[USC02] 36 USC Ch. 21: AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION
Result 1 of 1
   
 
36 USC Ch. 21: AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION
From Title 36—PATRIOTIC AND NATIONAL OBSERVANCES, CEREMONIES, AND ORGANIZATIONSSubtitle I—Patriotic and National Observances and CeremoniesPart B—United States Government Organizations Involved With Observances and Ceremonies

CHAPTER 21—AMERICAN BATTLE MONUMENTS COMMISSION

Sec.
2101.
Membership.
2102.
Employment of personnel.
2103.
Administrative.
2104.
Military cemeteries in foreign countries.
2105.
Monuments built by the United States Government.
2106.
War memorials not built by the United States Government.
2107.
National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific.
2108.
Pacific War Memorial and other historical and memorial sites on Corregidor.
2109.
Foreign Currency Fluctuations Account.
2110.
Claims against the Commission.
2111.
Presidential duties and powers.
2112.
Care and maintenance of Surrender Tree site.
2113.
World War II memorial in the District of Columbia.
2114.
Intellectual property and related items.
2115.
Acquisition, operation, and maintenance of Lafayette Escadrille Memorial.

        

Editorial Notes

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–227, §1(b), Sept. 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 934, added item 2115.

1999Pub. L. 106–117, title VI, §§601(a)(2), 603(b), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1578, 1579, added items 2113 and 2114.

§2101. Membership

(a) Composition and Terms.—The American Battle Monuments Commission has not more than 11 members appointed by the President. The President also shall appoint one officer of the Regular Army to serve as secretary of the Commission. The members and secretary serve at the pleasure of the President. The President shall fill any vacancies that occur. Notwithstanding any other law, members of the Armed Forces may be appointed members of the Commission.

(b) Pay and Expenses.—The members of the Commission serve without compensation. However, the members of the Commission may receive, from an amount appropriated to carry out this chapter or acquired by another authorized way—

(1) their actual expenses related to the work of the Commission;

(2) when in a travel status outside the continental United States, a per diem at the rate authorized to be paid for members of the uniformed services under section 475 of title 37 instead of subsistence; and

(3) when in a travel status in the continental United States, a per diem at the rate authorized to be paid under sections 5702 and 5703 of title 5 instead of subsistence.


(c) Expenses of Officers of Armed Forces Serving on Commission.—An officer of the Armed Forces serving as a member or as secretary of the Commission may be reimbursed for expenses when traveling on business of the Commission in the same way as civilian members of the Commission.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1269; Pub. L. 106–117, title VI, §604(1), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1580; Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title VI, §631(f)(4)(B), Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(a)(9), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1948.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2101(a) 36:121 (1st par.). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §1 (1st par.), 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; Dec. 18, 1989, Pub. L. 101–237, title V, §503, 103 Stat. 2094.
2101(b) 36:121 (2d par.). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §1 (2d par.), 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §1, 70 Stat. 640; Oct. 21, 1970, Pub. L. 91–480, 84 Stat. 1081; Apr. 1, 1976, Pub. L. 94–256, 90 Stat. 301.
  36:121 (last par.). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §1 (last par.), 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §1, 70 Stat. 640.
2101(c) 36:122. Sept. 26, 1996, Pub. L. 104–204, title III, (2d proviso in par. under heading "American Battle Monuments Commission"), 110 Stat. 2907.

In subsection (a), the words "from time to time" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the text of 36:121 (last par.) is omitted as executed. In clauses (2) and (3), the word "same" is omitted as unnecessary. In clause (2), the words "authorized to be paid" are substituted for "prescribed" for consistency with clause (3) and 37:405.

Subsection (c) is based on 36:122 which is from the 2d proviso in the paragraph under the heading "American Battle Monuments Commission" in title III of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104–204, 110 Stat. 2907). The provision has been repeated each year in prior appropriations acts and therefore is restated as a permanent provision. For prior provisions, see citations under 36:122 (1994 ed.). In the restatement, the words "in the same way as" are substituted for "as provided for" for clarity and consistency in the revised title.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(a)(9), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 112–81, §631(f)(4)(B). See 2011 Amendment note below.

2011—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 112–81, §631(f)(4)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 112–239, §1076(a)(9), substituted "475" for "405".

1999—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–117, §604(1)(A), struck out ", United States Code," after "title 37".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 106–117, §604(1)(B), struck out ", United States Code," after "title 5".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2013 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–239, div. A, title X, §1076(a), Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 1947, provided that the amendment made by section 1076(a)(9) is effective Dec. 31, 2011, and as if included in Pub. L. 112–81 as enacted.

§2102. Employment of personnel

(a) General.—Within the limits of an appropriation made to employ personnel, the American Battle Monuments Commission may employ personnel necessary to carry out this chapter. To ensure adequate care and maintenance of cemeteries, monuments, and memorials, the Commission, subject to the availability of appropriations, shall employ—

(1) at least 50 individuals in the competitive service (as defined in section 2102 of title 5), of whom at least 43 shall be assigned to duty in foreign countries where the cemeteries, monuments, and memorials are located; and

(2) at least 348 individuals who are citizens of the countries where the cemeteries, monuments, and memorials are located.


(b) Detailed Personnel.—On request of the Commission, the heads of departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government may make available to the Commission their personnel and facilities to assist in carrying out this chapter, and may expend for that purpose amounts appropriated to the department, agency, and instrumentality. The Commission shall reimburse the department, agency, or instrumentality for the pay and allowances of personnel made available to the Commission.

(c) Station Allowance for Officers Assigned to the Commission.—For officers of the Armed Forces assigned to the Commission, the same station allowance shall be authorized for serving at foreign stations as the Secretary of the Army has authorized for officers of the Army.

(d) Citizenship Requirement.—An individual may be employed as the superintendent, or as an assistant superintendent, of a cemetery operated by the Commission only if the individual is a citizen of the United States.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1269; Pub. L. 105–354, §1(2), Nov. 3, 1998, 112 Stat. 3239; Pub. L. 106–117, title VI, §604(2), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1580.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 105–225
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2102(a) 36:121 (3d par. 2d, 3d sentences). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §1 (3d par.), 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §1, 70 Stat. 640; Oct. 18, 1978, Pub. L. 95–479, title III, §306, 92 Stat. 1566; Oct. 7, 1980, Pub. L. 96–385, title V, §506, 94 Stat. 1537.
2102(b) 36:121 (3d par. 1st sentence).

36:122a.

 

Sept. 26, 1996, Pub. L. 104–204, title III, (1st, last provisos in par. under heading "American Battle Monuments Commission"), 110 Stat. 2907.

2102(c) 36:121b.  
2102(d) 36:121 (3d par. last sentence).  

In subsection (a) before clause (1), the words "or appropriations" are omitted because of 1:1. The words "further" and "under the jurisdiction of the Commission" are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (2), the words "who shall be hired for local employment relating to the care and maintenance of such cemeteries, monuments, and memorials" are omitted as unnecessary.

Subsections (b) and (c) are based in part on 36:121b and 122a, which are from the first and last provisos in the paragraph under the heading "American Battle Monuments Commission" in title III of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104–204, 110 Stat. 2907). The provisions have been repeated each year in prior appropriations acts and therefore are restated as permanent provisions. For prior provisions, see citations under 36:121b and 122a (1994 ed.).

In subsection (b), the words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities" are substituted for "departments or agencies" and "departments, agencies, and services" in 36:121 and "agencies" in 36:122a for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "or of the Army, Navy, Air Force, or Marine Corps" in 36:121 and "including the Armed Forces" in 36:122a are omitted as included in "department, agency, or instrumentality". The words "as the case may be" in 36:121 are omitted as unnecessary. The word "salary" in 36:122a is omitted as included in "pay".

In subsection (c), the words "Secretary of the Army" are substituted for "Department of the Army" because of 10:3013(a)(1).

Pub. L. 105–354

This amends section 2102(b) of title 36 to clarify the language.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–117 struck out ", United States Code" after "title 5".

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–354 substituted "personnel made available to the Commission" for "designated personnel".

§2103. Administrative

(a) General Authority.—Subject to appropriations made to carry out this chapter, the American Battle Monuments Commission may—

(1) acquire land or an interest in land in a foreign country to carry out the purposes of this chapter, or an executive order conferring duties and powers on the Commission, without submission to the Attorney General under section 3111 of title 40;

(2) maintain, repair, and operate motor-propelled passenger-carrying vehicles and other property that another department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government provides to the Commission;

(3) establish offices in the District of Columbia and elsewhere in or outside the United States;

(4) rent office and garage space, which may be paid for in advance, in foreign countries; and

(5) procure printing, binding, engraving, lithographing, photographing, and typewriting, including the publication of information on United States activities, battlefields, memorials, and cemeteries with respect to which the Commission may exercise any duties and powers.


(b) Disposition of Land.—Under conditions and in the manner the Commission decides is proper, the Commission may dispose of land or an interest in land in a foreign country that the Commission acquires in connection with its work.

(c) Contracting Out.—Notwithstanding the requirements of existing laws or regulations, the Commission, under conditions the Commission decides are necessary and proper, may contract for work, supplies, materials, and equipment outside or for use outside the United States and engage the services of architects and other technical and professional personnel.

(d) Delegation.—Under conditions the Commission may prescribe, the Commission may delegate to its Chairman, secretary, or officials in charge of any of its offices any of its authority it considers necessary and proper.

(e) Solicitation and Receipt of Contributions.—(1) The Commission may solicit and receive funds and in-kind donations and gifts from any State, municipal, or private source to carry out the purposes of this chapter. The Commission shall deposit such funds in a separate account in the Treasury. Funds from that account shall be disbursed upon vouchers approved by the Chairman of the Commission.

(2) The Commission shall establish written guidelines setting forth the criteria to be used in determining whether the acceptance of funds and in-kind donations and gifts under paragraph (1) would—

(A) reflect unfavorably on the ability of the Commission, or any member or employee of the Commission, to carry out the responsibilities or official duties of the Commission in a fair and objective manner; or

(B) compromise the integrity or the appearance of the integrity of the programs of the Commission or any official involved in those programs.


(f) Limitation on Use of Contributions.—The Commission may not obligate, withdraw, or expend amounts received as contributions before March 1, 1998.

(g) Statements to President.—The Commission shall transmit to the President on October 1 of each year a statement of all its financial and other transactions during the prior fiscal year.

(h) Financial Statements and Audits.—The Commission shall have a system of financial controls to enable the Commission to comply with the requirements of section 3515 of title 31 and with section 2106(d)(4) of this title.

(i) Disposition of Records and Archives.—When no longer required by the Commission, the records and archives of the Commission shall be deposited with the National Archives in accordance with section 2107 of title 44.

(j) Seal.—The Commission shall have a seal that shall be judicially noticed.

(k) Disbursements Outside Continental United States.—Disbursements for expenditures outside the continental United States may be made by a special disbursing agent designated by the Commission under regulations it prescribes.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1270; Pub. L. 106–117, title VI, §§602, 604(3), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1578, 1580; Pub. L. 107–217, §3(i)(1), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1300; Pub. L. 112–234, §2(g), Dec. 28, 2012, 126 Stat. 1625.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2103(a) 36:138b (1st par.). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §12 (1st–3d, last pars.), 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §§2(c), (d), 4(c)(1), (2), 70 Stat. 640, 641.
2103(b) 36:137. Feb. 11, 1927, ch. 104, §1 (5th proviso in par. under heading "American Battle Monuments Commission"), 44 Stat. 1071.
  36:138b (3d par.).  
2103(c) 36:138b (2d par.).  
2103(d) 36:138b (last par.).  
2103(e) 36:128. Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §7, 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317.
2103(f) 36:138d(c). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §14, as added Oct. 9, 1996, Pub. L. 104–275, title VI, §602(b), 110 Stat. 3345.
2103(g) 36:131. Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §8, 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §2(c), (d), 70 Stat. 640; Apr. 21, 1976, Pub. L. 94–273, §3(19), 90 Stat. 377.
2103(h) 36:138d(a), (b).  
2103(i) 36:138. Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §9, 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §§2(c), (d), 4(a), 70 Stat. 640, 641.
2103(j) 36:136. Feb. 11, 1927, ch. 104, §1 (3d proviso in par. under heading "American Battle Monuments Commission"), 44 Stat. 1071.
2103(k) 36:133. Feb. 11, 1927, ch. 104, §1 (last proviso in par. under heading "American Battle Monuments Commission"), 44 Stat. 1071.

In this section, the word "terms" is omitted as included in "conditions".

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "or appropriations" are omitted because of 1:1. In clauses (1) and (5), the words "duties and powers" are substituted for "functions" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (2), the words "department, agency, or instrumentality" are substituted for "departments" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b), the text of 36:137 is omitted as superseded. The words "which has been or may after June 26, 1946, be" and "Provided, That this subsection shall not be effective until the expiration of the Surplus Property Act of 1944" are omitted as obsolete. Section 38 of the Surplus Property Act of 1944 (ch. 479, 58 Stat. 784) provided that the Act was to expire 3 years after the cessation of hostilities of World War II. The cessation of hostilities was proclaimed on December 31, 1946, by Proclamation No. 2714, 12 Fed. Reg. 1. However, section 602(a)(1) of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949 (ch. 288, 63 Stat. 399) [renumbered by section 6(a) and (b) of the Act of September 5, 1950 (ch. 849, 64 Stat. 583)] repealed the Surplus Property Act of 1944 effective July 1, 1949 (except for sections 13(d), (g), and (h), 28, and 32(b)(2)). Section 13(d), concerning power transmission lines, and section 13(g), concerning property for public airports, do not involve the American Battle Monuments Commission. Section 13(h) was repealed by section 2 of the Act of August 4, 1972 (Public Law 92–362, 86 Stat. 504). Section 28 was repealed by section 21 of the Act of June 25, 1948 (ch. 645, 62 Stat. 868). Section 32(b)(2) was repealed by section 111(a)(1) of the Mutual Educational and Cultural Exchange Act of 1961 (Public Law 87–256, 75 Stat. 538).

In subsection (c), the words "in its discretion", "by contract or otherwise", and "firms of architects" are omitted as unnecessary.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 112–234 substituted "of section 3515 of title 31" for "of paragraph (2) of this subsection", struck out par. (1) designation before "The Commission", and struck out par. (2) which required the Commission to prepare and submit a financial statement by March 1 of each year beginning with 1998 and to obtain an audit by the Comptroller General of each such financial statement.

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–217 substituted "section 3111 of title 40" for "section 355 of the Revised Statutes (40 U.S.C. 255)".

1999—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 106–117, §604(3)(C), substituted "Chairman" for "chairman".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 106–117, §602, amended heading and text of subsec. (e) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Commission may receive State, local, or private amounts to carry out this chapter. The Commission shall deposit the amounts with the Treasurer of the United States. The Treasurer shall keep the amounts in separate accounts and shall disburse the amounts on vouchers approved by the chairman."

Subsec. (h)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 106–117, §604(3)(A), struck out ", United States Code" after "title 31".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–117, §604(3)(B), struck out ", United States Code" after "title 44".

§2104. Military cemeteries in foreign countries

When, as a result of combat operations, the Armed Forces establish military cemeteries in zones of operations outside the United States and the territories and possessions of the United States, the American Battle Monuments Commission and the Secretary of the Army, immediately on the cessation of hostilities, shall decide which of the cemeteries will become permanent cemeteries or, if they decide it is desirable, shall select new sites for the cemeteries at any other location. The Commission is solely responsible for the design and construction of the permanent cemeteries, and of all buildings, plantings, headstones, and other permanent improvements incidental to the cemeteries, except that—

(1) the Armed Forces are responsible for maintaining the permanent cemeteries until the Commission declares its readiness to assume the authorized administrative duties and powers;

(2) all construction undertaken by the Armed Forces in establishing and maintaining the cemetery prior to its transfer to the Commission shall be nonpermanent;

(3) burials and reburials by the Armed Forces shall be carried out in accordance with plans prepared by the Commission; and

(4) the Armed Forces have the right to re-enter a cemetery transferred to the Commission to exhume or re-inter a body if they decide it is necessary.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1271.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2104 36:122b. Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §2, as added July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §3(a), 70 Stat. 640.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "so established, if any" are omitted as unnecessary. In clause (1), the words "such time as" are omitted as unnecessary. The words "duties and powers" are substituted for "functions" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (2), the words "in nature" are omitted as unnecessary.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Restoration, Operation, and Maintenance of Clark Veterans Cemetery

Pub. L. 112–260, title I, §106, Jan. 10, 2013, 126 Stat. 2421, provided that:

"(a) In General.—After an agreement is made between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the United States Government, Clark Veterans Cemetery in the Republic of the Philippines shall be treated, for purposes of section 2104 of title 36, United States Code, as a cemetery for which it was decided under such section that the cemetery will become a permanent cemetery and the American Battle Monuments Commission shall restore, operate, and maintain Clark Veterans Cemetery (to the degree the Commission considers appropriate) under such section in cooperation with the Government of the Republic of the Philippines.

"(b) Limitation on Future Burials.—Burials at the cemetery described in subsection (a) after the date of the agreement described in such subsection shall be limited to eligible veterans, as determined by the Commission, whose burial does not incur any cost to the Commission.

"(c) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Commission—

"(1) $5,000,000 for site preparation, design, planning, construction, and associated administrative costs for the restoration of the cemetery described in subsection (a); and

"(2) amounts necessary to operate and maintain the cemetery described in subsection (a)."

§2105. Monuments built by the United States Government

(a) Memorials.—The American Battle Monuments Commission shall prepare plans and estimates to build suitable memorials commemorating the service of American Armed Forces, and shall build and maintain memorials in the United States and, as the Commission decides, at any place outside the United States where the Armed Forces have served since April 6, 1917.

(b) Architecture and Art.—The Commission shall build and maintain works of architecture and art in United States cemeteries located outside the United States and the territories and possessions of the United States that are permanent cemeteries. The Secretary of Veterans Affairs shall maintain works of architecture and art built by the Commission in the National Cemetery Administration, as described in section 2400(b) of title 38.

(c) Control and Supervision of Materials, Design, and Building.—(1) The Commission shall control the materials and design and prescribe regulations for, and supervise the building of, all memorial monuments and buildings in United States cemeteries located outside the United States and the territories and possessions of the United States.

(2) The Commission shall control the design and prescribe regulations for the building of all memorial monuments and buildings commemorating the service of American Armed Forces that are built in a foreign country or political division of the foreign country that authorizes the Commission to carry out those duties and powers.

(d) Approval by National Commission of Fine Arts.—A design for a memorial must be approved by the National Commission of Fine Arts before the Commission can accept it.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1271; Pub. L. 105–368, title IV, §403(d)(1), Nov. 11, 1998, 112 Stat. 3339.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2105(a) 36:123 (1st par. 1st sentence). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §3, 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §§2(b), (d), 3(b), 70 Stat. 640, 641.
2105(b) 36:123 (1st par. 2d, last sentences).  
2105(c) 36:123 (2d, last pars.).  
2105(d) 36:124. Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §4, 42 Stat. 1510; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §§2(b), (d), 3(c), 70 Stat. 640, 641.

In subsections (a) and (c)(2), the word "American" is omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a), the words "or shall hereafter serve" are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b), the words "Secretatry [sic] of Veterans Affairs" are substituted for "Department of Defense", and the words "the National Cemetery System, as described in section 2400(b) of title 38" are substituted for "cemeteries within the United States, its Territories and possessions", because of section 6 of the National Cemeteries Act of 1973 (Public Law 93-43, 38 U.S.C. 2404 note), which transferred jurisdiction over and responsibility for the national cemeteries (with certain exceptions) from the Secretary of the Army to the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "duties and powers" are substituted for "functions" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.


Editorial Notes

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–368 substituted "National Cemetery Administration" for "National Cemetery System".

§2106. War memorials not built by the United States Government

(a) Cooperation With Others.—The American Battle Monuments Commission may cooperate with citizens of the United States, States, municipalities, or associations desiring to build war memorials outside the continental limits of the United States in the way the Commission decides. An administrative agency of the United States Government may give assistance to build the memorial only if a plan for the memorial has been approved under this chapter.

(b) Control, Administration, and Maintenance of War Memorials.—(1) The Commission may assume responsibility for the control, administration, and maintenance of any war memorial built outside the United States by a citizen of the United States, a State, a political subdivision of a State, a governmental authority (except a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government), a foreign agency, or a private association to commemorate the services of any of the Armed Forces in hostilities occurring since April 6, 1917, if—

(A) the memorial is not built on the territory of the applicable former enemy; and

(B) the sponsors of the memorial consent to the Commission assuming those responsibilities and transfer to the Commission all their rights and interests in the memorial.


(2) If reasonable effort fails to locate the sponsors of a memorial, the Commission may assume responsibility for the memorial under this subsection by agreement with the appropriate foreign authorities. A decision of the Commission to assume responsibility for a war memorial under this subsection is final.

(3) Sponsors of a war memorial for which the Commission assumes responsibility under this subsection may transfer amounts accumulated to maintain and repair the memorial to the Commission for use in carrying out this chapter. Except as provided in subsection (c) of this section, the Commission shall deposit transferred amounts as provided in section 2103(e) of this title.

(c) Arrangements for Repair or Long-Term Maintenance of Memorials.—In assuming responsibility for a war memorial under subsection (b)(1) or (2) of this section, the Commission may arrange with the sponsors of the memorial to provide for repair or long-term maintenance of the memorial. An amount transferred to the Commission for the purpose of this subsection shall be deposited by the Commission in the fund established under subsection (d) of this section.

(d) Fund for Arrangements for Repair or Long-Term Maintenance of Memorials.—(1) There is a fund in the Treasury that is available to the Commission for expenses of repair and long-term maintenance of memorials for which the Commission has made arrangements under subsection (c) of this section. The fund consists of—

(A) amounts deposited into, and interest and proceeds credited to, the fund under paragraph (2) of this subsection; and

(B) obligations obtained under paragraph (3) of this subsection.


(2) The Commission shall deposit into the fund the amounts that are accepted under subsection (c) of this section. The Secretary of the Treasury shall credit to the fund the interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, obligations held in the fund.

(3) The Secretary shall invest any part of the fund that the Commission decides is not required to meet current expenses. Each investment shall be made in an interest-bearing obligation of the United States Government, or an obligation that has its principal and interest guaranteed by the Government, that the Commission decides has a maturity suitable for the fund.

(4) The Commission shall separately account for all amounts deposited in and expended from the fund for each war memorial for which an arrangement for repair or long-term maintenance is made under subsection (c) of this section.

(e) Demolition of War Memorial Built in a Foreign Country and Disposition of Site.—The Commission may take necessary action to demolish any war memorial built outside the United States by a citizen of the United States, a State, a political subdivision of a State, a governmental authority (except a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government), a foreign agency, or a private association and to dispose of the site of the memorial in a way the Commission decides is proper, if—

(1) the appropriate foreign authorities agree to the demolition; and

(2)(A) the sponsor of the memorial consents to the demolition; or

(B) the memorial has fallen into disrepair and a reasonable effort by the Commission has failed—

(i) to persuade the sponsor to maintain the memorial at a standard acceptable to the Commission; or

(ii) to locate the sponsor.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1272.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2106(a) 36:125(a). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §5(a), 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §2(b), (d), 70 Stat. 640; Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–244, 87 Stat. 1070.
2106(b)(1) 36:125(b)(1) (1st sentence), (d). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §5(b)–(d), as added Jan. 2, 1974, Pub. L. 93–244, 87 Stat. 1070; Oct. 9, 1996, Pub. L. 104–275, title VI, §602(a), 110 Stat. 3344.
2106(b)(2) 36:125(b)(1) (last sentence), (d).  
2106(b)(3) 36:125(b)(2)(A), (d).  
2106(c) 36:125(b)(2)(B), (d).  
2106(d) 36:125(b)(3).  
2106(e) 36:125(c), (d).  

In subsections (b), (c), and (e), the text of 36:125(d) is omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "in its discretion" and "before, on, or after the effective date of this subsection" are omitted as unnecessary. The words "governmental authority (except a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government)" are substituted for "non-Federal governmental agency" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (B), the word "title" is omitted as included in "rights".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Maintenance and Repair of Pacific Battle Monuments

Pub. L. 103–160, div. A, title III, §369, Nov. 30, 1993, 107 Stat. 1634, provided that:

"(a) Authority.—The Commandant of the Marine Corps may provide necessary minor maintenance and repairs to the Pacific battle monuments until such time as the Secretary of the American Battle Monuments Commission and the Commandant of the Marine Corps agree that the repair and maintenance will be performed by the American Battle Monuments Commission.

"(b) Funding.—Of the amounts authorized to be appropriated to the Marine Corps for operation and maintenance in a fiscal year, not more than $15,000 may be made available to repair and maintain Pacific battle monuments, except that of the amounts available to the Marine Corps for operation and maintenance in fiscal year 1994, $150,000 may be made available to repair and relocate a monument located on Iwo Jima commemorating the heroic efforts of United States military personnel during World War II."

§2107. National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific

With the consent of the Secretary of Veterans Affairs, the American Battle Monuments Commission may build works of architecture and art in the National Memorial Cemetery of the Pacific.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1274.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2107 36:125a. June 24, 1954, ch. 359, §101 (1st proviso in last par. under heading "American Battle Monuments Commission"), 68 Stat. 275.

The words "Secretary of Veterans Affairs" are substituted for "Secretary of the Army" because of section 6 of the National Cemeteries Act of 1973 (Public Law 93–43, 38 U.S.C. 2404 note), which transferred jurisdiction over and responsibility for the national cemeteries (with certain exceptions) from the Secretary of the Army to the Administrator of Veterans' Affairs. The words "as may be determined by the Commission" are omitted as unnecessary.

§2108. Pacific War Memorial and other historical and memorial sites on Corregidor

(a) General.—After an agreement is made between the Government of the Republic of the Philippines and the United States Government, the American Battle Monuments Commission shall restore, operate, and maintain the Pacific War Memorial and other historical and memorial sites on Corregidor.

(b) Personnel.—The Commission may employ necessary personnel to carry out this section.

(c) Use of Other Departments, Agencies, and Instrumentalities.—Departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government may assist the Commission, on a reimbursable basis, in carrying out this section.

(d) Authority To Solicit Contributions.—To carry out this section, the Commission may solicit and accept private contributions and shall deposit the contributions in the fund established by subsection (f) of this section.

(e) Use of Private Amounts.—The Commission shall carry out this section with private amounts except to the extent amounts are appropriated under subsection (g) of this section.

(f) Fund.—(1) There is a fund in the Treasury that is available to the Commission only to carry out this section. The fund consists of—

(A) amounts deposited into, and interest and proceeds credited to, the fund under paragraph (2) of this subsection; and

(B) obligations obtained under paragraph (3) of this subsection.


(2) The Chairman of the Commission shall deposit into the fund the amounts that are accepted under subsection (d) of this section. The Secretary of the Treasury shall credit to the fund the interest on, and the proceeds from the sale or redemption of, obligations held in the fund.

(3) The Secretary shall invest any part of the fund that the Chairman decides is not required to meet current expenses. Each investment shall be made in an interest-bearing obligation of the United States Government, or an obligation that has its principal and interest guaranteed by the Government, that the Chairman decides has a maturity suitable for the fund.

(4) Amounts in the fund exceeding the cost of carrying out this section, as decided by the Chairman, shall be deposited in the Treasury as miscellaneous receipts to reimburse the United States Government for amounts appropriated under subsection (g) of this section.

(g) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated—

(1) $6,000,000 for site preparation, design, planning, construction, and associated administrative costs for the restoration of the Memorial and other historical and memorial sites referred to in subsection (a) of this section; and

(2) amounts necessary to operate and maintain the Memorial and those other historical and memorial sites.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1274.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2108(a) 36:125b(a), (b). Nov. 18, 1988, Pub. L. 100–687, title XVI, §1602, 102 Stat. 4137.
2108(b) 36:125b(c).  
2108(c) 36:125b(d).  
2108(d) 36:125b(f).  
2108(e) 36:125b(e).  
2108(f) 36:125b(g).  
2108(g) 36:125b(h).  

§2109. Foreign Currency Fluctuations Account

(a) Establishment and Purpose.—There is an account in the Treasury known as the "Foreign Currency Fluctuations, American Battle Monuments Commission, Account". The Account shall be used to provide amounts, in addition to amounts appropriated for salaries and expenses of the Commission, to pay the cost of salaries and expenses that exceeds the amount appropriated for salaries and expenses because of fluctuations in currency exchange rates of foreign countries occurring after a budget request for the Commission is submitted to Congress. The Account may not be used for any other purpose.

(b) Increase in Permissible Obligations of Amounts.—A provision of law limiting the amounts the Commission may obligate in a fiscal year shall be increased to the extent necessary to reflect fluctuations in exchange rates from those used in preparing the budget submission.

(c) Transferred Amounts.—(1) Amounts in the Account may be transferred to amounts appropriated for salaries and expenses of the Commission. Transferred amounts shall be merged with, and are available for the same time period as, the appropriation to which they are applied.

(2) Amounts transferred from the Account may be transferred back—

(A) if the amounts are not needed to pay obligations incurred because of fluctuations in currency exchange rates of foreign countries in the appropriation to which the amounts were originally transferred; or

(B) because of subsequent favorable fluctuations in the rates or because other amounts are, or become, available to pay the obligations.


(3) Amounts transferred to an appropriation under this subsection may not be transferred back to the Account after the end of the 2d fiscal year after the fiscal year in which the appropriation was available for obligation.

(d) Recording of Obligations and Fluctuations in Exchange Rates.—An obligation of the Commission payable in the currency of a foreign country may be recorded as an obligation based on exchange rates used in preparing a budget submission. A change reflecting fluctuations in exchange rates may be recorded as a disbursement is made.

(e) Unobligated Balances.—The unobligated balance of an appropriation for salaries and expenses may be transferred to the Account not later than the end of the second fiscal year following the fiscal year for which the appropriation was made. The unobligated balance shall be merged with, and be available for the same period and purposes as, the Account.

(f) Annual Report.—The Commission each year shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on amounts transferred under this section.

(g) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated $3,000,000 to the Account.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1275.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2109(a) 36:138c(a) (1st–3d sentences). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §13, as added May 20, 1988, Pub. L. 100–322, title III, §345(a), 102 Stat. 540.
2109(b) 36:138c(b) (last sentence).  
2109(c)(1) 36:138c(a) (last sentence), (b) (1st sentence).  
2109(c)(2) 36:138c(d).  
2109(c)(3) 36:138c(e).  
2109(d) 36:138c(c).  
2109(e) 36:138c(f).  
2109(f) 36:138c(g).  
2109(g) 36:138c note. May 20, 1988, Pub. L. 100–322, title III, §345(b), 102 Stat. 540.

§2110. Claims against the Commission

A claim against the American Battle Monuments Commission that is similar to a claim described in section 2734 of title 10, that is based on damage to, or loss or destruction of, property, or personal injury or death of an individual, and that is caused by the negligent or wrongful act or omission of an officer or civilian employee of the Commission acting within the scope of the officer's or employee's office or employment, may be settled, decided, and paid as provided in section 2734 for the settlement of Army claims. However, the Secretary of the Army may appoint an officer or employee of the Commission to a claims commission or as an officer to approve settlements of claims made by the claims commission. All payments in settlement of a claim shall be made out of appropriations made to carry out this chapter.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1276.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2110 36:138b (4th par.). Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §12 (4th par.), 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §§2(c), (d), 4(c)(3), 70 Stat. 640, 642.

The words "section 2734 of title 10" and "section 2734" are substituted for "the first section of the Act entitled 'An Act to provide for the prompt settlement of claims for damages occasioned by Army, Navy, and Marine Corps forces in foreign countries', approved January 2, 1942 (55 Stat. 880, as amended; 31 U.S.C. 224d)" and "such Act", respectively, in section 12 (4th par.) of the Act of March 4, 1923 (ch. 283), as added by section 4(c)(3) of the Act of July 25, 1956 (ch. 721, 70 Stat. 642), because of section 49(b) of the Act of August 10, 1956 (ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 640). The 1942 law enacted former 31:224d, 224h, and 224i. Those sections subsequently were codified as 10:2734 and repealed by the Act of August 10, 1956 (ch. 1041, 70A Stat. 154, 672). The words "both real and personal" are omitted as unnecessary. The words "on or after July 25, 1956" are omitted as obsolete. The words "or commissions" are omitted because of 1:1. The words "settled, decided" are substituted for "considered, ascertained, adjusted, determined" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§2111. Presidential duties and powers

(a) Arrangements With Foreign Countries.—The President is requested to make the necessary arrangements with the proper authorities of the appropriate foreign countries to enable the American Battle Monuments Commission to carry out this chapter.

(b) Transfer of Administrative Duties and Powers and Supplies, Material, and Equipment to Commission.—(1) The President by executive order may transfer to the Commission—

(A) the same administrative duties and powers related to a permanent military cemetery located outside the United States and the territories and possessions of the United States that were transferred to the Commission by Executive Order 6614, February 26, 1934, and Executive Order 10057, May 14, 1949, as amended by Executive Order 10087, December 3, 1949; and

(B) supplies, material, and equipment located in the permanent military cemetery or in a military depot overseas that—

(i) the Department of Defense does not need; and

(ii) the Commission requests to carry out the duties and powers specified in clause (A) of this paragraph.


(2) After a transfer under this subsection, the Commission shall maintain the cemetery and all improvements in it.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1276.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2111(a) 36:127. Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §6, 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317.
2111(b) 36:132. Mar. 4, 1923, ch. 283, §10, 42 Stat. 1509; June 26, 1946, ch. 502, 60 Stat. 317; July 25, 1956, ch. 721, §§2(c), (d), 4(b), 70 Stat. 640, 641.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "duties and powers" are substituted for "functions" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.


Editorial Notes

References in Text

Executive Order 6614, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), is not classified to the Code.


Executive Documents

Executive Order 10057, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), is set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 9873. Administration of the Mexico City National Cemetery

Ex. Ord. No. 9873, July 16, 1947, 12 F.R. 4777, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 12 of the act of March 4, 1923, as amended by the act of June 26, 1946, 60 Stat. 318 [now subsec. (b) of this section], and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1. All functions of administration pertaining to the Mexico City National Cemetery, located in Mexico City, Calazada, Molchor, Ocampo 31, Mexico, DF, now vested in or exercised by the War Department, together with the field civilian personnel, records, supplies, equipment, and property of every kind pertaining thereto, are hereby transferred from the War Department to the American Battle Monuments Commission.

2. The unexpended balances of appropriations or allotments of appropriations which are now, or may become, available to the War Department for the performance of the functions transferred by this order shall be transferred to the American Battle Monuments Commission to such extent as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget may deem necessary.

Ex. Ord. No. 10057. Transfer of Certain Functions Pertaining to United States Military Cemeteries

Ex. Ord. No. 10057, May 14, 1949, 14 F.R. 2585, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 10087, Dec. 3, 1949, 14 F.R. 7287, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 12 of the act of March 4, 1923, 42 Stat. 1509, as amended by the act of June 26, 1946, 60 Stat. 318 [now subsec. (b) of this section], and as President of the United States, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1. All functions of administration pertaining to World War II United States Military Cemeteries located in or near Cambridge, England; Margraten, the Netherlands; Hamm, Luxembourg; Henri-Chapelle, Belgium; Neuvilleen-Condroz, Belgium; St. Laurent, France; St. James, France; Epinal, France; St. Avold, France; Draguignan, France; Nettuno (Anzio), Italy; Florence, Italy; Tunis (Carthage), Tunisia; and Ft. McKinley, Philippine Islands, now vested in or exercised by the Secretary of the Army pursuant to the act of May 16, 1946, c. 261, 60 Stat. 182, as amended by the act of August 5, 1947, c. 497, 61 Stat. 779, together with (a) such supplies, equipment, temporary structures, utilities and facilities pertaining thereto as are located therein or are in depots or other places overseas under the jurisdiction of the American Graves Registration Service and are determined by the American Battle Monuments Commission to be required for the discharge of its responsibilities under this order, and (b) the cemetery records currently maintained for the operation of such cemeteries, including records pertinent to the acquisition of real estate upon which the cemeteries and their appurtenances are situated, are hereby transferred to the American Battle Monuments Commission; such transfer to become effective as to any particular cemetery or group of cemeteries upon the completion of the operational mission of the Department of the Army with respect to such cemetery or group of cemeteries, but in no instance later than December 31, 1951, or at such earlier date as may be determined by the President or the Congress pursuant to the said act of May 16, 1946, as amended by the act of August 5, 1947.

2. The Department of the Army shall have the right to re-enter any of such cemeteries subsequent to the effective date of the transfer of functions with respect thereto for the purpose of making exhumations or reinterments should any such action become necessary.

3. There shall be transferred to the American Battle Monuments Commission so much of the unexpended balances of appropriations now, or which may become, available to the Department of the Army for the performance of the functions transferred by the provisions of this order as the Director of the Bureau of the Budget may deem necessary for use prior to July 1, 1950, in connection with such functions.

Ex. Ord. No. 12115. Permanent American Cemetery in Republic of Panama

Ex. Ord. No. 12115, Jan. 19, 1979, 44 F.R. 4645, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including Section 10 of the Act of March 4, 1923 (42 Stat. 1509), as amended (36 U.S.C. 132) [now subsec. (b) of this section], and to implement the intent of the United States Senate (124 Cong. Rec. S3857 of March 16, 1978) as set forth by Reservations (1) and (3) to the Resolution of Ratification of the Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal, it is hereby ordered as follows:

1–101. The Secretary of State shall take all appropriate steps to complete, prior to the date of entry into force of the Treaty Concerning the Permanent Neutrality and Operation of the Panama Canal, hereinafter referred to as the Neutrality Treaty, the negotiations which have begun with the Republic of Panama for an agreement under which the United States of America would, upon the date of entry into force of such agreement and thereafter, administer as a permanent American cemetery such part of Corozal Cemetery as encompasses the remains of citizens of the United States of America.

1–102. Subject to the conclusion of the agreement referred to in Section 1–101 of this Order, the American Battle Monuments Commission shall administer that part of Corozal Cemetery which encompasses the remains of citizens of the United States of America, in accordance with the terms of the agreement with the Republic of Panama.

1–103. The Governor of the Canal Zone shall, to the extent funds are available, disinter from Mount Hope Cemetery, before entry into force of the Neutrality Treaty, and reinter in Corozal Cemetery the remains of United States citizens, and the remains of members of their immediate family that are buried with them. The Governor shall not remove from Mount Hope Cemetery the remains of any such person whose next of kin timely requests in writing that such remains not be disinterred. The Governor shall transport to the United States for reinterment the remains of any such person whose next of kin timely requests in writing that such remains be transported to the United States for reinterment.

1–104. The Secretary of Defense shall, to the extent funds are available, disinter from Corozal Cemetery and transport to the United States for reinterment the remains of United States citizens, and the remains of members of their immediate family buried with them, whose next of kin requests in writing by April 1, 1982, that such remains be transported to the United States for reinterment.

1–105. Subject to the availability of funds, all the costs incurred in the disinterment, reinterment in Corozal Cemetery, and transportation of remains required by this Order, including the costs of preparation, cremation if requested, and a casket or urn, shall be borne by the United States of America. The costs of reinterment in the United States, including any costs for funeral home services, vaults, plots, or crypts, will be the responsibility of the next of kin making the request, except to the extent otherwise provided by law, including any unused specific entitlements available pursuant to statute.

1–106. (a) The Governor of the Canal Zone shall identify, to the extent feasible, the closest surviving next of kin of each deceased United States citizen buried in the Mount Hope and Corozal Cemeteries, and of such next of kin of each member of the immediate family that is buried with such United States citizen.

(b) The Governor shall provide notice to the next of kin of such deceased buried in Mount Hope Cemetery that the Government plans to remove the deceased to Corozal Cemetery unless the next of kin requests in writing, not later than three months after the first issuance of such notification, either that the remains not be removed from Mount Hope Cemetery, or that the remains be moved to, and reinterred in, the United States in a cemetery or other burial site designated by the next of kin.

(c) The Governor shall also provide notice to the next of kin of such deceased who are buried in Corozal Cemetery that the Government will disinter and transport such deceased to the United States for reinterment in a cemetery or other burial site designated by the next of kin, if the next of kin so requests in writing not later than April 1, 1982.

(d) The Governor shall publish the notices provided for in subsections (b) and (c) of this Section in appropriate newspapers, magazines and other periodicals, and utilize such other means of communicating with the next of kin that he finds to be practical and effective.

1–107. The Governor of the Canal Zone shall, before the entry into force of the Neutrality Treaty, fully advise the next of kin of all available options, and their implications, in those cases where a request has been made that remains not be removed from Mount Hope Cemetery.

1–108. The Secretary of the Army shall supervise the planned removal of the remains from Mount Hope Cemetery to Corozal Cemetery and shall ensure compliance with the wishes of any next of kin who, within the time specified in clause B(i) to the Third Reservation to the Neutrality Treaty, objects to such removal.

1–109. As used in this Order:

(a) "Next of kin" means the person whom the Governor of the Canal Zone determines to be the nearest living relative, by consanguinity or affinity, of a person buried at Mount Hope Cemetery or Corozal Cemetery.

(b) "Members of their immediate family" means the spouse, children, mother or father of the deceased United States citizen.

Jimmy Carter.      

§2112. Care and maintenance of Surrender Tree site

The American Battle Monuments Commission is responsible for the care and maintenance of the Surrender Tree site in Santiago, Cuba.

(Pub. L. 105–225, Aug. 12, 1998, 112 Stat. 1276.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
2112 36:123 note. Aug. 13, 1957, Pub. L. 85–125, 71 Stat. 344.

The last sentence of the Act of August 13, 1957 (Public Law 85–125, 71 Stat. 344), is omitted as obsolete.

§2113. World War II memorial in the District of Columbia

(a) Solicitation and Acceptance of Contributions.—(1) Consistent with its authority under section 2103(e) of this title, the American Battle Monuments Commission shall solicit and accept contributions for the World War II memorial.

(2) In this section, the term "World War II memorial" means the memorial authorized by Public Law 103–32 (40 U.S.C. 8903 note) to be established by the Commission on Federal land in the District of Columbia or its environs to honor members of the Armed Forces who served in World War II and to commemorate the participation of the United States in that war.

(b) Creation of Memorial Fund.—(1) There is hereby created in the Treasury a fund for the World War II memorial, which shall consist of the following:

(A) Amounts deposited, and interest and proceeds credited, under paragraph (2).

(B) Obligations obtained under paragraph (3).

(C) The amount of surcharges paid to the Commission for the World War II memorial under the World War II 50th Anniversary Commemorative Coins Act (31 U.S.C. 5112 note).

(D) Amounts borrowed using the authority provided under subsection (d).

(E) Any funds received by the Commission under section 2114 of this title in exchange for use of, or the right to use, any mark, copyright or patent.


(2) The Chairman of the Commission shall deposit in the fund the amounts accepted as contributions under subsection (a). The Secretary of the Treasury shall credit to the fund the interest on, and the proceeds from sale or redemption of, obligations held in the fund.

(3) The Secretary of the Treasury shall invest any portion of the fund that, as determined by the Chairman, is not required to meet current expenses. Each investment shall be made in an interest-bearing obligation of the United States or an obligation guaranteed as to principal and interest by the United States that, as determined by the Chairman, has a maturity suitable for the fund.

(c) Use of Fund.—The fund shall be available to the Commission—

(1) for the expenses of establishing the World War II memorial, including the maintenance and preservation amount provided for in section 8906(b) of title 40;

(2) for such other expenses, other than routine maintenance, with respect to the World War II memorial as the Commission considers warranted; and

(3) to secure, obtain, register, enforce, protect, and license any mark, copyright, or patent that is owned by, assigned to, or licensed to the Commission under section 2114 of this title to aid or facilitate the construction of the World War II memorial.


(d) Special Borrowing Authority.—(1) To assure that groundbreaking, construction, and dedication of the World War II memorial are carried out on a timely basis, the Commission may borrow money from the Treasury of the United States in such amounts as the Commission considers necessary, but not to exceed a total of $65,000,000. Borrowed amounts shall bear interest at a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States of comparable maturities during the month preceding the month in which the obligations of the Commission are issued. The interest payments on such obligations may be deferred with the approval of the Secretary, but any interest payment so deferred shall also bear interest.

(2) The borrowing of money by the Commission under paragraph (1) shall be subject to such maturities, terms, and conditions as may be agreed upon by the Commission and the Secretary, except that the maturities may not exceed 20 years and such borrowings may be redeemable at the option of the Commission before maturity.

(3) The obligations of the Commission shall be issued in amounts and at prices approved by the Secretary. The authority of the Commission to issue obligations under this subsection shall remain available without fiscal year limitation. The Secretary of the Treasury shall purchase any obligations of the Commission to be issued under this subsection, and for such purpose the Secretary of the Treasury may use as a public debt transaction of the United States the proceeds from the sale of any securities issued under chapter 31 of title 31. The purposes for which securities may be issued under such chapter are extended to include any purchase of the Commission's obligations under this subsection.

(4) Repayment of the interest and principal on any funds borrowed by the Commission under paragraph (1) shall be made from amounts in the fund. The Commission may not use for such purpose any funds appropriated for any other activities of the Commission.

(e) Treatment of Borrowing Authority.—In determining whether the Commission has sufficient funds to complete construction of the World War II memorial, as required by section 8906 of title 40, the Secretary of the Interior shall consider the funds that the Commission may borrow from the Treasury under subsection (d) as funds available to complete construction of the memorial, whether or not the Commission has actually exercised the authority to borrow such funds.

(f) Voluntary Services.—(1) Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31, the Commission may accept from any person voluntary services to be provided in furtherance of the fund-raising activities of the Commission relating to the World War II memorial.

(2) A person providing voluntary services under this subsection shall be considered to be a Federal employee for purposes of chapter 81 of title 5, relating to compensation for work-related injuries, and chapter 171 of title 28, relating to tort claims. A volunteer who is not otherwise employed by the United States shall not be considered to be a Federal employee for any other purpose by reason of the provision of such voluntary service, except that any volunteer given responsibility for the handling of funds or the carrying out of a Federal function is subject to the conflict of interest laws contained in chapter 11 of title 18 and the administrative standards of conduct contained in part 2635 of title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations.

(3) The Commission may provide for reimbursement of incidental expenses that are incurred by a person providing voluntary services under this subsection. The Commission shall determine those expenses that are eligible for reimbursement under this paragraph.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to require any Federal employee to work without compensation or to allow the use of volunteer services to displace or replace any Federal employee.

(g) Treatment of Certain Contracts.—A contract entered into by the Commission for the design or construction of the World War II memorial is not a funding agreement as that term is defined in section 201 of title 35.

(h) Extension of Authority To Establish Memorial.—Notwithstanding section 8903(e) of title 40, the authority for the construction of the World War II memorial provided by Public Law 103–32 (40 U.S.C. 8903 note) expires on December 31, 2005.

(Added Pub. L. 106–117, title VI, §601(a)(1), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1576; amended Pub. L. 108–178, §4(h), Dec. 15, 2003, 117 Stat. 2641.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The World War II 50th Anniversary Commemorative Coins Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(C) is Pub. L. 102–414, Oct. 14, 1992, 106 Stat. 2106, which is classified as a note under section 5112 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 108–178, §4(h)(1), substituted "(40 U.S.C. 8903 note)" for "(40 U.S.C. 1003 note)".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 108–178, §4(h)(2), substituted "section 8906(b) of title 40" for "section 8(b) of the Commemorative Works Act (40 U.S.C. 1008(b))".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–178, §4(h)(3), substituted "section 8906 of title 40" for "section 8 of the Commemorative Works Act (40 U.S.C. 1008)".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 108–178, §4(h)(4), substituted "section 8903(e) of title 40" for "section 10 of the Commemorative Works Act (40 U.S.C. 1010)" and "(40 U.S.C. 8903 note)" for "(40 U.S.C. 1003 note)".


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–178 effective Aug. 21, 2002, see section 5 of Pub. L. 108–178, set out as a note under section 5334 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Effect of Repeal of Current Memorial Fund

Pub. L. 106–117, title VI, §601(c), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1578, provided that: "Upon the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1999], the Secretary of the Treasury shall transfer amounts in the fund created by section 4(a) of Public Law 103–32 (40 U.S.C. 1003 note) [now 40 U.S.C. 8903 note] to the fund created by section 2113(b) of title 36, United States Code, as added by subsection (a)."

§2114. Intellectual property and related items

(a) Authority To Use and Register Intellectual Property.—The American Battle Monuments Commission may—

(1) adopt, use, register, and license trademarks, service marks, and other marks;

(2) obtain, use, register, and license the use of copyrights consistent with section 105 of title 17;

(3) obtain, use, and license patents; and

(4) accept gifts of marks, copyrights, patents, and licenses for use by the Commission.


(b) Authority To Grant Licenses.—The Commission may grant exclusive and nonexclusive licenses in connection with any mark, copyright, patent, or license for the use of such mark, copyright or patent, except to the extent the grant of such license by the Commission would be contrary to any contract or license by which the use of the mark, copyright, or patent was obtained.

(c) Enforcement Authority.—The Commission may enforce any mark, copyright, or patent by an action in the district courts under any law providing for the protection of such marks, copyrights, or patents.

(d) Legal Representation.—The Attorney General shall furnish the Commission with such legal representation as the Commission may require under subsection (c). The Secretary of Defense shall provide representation for the Commission in administrative proceedings before the Patent and Trademark Office and Copyright Office.

(e) Irrevocability of Transfers of Copyrights to Commission.—Section 203 of title 17 shall not apply to any copyright transferred in any manner to the Commission.

(Added Pub. L. 106–117, title VI, §603(a), Nov. 30, 1999, 113 Stat. 1579.)

§2115. Acquisition, operation, and maintenance of Lafayette Escadrille Memorial

The American Battle Monuments Commission may enter into an agreement with the Lafayette Escadrille Memorial Foundation to acquire, operate, and maintain the Lafayette Escadrille Memorial in Marnes-la-Coquette, France. Under such an agreement, the Commission shall make necessary arrangements to ensure the ongoing maintenance of the memorial, including the cemetery at the memorial that contains the remains of 49 aviators of the United States who died during World War I.

(Added Pub. L. 114–227, §1(a), Sept. 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 934.)