—

(i) announce and evaluate the findings contained in the research and statistical reviews carried out under paragraph (1);

(ii) disseminate best methods and practices for enforcement of laws prohibiting acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons and other laws related to acts of trafficking in persons, including, but not limited to, best methods and practices for training State and local law enforcement personnel on the enforcement of such laws;

(iii) disseminate best methods and practices for training State and local law enforcement personnel on the enforcement of laws prohibiting sex trafficking and commercial sex acts, including, but not limited to, best methods for investigating and prosecuting exploiters and persons who solicit or purchase an unlawful commercial sex act; and

(iv) disseminate best methods and practices for training State and local law enforcement personnel on collaborating with social service providers and relevant nongovernmental organizations and establishing trust of persons subjected to commercial sex acts or severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(B) Participation

Each annual conference conducted under this paragraph shall involve the participation of persons with expertise or professional responsibilities with relevance to trafficking in persons, including, but not limited to—

(i) Federal Government officials, including law enforcement and prosecutorial officials;

(ii) State and local government officials, including law enforcement and prosecutorial officials;

(iii) persons who have been subjected to severe forms of trafficking in persons or commercial sex acts;

(iv) medical personnel;

(v) social service providers and relevant nongovernmental organizations; and

(vi) academic experts.

(C) Reports

The Attorney General and the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall prepare and post on the respective Internet Web sites of the Department of Justice and the Department of Health and Human Services reports on the findings and best practices identified and disseminated at the conference described in this paragraph.

(b) Omitted

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated—

(1) $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011 to carry out the activities described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(i) and $1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011 to carry out the activities described in subsection (a)(1)(B)(ii); and

(2) $250,000 for each of the fiscal years 2014 through 2021 to carry out the activities described in subsection (a)(2).

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §201, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3567; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(2), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087; Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1252(2), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 156; Pub. L. 115–393, title III, §301(b), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5272.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 201 of Pub. L. 109–164. Subsec. (b) of section 201 of Pub. L. 109–164 amended section 7104 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Section was formerly classified to section 14044 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–393 substituted "2021" for "2017".

2013—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "$250,000 for each of the fiscal years 2014 through 2017" for "$1,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011".

2008—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–457, §302(2)(A), substituted "$1,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011" for "$2,500,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 and 2007" in two places.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 110–457, §302(2)(B), which directed substitution of "2008 through 2011" for "2006 and 2007", was executed by making the substitution for "2006 through 2007", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Best Practices in Delivering Justice for Victims of Trafficking

Pub. L. 115–392, §8, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5253, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], the Attorney General shall issue guidance to all offices and components of the Department of Justice—

"(1) emphasizing that an individual who knowingly solicits or patronizes a commercial sex act from a person who was a minor (consistent with section 1591(c) of title 18, United States Code) or was subject to force, fraud, or coercion is guilty of an offense under chapter 77 of title 18, United States Code, and is a party to a severe form of trafficking in persons, as that term is defined in section 103(9) [now 103(11)] of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7102(9) [now 7102(11)]);

"(2) recommending and implementing best practices for the collection of special assessments under section 3014 of title 18, United States Code, as added by section 101 of the Justice for Victims of Trafficking Act of 2015 (Public Law 114–22; 129 Stat. 228), including a directive that civil liens are an authorized collection method and remedy under section 3613 of title 18, United States Code; and

"(3) clarifying that commercial sexual exploitation is a form of gender-based violence."

Ending Government Partnerships With the Commercial Sex Industry

Pub. L. 115–392, §19, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5258, provided that: "No Federal funds or resources may be used for the operation of, participation in, or partnership with any program that involves the provision of funding or resources to an organization that—

"(1) has the primary purpose of providing adult entertainment; and

"(2) derives profits from the commercial sex trade."

Recommendations To Prevent Sex Trafficking of Indian Women

Pub. L. 111–211, title II, §264, July 29, 2010, 124 Stat. 2300, provided that: "Any report of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to Congress on the development of Indian victim services and victim advocate training programs shall include any recommendations that the Secretary determines to be necessary to prevent the sex trafficking of Indian women."

Ex. Ord. No. 13903. Combating Human Trafficking and Online Child Exploitation in the United States

Ex Ord. No. 13903, Jan. 31, 2020, 85 F.R. 6721, provided:

Section 1. Policy. Human trafficking is a form of modern slavery. Throughout the United States and around the world, human trafficking tears apart communities, fuels criminal activity, and threatens the national security of the United States. It is estimated that millions of individuals are trafficked around the world each year—including into and within the United States. As the United States continues to lead the global fight against human trafficking, we must remain relentless in resolving to eradicate it in our cities, suburbs, rural communities, tribal lands, and on our transportation networks. Human trafficking in the United States takes many forms and can involve exploitation of both adults and children for labor and sex.

Twenty-first century technology and the proliferation of the internet and mobile devices have helped facilitate the crime of child sex trafficking and other forms of child exploitation. Consequently, the number of reports to the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children of online photos and videos of children being sexually abused is at record levels.

The Federal Government is committed to preventing human trafficking and the online sexual exploitation of children. Effectively combating these crimes requires a comprehensive and coordinated response to prosecute human traffickers and individuals who sexually exploit children online, to protect and support victims of human trafficking and child exploitation, and to provide prevention education to raise awareness and help lower the incidence of human trafficking and child exploitation into, from, and within the United States.

To this end, it shall be the policy of the executive branch to prioritize its resources to vigorously prosecute offenders, to assist victims, and to provide prevention education to combat human trafficking and online sexual exploitation of children.

Sec. 2. Strengthening Federal Responsiveness to Human Trafficking. (a) The Domestic Policy Council shall commit one employee position to work on issues related to combating human trafficking occurring into, from, and within the United States and to coordinate with personnel in other components of the Executive Office of the President, including the Office of Economic Initiatives and the National Security Council, on such efforts. This position shall be filled by an employee of the executive branch detailed from the Department of Justice, the Department of Labor, the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Transportation, or the Department of Homeland Security.

(b) The Secretary of State, on behalf of the President's Interagency Task Force to Monitor and Combat Trafficking in Persons, shall make available, online, a list of the Federal Government's resources to combat human trafficking, including resources to identify and report instances of human trafficking, to protect and support the victims of trafficking, and to provide public outreach and training.

(c) The Secretary of State, the Attorney General, the Secretary of Labor, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall, in coordination and consistent with applicable law:

(i) improve methodologies of estimating the prevalence of human trafficking, including in specific sectors or regions, and monitoring the impact of anti-trafficking efforts and publish such methodologies as appropriate; and

(ii) establish estimates of the prevalence of human trafficking in the United States.

Sec. 3. Prosecuting Human Traffickers and Individuals Who Exploit Children Online. (a) The Attorney General, through the Federal Enforcement Working Group, in collaboration with the Secretary of Labor and the Secretary of Homeland Security, shall:

(i) improve interagency coordination with respect to targeting traffickers, determining threat assessments, and sharing law enforcement intelligence to build on the Administration's commitment to the continued success of ongoing anti-trafficking enforcement initiatives, such as the Anti-Trafficking Coordination Team and the U.S.-Mexico Bilateral Human Trafficking Enforcement Initiatives; and

(ii) coordinate activities, as appropriate, with the Task Force on Missing and Murdered American Indians and Alaska Natives as established by Executive Order 13898 of November 26, 2019 (Establishing the Task Force on Missing and Murdered American Indians and Alaska Natives) [25 U.S.C. 2801 note].

(b) The Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security, and other heads of executive departments and agencies as appropriate, shall, within 180 days of the date of this order [Jan. 31, 2020], propose to the President, through the Director of the Domestic Policy Council, legislative and executive actions that would overcome information-sharing challenges and improve law enforcement's capabilities to detect in real-time the sharing of child sexual abuse material on the internet, including material referred to in Federal law as "child pornography." Overcoming these challenges would allow law enforcement officials to more efficiently identify, protect, and rescue victims of online child sexual exploitation; investigate and prosecute alleged offenders; and eliminate the child sexual abuse material online.

Sec. 4. Protecting Victims of Human Trafficking and Child Exploitation. (a) The Attorney General, the Secretary of Health and Human Services, and the Secretary of Homeland Security, and other heads of executive departments and agencies as appropriate, shall work together to enhance capabilities to locate children who are missing, including those who have run away from foster care and those previously in Federal custody, and are vulnerable to human trafficking and child exploitation. In doing so, such heads of executive departments and agencies, shall, as appropriate, engage social media companies; the technology industry; State, local, tribal and territorial child welfare agencies; the National Center for Missing and Exploited Children; and law enforcement at all levels.

(b) The Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, shall establish an internal working group to develop and incorporate practical strategies for State, local, and tribal governments, child welfare agencies, and faith-based and other community organizations to expand housing options for victims of human trafficking.

Sec. 5. Preventing Human Trafficking and Child Exploitation Through Education Partnerships. The Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security, in coordination with the Secretary of Education, shall partner with State, local, and tribal law enforcement entities to fund human trafficking and child exploitation prevention programs for our Nation's youth in schools, consistent with applicable law and available appropriations.

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) Nothing in this order shall be construed to impair or otherwise affect:

(i) the authority granted by law to an executive department or agency, or the head thereof; or

(ii) the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals.

(b) This order shall be implemented consistent with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right or benefit, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, or entities, its officers, employees, or agents, or any other person.

Donald J. Trump.      

§20702. Establishment of a grant program to develop, expand, and strengthen assistance programs for certain persons subject to trafficking

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Assistant Secretary

The term "Assistant Secretary" means the Assistant Secretary for Children and Families of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(2) Assistant Attorney General

The term "Assistant Attorney General" means the Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs of the Department of Justice.

(3) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means a State or unit of local government that—

(A) has significant criminal activity involving sex trafficking of minors;

(B) has demonstrated cooperation between Federal, State, local, and, where applicable, tribal law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and social service providers in addressing sex trafficking of minors;

(C) has developed a workable, multi-disciplinary plan to combat sex trafficking of minors, including—

(i) building or establishing a residential care facility for minor victims of sex trafficking;

(ii) the provision of rehabilitative care to minor victims of sex trafficking;

(iii) the provision of specialized training for law enforcement officers and social service providers for all forms of sex trafficking, with a focus on sex trafficking of minors;

(iv) prevention, deterrence, and prosecution of offenses involving sex trafficking of minors;

(v) cooperation or referral agreements with organizations providing outreach or other related services to runaway and homeless youth; and

(vi) law enforcement protocols or procedures to screen all individuals arrested for prostitution, whether adult or minor, for victimization by sex trafficking and by other crimes, such as sexual assault and domestic violence; and


(D) provides assurance that a minor victim of sex trafficking shall not be required to collaborate with law enforcement to have access to residential care or services provided with a grant under this section.

(4) Minor victim of sex trafficking

The term "minor victim of sex trafficking" means an individual who—

(A) is younger than 18 years of age, and is a victim of an offense described in section 1591(a) of title 18 or a comparable State law; or

(B)(i) is not younger than 18 years of age nor older than 20 years of age;

(ii) before the individual reached 18 years of age, was described in subparagraph (A); and

(iii) was receiving shelter or services as a minor victim of sex trafficking.

(5) Qualified nongovernmental organization

The term "qualified nongovernmental organization" means an organization that—

(A) is not a State or unit of local government, or an agency of a State or unit of local government;

(B) has demonstrated experience providing services to victims of sex trafficking or related populations (such as runaway and homeless youth), or employs staff specialized in the treatment of sex trafficking victims; and

(C) demonstrates a plan to sustain the provision of services beyond the period of a grant awarded under this section.

(6) Sex trafficking of a minor

The term "sex trafficking of a minor" means an offense described in section 1591(a) of title 18 or a comparable State law, against a minor.

(b) Sex trafficking block grants

(1) Grants authorized

(A) In general

The Assistant Attorney General, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary, may make block grants to 4 eligible entities located in different regions of the United States to combat sex trafficking of minors.

(B) Requirement

Not fewer than 1 of the block grants made under subparagraph (A) shall be awarded to an eligible entity with a State population of less than 5,000,000.

(C) Grant amount

Subject to the availability of appropriations under subsection (g) to carry out this section, each grant made under this section shall be for an amount not less than $1,500,000 and not greater than $2,000,000.

(D) Duration

(i) In general

A grant made under this section shall be for a period of 1 year.

(ii) Renewal

(I) In general

The Assistant Attorney General may renew a grant under this section for up to 3 1-year periods.

(II) Priority

In making grants in any fiscal year after the first fiscal year in which grants are made under this section, the Assistant Attorney General shall give priority to an eligible entity that received a grant in the preceding fiscal year and is eligible for renewal under this subparagraph, taking into account any evaluation of the eligible entity conducted under paragraph (4), if available.

(E) Consultation

In carrying out this section, the Assistant Attorney General shall consult with the Assistant Secretary with respect to—

(i) evaluations of grant recipients under paragraph (4);

(ii) avoiding unintentional duplication of grants; and

(iii) any other areas of shared concern.

(2) Use of funds

(A) Allocation

Not less than 67 percent of each grant made under paragraph (1) shall be used by the eligible entity to provide residential care and services (as described in clauses (i) through (iv) of subparagraph (B)) to minor victims of sex trafficking through qualified nongovernmental organizations.

(B) Authorized activities

Grants awarded pursuant to paragraph (2) may be used for—

(i) providing residential care to minor victims of sex trafficking, including temporary or long-term placement as appropriate;

(ii) providing 24-hour emergency social services response for minor victims of sex trafficking;

(iii) providing minor victims of sex trafficking with clothing and other daily necessities needed to keep such victims from returning to living on the street;

(iv) case management services for minor victims of sex trafficking;

(v) mental health counseling for minor victims of sex trafficking, including specialized counseling and substance abuse treatment;

(vi) legal services for minor victims of sex trafficking;

(vii) specialized training for social service providers, public sector personnel, and private sector personnel likely to encounter sex trafficking victims on issues related to the sex trafficking of minors and severe forms of trafficking in persons;

(viii) outreach and education programs to provide information about deterrence and prevention of sex trafficking of minors;

(ix) programs to provide treatment to individuals charged or cited with purchasing or attempting to purchase sex acts in cases where—

(I) a treatment program can be mandated as a condition of a sentence, fine, suspended sentence, or probation, or is an appropriate alternative to criminal prosecution; and

(II) the individual was not charged with purchasing or attempting to purchase sex acts with a minor; and


(x) screening and referral of minor victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(3) Application

(A) In general

Each eligible entity desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Assistant Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information as the Assistant Attorney General may reasonably require.

(B) Contents

Each application submitted pursuant to subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) describe the activities for which assistance under this section is sought; and

(ii) provide such additional assurances as the Assistant Attorney General determines to be essential to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section.

(4) Evaluation

The Assistant Attorney General shall enter into a contract with an academic or non-profit organization that has experience in issues related to sex trafficking of minors and evaluation of grant programs to conduct an annual evaluation of each grant made under this section to determine the impact and effectiveness of programs funded with the grant.

(c) Mandatory exclusion

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section that is found to have utilized grant funds for any unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost shall not be eligible for any grant funds awarded under the grant for 2 fiscal years following the year in which the unauthorized expenditure or unallowable cost is reported.

(d) Compliance requirement

An eligible entity shall not be eligible to receive a grant under this section if, during the 5 fiscal years before the eligible entity submits an application for the grant, the eligible entity has been found to have violated the terms or conditions of a Government grant program by utilizing grant funds for unauthorized expenditures or otherwise unallowable costs.

(e) Administrative cap

The cost of administering the grants authorized by this section shall not exceed 3 percent of the total amount appropriated to carry out this section.

(f) Audit requirement

For fiscal years 2016 and 2017, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall conduct an audit of all 4 eligible entities that receive block grants under this section.

(g) Match requirement

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section shall provide a non-Federal match in an amount equal to not less than—

(1) 15 percent of the grant during the first year;

(2) 25 percent of the grant during the first renewal period;

(3) 40 percent of the grant during the second renewal period; and

(4) 50 percent of the grant during the third renewal period.

(h) No limitation on section 20705 grants

An entity that applies for a grant under section 20705 of this title is not prohibited from also applying for a grant under this section.

(i) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $8,000,000 to the Attorney General for each of the fiscal years 2018 through 2021 to carry out this section.

(j) GAO evaluation

Not later than 30 months after March 7, 2013, the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit a report to Congress that contains—

(1) an evaluation of the impact of this section in aiding minor victims of sex trafficking in the jurisdiction of the entity receiving the grant; and

(2) recommendations, if any, regarding any legislative or administrative action the Comptroller General determines appropriate.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §202, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3569; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(3), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087; Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1241(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 149; Pub. L. 115–393, title III, §301(e)(1)(A), (3), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5272.)

References in Text

March 7, 2013, referred to in subsec. (j), was in the original "the date of the enactment of this Act", which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 113–4, which amended this section generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–393, §301(e)(1)(A), amended section to read as it read on Mar 6, 2017. See 2013 Amendment note below. Prior to amendment, section consisted of subsecs. (a) to (d) relating to grant programs to develop, expand, and strengthen assistance programs for certain persons subject to trafficking.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 115–393, §301(e)(3), substituted "2018 through 2021" for "2014 through 2017".

2013Pub. L. 113–4 temporarily amended section generally, so as to consist of subsecs. (a) to (j) relating to grant programs to develop, expand, and strengthen assistance programs for certain persons subject to trafficking. See Effective and Termination Dates of 2013 Amendment note below.

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted "$8,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011" for "$10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 and 2007".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–393, title III, §301(e)(2), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5272, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section and repealing provisions set out as a note under this section] shall take effect as though enacted on March 6, 2017."

Effective and Termination Dates of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1241(b), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 153, which provided that the amendment made to this section by section 1241(a) of Pub. L. 113–4 would be effective during the 4-year period beginning on Mar. 7, 2013, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–393, title III, §301(e)(1)(B), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5272.

§20703. Victim-centered child human trafficking deterrence block grant program

(a) Grants authorized

The Attorney General may award block grants to an eligible entity to develop, improve, or expand domestic child human trafficking deterrence programs that assist law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judicial officials, and qualified victims' services organizations in collaborating to rescue and restore the lives of victims, while investigating and prosecuting offenses involving child human trafficking.

(b) Authorized activities

Grants awarded under subsection (a) may be used for—

(1) the establishment or enhancement of specialized training programs for law enforcement officers, first responders, health care officials, child welfare officials, juvenile justice personnel, prosecutors, and judicial personnel to—

(A) identify victims and acts of child human trafficking;

(B) address the unique needs of child victims of human trafficking;

(C) facilitate the rescue of child victims of human trafficking;

(D) investigate and prosecute acts of human trafficking, including the soliciting, patronizing, or purchasing of commercial sex acts from children, as well as training to build cases against complex criminal networks involved in child human trafficking; and

(E) utilize, implement, and provide education on safe harbor laws enacted by States, aimed at preventing the criminalization and prosecution of child sex trafficking victims for prostitution offenses, and other laws aimed at the investigation and prosecution of child human trafficking;


(2) the establishment or enhancement of dedicated anti-trafficking law enforcement units and task forces to investigate child human trafficking offenses and to rescue victims, including—

(A) funding salaries, in whole or in part, for law enforcement officers, including patrol officers, detectives, and investigators, except that the percentage of the salary of the law enforcement officer paid for by funds from a grant awarded under this section shall not be more than the percentage of the officer's time on duty that is dedicated to working on cases involving child human trafficking;

(B) investigation expenses for cases involving child human trafficking, including—

(i) wire taps;

(ii) consultants with expertise specific to cases involving child human trafficking;

(iii) travel; and

(iv) other technical assistance expenditures;


(C) dedicated anti-trafficking prosecution units, including the funding of salaries for State and local prosecutors, including assisting in paying trial expenses for prosecution of child human trafficking offenders, except that the percentage of the total salary of a State or local prosecutor that is paid using an award under this section shall be not more than the percentage of the total number of hours worked by the prosecutor that is spent working on cases involving child human trafficking;

(D) the establishment of child human trafficking victim witness safety, assistance, and relocation programs that encourage cooperation with law enforcement investigations of crimes of child human trafficking by leveraging existing resources and delivering child human trafficking victims' services through coordination with—

(i) child advocacy centers;

(ii) social service agencies;

(iii) State governmental health service agencies;

(iv) housing agencies;

(v) legal services agencies; and

(vi) nongovernmental organizations and shelter service providers with substantial experience in delivering wrap-around services to victims of child human trafficking; and


(E) the establishment or enhancement of other necessary victim assistance programs or personnel, such as victim or child advocates, child-protective services, child forensic interviews, or other necessary service providers;


(3) activities of law enforcement agencies to find homeless and runaway youth, including salaries and associated expenses for retired Federal law enforcement officers assisting the law enforcement agencies in finding homeless and runaway youth; and

(4) the establishment or enhancement of problem solving court programs for trafficking victims that include—

(A) mandatory and regular training requirements for judicial officials involved in the administration or operation of the court program described under this paragraph;

(B) continuing judicial supervision of victims of child human trafficking, including case worker or child welfare supervision in collaboration with judicial officers, who have been identified by a law enforcement or judicial officer as a potential victim of child human trafficking, regardless of whether the victim has been charged with a crime related to human trafficking;

(C) the development of a specialized and individualized, court-ordered treatment program for identified victims of child human trafficking, including—

(i) State-administered outpatient treatment;

(ii) life skills training;

(iii) housing placement;

(iv) vocational training;

(v) education;

(vi) family support services; and

(vii) job placement;


(D) centralized case management involving the consolidation of all of each child human trafficking victim's cases and offenses, and the coordination of all trafficking victim treatment programs and social services;

(E) regular and mandatory court appearances by the victim during the duration of the treatment program for purposes of ensuring compliance and effectiveness;

(F) the ultimate dismissal of relevant non-violent criminal charges against the victim, where such victim successfully complies with the terms of the court-ordered treatment program; and

(G) collaborative efforts with child advocacy centers, child welfare agencies, shelters, and nongovernmental organizations with substantial experience in delivering wrap-around services to victims of child human trafficking to provide services to victims and encourage cooperation with law enforcement.

(c) Application

(1) In general

An eligible entity shall submit an application to the Attorney General for a grant under this section in such form and manner as the Attorney General may require.

(2) Required information

An application submitted under this subsection shall—

(A) describe the activities for which assistance under this section is sought;

(B) include a detailed plan for the use of funds awarded under the grant;

(C) provide such additional information and assurances as the Attorney General determines to be necessary to ensure compliance with the requirements of this section; and

(D) disclose—

(i) any other grant funding from the Department of Justice or from any other Federal department or agency for purposes similar to those described in subsection (b) for which the eligible entity has applied, and which application is pending on the date of the submission of an application under this section; and

(ii) any other such grant funding that the eligible entity has received during the 5-year period ending on the date of the submission of an application under this section.

(3) Preference

In reviewing applications submitted in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (2), the Attorney General shall give preference to grant applications if—

(A) the application includes a plan to use awarded funds to engage in all activities described under paragraphs (1) through (3) of subsection (b); or

(B) the application includes a plan by the State or unit of local government to continue funding of all activities funded by the award after the expiration of the award.

(4) Eligible entities soliciting data on child human trafficking

No eligible entity shall be disadvantaged in being awarded a grant under subsection (a) on the grounds that the eligible entity has only recently begun soliciting data on child human trafficking.

(d) Duration and renewal of award

(1) In general

A grant under this section shall expire 3 years after the date of award of the grant.

(2) Renewal

A grant under this section shall be renewable not more than 2 times and for a period of not greater than 2 years.

(e) Evaluation

The Attorney General shall—

(1) enter into a contract with a nongovernmental organization, including an academic or nonprofit organization, that has experience with issues related to child human trafficking and evaluation of grant programs to conduct periodic evaluations of grants made under this section to determine the impact and effectiveness of programs funded with grants awarded under this section;

(2) instruct the Inspector General of the Department of Justice to review evaluations issued under paragraph (1) to determine the methodological and statistical validity of the evaluations; and

(3) submit the results of any evaluation conducted pursuant to paragraph (1) to—

(A) the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate; and

(B) the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives.

(f) Mandatory exclusion

An eligible entity awarded funds under this section that is found to have used grant funds for any unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost shall not be eligible for any grant funds awarded under the block grant for 2 fiscal years following the year in which the unauthorized expenditure or unallowable cost is reported.

(g) Compliance requirement

An eligible entity shall not be eligible to receive a grant under this section if within the 5 fiscal years before submitting an application for a grant under this section, the grantee has been found to have violated the terms or conditions of a Government grant program by utilizing grant funds for unauthorized expenditures or otherwise unallowable costs.

(h) Administrative cap

The cost of administering the grants authorized by this section shall not exceed 5 percent of the total amount expended to carry out this section.

(i) Federal share

The Federal share of the cost of a program funded by a grant awarded under this section shall be—

(1) 70 percent in the first year;

(2) 60 percent in the second year; and

(3) 50 percent in the third year, and in all subsequent years.

(j) Authorization of funding; fully offset

For purposes of carrying out this section, the Attorney General, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, is authorized to award not more than $7,000,000 of the funds available in the Domestic Trafficking Victims' Fund, established under section 3014 of title 18, for each of fiscal years 2016 through 2020.

(k) Definitions

In this section—

(1) the term "child" means a person under the age of 18;

(2) the term "child advocacy center" means a center created under subtitle A of the Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 13001 et seq.); 1

(3) the term "child human trafficking" means 1 or more severe forms of trafficking in persons (as defined in section 7102 of title 22) involving a victim who is a child; and

(4) the term "eligible entity" means a State or unit of local government that—

(A) has significant criminal activity involving child human trafficking;

(B) has demonstrated cooperation between Federal, State, local, and, where applicable, tribal law enforcement agencies, prosecutors, and social service providers in addressing child human trafficking;

(C) has developed a workable, multi-disciplinary plan to combat child human trafficking, including—

(i) the establishment of a shelter for victims of child human trafficking, through existing or new facilities;

(ii) the provision of trauma-informed, gender-responsive rehabilitative care to victims of child human trafficking;

(iii) the provision of specialized training for law enforcement officers and social service providers for all forms of human trafficking, with a focus on domestic child human trafficking;

(iv) prevention, deterrence, and prosecution of offenses involving child human trafficking, including soliciting, patronizing, or purchasing human acts with children;

(v) cooperation or referral agreements with organizations providing outreach or other related services to runaway and homeless youth;

(vi) law enforcement protocols or procedures to screen all individuals arrested for prostitution, whether adult or child, for victimization by sex trafficking and by other crimes, such as sexual assault and domestic violence; and

(vii) cooperation or referral agreements with State child welfare agencies and child advocacy centers; and


(D) provides an assurance that, under the plan under subparagraph (C), a victim of child human trafficking shall not be required to collaborate with law enforcement officers to have access to any shelter or services provided with a grant under this section.

(l) Grant accountability; specialized victims' service requirement

No grant funds under this section may be awarded or transferred to any entity unless such entity has demonstrated substantial experience providing services to victims of human trafficking or related populations (such as runaway and homeless youth), or employs staff specialized in the treatment of human trafficking victims.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §203, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3570; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(4), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087; Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §103(a), May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 231.)

References in Text

The Victims of Child Abuse Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (k)(2), is Pub. L. 101–647, title II, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4792. Subtitle A of the Act was classified generally to subchapter I (§13001 et seq.) of chapter 132 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification as subchapter I (§20301 et seq.) of chapter 203 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1990 Act note set out under section 10101 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–22 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to pilot program for protection of juvenile victims of trafficking in persons.

2008—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted "2008 through 2011" for "2006 and 2007".

1 See References in Text note below.

§20704. Grant accountability

(a) Definition

In this section, the term "covered grant" means a grant awarded by the Attorney General under section 20703 of this title, as amended by section 103.

(b) Accountability

All covered grants shall be subject to the following accountability provisions:

(1) Audit requirement

(A) In general

Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after May 29, 2015, and in each fiscal year thereafter, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice shall conduct audits of recipients of a covered grant to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse of funds by grantees. The Inspector General shall determine the appropriate number of grantees to be audited each year.

(B) Definition

In this paragraph, the term "unresolved audit finding" means a finding in the final audit report of the Inspector General that the audited grantee has utilized grant funds for an unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost that is not closed or resolved within 12 months from the date when the final audit report is issued.

(C) Mandatory exclusion

A recipient of a covered grant that is found to have an unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible to receive a covered grant during the following 2 fiscal years.

(D) Priority

In awarding covered grants the Attorney General shall give priority to eligible entities that did not have an unresolved audit finding during the 3 fiscal years prior to submitting an application for a covered grant.

(E) Reimbursement

If an entity is awarded a covered grant during the 2-fiscal-year period in which the entity is barred from receiving grants under subparagraph (C), the Attorney General shall—

(i) deposit an amount equal to the grant funds that were improperly awarded to the grantee into the General Fund of the Treasury; and

(ii) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the fund from the grant recipient that was erroneously awarded grant funds.

(2) Nonprofit organization requirements

(A) Definition

For purposes of this paragraph and covered grants, the term "nonprofit organization" means an organization that is described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of title 26.

(B) Prohibition

The Attorney General may not award a covered grant to a nonprofit organization that holds money in offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding paying the tax described in section 511(a) of title 26.

(C) Disclosure

Each nonprofit organization that is awarded a covered grant and uses the procedures prescribed in regulations to create a rebuttable presumption of reasonableness for the compensation of its officers, directors, trustees and key employees, shall disclose to the Attorney General, in the application for the grant, the process for determining such compensation, including the independent persons involved in reviewing and approving such compensation, the comparability data used, and contemporaneous substantiation of the deliberation and decision. Upon request, the Attorney General shall make the information disclosed under this subsection available for public inspection.

(3) Conference expenditures

(A) Limitation

No amounts transferred to the Department of Justice under this title,1 or the amendments made by this title,1 may be used by the Attorney General, or by any individual or organization awarded discretionary funds through a cooperative agreement under this title,1 or the amendments made by this title,1 to host or support any expenditure for conferences that uses more than $20,000 in Department funds, unless the Deputy Attorney General or such Assistant Attorney Generals, Directors, or principal deputies as the Deputy Attorney General may designate, provides prior written authorization that the funds may be expended to host a conference.

(B) Written approval

Written approval under subparagraph (A) shall include a written estimate of all costs associated with the conference, including the cost of all food and beverages, audiovisual equipment, honoraria for speakers, and any entertainment.

(C) Report

The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an annual report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives on all approved conference expenditures referenced in this paragraph.

(D) Annual certification

Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after May 29, 2015, the Attorney General shall submit, to the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate and the Committee on the Judiciary and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives, an annual certification that—

(i) all audits issued by the Office of the Inspector General under paragraph (1) have been completed and reviewed by the appropriate Assistant Attorney General or Director;

(ii) all mandatory exclusions required under paragraph (1)(C) have been issued;

(iii) all reimbursements required under paragraph (1)(E) have been made; and

(iv) includes a list of any grant recipients excluded under paragraph (1) from the previous year.

(4) Prohibition on lobbying activity

(A) In general

Amounts awarded under this title,1 or any amendments made by this title,1 may not be utilized by any grant recipient to—

(i) lobby any representative of the Department of Justice regarding the award of grant funding; or

(ii) lobby any representative of a Federal, State, local, or tribal government regarding the award of grant funding.

(B) Penalty

If the Attorney General determines that any recipient of a covered grant has violated subparagraph (A), the Attorney General shall—

(i) require the grant recipient to repay the grant in full; and

(ii) prohibit the grant recipient from receiving another covered grant for not less than 5 years.

(Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §117, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 245.)

References in Text

Section 103, referred to in subsec. (a), means section 103 of Pub. L. 114–22. For classification of section 103 to the Code, see Tables.

This title, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(A), (4)(A), is title I of Pub. L. 114–22, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 228. For complete classification of title I to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044b–1 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Grant Accountability

Pub. L. 115–392, §22, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5259, provided that:

"(a) Definitions.—In this section—

"(1) the term 'covered agency' means an agency authorized to award grants under this Act [see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 115–392, set out as a Short Title of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure];

"(2) the term 'covered grant' means a grant authorized to be awarded under this Act; and

"(3) the term 'covered official' means the head of a covered agency.

"(b) Accountability.—All covered grants shall be subject to the following accountability provisions:

"(1) Audit requirement.—

"(A) Definition.—In this paragraph, the term 'unresolved audit finding' means a finding in the final audit report of the Inspector General of a covered agency that the audited grantee has utilized funds under a covered grant for an unauthorized expenditure or otherwise unallowable cost that is not closed or resolved within 12 months from the date when the final audit report is issued.

"(B) Audits.—Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2018], and in each fiscal year thereafter, the Inspector General of a covered agency shall conduct audits of recipients of covered grants to prevent waste, fraud, and abuse of funds by grantees. The Inspector General shall determine the appropriate number of grantees to be audited each year.

"(C) Mandatory exclusion.—A recipient of funds under a covered grant that is found to have an unresolved audit finding shall not be eligible to receive funds under a covered grant during the first 2 fiscal years beginning after the end of the 12-month period described in subparagraph (A).

"(D) Priority.—In awarding covered grants, a covered official shall give priority to eligible applicants that did not have an unresolved audit finding during the 3 fiscal years before submitting an application for the covered grant.

"(E) Reimbursement.—If an entity is awarded funds under a covered grant during the 2-fiscal-year period during which the entity is barred from receiving covered grants under subparagraph (C), a covered official shall—

"(i) deposit an amount equal to the amount of the grant funds that were improperly awarded to the grantee into the General Fund of the Treasury; and

"(ii) seek to recoup the costs of the repayment to the fund from the recipient of the covered grant that was erroneously awarded grant funds.

"(2) Nonprofit organization requirements.—

"(A) Definition.—For purposes of this paragraph and each covered grant program, the term 'nonprofit organization' means an organization that is described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 501(c)(3)] and is exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code.

"(B) Prohibition.—A covered grant may not be awarded to a nonprofit organization that holds money in offshore accounts for the purpose of avoiding paying the tax described in section 511(a) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 511(a)].

"(C) Disclosure.—Each nonprofit organization that is awarded a covered grant and uses the procedures prescribed in regulations to create a rebuttable presumption of reasonableness for the compensation of its officers, directors, trustees, and key employees, shall disclose to the applicable covered official, in the application for the covered grant, the process for determining such compensation, including the independent persons involved in reviewing and approving such compensation, the comparability data used, and contemporaneous substantiation of the deliberation and decision. Upon request, a covered official shall make the information disclosed under this subparagraph available for public inspection.

"(3) Conference expenditures.—

"(A) Limitation.—No amounts made available to a covered agency to carry out a covered grant program may be used by a covered official, or by any individual or entity awarded discretionary funds through a cooperative agreement under a covered grant program, to host or support any expenditure for conferences that uses more than $20,000 in funds made available by the covered agency, unless the covered official provides prior written authorization that the funds may be expended to host the conference.

"(B) Written approval.—Written approval under subparagraph (A) shall include a written estimate of all costs associated with the conference, including the cost of all food, beverages, audio-visual equipment, honoraria for speakers, and entertainment.

"(C) Report.—

"(i) Department of justice.—The Deputy Attorney General shall submit an annual report to the appropriate committees of Congress on all conference expenditures approved under this paragraph.

"(ii) Department of health and human services.—The Deputy Secretary of Health and Human Services shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress an annual report on all conference expenditures approved under this paragraph.

"(iii) Department of homeland security.—The Deputy Secretary of Homeland Security shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress an annual report on all conference expenditures approved under this paragraph.

"(4) Annual certification.—Beginning in the first fiscal year beginning after the date of enactment of this Act, each covered official shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress an annual certification—

"(A) indicating whether—

"(i) all audits issued by the Office of the Inspector General of the applicable covered agency under paragraph (1) have been completed and reviewed by the appropriate official;

"(ii) all mandatory exclusions required under paragraph (1)(C) have been issued; and

"(iii) all reimbursements required under paragraph (1)(E) have been made; and

"(B) that includes a list of any recipients of a covered grant excluded under paragraph (1) from the previous year.

"(c) Preventing Duplicative Grants.—

"(1) In general.—Before a covered official awards a covered grant, the covered official shall compare potential awards under the covered grant program with other covered grants awarded to determine if duplicate grant awards are awarded for the same purpose.

"(2) Report.—If a covered official awards duplicate covered grants to the same applicant for the same purpose the covered official shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report that includes—

"(A) a list of all duplicate covered grants awarded, including the total dollar amount of any duplicate covered grants awarded; and

"(B) the reason the covered official awarded the duplicate covered grants."

1 See References in Text note below.

§20705. Enhancing State and local efforts to combat trafficking in persons

(a) Establishment of grant program for law enforcement

(1) In general

The Attorney General may make grants to States and local law enforcement agencies to establish, develop, expand, or strengthen programs—

(A) to investigate and prosecute acts of severe forms of trafficking in persons, and related offenses that occur, in whole or in part, within the territorial jurisdiction of the United States;

(B) to train law enforcement personnel how to identify victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons and related offenses;

(C) to investigate and prosecute persons who engage in the purchase of commercial sex acts and prioritize the investigations and prosecutions of those cases involving minor victims;

(D) to educate persons charged with, or convicted of, purchasing or attempting to purchase commercial sex acts;

(E) to educate and train law enforcement personnel in how to establish trust of persons subjected to trafficking and encourage cooperation with prosecution efforts; and

(F) as appropriate, to designate at least 1 prosecutor for cases of severe forms of trafficking in persons (as such term is defined in section 7102(9) 1 of title 22).

(2) Definition

In this subsection, the term "related offenses" includes violations of tax laws, transacting in illegally derived proceeds, money laundering, racketeering, and other violations of criminal laws committed in connection with an act of sex trafficking or a severe form of trafficking in persons.

(b) Multi-disciplinary approach required

Grants under subsection (a) may be made only for programs in which the State or local law enforcement agency works collaboratively with social service providers and relevant nongovernmental organizations, including organizations with experience in the delivery of services to persons who are the subject of trafficking in persons.

(c) Limitation on Federal share

The Federal share of a grant made under this section may not exceed 75 percent of the total costs of the projects described in the application submitted.

(d) No limitation on section 20702 grant applications

An entity that applies for a grant under section 20702 of this title is not prohibited from also applying for a grant under this section.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Attorney General to carry out this section $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2014 through 2021.

(f) GAO evaluation and report

Not later than 30 months after March 7, 2013, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study of and submit to Congress a report evaluating the impact of this section on—

(1) the ability of law enforcement personnel to identify victims of severe forms of trafficking in persons and investigate and prosecute cases against offenders, including offenders who engage in the purchasing of commercial sex acts with a minor; and

(2) recommendations, if any, regarding any legislative or administrative action the Comptroller General determines appropriate to improve the ability described in paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §204, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3571; Pub. L. 110–457, title III, §302(5), Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5087; Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1242, Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 153; Pub. L. 115–393, title III, §301(c), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5272; Pub. L. 115–425, title I, §122, Jan. 8, 2019, 132 Stat. 5479.)

References in Text

Section 7102(9) of title 22, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(F), was redesignated section 7102(11) of title 22 by Pub. L. 115–427, §2(1), Jan. 9, 2019, 132 Stat. 5503.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (a)(1)(F). Pub. L. 115–425 added subpar. (F).

2018—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–393 substituted "2021" for "2017".

2013—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–4, §1242(1)(A), struck out ", which involve United States citizens, or aliens admitted for permanent residence, and" after "related offenses".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B) to (E). Pub. L. 113–4, §1242(1)(B)–(D), added subpar. (B), redesignated former subpars. (B) to (D) as (C) to (E), respectively, and in subpar. (C) inserted "and prioritize the investigations and prosecutions of those cases involving minor victims" after "commercial sex acts".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–4, §1242(3), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–4, §1242(2), (4), redesignated subsec. (d) as (e) and substituted "$10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2014 through 2017" for "$20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–4, §1242(5), added subsec. (f).

2008—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–457 substituted "$20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2011" for "$25,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2006 and 2007".

1 See References in Text note below.

§20706. Senior Policy Operating Group

Each Federal department or agency involved in grant activities related to combatting trafficking or providing services to persons subjected to trafficking inside the United States shall apprise the Senior Policy Operating Group established by section 105(f) 1 of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7103(f)), under the procedures established by the Senior Policy Operating Group, of such activities of the department or agency to ensure that the activities are consistent with the purposes of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 (22 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §206, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3571; Pub. L. 110–457, title II, §233, Dec. 23, 2008, 122 Stat. 5074.)

References in Text

Section 105(f) of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000, referred to in text, was redesignated 105(g) of the Victims of Trafficking and Violence Protection Act of 2000 by Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1201(3), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 136.

The Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000, referred to in text, is div. A of Pub. L. 106–386, Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1466, which is classified principally to chapter 78 (§7101 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7101 of Title 22 and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–457 struck out ", as the department or agency determines appropriate," before "apprise the Senior Policy Operating Group".

1 See References in Text note below.

§20707. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) Severe forms of trafficking in persons

The term "severe forms of trafficking in persons" has the meaning given the term in section 7102(9) 1 of title 22.

(2) Sex trafficking

The term "sex trafficking" has the meaning given the term in section 7102(10) 1 of title 22.

(3) Commercial sex act

The term "commercial sex act" has the meaning given the term in section 7102(4) of title 22.

(Pub. L. 109–164, title II, §207, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3572; Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1212(b)(2)(C), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 144.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title II of Pub. L. 109–164, Jan. 10, 2006, 119 Stat. 3567, which enacted sections 20701 to 20703 and 20705 to 20707 of this title and amended sections 7103 and 7104 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Tables.

Section 7102(9) and (10) of title 22, referred to in pars. (1) and (2), was redesignated section 7102(11) and (12), respectively, of title 22 by Pub. L. 115–427, §2(1), Jan. 9, 2019, 132 Stat. 5503.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044e of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2013—Par. (1). Pub. L. 113–4, §1212(b)(2)(C)(i), substituted "section 7102(9)" for "section 7102(8)".

Par. (2). Pub. L. 113–4, §1212(b)(2)(C)(ii), substituted "section 7102(10)" for "section 7102(9)".

Par. (3). Pub. L. 113–4, §1212(b)(2)(C)(iii), substituted "section 7102(4)" for "section 7102(3)".

1 See References in Text note below.

§20708. Grants for specialized human trafficking training and technical assistance for service providers

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Act of trafficking

The term "act of trafficking" means an act or practice described in paragraph (9) 1 of section 7102 of title 22.

(2) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a State or unit of local government;

(B) a federally recognized Indian tribal government, as determined by the Secretary of the Interior;

(C) a victim service provider;

(D) a nonprofit or for-profit organization (including a tribal nonprofit or for-profit organization);

(E) a national organization; or

(F) an institution of higher education (including tribal institutions of higher education).

(3) State

The term "State" means any State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Guam, the United States Virgin Islands, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, American Samoa, and any other territory or possession of the United States.

(4) Victim of trafficking

The term "victim of trafficking" means a person subjected to an act of trafficking.

(b) Grants authorized

The Attorney General may award grants to eligible entities to—

(1) provide training to identify and protect victims of trafficking;

(2) improve the quality and quantity of services offered to trafficking survivors; and

(3) improve victim service providers' partnerships with Federal, State, tribal, and local law enforcement agencies and other relevant entities.

(c) Use of funds

A grant awarded under this section shall be used to—

(1) train law enforcement personnel to identify and protect victims of trafficking, including training such personnel to utilize Federal, State, or local resources to assist victims of trafficking;

(2) train law enforcement or State or local prosecutors to identify, investigate, or prosecute acts of trafficking;

(3) train law enforcement or State or local prosecutors to utilize laws that prohibit acts of trafficking and to assist in the development of State and local laws to prohibit acts of trafficking;

(4) provide technical assistance on the range of services available to victim service providers who serve trafficking victims;

(5) develop and distribute materials, including materials identifying best practices in accordance with Federal law and policies, to support victim service providers working with human trafficking victims;

(6) identify and disseminate other publicly available materials in accordance with Federal law to help build capacity of service providers;

(7) provide training at relevant conferences, through webinars, or through other mechanisms in accordance with Federal law; or

(8) assist service providers in developing additional resources such as partnerships with Federal, State, tribal, and local law enforcement agencies and other relevant entities in order to access a range of available services in accordance with Federal law.

(d) Restrictions

(1) Administrative expenses

An eligible entity that receives a grant under this section may use not more than 5 percent of the total amount of such grant for administrative expenses.

(2) Nonexclusivity

Nothing in this section may be construed to restrict the ability of an eligible entity to apply for or obtain funding from any other source to carry out the training described in subsection (c).

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 through 2011 to carry out the provisions of this section.

(Pub. L. 109–162, title I, §111, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 2984; Pub. L. 113–4, title XII, §1212(b)(2)(D), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 144; Pub. L. 115–392, §10(a), Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5254.)

References in Text

Paragraph (9) of section 7102 of title 22, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was redesignated par. (11) of section 7102 of title 22 by Pub. L. 115–427, §2(1), Jan. 9, 2019, 132 Stat. 5503.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044f of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–392, §10(a)(1), substituted "specialized human trafficking training and technical assistance for service providers" for "law enforcement training programs" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 115–392, §10(a)(2), substituted "means—" and subpars. (A) to (F) for "means a State or a local government."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–392, §10(a)(3), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Attorney General may award grants to eligible entities to provide training to State and local law enforcement personnel to identify and protect victims of trafficking."

Subsec. (c)(4) to (8). Pub. L. 115–392, §10(a)(4), added pars. (4) to (8).

2013—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–4 substituted "paragraph (9)" for "paragraph (8)".

1 See References in Text note below.

§20709. Combat Human Trafficking Act

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "Combat Human Trafficking Act of 2015".

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Commercial sex act; severe forms of trafficking in persons; state; task force

The terms "commercial sex act", "severe forms of trafficking in persons", "State", and "Task Force" have the meanings given those terms in section 7102 of title 22.

(2) Covered offender

The term "covered offender" means an individual who obtains, patronizes, or solicits a commercial sex act involving a person subject to severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(3) Covered offense

The term "covered offense" means the provision, obtaining, patronizing, or soliciting of a commercial sex act involving a person subject to severe forms of trafficking in persons.

(4) Federal law enforcement officer

The term "Federal law enforcement officer" has the meaning given the term in section 115 of title 18.

(5) Local law enforcement officer

The term "local law enforcement officer" means any officer, agent, or employee of a unit of local government authorized by law or by a local government agency to engage in or supervise the prevention, detection, investigation, or prosecution of any violation of criminal law.

(6) State law enforcement officer

The term "State law enforcement officer" means any officer, agent, or employee of a State authorized by law or by a State government agency to engage in or supervise the prevention, detection, investigation, or prosecution of any violation of criminal law.

(c) Department of Justice training and policy for law enforcement officers, prosecutors, and judges

(1) Training

(A) Law enforcement officers

The Attorney General shall ensure that each anti-human trafficking program operated by the Department of Justice, including each anti-human trafficking training program for Federal, State, or local law enforcement officers, includes technical training on—

(i) effective methods for investigating and prosecuting covered offenders;

(ii) facilitating the provision of physical and mental health services by health care providers to persons subject to severe forms of trafficking in persons;

(iii) individually screening all adults and children who are suspected of engaging in commercial sex acts or who are subject to labor exploitation that may be in violation of child labor laws to determine whether each individual screened is a victim of human trafficking; and

(iv) how—

(I) victims of sex or labor trafficking often engage in criminal acts as a direct result of severe trafficking in persons; and

(II) such individuals are victims of a crime and affirmative measures should be taken to avoid arresting, charging, or prosecuting such individuals for any offense that is the direct result of their victimization.

(B) Federal prosecutors

The Attorney General shall ensure that each anti-human trafficking program operated by the Department of Justice for United States attorneys or other Federal prosecutors includes training on seeking restitution for offenses under chapter 77 of title 18 to ensure that each United States attorney or other Federal prosecutor, upon obtaining a conviction for such an offense, requests a specific amount of restitution for each victim of the offense without regard to whether the victim requests restitution.

(C) Judges

The Federal Judicial Center shall provide training to judges relating to the application of section 1593 of title 18 with respect to ordering restitution for victims of offenses under chapter 77 of such title.

(2) Policy for Federal law enforcement officers

The Attorney General shall ensure that Federal law enforcement officers are engaged in activities, programs, or operations involving the detection, investigation, and prosecution of covered offenders.

(d) Omitted

(e) Bureau of Justice Statistics report on State enforcement of human trafficking prohibitions

The Director of the Bureau of Justice Statistics shall—

(1) prepare an annual report on—

(A) the number of—

(i) arrests of individuals by State law enforcement officers for a covered offense, noting the number of covered offenders;

(ii) prosecutions (including specific charges) of individuals in State court systems for a covered offense, noting the number of covered offenders; and

(iii) convictions of individuals in State court systems for a covered offense, noting the number of covered offenders; and


(B) sentences imposed on individuals convicted in State court systems for a covered offense; and


(2) submit the annual report prepared under paragraph (1) to—

(A) the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives;

(B) the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate;

(C) the Task Force;

(D) the Senior Policy Operating Group established under section 7103(g) of title 22; and

(E) the Attorney General.

(f) Department of Justice victim screening protocol

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 21, 2018, the Attorney General shall issue a screening protocol for use during all anti-trafficking law enforcement operations in which the Department of Justice is involved.

(2) Requirements

The protocol required to be issued under paragraph (1) shall—

(A) require the individual screening of all adults and children who are suspected of engaging in commercial sex acts or who are subject to labor exploitation that may be in violation of child labor laws to determine whether each individual screened is a victim of human trafficking;

(B) require affirmative measures to avoid arresting, charging, or prosecuting human trafficking victims for any offense that is the direct result of their victimization;

(C) require all Federal law enforcement officers and relevant department personnel who participate in human trafficking investigations to receive training on enforcement of the protocol;

(D) be developed in consultation with State and local law enforcement agencies, the Department of Health and Human Services, survivors of human trafficking, and nongovernmental organizations that specialize in the identification, prevention, and restoration of victims of human trafficking; and

(E) include—

(i) procedures and practices to ensure that the screening process minimizes trauma or revictimization of the person being screened; and

(ii) guidelines on assisting victims of human trafficking in identifying and receiving victim services.

(Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §114, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 241; Pub. L. 115–393, title V, §502, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5276; Pub. L. 115–425, title I, §121(b), Jan. 8, 2019, 132 Stat. 5478.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 114 of Pub. L. 114–22. Subsec. (d) of section 114 of Pub. L. 114–22 amended section 3583(k) of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Section was formerly classified to section 14044g of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–425, §121(b)(1), (2), substituted "number" for "rates" in introductory provisions and inserted ", noting the number of covered offenders" after "covered offense" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 115–425, §121(b)(3), substituted "arrests" for "arrest".

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 115–425, §121(b)(4), substituted "prosecutions" for "prosecution".

Subsec. (e)(1)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 115–425, §121(b)(5), substituted "convictions" for "conviction".

2018—Subsec. (c)(1)(A)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 115–393, §502(1), added cls. (iii) and (iv).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–393, §502(2), added subsec. (f).

Using Existing Task Forces and Components To Target Offenders Who Exploit Children

Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §110, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 239, provided that: "Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [May 29, 2015], the Attorney General shall ensure that—

"(1) all task forces and working groups within the Innocence Lost National Initiative engage in activities, programs, or operations to increase the investigative capabilities of State and local law enforcement officers in the detection, investigation, and prosecution of persons who patronize, or solicit children for sex; and

"(2) all components and task forces with jurisdiction to detect, investigate, and prosecute cases of child labor trafficking engage in activities, programs, or operations to increase the capacity of such components to deter and punish child labor trafficking."

§20709a. Holistic training for Federal law enforcement officers and prosecutors

All training required under section 20709 of this title and section 7105(c)(4) 1 of title 22 shall—

(1) emphasize that an individual who knowingly solicits or patronizes a commercial sex act from a person who was a minor (consistent with section 1591(c) of title 18) or was subject to force, fraud, or coercion is guilty of an offense under chapter 77 of title 18 and is a party to a human trafficking offense;

(2) develop specific curriculum for—

(A) under appropriate circumstances, arresting and prosecuting buyers of commercial sex, child labor that is a violation of law, or forced labor as a form of primary prevention; and

(B) investigating and prosecuting individuals who knowingly benefit financially from participation in a venture that has engaged in any act of human trafficking; and


(3) specify that any comprehensive approach to eliminating human trafficking shall include a demand reduction component.

(Pub. L. 115–392, §7, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5253.)

References in Text

Section 7105(c)(4) of title 22, referred to in text, was in the original "section 105(c)(4) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000" and was translated as if it read "section 107(c)(4)" of the Act to reflect the probable intent of Congress. There is no section 105(c)(4) of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act of 2000 and section 107(c)(4) relates to the training of Government personnel.

1 See References in Text note below.

§20709b. Encouraging a victim-centered approach to training of Federal law enforcement personnel

(a) Training curriculum improvements

The Attorney General, Secretary of Homeland Security, and Secretary of Labor shall periodically, but not less frequently than once every 2 years, implement improvements to the training programs on human trafficking for employees of the Department of Justice, Department of Homeland Security, and Department of Labor, respectively, after consultation with survivors of human trafficking, or trafficking victims service providers, and Federal law enforcement agencies responsible for the prevention, deterrence, and prosecution of offenses involving human trafficking (such as individuals serving as, or who have served as, investigators in a Federal agency and who have expertise in identifying human trafficking victims and investigating human trafficking cases).

(b) Advanced training curriculum

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after December 21, 2018, the Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall develop an advanced training curriculum, to supplement the basic curriculum for investigative personnel of the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security, respectively, that—

(A) emphasizes a multidisciplinary, collaborative effort by law enforcement officers who provide a broad range of investigation and prosecution options in response to perpetrators, and victim service providers, who offer services and resources for victims;

(B) provides guidance about the recruitment techniques employed by human traffickers to clarify that an individual who knowingly solicits or patronizes a commercial sex act from a person who was a minor (consistent with section 1591(c) of title 18) or was subject to force, fraud, or coercion is guilty of an offense under chapter 77 of title 18 and is a party to a human trafficking offense; and

(C) explains that—

(i) victims of sex or labor trafficking often engage in criminal acts as a direct result of severe trafficking in persons and such individuals are victims of a crime and affirmative measures should be taken to avoid arresting, charging, or prosecuting such individuals for any offense that is the direct result of their victimization; and

(ii) a comprehensive approach to eliminating human trafficking should include demand reduction as a component.

(2) Use of curriculum

The Attorney General and the Secretary of Homeland Security shall provide training using the curriculum developed under paragraph (1) to—

(A) all law enforcement officers employed by the Department of Justice and the Department of Homeland Security, respectively, who may be involved in the investigation of human trafficking offenses; and

(B) members of task forces that participate in the investigation of human trafficking offenses.

(Pub. L. 115–393, title V, §501, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5275.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 501 of Pub. L. 115–393. Subsec. (c) of section 501 of Pub. L. 115–393 amended section 7105 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§20709c. Training of tribal law enforcement and prosecutorial personnel

The Attorney General, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Tribal Justice, shall carry out a program under which tribal law enforcement officials may receive technical assistance and training to pursue a victim-centered approach to investigating and prosecuting severe forms of trafficking in persons (as defined in section 7102 of title 22).

(Pub. L. 115–393, title V, §504, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5277.)

§20710. Education and outreach to trafficking survivors

The Attorney General shall make available, on the website of the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, a database for trafficking victim advocates, crisis hotline personnel, foster parents, law enforcement personnel, and crime survivors that contains information on—

(1) counseling and hotline resources;

(2) housing resources;

(3) legal assistance; and

(4) other services for trafficking survivors.

(Pub. L. 114–22, title I, §119, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 247.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified as a note under section 5611 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§20711. Establishing a national strategy to combat human trafficking

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall implement and maintain a National Strategy for Combating Human Trafficking (referred to in this section as the "National Strategy") in accordance with this section.

(b) Required contents of National Strategy

The National Strategy shall include the following:

(1) Integrated Federal, State, local, and tribal efforts to investigate and prosecute human trafficking cases, including—

(A) the development by each United States attorney, in consultation with State, local, and tribal government agencies, of a district-specific strategic plan to coordinate the identification of victims and the investigation and prosecution of human trafficking crimes;

(B) the participation in any Federal, State, local, or tribal human trafficking task force operating in the district of the United States attorney; and

(C) any other efforts intended to enhance the level of coordination and cooperation, as determined by the Attorney General.


(2) Case coordination within the Department of Justice, including specific integration, coordination, and collaboration, as appropriate, on human trafficking investigations between and among the United States attorneys, the Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit, the Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, and the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(3) Annual budget priorities and Federal efforts dedicated to preventing and combating human trafficking, including resources dedicated to the Human Trafficking Prosecution Unit, the Child Exploitation and Obscenity Section, the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and all other entities that receive Federal support that have a goal or mission to combat the exploitation of adults and children.

(4) An ongoing assessment of the future trends, challenges, and opportunities, including new investigative strategies, techniques, and technologies, that will enhance Federal, State, local, and tribal efforts to combat human trafficking.

(5) Encouragement of cooperation, coordination, and mutual support between private sector and other entities and organizations and Federal agencies to combat human trafficking, including the involvement of State, local, and tribal government agencies to the extent Federal programs are involved.

(6) A national strategy to prevent human trafficking and reduce demand for human trafficking victims.

(c) Human Trafficking Justice Coordinators

The Attorney General shall designate in each Federal judicial district not less than 1 assistant United States attorney to serve as the Human Trafficking Coordinator for the district who, in addition to any other responsibilities, works with a human trafficking victim-witness specialist and shall be responsible for—

(1) implementing the National Strategy with respect to all forms of human trafficking, including labor trafficking and sex trafficking;

(2) prosecuting, or assisting in the prosecution of, human trafficking cases;

(3) conducting public outreach and awareness activities relating to human trafficking;

(4) ensuring the collection of data required to be collected under clause (viii) of section 7103(d)(7)(Q) of title 22, as added by section 17 of the Abolish Human Trafficking Act of 2017,1 is sought;

(5) coordinating with other Federal agencies, State, tribal, and local law enforcement agencies, victim service providers, and other relevant non-governmental organizations to build partnerships on activities relating to human trafficking; and

(6) ensuring the collection of restitution for victims is sought as required to be ordered under section 1593 of title 18 and section 2429 of such title, as added by section 3 of the Abolish Human Trafficking Act of 2017.

(d) Department of Justice Coordinator

Not later than 60 days after December 21, 2018, the Attorney General shall designate an official who shall coordinate human trafficking efforts within the Department of Justice who, in addition to any other responsibilities, shall be responsible for—

(1) coordinating, promoting, and supporting the work of the Department of Justice relating to human trafficking, including investigation, prosecution, training, outreach, victim support, grant-making, and policy activities;

(2) in consultation with survivors of human trafficking, or anti-human trafficking organizations, producing and disseminating, including making publicly available when appropriate, replication guides and training materials for law enforcement officers, prosecutors, judges, emergency responders, individuals working in victim services, adult and child protective services, social services, and public safety, medical personnel, mental health personnel, financial services personnel, and any other individuals whose work may bring them in contact with human trafficking regarding how to—

(A) identify signs of human trafficking;

(B) conduct investigations in human trafficking cases;

(C) address evidentiary issues and other legal issues; and

(D) appropriately assess, respond to, and interact with victims and witnesses in human trafficking cases, including in administrative, civil, and criminal judicial proceedings; and


(3) carrying out such other duties as the Attorney General determines necessary in connection with enhancing the understanding, prevention, and detection of, and response to, human trafficking.

(Pub. L. 114–22, title VI, §606, May 29, 2015, 129 Stat. 260; Pub. L. 115–392, §§9, 15, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5254, 5256.)

References in Text

Clause (viii) of section 7103(d)(7)(Q) of title 22, as added by section 17 of the Abolish Human Trafficking Act of 2017, referred to subsec. (c)(4), probably should be a reference to the clause as added by section 16 of the Abolish Human Trafficking Act of 2017, which is section 16 of Pub. L. 115–392, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5257.

Section 2429 of such title, as added by section 3 of the Abolish Human Trafficking Act of 2017, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), means section 2429 of title 18, as added by section 3(a) of Pub. L. 115–392, Dec. 21, 2018, 132 Stat. 5251.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14044h of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 115–392, §15(1), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "the appointment of not fewer than 1 assistant United States attorney in each district dedicated to the prosecution of human trafficking cases or responsible for implementing the National Strategy;".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 115–392, §9, added par. (6).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 115–392, §15(2), added subsecs. (c) and (d).

1 See References in Text note below.