[USC02] 34 USC Subtitle IV, CHAPTER 407, SUBCHAPTER II: TRAINING, TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH, AND EXPANDED USE
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34 USC Subtitle IV, CHAPTER 407, SUBCHAPTER II: TRAINING, TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH, AND EXPANDED USE
From Title 34—CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENTSubtitle IV—Criminal Records and InformationCHAPTER 407—DNA IDENTIFICATION

SUBCHAPTER II—TRAINING, TECHNOLOGY, RESEARCH, AND EXPANDED USE

§40721. Report to Congress on plans to modify CODIS system

If the Department of Justice plans to modify or supplement the core genetic markers needed for compatibility with the CODIS system, it shall notify the Judiciary Committee of the Senate and the Judiciary Committee of the House of Representatives in writing not later than 180 days before any change is made and explain the reasons for such change.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title II, §203(f), Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2271.)

Codification

Section is comprised of subsec. (f) of section 203 of Pub. L. 108–405. For complete classification of section 203, see Tables.

Section was formerly classified as a note under section 531 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§40722. DNA training and education for law enforcement, correctional personnel, and court officers

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall make grants to provide training, technical assistance, education, and information relating to the identification, collection, preservation, analysis, and use of DNA samples and DNA evidence by—

(1) law enforcement personnel, including police officers and other first responders, evidence technicians, investigators, and others who collect or examine evidence of crime;

(2) court officers, including State and local prosecutors, defense lawyers, and judges;

(3) forensic science professionals; and

(4) corrections personnel, including prison and jail personnel, and probation, parole, and other officers involved in supervision.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $12,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2024 to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §303, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2273; Pub. L. 110–360, §3, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4008; Pub. L. 113–182, §3, Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1918; Pub. L. 116–104, §3, Dec. 30, 2019, 133 Stat. 3272.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14136 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116–104 substituted "2019 through 2024" for "2015 through 2019".

2014—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–182 substituted "2015 through 2019" for "2009 through 2014".

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–360 substituted "2009 through 2014" for "2005 through 2009".

Incentive Grants to States To Ensure Consideration of Claims of Actual Innocence

Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §413, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2285, as amended by Pub. L. 114–324, §12(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1957, provided that: "For each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021, all funds appropriated to carry out sections 303, 305, 308, and 412 [sections 40722, 40724, 40726, and 40727 of this title] shall be reserved for grants to eligible entities that—

"(1) meet the requirements under section 303, 305, 308, or 412, as appropriate; and

"(2) for eligible entities that are a State or unit of local government, provide a certification by the chief legal officer of the State in which the eligible entity operates or the chief legal officer of the jurisdiction in which the funds will be used for the purposes of the grants, that the State or jurisdiction—

"(A) provides DNA testing of specified evidence under a State statute or a State or local rule or regulation to persons sentenced to imprisonment or death for a State felony offense, in a manner intended to ensure a reasonable process for resolving claims of actual innocence that ensures post-conviction DNA testing in at least those cases that would be covered by section 3600(a) of title 18, United States Code, had they been Federal cases and, if the results of the testing exclude the applicant as the source of the DNA, permits the applicant to apply for post-conviction relief, notwithstanding any provision of law that would otherwise bar the application as untimely; and

"(B) preserves biological evidence, as defined in section 3600A of title 18, United States Code, under a State statute or a State or local rule, regulation, or practice in a manner intended to ensure that reasonable measures are taken by the State or jurisdiction to preserve biological evidence secured in relation to the investigation or prosecution of, at a minimum, murder, nonnegligent manslaughter and sexual offenses."

§40723. Sexual assault forensic exam program grants

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall make grants to eligible entities to provide training, technical assistance, education, equipment, and information relating to the identification, collection, preservation, analysis, and use of DNA samples and DNA evidence by medical personnel and other personnel, including doctors, medical examiners, coroners, nurses, victim service providers, and other professionals involved in treating victims of sexual assault and sexual assault examination programs, including SANE (Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner), SAFE (Sexual Assault Forensic Examiner), and SART (Sexual Assault Response Team).

(b) Eligible entity

For purposes of this section, the term "eligible entity" includes—

(1) States;

(2) units of local government; and

(3) sexual assault examination programs, including—

(A) sexual assault nurse examiner (SANE) programs;

(B) sexual assault forensic examiner (SAFE) programs;

(C) sexual assault response team (SART) programs;

(D) State sexual assault coalitions;

(E) medical personnel, including doctors, medical examiners, coroners, and nurses, involved in treating victims of sexual assault; and

(F) victim service providers involved in treating victims of sexual assault.

(c) Preference

(1) In general

In reviewing applications submitted in accordance with a program authorized, in whole or in part, by this section, the Attorney General shall give preference to any eligible entity that certifies that the entity will use the grant funds to—

(A) improve forensic nurse examiner programs in a rural area or for an underserved population, as those terms are defined in section 12291 1 of this title;

(B) engage in activities that will assist in the employment of full-time forensic nurse examiners to conduct activities under subsection (a); or

(C) sustain or establish a training program for forensic nurse examiners.

(2) Directive to the Attorney General

Not later than the beginning of fiscal year 2018, the Attorney General shall coordinate with the Secretary of Health and Human Services to inform Federally Qualified Health Centers, Community Health Centers, hospitals, colleges and universities, and other appropriate health-related entities about the role of forensic nurses, both adult and pediatric, and existing resources available within the Department of Justice and the Department of Health and Human Services to train or employ forensic nurses to address the needs of communities dealing with sexual assault, domestic violence, elder abuse, and, in particular, the need for pediatric sexual assault nurse examiners, including such nurse examiners working in the multidisciplinary setting, in responding to abuse of both children and adolescents. The Attorney General shall collaborate on this effort with nongovernmental organizations representing forensic nurses.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2024 to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §304, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2273; Pub. L. 110–360, §4, Oct. 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 4009; Pub. L. 113–182, §4, Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1918; Pub. L. 114–324, §4, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1950; Pub. L. 115–107, §2, Jan. 8, 2018, 131 Stat. 2266; Pub. L. 116–104, §4, Dec. 30, 2019, 133 Stat. 3273.)

References in Text

Section 12291 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1)(A), was in the original a reference to section "4002" of the Violence Against Women Act of 1994 and was translated as if it referred to section 40002 of that act to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14136a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2019—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 116–104 substituted "2019 through 2024" for "2015 through 2019".

2018—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–107 inserted ", both adult and pediatric," after "role of forensic nurses" and substituted "elder abuse, and, in particular, the need for pediatric sexual assault nurse examiners, including such nurse examiners working in the multidisciplinary setting, in responding to abuse of both children and adolescents" for "and elder abuse".

2016—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 114–324 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

2014—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–182 substituted "2015 through 2019" for "2009 through 2014".

2008—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 110–360 substituted "2009 through 2014" for "2005 through 2009".

1 See References in Text note below.

§40724. DNA research and development

(a) Improving DNA technology

The Attorney General shall make grants for research and development to improve forensic DNA technology, including increasing the identification accuracy and efficiency of DNA analysis, decreasing time and expense, and increasing portability.

(b) Demonstration projects

The Attorney General shall make grants to appropriate entities under which research is carried out through demonstration projects involving coordinated training and commitment of resources to law enforcement agencies and key criminal justice participants to demonstrate and evaluate the use of forensic DNA technology in conjunction with other forensic tools. The demonstration projects shall include scientific evaluation of the public safety benefits, improvements to law enforcement operations, and cost-effectiveness of increased collection and use of DNA evidence.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021 to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §305, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2273; Pub. L. 114–324, §8(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1954.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14136b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–324 substituted "$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021" for "$15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2009".

§40725. National Forensic Science Commission

(a) Appointment

The Attorney General shall appoint a National Forensic Science Commission (in this section referred to as the "Commission"), composed of persons experienced in criminal justice issues, including persons from the forensic science and criminal justice communities, to carry out the responsibilities under subsection (b).

(b) Responsibilities

The Commission shall—

(1) assess the present and future resource needs of the forensic science community;

(2) make recommendations to the Attorney General for maximizing the use of forensic technologies and techniques to solve crimes and protect the public;

(3) identify potential scientific advances that may assist law enforcement in using forensic technologies and techniques to protect the public;

(4) make recommendations to the Attorney General for programs that will increase the number of qualified forensic scientists available to work in public crime laboratories;

(5) disseminate, through the National Institute of Justice, best practices concerning the collection and analyses of forensic evidence to help ensure quality and consistency in the use of forensic technologies and techniques to solve crimes and protect the public;

(6) examine additional issues pertaining to forensic science as requested by the Attorney General;

(7) examine Federal, State, and local privacy protection statutes, regulations, and practices relating to access to, or use of, stored DNA samples or DNA analyses, to determine whether such protections are sufficient;

(8) make specific recommendations to the Attorney General, as necessary, to enhance the protections described in paragraph (7) to ensure—

(A) the appropriate use and dissemination of DNA information;

(B) the accuracy, security, and confidentiality of DNA information;

(C) the timely removal and destruction of obsolete, expunged, or inaccurate DNA information; and

(D) that any other necessary measures are taken to protect privacy; and


(9) provide a forum for the exchange and dissemination of ideas and information in furtherance of the objectives described in paragraphs (1) through (8).

(c) Personnel; procedures

The Attorney General shall—

(1) designate the Chair of the Commission from among its members;

(2) designate any necessary staff to assist in carrying out the functions of the Commission; and

(3) establish procedures and guidelines for the operations of the Commission.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $500,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2009 to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §306, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2274.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14136c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§40726. DNA identification of missing persons

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall make grants to promote the use of forensic DNA technology to identify missing persons and unidentified human remains.

(b) Requirement

Each State or unit of local government that receives funding under this section shall be required to submit the DNA profiles of such missing persons and unidentified human remains to the National Missing Persons DNA Database of the Federal Bureau of Investigation.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021 to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title III, §308, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2275; Pub. L. 114–324, §8(c), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1954.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14136d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–324 substituted "fiscal years 2017 through 2021" for "fiscal years 2005 through 2009".

§40727. Kirk Bloodsworth Post-Conviction DNA Testing Grant Program

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall establish the Kirk Bloodsworth Post-Conviction DNA Testing Grant Program to award grants to States to help defray the costs of post-conviction DNA testing.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021 to carry out this section.

(c) State defined

For purposes of this section, the term "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the United States Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam, and the Northern Mariana Islands.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §412, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2284; Pub. L. 114–324, §12(b), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1957.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14136e of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–324 substituted "$10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021" for "$5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2009".

§40728. Establishment of best practices for evidence retention

(a) In general

The Director of the National Institute of Justice, in consultation with Federal, State, and local law enforcement agencies and government laboratories, shall—

(1) establish best practices for evidence retention to focus on the preservation of forensic evidence; and

(2) assist State, local, and tribal governments in adopting and implementing the best practices established under paragraph (1).

(b) Deadline

Not later than 1 year after December 16, 2016, the Director of the National Institute of Justice shall publish the best practices established under subsection (a)(1).

(c) Limitation

Nothing in this section shall be construed to require or obligate compliance with the best practices established under subsection (a)(1).

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §414, as added Pub. L. 114–324, §13(a), Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1958.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14136f of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.