[USC02] 34 USC Ch. 603: IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF REPRESENTATION IN STATE CAPITAL CASES
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34 USC Ch. 603: IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF REPRESENTATION IN STATE CAPITAL CASES
From Title 34—CRIME CONTROL AND LAW ENFORCEMENTSubtitle VI—Other Crime Control and Law Enforcement Matters

CHAPTER 603—IMPROVING THE QUALITY OF REPRESENTATION IN STATE CAPITAL CASES

Sec.
60301.
Capital representation improvement grants.
60302.
Capital prosecution improvement grants.
60303.
Applications.
60304.
State reports.
60305.
Evaluations by Inspector General and administrative remedies.
60306.
Authorization of appropriations.

        

§60301. Capital representation improvement grants

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall award grants to States for the purpose of improving the quality of legal representation provided to indigent defendants in State capital cases.

(b) Defined term

In this section, the term "legal representation" means legal counsel and investigative, expert, and other services necessary for competent representation.

(c) Use of funds

Grants awarded under subsection (a)—

(1) shall be used to establish, implement, or improve an effective system for providing competent legal representation to—

(A) indigents charged with an offense subject to capital punishment;

(B) indigents who have been sentenced to death and who seek appellate or collateral relief in State court; and

(C) indigents who have been sentenced to death and who seek review in the Supreme Court of the United States; and


(2) shall not be used to fund, directly or indirectly, representation in specific capital cases.

(d) Apportionment of funds

(1) In general

Of the funds awarded under subsection (a)—

(A) not less than 75 percent shall be used to carry out the purpose described in subsection (c)(1)(A); and

(B) not more than 25 percent shall be used to carry out the purpose described in subsection (c)(1)(B).

(2) Waiver

The Attorney General may waive the requirement under this subsection for good cause shown.

(e) Effective system

As used in subsection (c)(1), an effective system for providing competent legal representation is a system that—

(1) invests the responsibility for appointing qualified attorneys to represent indigents in capital cases—

(A) in a public defender program that relies on staff attorneys, members of the private bar, or both, to provide representation in capital cases;

(B) in an entity established by statute or by the highest State court with jurisdiction in criminal cases, which is composed of individuals with demonstrated knowledge and expertise in capital cases, except for individuals currently employed as prosecutors; or

(C) pursuant to a statutory procedure enacted before October 30, 2004, under which the trial judge is required to appoint qualified attorneys from a roster maintained by a State or regional selection committee or similar entity; and


(2) requires the program described in paragraph (1)(A), the entity described in paragraph (1)(B), or an appropriate entity designated pursuant to the statutory procedure described in paragraph (1)(C), as applicable, to—

(A) establish qualifications for attorneys who may be appointed to represent indigents in capital cases;

(B) establish and maintain a roster of qualified attorneys;

(C) except in the case of a selection committee or similar entity described in paragraph (1)(C), assign 2 attorneys from the roster to represent an indigent in a capital case, or provide the trial judge a list of not more than 2 pairs of attorneys from the roster, from which 1 pair shall be assigned, provided that, in any case in which the State elects not to seek the death penalty, a court may find, subject to any requirement of State law, that a second attorney need not remain assigned to represent the indigent to ensure competent representation;

(D) conduct, sponsor, or approve specialized training programs for attorneys representing defendants in capital cases;

(E)(i) monitor the performance of attorneys who are appointed and their attendance at training programs; and

(ii) remove from the roster attorneys who—

(I) fail to deliver effective representation or engage in unethical conduct;

(II) fail to comply with such requirements as such program, entity, or selection committee or similar entity may establish regarding participation in training programs; or

(III) during the past 5 years, have been sanctioned by a bar association or court for ethical misconduct relating to the attorney's conduct as defense counsel in a criminal case in Federal or State court; and


(F) ensure funding for the cost of competent legal representation by the defense team and outside experts selected by counsel, who shall be compensated—

(i) in the case of a State that employs a statutory procedure described in paragraph (1)(C), in accordance with the requirements of that statutory procedure; and

(ii) in all other cases, as follows:

(I) Attorneys employed by a public defender program shall be compensated according to a salary scale that is commensurate with the salary scale of the prosecutor's office in the jurisdiction.

(II) Appointed attorneys shall be compensated for actual time and service, computed on an hourly basis and at a reasonable hourly rate in light of the qualifications and experience of the attorney and the local market for legal representation in cases reflecting the complexity and responsibility of capital cases.

(III) Non-attorney members of the defense team, including investigators, mitigation specialists, and experts, shall be compensated at a rate that reflects the specialized skills needed by those who assist counsel with the litigation of death penalty cases.

(IV) Attorney and non-attorney members of the defense team shall be reimbursed for reasonable incidental expenses.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §421, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2286.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14163 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§60302. Capital prosecution improvement grants

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall award grants to States for the purpose of enhancing the ability of prosecutors to effectively represent the public in State capital cases.

(b) Use of funds

(1) Permitted uses

Grants awarded under subsection (a) shall be used for one or more of the following:

(A) To design and implement training programs for State and local prosecutors to ensure effective representation in State capital cases.

(B) To develop and implement appropriate standards and qualifications for State and local prosecutors who litigate State capital cases.

(C) To assess the performance of State and local prosecutors who litigate State capital cases, provided that such assessment shall not include participation by the assessor in the trial of any specific capital case.

(D) To identify and implement any potential legal reforms that may be appropriate to minimize the potential for error in the trial of capital cases.

(E) To establish a program under which State and local prosecutors conduct a systematic review of cases in which a death sentence was imposed in order to identify cases in which post-conviction DNA testing may be appropriate.

(F) To provide support and assistance to the families of murder victims.

(2) Prohibited use

Grants awarded under subsection (a) shall not be used to fund, directly or indirectly, the prosecution of specific capital cases.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §422, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2288.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14163a of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§60303. Applications

(a) In general

The Attorney General shall establish a process through which a State may apply for a grant under this chapter.

(b) Application

(1) In general

A State desiring a grant under this chapter shall submit an application to the Attorney General at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Attorney General may reasonably require.

(2) Contents

Each application submitted under paragraph (1) shall contain—

(A) a certification by an appropriate officer of the State that the State authorizes capital punishment under its laws and conducts, or will conduct, prosecutions in which capital punishment is sought;

(B) a description of the communities to be served by the grant, including the nature of existing capital defender services and capital prosecution programs within such communities;

(C) a long-term statewide strategy and detailed implementation plan that—

(i) reflects consultation with the judiciary, the organized bar, and State and local prosecutor and defender organizations; and

(ii) establishes as a priority improvement in the quality of trial-level representation of indigents charged with capital crimes and trial-level prosecution of capital crimes;


(D) in the case of a State that employs a statutory procedure described in section 60301(e)(1)(C) of this title, a certification by an appropriate officer of the State that the State is in substantial compliance with the requirements of the applicable State statute; and

(E) assurances that Federal funds received under this chapter shall be—

(i) used to supplement and not supplant non-Federal funds that would otherwise be available for activities funded under this chapter; and

(ii) allocated in accordance with section 60306(b) of this title.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §423, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2288.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14163b of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§60304. State reports

(a) In general

Each State receiving funds under this chapter shall submit an annual report to the Attorney General that—

(1) identifies the activities carried out with such funds; and

(2) explains how each activity complies with the terms and conditions of the grant.

(b) Capital representation improvement grants

With respect to the funds provided under section 60301 of this title, a report under subsection (a) shall include—

(1) an accounting of all amounts expended;

(2) an explanation of the means by which the State—

(A) invests the responsibility for identifying and appointing qualified attorneys to represent indigents in capital cases in a program described in section 60301(e)(1)(A) of this title, an entity described in section 60301(e)(1)(B) of this title, or a selection committee or similar entity described in section 60301(e)(1)(C) of this title; and

(B) requires such program, entity, or selection committee or similar entity, or other appropriate entity designated pursuant to the statutory procedure described in section 60301(e)(1)(C) of this title, to—

(i) establish qualifications for attorneys who may be appointed to represent indigents in capital cases in accordance with section 60301(e)(2)(A) of this title;

(ii) establish and maintain a roster of qualified attorneys in accordance with section 60301(e)(2)(B) of this title;

(iii) assign attorneys from the roster in accordance with section 60301(e)(2)(C) of this title;

(iv) conduct, sponsor, or approve specialized training programs for attorneys representing defendants in capital cases in accordance with section 60301(e)(2)(D) of this title;

(v) monitor the performance and training program attendance of appointed attorneys, and remove from the roster attorneys who fail to deliver effective representation or fail to comply with such requirements as such program, entity, or selection committee or similar entity may establish regarding participation in training programs, in accordance with section 60301(e)(2)(E) of this title; and

(vi) ensure funding for the cost of competent legal representation by the defense team and outside experts selected by counsel, in accordance with section 60301(e)(2)(F) of this title, including a statement setting forth—

(I) if the State employs a public defender program under section 60301(e)(1)(A) of this title, the salaries received by the attorneys employed by such program and the salaries received by attorneys in the prosecutor's office in the jurisdiction;

(II) if the State employs appointed attorneys under section 60301(e)(1)(B) of this title, the hourly fees received by such attorneys for actual time and service and the basis on which the hourly rate was calculated;

(III) the amounts paid to non-attorney members of the defense team, and the basis on which such amounts were determined; and

(IV) the amounts for which attorney and non-attorney members of the defense team were reimbursed for reasonable incidental expenses;


(3) in the case of a State that employs a statutory procedure described in section 60301(e)(1)(C) of this title, an assessment of the extent to which the State is in compliance with the requirements of the applicable State statute; and

(4) a statement confirming that the funds have not been used to fund representation in specific capital cases or to supplant non-Federal funds.

(c) Capital prosecution improvement grants

With respect to the funds provided under section 60302 of this title, a report under subsection (a) shall include—

(1) an accounting of all amounts expended;

(2) a description of the means by which the State has—

(A) designed and established training programs for State and local prosecutors to ensure effective representation in State capital cases in accordance with section 60302(b)(1)(A) of this title;

(B) developed and implemented appropriate standards and qualifications for State and local prosecutors who litigate State capital cases in accordance with section 60302(b)(1)(B) of this title;

(C) assessed the performance of State and local prosecutors who litigate State capital cases in accordance with section 60302(b)(1)(C) of this title;

(D) identified and implemented any potential legal reforms that may be appropriate to minimize the potential for error in the trial of capital cases in accordance with section 60302(b)(1)(D) of this title;

(E) established a program under which State and local prosecutors conduct a systematic review of cases in which a death sentence was imposed in order to identify cases in which post-conviction DNA testing may be appropriate in accordance with section 60302(b)(1)(E) of this title; and

(F) provided support and assistance to the families of murder victims; and


(3) a statement confirming that the funds have not been used to fund the prosecution of specific capital cases or to supplant non-Federal funds.

(d) Public disclosure of annual State reports

The annual reports to the Attorney General submitted by any State under this section shall be made available to the public.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §424, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2289.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14163c of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§60305. Evaluations by Inspector General and administrative remedies

(a) Evaluation by Inspector General

(1) In general

As soon as practicable after the end of the first fiscal year for which a State receives funds under a grant made under this chapter, the Inspector General of the Department of Justice (in this section referred to as the "Inspector General") shall—

(A) submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate a report evaluating the compliance by the State with the terms and conditions of the grant; and

(B) if the Inspector General concludes that the State is not in compliance with the terms and conditions of the grant, specify any deficiencies and make recommendations to the Attorney General for corrective action.

(2) Priority

In conducting evaluations under this subsection, the Inspector General shall give priority to States that the Inspector General determines, based on information submitted by the State and other comments provided by any other person, to be at the highest risk of noncompliance.

(3) Determination for statutory procedure States

For each State that employs a statutory procedure described in section 60301(e)(1)(C) of this title, the Inspector General shall submit to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate, not later than the end of the first fiscal year for which such State receives funds, a determination as to whether the State is in substantial compliance with the requirements of the applicable State statute.

(4) Comments from public

The Inspector General shall receive and consider comments from any member of the public regarding any State's compliance with the terms and conditions of a grant made under this chapter. To facilitate the receipt of such comments, the Inspector General shall maintain on its website a form that any member of the public may submit, either electronically or otherwise, providing comments. The Inspector General shall give appropriate consideration to all such public comments in reviewing reports submitted under section 60304 of this title or in establishing the priority for conducting evaluations under this section.

(b) Administrative review

(1) Comment

Upon the submission of a report under subsection (a)(1) or a determination under subsection (a)(3), the Attorney General shall provide the State with an opportunity to comment regarding the findings and conclusions of the report or the determination.

(2) Corrective action plan

If the Attorney General, after reviewing a report under subsection (a)(1) or a determination under subsection (a)(3), determines that a State is not in compliance with the terms and conditions of the grant, the Attorney General shall consult with the appropriate State authorities to enter into a plan for corrective action. If the State does not agree to a plan for corrective action that has been approved by the Attorney General within 90 days after the submission of the report under subsection (a)(1) or the determination under subsection (a)(3), the Attorney General shall, within 30 days, issue guidance to the State regarding corrective action to bring the State into compliance.

(3) Report to Congress

Not later than 90 days after the earlier of the implementation of a corrective action plan or the issuance of guidance under paragraph (2), the Attorney General shall submit a report to the Committee on the Judiciary of the House of Representatives and the Committee on the Judiciary of the Senate as to whether the State has taken corrective action and is in compliance with the terms and conditions of the grant.

(c) Penalties for noncompliance

If the State fails to take the prescribed corrective action under subsection (b) and is not in compliance with the terms and conditions of the grant, the Attorney General shall discontinue all further funding under sections 60301 and 60302 of this title and require the State to return the funds granted under such sections for that fiscal year. Nothing in this paragraph shall prevent a State which has been subject to penalties for noncompliance from reapplying for a grant under this chapter in another fiscal year.

(d) Periodic reports

During the grant period, the Inspector General shall periodically review the compliance of each State with the terms and conditions of the grant.

(e) Administrative costs

Not less than 2.5 percent of the funds appropriated to carry out this chapter for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2009 shall be made available to the Inspector General for purposes of carrying out this section. Such sums shall remain available until expended.

(f) Special rule for "statutory procedure" States not in substantial compliance with statutory procedures

(1) In general

In the case of a State that employs a statutory procedure described in section 60301(e)(1)(C) of this title, if the Inspector General submits a determination under subsection (a)(3) that the State is not in substantial compliance with the requirements of the applicable State statute, then for the period beginning with the date on which that determination was submitted and ending on the date on which the Inspector General determines that the State is in substantial compliance with the requirements of that statute, the funds awarded under this chapter shall be allocated solely for the uses described in section 60301 of this title.

(2) Rule of construction

The requirements of this subsection apply in addition to, and not instead of, the other requirements of this section.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §425, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2291.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14163d of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§60306. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Authorization for grants

There are authorized to be appropriated 1

(1) $2,500,000 for fiscal year 2017;

(2) $7,500,000 for fiscal year 2018;

(3) $12,500,000 for fiscal year 2019;

(4) $17,500,000 for fiscal year 2020; and

(5) $22,500,000 for fiscal year 2021.2


to carry out this chapter.

(b) Restriction on use of funds to ensure equal allocation

Each State receiving a grant under this chapter shall allocate the funds equally between the uses described in section 60301 of this title and the uses described in section 60302 of this title, except as provided in section 60305(f) of this title, or upon a showing of good cause, and at the discretion of the Attorney General, the State may determine a fair allocation of funds across the uses described in sections 60301 and 60302 of this title.

(Pub. L. 108–405, title IV, §426, Oct. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2292; Pub. L. 114–324, §10, Dec. 16, 2016, 130 Stat. 1956.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 14163e of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section. Some section numbers or references in amendment notes below reflect the classification of such sections or references prior to editorial reclassification.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–324, §10(1), which directed substitution of pars. (1) to (5) for "$75,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2009", was executed by making the substitution and setting out the remaining phrase "to carry out this part.", which was not directed to be struck out, as concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–324, §10(2), inserted before period at end ", or upon a showing of good cause, and at the discretion of the Attorney General, the State may determine a fair allocation of funds across the uses described in sections 14163 and 14163a of this title".

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a dash.

2 So in original.