[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 103, SUBCHAPTER III: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
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42 USC CHAPTER 103, SUBCHAPTER III: MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 103—COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY

SUBCHAPTER III—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

§9651. Reports and studies

(a) Implementation experiences; identification and disposal of waste

(1) The President shall submit to the Congress, within four years after December 11, 1980, a comprehensive report on experience with the implementation of this chapter including, but not limited to—

(A) the extent to which the chapter and Fund are effective in enabling Government to respond to and mitigate the effects of releases of hazardous substances;

(B) a summary of past receipts and disbursements from the Fund;

(C) a projection of any future funding needs remaining after the expiration of authority to collect taxes, and of the threat to public health, welfare, and the environment posed by the projected releases which create any such needs;

(D) the record and experience of the Fund in recovering Fund disbursements from liable parties;

(E) the record of State participation in the system of response, liability, and compensation established by this chapter;

(F) the impact of the taxes imposed by subchapter II 1 of this chapter on the Nation's balance of trade with other countries;

(G) an assessment of the feasibility and desirability of a schedule of taxes which would take into account one or more of the following: the likelihood of a release of a hazardous substance, the degree of hazard and risk of harm to public health, welfare, and the environment resulting from any such release, incentives to proper handling, recycling, incineration, and neutralization of hazardous wastes, and disincentives to improper or illegal handling or disposal of hazardous materials, administrative and reporting burdens on Government and industry, and the extent to which the tax burden falls on the substances and parties which create the problems addressed by this chapter. In preparing the report, the President shall consult with appropriate Federal, State, and local agencies, affected industries and claimants, and such other interested parties as he may find useful. Based upon the analyses and consultation required by this subsection, the President shall also include in the report any recommendations for legislative changes he may deem necessary for the better effectuation of the purposes of this chapter, including but not limited to recommendations concerning authorization levels, taxes, State participation, liability and liability limits, and financial responsibility provisions for the Response Trust Fund and the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund;

(H) an exemption from or an increase in the substances or the amount of taxes imposed by section 4661 of title 26 for copper, lead, and zinc oxide, and for feedstocks when used in the manufacture and production of fertilizers, based upon the expenditure experience of the Response Trust Fund;

(I) the economic impact of taxing coal-derived substances and recycled metals.


(2) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (in consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury) shall submit to the Congress (i) within four years after December 11, 1980, a report identifying additional wastes designated by rule as hazardous after the effective date of this chapter and pursuant to section 3001 of the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6921] and recommendations on appropriate tax rates for such wastes for the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund. The report shall, in addition, recommend a tax rate, considering the quantity and potential danger to human health and the environment posed by the disposal of any wastes which the Administrator, pursuant to subsection 3001(b)(2)(B) and subsection 3001(b)(3)(A) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1980 [42 U.S.C. 6921(b)(2)(B) and 6921(b)(3)(A)], has determined should be subject to regulation under subtitle C of such Act [42 U.S.C. 6921 et seq.], (ii) within three years after December 11, 1980, a report on the necessity for and the adequacy of the revenue raised, in relation to estimated future requirements, of the Post-closure Liability Trust Fund.

(b) Private insurance protection

The President shall conduct a study to determine (1) whether adequate private insurance protection is available on reasonable terms and conditions to the owners and operators of vessels and facilities subject to liability under section 9607 of this title, and (2) whether the market for such insurance is sufficiently competitive to assure purchasers of features such as a reasonable range of deductibles, coinsurance provisions, and exclusions. The President shall submit the results of his study, together with his recommendations, within two years of December 11, 1980, and shall submit an interim report on his study within one year of December 11, 1980.

(c) Regulations respecting assessment of damages to natural resources

(1) The President, acting through Federal officials designated by the National Contingency Plan published under section 9605 of this title, shall study and, not later than two years after December 11, 1980, shall promulgate regulations for the assessment of damages for injury to, destruction of, or loss of natural resources resulting from a release of oil or a hazardous substance for the purposes of this chapter and section 1321(f)(4) and (5) of title 33. Notwithstanding the failure of the President to promulgate the regulations required under this subsection on the required date, the President shall promulgate such regulations not later than 6 months after October 17, 1986.

(2) Such regulations shall specify (A) standard procedures for simplified assessments requiring minimal field observation, including establishing measures of damages based on units of discharge or release or units of affected area, and (B) alternative protocols for conducting assessments in individual cases to determine the type and extent of short- and long-term injury, destruction, or loss. Such regulations shall identify the best available procedures to determine such damages, including both direct and indirect injury, destruction, or loss and shall take into consideration factors including, but not limited to, replacement value, use value, and ability of the ecosystem or resource to recover.

(3) Such regulations shall be reviewed and revised as appropriate every two years.

(d) Issues, alternatives, and policy considerations involving selection of locations for waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities

The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall, in consultation with other Federal agencies and appropriate representatives of State and local governments and nongovernmental agencies, conduct a study and report to the Congress within two years of December 11, 1980, on the issues, alternatives, and policy considerations involved in the selection of locations for hazardous waste treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This study shall include—

(A) an assessment of current and projected treatment, storage, and disposal capacity needs and shortfalls for hazardous waste by management category on a State-by-State basis;

(B) an evaluation of the appropriateness of a regional approach to siting and designing hazardous waste management facilities and the identification of hazardous waste management regions, interstate or intrastate, or both, with similar hazardous waste management needs;

(C) solicitation and analysis of proposals for the construction and operation of hazardous waste management facilities by nongovernmental entities, except that no proposal solicited under terms of this subsection shall be analyzed if it involves cost to the United States Government or fails to comply with the requirements of subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6921 et seq.] and other applicable provisions of law;

(D) recommendations on the appropriate balance between public and private sector involvement in the siting, design, and operation of new hazardous waste management facilities;

(E) documentation of the major reasons for public opposition to new hazardous waste management facilities; and

(F) an evaluation of the various options for overcoming obstacles to siting new facilities, including needed legislation for implementing the most suitable option or options.

(e) Adequacy of existing common law and statutory remedies

(1) In order to determine the adequacy of existing common law and statutory remedies in providing legal redress for harm to man and the environment caused by the release of hazardous substances into the environment, there shall be submitted to the Congress a study within twelve months of December 11, 1980.

(2) This study shall be conducted with the assistance of the American Bar Association, the American Law Institute, the Association of American Trial Lawyers, and the National Association of State Attorneys General with the President of each entity selecting three members from each organization to conduct the study. The study chairman and one reporter shall be elected from among the twelve members of the study group.

(3) As part of their review of the adequacy of existing common law and statutory remedies, the study group shall evaluate the following:

(A) the nature, adequacy, and availability of existing remedies under present law in compensating for harm to man from the release of hazardous substances;

(B) the nature of barriers to recovery (particularly with respect to burdens of going forward and of proof and relevancy) and the role such barriers play in the legal system;

(C) the scope of the evidentiary burdens placed on the plaintiff in proving harm from the release of hazardous substances, particularly in light of the scientific uncertainty over causation with respect to—

(i) carcinogens, mutagens, and teratogens, and

(ii) the human health effects of exposure to low doses of hazardous substances over long periods of time;


(D) the nature and adequacy of existing remedies under present law in providing compensation for damages to natural resources from the release of hazardous substances;

(E) the scope of liability under existing law and the consequences, particularly with respect to obtaining insurance, of any changes in such liability;

(F) barriers to recovery posed by existing statutes of limitations.


(4) The report shall be submitted to the Congress with appropriate recommendations. Such recommendations shall explicitly address—

(A) the need for revisions in existing statutory or common law, and

(B) whether such revisions should take the form of Federal statutes or the development of a model code which is recommended for adoption by the States.


(5) The Fund shall pay administrative expenses incurred for the study. No expenses shall be available to pay compensation, except expenses on a per diem basis for the one reporter, but in no case shall the total expenses of the study exceed $300,000.

(f) Modification of national contingency plan

The President, acting through the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of Transportation, the Administrator of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration, and the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health shall study and, not later than two years after December 11, 1980, shall modify the national contingency plan to provide for the protection of the health and safety of employees involved in response actions.

(g) Insurability study

(1) Study by Comptroller General

The Comptroller General of the United States, in consultation with the persons described in paragraph (2), shall undertake a study to determine the insurability, and effects on the standard of care, of the liability of each of the following:

(A) Persons who generate hazardous substances: liability for costs and damages under this chapter.

(B) Persons who own or operate facilities: liability for costs and damages under this chapter.

(C) Persons liable for injury to persons or property caused by the release of hazardous substances into the environment.

(2) Consultation

In conducting the study under this subsection, the Comptroller General shall consult with the following:

(A) Representatives of the Administrator.

(B) Representatives of persons described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of the preceding paragraph.

(C) Representatives (i) of groups or organizations comprised generally of persons adversely affected by releases or threatened releases of hazardous substances and (ii) of groups organized for protecting the interests of consumers.

(D) Representatives of property and casualty insurers.

(E) Representatives of reinsurers.

(F) Persons responsible for the regulation of insurance at the State level.

(3) Items evaluated

The study under this section shall include, among other matters, an evaluation of the following:

(A) Current economic conditions in, and the future outlook for, the commercial market for insurance and reinsurance.

(B) Current trends in statutory and common law remedies.

(C) The impact of possible changes in traditional standards of liability, proof, evidence, and damages on existing statutory and common law remedies.

(D) The effect of the standard of liability and extent of the persons upon whom it is imposed under this chapter on the protection of human health and the environment and on the availability, underwriting, and pricing of insurance coverage.

(E) Current trends, if any, in the judicial interpretation and construction of applicable insurance contracts, together with the degree to which amendments in the language of such contracts and the description of the risks assumed, could affect such trends.

(F) The frequency and severity of a representative sample of claims closed during the calendar year immediately preceding October 17, 1986.

(G) Impediments to the acquisition of insurance or other means of obtaining liability coverage other than those referred to in the preceding subparagraphs.

(H) The effects of the standards of liability and financial responsibility requirements imposed pursuant to this chapter on the cost of, and incentives for, developing and demonstrating alternative and innovative treatment technologies, as well as waste generation minimization.

(4) Submission

The Comptroller General shall submit a report on the results of the study to Congress with appropriate recommendations within 12 months after October 17, 1986.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §301, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2805; Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §107(d)(3), title II, §§208, 212, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1630, 1707, 1726; Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (E), (G), (c)(1), and (g), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, as amended, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which enacted this chapter, section 6911a of this title, and sections 4611, 4612, 4661, 4662, 4681, and 4682 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amended section 6911 of this title, section 1364 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and section 11901 of Title 49, Transportation, and enacted provisions set out as notes under section 6911 of this title and sections 1 and 4611 of Title 26. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

Subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(F), was in the original "title II of this Act", meaning title II of Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2796, known as the Hazardous Substance Response Revenue Act of 1980, which enacted subchapter II of this chapter and sections 4611, 4612, 4661, 4662, 4681, and 4682 of Title 26. Sections 221 to 223 and 232 of Pub. L. 96–510, which were classified to sections 9631 to 9633 and 9641 of this title, comprising subchapter II of this chapter, were repealed by Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §§514(b), 517(c)(1), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1767, 1774. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 26 and Tables.

For effective date of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), see section 9652 of this title.

Subsection 3001(b)(2)(B) and subsection 3001(b)(3)(A) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), probably mean section 3001(b)(2)(B) and (3)(A) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act, as amended by the Solid Waste Disposal Act Amendments of 1980, which enacted section 6921(b)(2)(B) and (3)(A) of this title.

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2) and (d)(C), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795. Subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§6921 et seq.) of chapter 82 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Subsec. (h) of this section, which required the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to submit an annual report to Congress of such Agency on the progress achieved in implementing this chapter during the preceding fiscal year, required the Inspector General of the Agency to review the report for reasonableness and accuracy and submit to Congress, as a part of that report, a report on the results of the review, and required the appropriate authorizing committees of Congress, after receiving those reports, to conduct oversight hearings to ensure that this chapter is being implemented according to the purposes of this chapter and congressional intent in enacting this chapter, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, the 5th item on page 164 of House Document No. 103–7.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 99–499, §107(d)(3), inserted at end "Notwithstanding the failure of the President to promulgate the regulations required under this subsection on the required date, the President shall promulgate such regulations not later than 6 months after October 17, 1986."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 99–499, §208, added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 99–499, §212, added subsec. (h).

1 See References in Text note below.

§9652. Effective dates; savings provisions

(a) Unless otherwise provided, all provisions of this chapter shall be effective on December 11, 1980.

(b) Any regulation issued pursuant to any provisions of section 1321 of title 33 which is repealed or superseded by this chapter and which is in effect on the date immediately preceding the effective date of this chapter shall be deemed to be a regulation issued pursuant to the authority of this chapter and shall remain in full force and effect unless or until superseded by new regulations issued thereunder.

(c) Any regulation—

(1) respecting financial responsibility,

(2) issued pursuant to any provision of law repealed or superseded by this chapter, and

(3) in effect on the date immediately preceding the effective date of this chapter shall be deemed to be a regulation issued pursuant to the authority of this chapter and shall remain in full force and effect unless or until superseded by new regulations issued thereunder.


(d) Nothing in this chapter shall affect or modify in any way the obligations or liabilities of any person under other Federal or State law, including common law, with respect to releases of hazardous substances or other pollutants or contaminants. The provisions of this chapter shall not be considered, interpreted, or construed in any way as reflecting a determination, in part or whole, of policy regarding the inapplicability of strict liability, or strict liability doctrines, to activities relating to hazardous substances, pollutants, or contaminants or other such activities.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §302, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2808.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (b), (c)(2), (3), and (d), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

§9653. Repealed. Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §511(b), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1761

Section, Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §303, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2808, provided for termination of authority to collect taxes under this chapter.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Jan. 1, 1987, see section 511(c) of Pub. L. 99–499, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 4611 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

§9654. Applicability of Federal water pollution control funding, etc., provisions

(a) Omitted

(b) One-half of the unobligated balance remaining before December 11, 1980, under subsection (k) 1 of section 1321 of title 33 and all sums appropriated under section 1364(b) 1 of title 33 shall be transferred to the Fund established under subchapter II 1 of this chapter.

(c) In any case in which any provision of section 1321 of title 33 is determined to be in conflict with any provisions of this chapter, the provisions of this chapter shall apply.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §304, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2809.)

References in Text

Subsection (k) of section 1321 of title 33, referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–380, title II, §2002(b)(2), Aug. 18, 1990, 104 Stat. 507.

Section 1364(b) of title 33, referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §304(a), Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2809.

Subchapter II of this chapter, referred to in subsec. (b), was in the original "title II of this Act", meaning title II of Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2796, known as the Hazardous Substance Response Revenue Act of 1980, which enacted subchapter II of this chapter and sections 4611, 4612, 4661, 4662, 4681, and 4682 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code. Sections 221 to 223 and 232 of Pub. L. 96–510, which were classified to sections 9631 to 9633 and 9641 of this title, comprising subchapter II of this chapter, were repealed by Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §§514(b), 517(c)(1), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1767, 1774. For complete classification of title II to the Code, see Short Title of 1980 Amendment note set out under section 1 of Title 26 and Tables.

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Subsec. (a) of this section repealed section 1364(b) of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters.

1 See References in Text note below.

§9655. Legislative veto of rule or regulation

(a) Transmission to Congress upon promulgation or repromulgation of rule or regulation; disapproval procedures

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, simultaneously with promulgation or repromulgation of any rule or regulation under authority of subchapter I of this chapter, the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality promulgating such rule or regulation shall transmit a copy thereof to the Secretary of the Senate and the Clerk of the House of Representatives. Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, the rule or regulation shall not become effective, if—

(1) within ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of promulgation, both Houses of Congress adopt a concurrent resolution, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That Congress disapproves the rule or regulation promulgated by the        dealing with the matter of        , which rule or regulation was transmitted to Congress on            .", the blank spaces therein being appropriately filled; or

(2) within sixty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of promulgation, one House of Congress adopts such a concurrent resolution and transmits such resolution to the other House, and such resolution is not disapproved by such other House within thirty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after such transmittal.

(b) Approval; effective dates

If, at the end of sixty calendar days of continuous session of Congress after the date of promulgation of a rule or regulation, no committee of either House of Congress has reported or been discharged from further consideration of a concurrent resolution disapproving the rule or regulation and neither House has adopted such a resolution, the rule or regulation may go into effect immediately. If, within such sixty calendar days, such a committee has reported or been discharged from further consideration of such a resolution, or either House has adopted such a resolution, the rule or regulation may go into effect not sooner than ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress after such rule is prescribed unless disapproved as provided in subsection (a) of this section.

(c) Sessions of Congress as applicable

For purposes of subsections (a) and (b) of this section—

(1) continuity of session is broken only by an adjournment of Congress sine die; and

(2) the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days to a day certain are excluded in the computation of thirty, sixty, and ninety calendar days of continuous session of Congress.

(d) Congressional inaction on, or rejection of, resolution of disapproval

Congressional inaction on, or rejection of, a resolution of disapproval shall not be deemed an expression of approval of such rule or regulation.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §305, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2809.)

§9656. Transportation of hazardous substances; listing as hazardous material; liability for release

(a) Each hazardous substance which is listed or designated as provided in section 9601(14) of this title shall, within 30 days after October 17, 1986, or at the time of such listing or designation, whichever is later, be listed and regulated as a hazardous material under chapter 51 of title 49.

(b) A common or contract carrier shall be liable under other law in lieu of section 9607 of this title for damages or remedial action resulting from the release of a hazardous substance during the course of transportation which commenced prior to the effective date of the listing and regulation of such substance as a hazardous material under chapter 51 of title 49, or for substances listed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, prior to the effective date of such listing: Provided, however, That this subsection shall not apply where such a carrier can demonstrate that he did not have actual knowledge of the identity or nature of the substance released.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §306(a), (b), Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2810; Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §202, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1695.)

Codification

In subsecs. (a) and (b), "chapter 51 of title 49" substituted for "the Hazardous Materials Transportation Act [49 App. U.S.C. 1801 et seq.]" on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–499, §202(a), substituted "within 30 days after October 17, 1986" for "within ninety days after December 11, 1980" and inserted "and regulated" before "as a hazardous material".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–499, §202(b), inserted "and regulation" after "prior to the effective date of the listing".

§9657. Separability; contribution

If any provision of this chapter, or the application of any provision of this chapter to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances and the remainder of this chapter shall not be affected thereby. If an administrative settlement under section 9622 of this title has the effect of limiting any person's right to obtain contribution from any party to such settlement, and if the effect of such limitation would constitute a taking without just compensation in violation of the fifth amendment of the Constitution of the United States, such person shall not be entitled, under other laws of the United States, to recover compensation from the United States for such taking, but in any such case, such limitation on the right to obtain contribution shall be treated as having no force and effect.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §308, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2811; Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §122(b), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1688.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, as amended, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which enacted this chapter, section 6911a of this title, and sections 4611, 4612, 4661, 4662, 4681, and 4682 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, amended section 6911 of this title, section 1364 of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and section 11901 of Title 49, Transportation, and enacted provisions set out as notes under section 6911 of this title and sections 1 and 4611 of Title 26. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1986Pub. L. 99–499 inserted sentence at end relating to administrative settlements under section 9622 of this title which have effect of limiting any person's right to obtain contribution from any party to such settlement.

§9658. Actions under State law for damages from exposure to hazardous substances

(a) State statutes of limitations for hazardous substance cases

(1) Exception to State statutes

In the case of any action brought under State law for personal injury, or property damages, which are caused or contributed to by exposure to any hazardous substance, or pollutant or contaminant, released into the environment from a facility, if the applicable limitations period for such action (as specified in the State statute of limitations or under common law) provides a commencement date which is earlier than the federally required commencement date, such period shall commence at the federally required commencement date in lieu of the date specified in such State statute.

(2) State law generally applicable

Except as provided in paragraph (1), the statute of limitations established under State law shall apply in all actions brought under State law for personal injury, or property damages, which are caused or contributed to by exposure to any hazardous substance, or pollutant or contaminant, released into the environment from a facility.

(3) Actions under section 9607

Nothing in this section shall apply with respect to any cause of action brought under section 9607 of this title.

(b) Definitions

As used in this section—

(1) Subchapter I terms

The terms used in this section shall have the same meaning as when used in subchapter I of this chapter.

(2) Applicable limitations period

The term "applicable limitations period" means the period specified in a statute of limitations during which a civil action referred to in subsection (a)(1) may be brought.

(3) Commencement date

The term "commencement date" means the date specified in a statute of limitations as the beginning of the applicable limitations period.

(4) Federally required commencement date

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "federally required commencement date" means the date the plaintiff knew (or reasonably should have known) that the personal injury or property damages referred to in subsection (a)(1) were caused or contributed to by the hazardous substance or pollutant or contaminant concerned.

(B) Special rules

In the case of a minor or incompetent plaintiff, the term "federally required commencement date" means the later of the date referred to in subparagraph (A) or the following:

(i) In the case of a minor, the date on which the minor reaches the age of majority, as determined by State law, or has a legal representative appointed.

(ii) In the case of an incompetent individual, the date on which such individual becomes competent or has had a legal representative appointed.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §309, as added Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §203(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1695.)

Effective Date

Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §203(b), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1696, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [enacting this section] shall take effect with respect to actions brought after December 11, 1980."

§9659. Citizens suits

(a) Authority to bring civil actions

Except as provided in subsections (d) and (e) of this section and in section 9613(h) of this title (relating to timing of judicial review), any person may commence a civil action on his own behalf—

(1) against any person (including the United States and any other governmental instrumentality or agency, to the extent permitted by the eleventh amendment to the Constitution) who is alleged to be in violation of any standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order which has become effective pursuant to this chapter (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title, relating to Federal facilities); or

(2) against the President or any other officer of the United States (including the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Administrator of the ATSDR) where there is alleged a failure of the President or of such other officer to perform any act or duty under this chapter, including an act or duty under section 9620 of this title (relating to Federal facilities), which is not discretionary with the President or such other officer.


Paragraph (2) shall not apply to any act or duty under the provisions of section 9660 of this title (relating to research, development, and demonstration).

(b) Venue

(1) Actions under subsection (a)(1)

Any action under subsection (a)(1) shall be brought in the district court for the district in which the alleged violation occurred.

(2) Actions under subsection (a)(2)

Any action brought under subsection (a)(2) may be brought in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia.

(c) Relief

The district court shall have jurisdiction in actions brought under subsection (a)(1) to enforce the standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order concerned (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title), to order such action as may be necessary to correct the violation, and to impose any civil penalty provided for the violation. The district court shall have jurisdiction in actions brought under subsection (a)(2) to order the President or other officer to perform the act or duty concerned.

(d) Rules applicable to subsection (a)(1) actions

(1) Notice

No action may be commenced under subsection (a)(1) before 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of the violation to each of the following:

(A) The President.

(B) The State in which the alleged violation occurs.

(C) Any alleged violator of the standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order concerned (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title).


Notice under this paragraph shall be given in such manner as the President shall prescribe by regulation.

(2) Diligent prosecution

No action may be commenced under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) if the President has commenced and is diligently prosecuting an action under this chapter, or under the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.] to require compliance with the standard, regulation, condition, requirement, or order concerned (including any provision of an agreement under section 9620 of this title).

(e) Rules applicable to subsection (a)(2) actions

No action may be commenced under paragraph (2) of subsection (a) before the 60th day following the date on which the plaintiff gives notice to the Administrator or other department, agency, or instrumentality that the plaintiff will commence such action. Notice under this subsection shall be given in such manner as the President shall prescribe by regulation.

(f) Costs

The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought pursuant to this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to the prevailing or the substantially prevailing party whenever the court determines such an award is appropriate. The court may, if a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought, require the filing of a bond or equivalent security in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(g) Intervention

In any action under this section, the United States or the State, or both, if not a party may intervene as a matter of right. For other provisions regarding intervention, see section 9613 of this title.

(h) Other rights

This chapter does not affect or otherwise impair the rights of any person under Federal, State, or common law, except with respect to the timing of review as provided in section 9613(h) of this title or as otherwise provided in section 9658 of this title (relating to actions under State law).

(i) Definitions

The terms used in this section shall have the same meanings as when used in subchapter I.

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §310, as added Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §206, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1703.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a), (d)(2), and (h), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§6901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (f), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

§9660. Research, development, and demonstration

(a) Hazardous substance research and training

(1) Authorities of Secretary

The Secretary of Health and Human Services (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the Secretary), in consultation with the Administrator, shall establish and support a basic research and training program (through grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts) consisting of the following:

(A) Basic research (including epidemiologic and ecologic studies) which may include each of the following:

(i) Advanced techniques for the detection, assessment, and evaluation of the effects on human health of hazardous substances.

(ii) Methods to assess the risks to human health presented by hazardous substances.

(iii) Methods and technologies to detect hazardous substances in the environment and basic biological, chemical, and physical methods to reduce the amount and toxicity of hazardous substances.


(B) Training, which may include each of the following:

(i) Short courses and continuing education for State and local health and environment agency personnel and other personnel engaged in the handling of hazardous substances, in the management of facilities at which hazardous substances are located, and in the evaluation of the hazards to human health presented by such facilities.

(ii) Graduate or advanced training in environmental and occupational health and safety and in the public health and engineering aspects of hazardous waste control.

(iii) Graduate training in the geosciences, including hydrogeology, geological engineering, geophysics, geochemistry, and related fields necessary to meet professional personnel needs in the public and private sectors and to effectuate the purposes of this chapter.

(2) Director of NIEHS

The Director of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences shall cooperate fully with the relevant Federal agencies referred to in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (5) in carrying out the purposes of this section.

(3) Recipients of grants, etc.

A grant, cooperative agreement, or contract may be made or entered into under paragraph (1) with an accredited institution of higher education. The institution may carry out the research or training under the grant, cooperative agreement, or contract through contracts, including contracts with any of the following:

(A) Generators of hazardous wastes.

(B) Persons involved in the detection, assessment, evaluation, and treatment of hazardous substances.

(C) Owners and operators of facilities at which hazardous substances are located.

(D) State and local governments.

(4) Procedures

In making grants and entering into cooperative agreements and contracts under this subsection, the Secretary shall act through the Director of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences. In considering the allocation of funds for training purposes, the Director shall ensure that at least one grant, cooperative agreement, or contract shall be awarded for training described in each of clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of paragraph (1)(B). Where applicable, the Director may choose to operate training activities in cooperation with the Director of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. The procedures applicable to grants and contracts under title IV of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 281 et seq.] shall be followed under this subsection.

(5) Advisory council

To assist in the implementation of this subsection and to aid in the coordination of research and demonstration and training activities funded from the Fund under this section, the Secretary shall appoint an advisory council (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "Advisory Council") which shall consist of representatives of the following:

(A) The relevant Federal agencies.

(B) The chemical industry.

(C) The toxic waste management industry.

(D) Institutions of higher education.

(E) State and local health and environmental agencies.

(F) The general public.

(6) Planning

Within nine months after October 17, 1986, the Secretary, acting through the Director of the National Institute for Environmental Health Sciences, shall issue a plan for the implementation of paragraph (1). The plan shall include priorities for actions under paragraph (1) and include research and training relevant to scientific and technological issues resulting from site specific hazardous substance response experience. The Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, take appropriate steps to coordinate program activities under this plan with the activities of other Federal agencies in order to avoid duplication of effort. The plan shall be consistent with the need for the development of new technologies for meeting the goals of response actions in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. The Advisory Council shall be provided an opportunity to review and comment on the plan and priorities and assist appropriate coordination among the relevant Federal agencies referred to in subparagraph (A) of paragraph (5).

(b) Alternative or innovative treatment technology research and demonstration program

(1) Establishment

The Administrator is authorized and directed to carry out a program of research, evaluation, testing, development, and demonstration of alternative or innovative treatment technologies (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "program") which may be utilized in response actions to achieve more permanent protection of human health and welfare and the environment.

(2) Administration

The program shall be administered by the Administrator, acting through an office of technology demonstration and shall be coordinated with programs carried out by the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response and the Office of Research and Development.

(3) Contracts and grants

In carrying out the program, the Administrator is authorized to enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with, and make grants to, persons, public entities, and nonprofit private entities which are exempt from tax under section 501(c)(3) of title 26. The Administrator shall, to the maximum extent possible, enter into appropriate cost sharing arrangements under this subsection.

(4) Use of sites

In carrying out the program, the Administrator may arrange for the use of sites at which a response may be undertaken under section 9604 of this title for the purposes of carrying out research, testing, evaluation, development, and demonstration projects. Each such project shall be carried out under such terms and conditions as the Administrator shall require to assure the protection of human health and the environment and to assure adequate control by the Administrator of the research, testing, evaluation, development, and demonstration activities at the site.

(5) Demonstration assistance

(A) Program components

The demonstration assistance program shall include the following:

(i) The publication of a solicitation and the evaluation of applications for demonstration projects utilizing alternative or innovative technologies.

(ii) The selection of sites which are suitable for the testing and evaluation of innovative technologies.

(iii) The development of detailed plans for innovative technology demonstration projects.

(iv) The supervision of such demonstration projects and the providing of quality assurance for data obtained.

(v) The evaluation of the results of alternative innovative technology demonstration projects and the determination of whether or not the technologies used are effective and feasible.

(B) Solicitation

Within 90 days after October 17, 1986, and no less often than once every 12 months thereafter, the Administrator shall publish a solicitation for innovative or alternative technologies at a stage of development suitable for full-scale demonstrations at sites at which a response action may be undertaken under section 9604 of this title. The purpose of any such project shall be to demonstrate the use of an alternative or innovative treatment technology with respect to hazardous substances or pollutants or contaminants which are located at the site or which are to be removed from the site. The solicitation notice shall prescribe information to be included in the application, including technical and economic data derived from the applicant's own research and development efforts, and other information sufficient to permit the Administrator to assess the technology's potential and the types of remedial action to which it may be applicable.

(C) Applications

Any person and any public or private nonprofit entity may submit an application to the Administrator in response to the solicitation. The application shall contain a proposed demonstration plan setting forth how and when the project is to be carried out and such other information as the Administrator may require.

(D) Project selection

In selecting technologies to be demonstrated, the Administrator shall fully review the applications submitted and shall consider at least the criteria specified in paragraph (7). The Administrator shall select or refuse to select a project for demonstration under this subsection within 90 days of receiving the completed application for such project. In the case of a refusal to select the project, the Administrator shall notify the applicant within such 90-day period of the reasons for his refusal.

(E) Site selection

The Administrator shall propose 10 sites at which a response may be undertaken under section 9604 of this title to be the location of any demonstration project under this subsection within 60 days after the close of the public comment period. After an opportunity for notice and public comment, the Administrator shall select such sites and projects. In selecting any such site, the Administrator shall take into account the applicant's technical data and preferences either for onsite operation or for utilizing the site as a source of hazardous substances or pollutants or contaminants to be treated offsite.

(F) Demonstration plan

Within 60 days after the selection of the site under this paragraph to be the location of a demonstration project, the Administrator shall establish a final demonstration plan for the project, based upon the demonstration plan contained in the application for the project. Such plan shall clearly set forth how and when the demonstration project will be carried out.

(G) Supervision and testing

Each demonstration project under this subsection shall be performed by the applicant, or by a person satisfactory to the applicant, under the supervision of the Administrator. The Administrator shall enter into a written agreement with each applicant granting the Administrator the responsibility and authority for testing procedures, quality control, monitoring, and other measurements necessary to determine and evaluate the results of the demonstration project. The Administrator may pay the costs of testing, monitoring, quality control, and other measurements required by the Administrator to determine and evaluate the results of the demonstration project, and the limitations established by subparagraph (J) shall not apply to such costs.

(H) Project completion

Each demonstration project under this subsection shall be completed within such time as is established in the demonstration plan.

(I) Extensions

The Administrator may extend any deadline established under this paragraph by mutual agreement with the applicant concerned.

(J) Funding restrictions

The Administrator shall not provide any Federal assistance for any part of a full-scale field demonstration project under this subsection to any applicant unless such applicant can demonstrate that it cannot obtain appropriate private financing on reasonable terms and conditions sufficient to carry out such demonstration project without such Federal assistance. The total Federal funds for any full-scale field demonstration project under this subsection shall not exceed 50 percent of the total cost of such project estimated at the time of the award of such assistance. The Administrator shall not expend more than $10,000,000 for assistance under the program in any fiscal year and shall not expend more than $3,000,000 for any single project.

(6) Field demonstrations

In carrying out the program, the Administrator shall initiate or cause to be initiated at least 10 field demonstration projects of alternative or innovative treatment technologies at sites at which a response may be undertaken under section 9604 of this title, in fiscal year 1987 and each of the succeeding three fiscal years. If the Administrator determines that 10 field demonstration projects under this subsection cannot be initiated consistent with the criteria set forth in paragraph (7) in any of such fiscal years, the Administrator shall transmit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report explaining the reasons for his inability to conduct such demonstration projects.

(7) Criteria

In selecting technologies to be demonstrated under this subsection, the Administrator shall, consistent with the protection of human health and the environment, consider each of the following criteria:

(A) The potential for contributing to solutions to those waste problems which pose the greatest threat to human health, which cannot be adequately controlled under present technologies, or which otherwise pose significant management difficulties.

(B) The availability of technologies which have been sufficiently developed for field demonstration and which are likely to be cost-effective and reliable.

(C) The availability and suitability of sites for demonstrating such technologies, taking into account the physical, biological, chemical, and geological characteristics of the sites, the extent and type of contamination found at the site, and the capability to conduct demonstration projects in such a manner as to assure the protection of human health and the environment.

(D) The likelihood that the data to be generated from the demonstration project at the site will be applicable to other sites.

(8) Technology transfer

In carrying out the program, the Administrator shall conduct a technology transfer program including the development, collection, evaluation, coordination, and dissemination of information relating to the utilization of alternative or innovative treatment technologies for response actions. The Administrator shall establish and maintain a central reference library for such information. The information maintained by the Administrator shall be made available to the public, subject to the provisions of section 552 of title 5 and section 1905 of title 18, and to other Government agencies in a manner that will facilitate its dissemination; except, that upon a showing satisfactory to the Administrator by any person that any information or portion thereof obtained under this subsection by the Administrator directly or indirectly from such person, would, if made public, divulge—

(A) trade secrets; or

(B) other proprietary information of such person,


the Administrator shall not disclose such information and disclosure thereof shall be punishable under section 1905 of title 18. This subsection is not authority to withhold information from Congress or any committee of Congress upon the request of the chairman of such committee.

(9) Training

The Administrator is authorized and directed to carry out, through the Office of Technology Demonstration, a program of training and an evaluation of training needs for each of the following:

(A) Training in the procedures for the handling and removal of hazardous substances for employees who handle hazardous substances.

(B) Training in the management of facilities at which hazardous substances are located and in the evaluation of the hazards to human health presented by such facilities for State and local health and environment agency personnel.

(10) Definition

For purposes of this subsection, the term "alternative or innovative treatment technologies" means those technologies, including proprietary or patented methods, which permanently alter the composition of hazardous waste through chemical, biological, or physical means so as to significantly reduce the toxicity, mobility, or volume (or any combination thereof) of the hazardous waste or contaminated materials being treated. The term also includes technologies that characterize or assess the extent of contamination, the chemical and physical character of the contaminants, and the stresses imposed by the contaminants on complex ecosystems at sites.

(c) Hazardous substance research

The Administrator may conduct and support, through grants, cooperative agreements, and contracts, research with respect to the detection, assessment, and evaluation of the effects on and risks to human health of hazardous substances and detection of hazardous substances in the environment. The Administrator shall coordinate such research with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, acting through the advisory council established under this section, in order to avoid duplication of effort.

(d) University hazardous substance research centers

(1) Grant program

The Administrator shall make grants to institutions of higher learning to establish and operate not fewer than 5 hazardous substance research centers in the United States. In carrying out the program under this subsection, the Administrator should seek to have established and operated 10 hazardous substance research centers in the United States.

(2) Responsibilities of centers

The responsibilities of each hazardous substance research center established under this subsection shall include, but not be limited to, the conduct of research and training relating to the manufacture, use, transportation, disposal, and management of hazardous substances and publication and dissemination of the results of such research.

(3) Applications

Any institution of higher learning interested in receiving a grant under this subsection shall submit to the Administrator an application in such form and containing such information as the Administrator may require by regulation.

(4) Selection criteria

The Administrator shall select recipients of grants under this subsection on the basis of the following criteria:

(A) The hazardous substance research center shall be located in a State which is representative of the needs of the region in which such State is located for improved hazardous waste management.

(B) The grant recipient shall be located in an area which has experienced problems with hazardous substance management.

(C) There is available to the grant recipient for carrying out this subsection demonstrated research resources.

(D) The capability of the grant recipient to provide leadership in making national and regional contributions to the solution of both long-range and immediate hazardous substance management problems.

(E) The grant recipient shall make a commitment to support ongoing hazardous substance research programs with budgeted institutional funds of at least $100,000 per year.

(F) The grant recipient shall have an interdisciplinary staff with demonstrated expertise in hazardous substance management and research.

(G) The grant recipient shall have a demonstrated ability to disseminate results of hazardous substance research and educational programs through an interdisciplinary continuing education program.

(H) The projects which the grant recipient proposes to carry out under the grant are necessary and appropriate.

(5) Maintenance of effort

No grant may be made under this subsection in any fiscal year unless the recipient of such grant enters into such agreements with the Administrator as the Administrator may require to ensure that such recipient will maintain its aggregate expenditures from all other sources for establishing and operating a regional hazardous substance research center and related research activities at or above the average level of such expenditures in its 2 fiscal years preceding October 17, 1986.

(6) Federal share

The Federal share of a grant under this subsection shall not exceed 80 percent of the costs of establishing and operating the regional hazardous substance research center and related research activities carried out by the grant recipient.

(7) Limitation on use of funds

No funds made available to carry out this subsection shall be used for acquisition of real property (including buildings) or construction of any building.

(8) Administration through the Office of the Administrator

Administrative responsibility for carrying out this subsection shall be in the Office of the Administrator.

(9) Equitable distribution of funds

The Administrator shall allocate funds made available to carry out this subsection equitably among the regions of the United States.

(10) Technology transfer activities

Not less than five percent of the funds made available to carry out this subsection for any fiscal year shall be available to carry out technology transfer activities.

(e) Report to Congress

At the time of the submission of the annual budget request to Congress, the Administrator shall submit to the appropriate committees of the House of Representatives and the Senate and to the advisory council established under subsection (a), a report on the progress of the research, development, and demonstration program authorized by subsection (b), including an evaluation of each demonstration project completed in the preceding fiscal year, findings with respect to the efficacy of such demonstrated technologies in achieving permanent and significant reductions in risk from hazardous wastes, the costs of such demonstration projects, and the potential applicability of, and projected costs for, such technologies at other hazardous substance sites.

(f) Saving provision

Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect the provisions of the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.].

(g) Small business participation

The Administrator shall ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, an adequate opportunity for small business participation in the program established by subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §311, as added Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §209(b), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1708; amended Pub. L. 99–514, §2, Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2095.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(B)(iii), (6), was in the original "this Act", meaning Pub. L. 96–510, Dec. 11, 1980, 94 Stat. 2767, known as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682. Title IV of the Public Health Service Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§281 et seq.) of chapter 6A of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsec. (f), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795, which is classified generally to chapter 82 (§6901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1986—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 99–514 substituted "Internal Revenue Code of 1986" for "Internal Revenue Code of 1954", which for purposes of codification was translated as "title 26" thus requiring no change in text.

Methamphetamine Remediation Research

Pub. L. 110–143, Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1809, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Methamphetamine Remediation Research Act of 2007'.

"SEC. 2. FINDINGS.

"The Congress finds the following:

"(1) Methamphetamine use and production is growing rapidly throughout the United States.

"(2) Materials and residues remaining from the production of methamphetamine pose novel environmental problems in locations where methamphetamine laboratories have been closed.

"(3) There has been little standardization of measures for determining when the site of a closed methamphetamine laboratory has been successfully remediated.

"(4) Initial cleanup actions are generally limited to removal of hazardous substances and contaminated materials that pose an immediate threat to public health or the environment. It is not uncommon for significant levels of contamination to be found throughout residential structures after a methamphetamine laboratory has closed, partially because of a lack of knowledge of how to achieve an effective cleanup.

"(5) Data on methamphetamine laboratory-related contaminants of concern are very limited, and cleanup standards do not currently exist. In addition, procedures for sampling and analysis of contaminants need to be researched and developed.

"(6) Many States are struggling with establishing remediation guidelines and programs to address the rapidly expanding number of methamphetamine laboratories being closed each year.

"SEC. 3. VOLUNTARY GUIDELINES.

"(a) Establishment of Voluntary Guidelines.—Not later than one year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2007], the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (in this Act referred to as the 'Administrator'), in consultation with the National Institute of Standards and Technology, shall establish voluntary guidelines, based on the best currently available scientific knowledge, for the remediation of former methamphetamine laboratories, including guidelines regarding preliminary site assessment and the remediation of residual contaminants.

"(b) Considerations.—In developing the voluntary guidelines under subsection (a), the Administrator shall consider, at a minimum—

"(1) relevant standards, guidelines, and requirements found in Federal, State, and local laws and regulations;

"(2) the varying types and locations of former methamphetamine laboratories; and

"(3) the expected cost of carrying out any proposed guidelines.

"(c) States.—The voluntary guidelines should be designed to assist State and local governments in the development and the implementation of legislation and other policies to apply state-of-the-art knowledge and research results to the remediation of former methamphetamine laboratories. The Administrator shall work with State and local governments and other relevant non-Federal agencies and organizations, including through the conference described in section 5, to promote and encourage the appropriate adoption of the voluntary guidelines.

"(d) Updating the Guidelines.—The Administrator shall periodically update the voluntary guidelines as the Administrator, in consultation with States and other interested parties, determines to be necessary and appropriate to incorporate research findings and other new knowledge.

"SEC. 4. RESEARCH PROGRAM.

"The Administrator shall establish a program of research to support the development and revision of the voluntary guidelines described in section 3. Such research shall—

"(1) identify methamphetamine laboratory-related chemicals of concern;

"(2) assess the types and levels of exposure to chemicals of concern identified under paragraph (1), including routine and accidental exposures, that may present a significant risk of adverse biological effects, and the research necessary to better address biological effects and to minimize adverse human exposures;

"(3) evaluate the performance of various methamphetamine laboratory cleanup and remediation techniques; and

"(4) support other research priorities identified by the Administrator in consultation with States and other interested parties.

"SEC. 5. TECHNOLOGY TRANSFER CONFERENCE.

"(a) Conference.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2007], and at least every third year thereafter, the Administrator shall convene a conference of appropriate State agencies, as well as individuals or organizations involved in research and other activities directly related to the environmental, or biological impacts of former methamphetamine laboratories. The conference should be a forum for the Administrator to provide information on the guidelines developed under section 3 and on the latest findings from the research program described in section 4, and for the non-Federal participants to provide information on the problems and needs of States and localities and their experience with guidelines developed under section 3.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 3 months after each conference, the Administrator shall submit a report to the Congress that summarizes the proceedings of the conference, including a summary of any recommendations or concerns raised by the non-Federal participants and how the Administrator intends to respond to them. The report shall also be made widely available to the general public.

"SEC. 6. RESIDUAL EFFECTS STUDY.

"(a) Study.—Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 21, 2007], the Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences for a study of the status and quality of research on the residual effects of methamphetamine laboratories. The study shall identify research gaps and recommend an agenda for the research program described in section 4. The study shall pay particular attention to the need for research on the impacts of methamphetamine laboratories on—

"(1) the residents of buildings where such laboratories are, or were, located, with particular emphasis given to biological impacts on children; and

"(2) first responders.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 3 months after the completion of the study, the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report on how the Administrator will use the results of the study to carry out the activities described in sections 3 and 4.

"SEC. 7. METHAMPHETAMINE DETECTION RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM.

"The Director of National Institute of Standards and Technology, in consultation with the Administrator, shall support a research program to develop—

"(1) new methamphetamine detection technologies, with emphasis on field test kits and site detection; and

"(2) appropriate standard reference materials and validation procedures for methamphetamine detection testing.

"SEC. 8. SAVINGS CLAUSE.

"Nothing in this Act shall be construed to affect or limit the application of, or any obligation to comply with, any State or Federal environmental law or regulation, including the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.) and the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6901 et seq.).

"SEC. 9. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

"(a) Environmental Protection Agency.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Environmental Protection Agency to carry out this Act $1,750,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 and 2008.

"(b) National Institute of Standards and Technology.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the National Institute of Standards and Technology to carry out this Act $750,000 for each of the fiscal years 2007 and 2008."

Gulf Coast Hazardous Substance Research, Development, and Demonstration Center

Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §118(l), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1660, provided that:

"(1) Establishment of hazardous substance research, development, and demonstration center.—The Administrator shall establish a hazardous substance research, development, and demonstration center (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the 'Center') for the purpose of conducting research to aid in more effective hazardous substance response and waste management throughout the Gulf Coast.

"(2) Purposes of the center.—The Center shall carry out a program of research, evaluation, testing, development, and demonstration of alternative or innovative technologies which may be utilized in response actions or in normal handling of hazardous wastes to achieve better protection of human health and the environment.

"(3) Operation of center.—(A) For purposes of operating the Center, the Administrator is authorized to enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with, and make grants to, a university related institute involved with the improvement of waste management. Such institute shall be located in Jefferson County, Texas.

"(B) The Center shall be authorized to make grants, accept contributions, and enter into agreements with universities located in the States of Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida in order to carry out the purposes of the Center.

"(4) Authorization of appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator for purposes of carrying out this subsection for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1986, not more than $5,000,000."

Pacific Northwest Hazardous Substance Research, Development, and Demonstration Center

Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §118(o), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1661, provided that:

"(1) Establishment.—The Administrator shall establish a hazardous substance research, development, and demonstration center (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the 'Center') for the purpose of conducting research to aid in more effective hazardous substance response in the Pacific Northwest.

"(2) Purposes of center.—The Center shall carry out a program of research, evaluation, testing, development, and demonstration of alternative or innovative technologies which may be utilized in response actions to achieve more permanent protection of human health and welfare and the environment.

"(3) Operation of center.—

"(A) Nonprofit entity.—For the purposes of operating the Center, the Administrator is authorized to enter into contracts and cooperative agreements with, and make grants to, a nonprofit private entity as defined in section 201(i) of Public Law 96-517 [probably means section 201(i) of Title 35, Patents, which was enacted by section 6(a) of Pub. L. 96–517, Dec. 12, 1980, 94 Stat. 3020] which entity shall agree to provide the basic technical and management personnel. Such nonprofit private entity shall also agree to provide at least two permanent research facilities, one of which shall be located in Benton County, Washington, and one of which shall be located in Clallam County, Washington.

"(B) Authorities.—The Center shall be authorized to make grants, accept contributions, and enter into agreements with universities located in the States of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana in order to carry out the purposes of the Center.

"(4) Hazardous waste research at the hanford site.—

"(A) Interagency agreements.—The Administrator and the Secretary of Energy are authorized to enter into interagency agreements with one another for the purpose of providing for research, evaluation, testing, development, and demonstration into alternative or innovative technologies to characterize and assess the nature and extent of hazardous waste (including radioactive mixed waste) contamination at the Hanford site, in the State of Washington.

"(B) Funding.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Energy for purposes of carrying out this paragraph for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1986, not more than $5,000,000. All sums appropriated under this subparagraph shall be provided to the Administrator by the Secretary of Energy, pursuant to the interagency agreement entered into under subparagraph (A), for the purpose of the Administrator entering into contracts and cooperative agreements with, and making grants to, the Center in order to carry out the research, evaluation, testing, development, and demonstration described in paragraph (1).

"(5) Authorization of appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator for purposes of carrying out this subsection (other than paragraph (4)) for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1986, not more than $5,000,000."

Congressional Statement of Purpose

Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §209(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1708, provided that: "The purposes of this section [enacting this section] are as follows:

"(1) To establish a comprehensive and coordinated Federal program of research, development, demonstration, and training for the purpose of promoting the development of alternative and innovative treatment technologies that can be used in response actions under the CERCLA program, to provide incentives for the development and use of such technologies, and to improve the scientific capability to assess, detect and evaluate the effects on and risks to human health from hazardous substances.

"(2) To establish a basic university research and education program within the Department of Health and Human Services and a research, demonstration, and training program within the Environmental Protection Agency.

"(3) To reserve certain funds from the Hazardous Substance Trust Fund to support a basic research program within the Department of Health and Human Services, and an applied and developmental research program within the Environmental Protection Agency.

"(4) To enhance the Environmental Protection Agency's internal research capabilities related to CERCLA activities, including site assessment and technology evaluation.

"(5) To provide incentives for the development of alternative and innovative treatment technologies in a manner that supplements or coordinates with, but does not compete with or duplicate, private sector development of such technologies."

Termination of Advisory Councils

Advisory councils established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a council established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such council is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a council established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§9660a. Grant program

(1) Grant purposes

Grants for the training and education of workers who are or may be engaged in activities related to hazardous waste removal or containment or emergency response may be made under this section.

(2) Administration

Grants under this section shall be administered by the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

(3) Grant recipients

Grants shall be awarded to nonprofit organizations which demonstrate experience in implementing and operating worker health and safety training and education programs and demonstrate the ability to reach and involve in training programs target populations of workers who are or will be engaged in hazardous waste removal or containment or emergency response operations.

(Pub. L. 99–499, title I, §126(g), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1692.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and not as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 which comprises this chapter.

§9661. Love Canal property acquisition

(a) Acquisition of property in Emergency Declaration Area

The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter referred to as the "Administrator") may make grants not to exceed $2,500,000 to the State of New York (or to any duly constituted public agency or authority thereof) for purposes of acquisition of private property in the Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area. Such acquisition shall include (but shall not be limited to) all private property within the Emergency Declaration Area, including non-owner occupied residential properties, commercial, industrial, public, religious, non-profit, and vacant properties.

(b) Procedures for acquisition

No property shall be acquired pursuant to this section unless the property owner voluntarily agrees to such acquisition. Compensation for any property acquired pursuant to this section shall be based upon the fair market value of the property as it existed prior to the emergency declaration. Valuation procedures for property acquired with funds provided under this section shall be in accordance with those set forth in the agreement entered into between the New York State Disaster Preparedness Commission and the Love Canal Revitalization Agency on October 9, 1980.

(c) State ownership

The Administrator shall not provide any funds under this section for the acquisition of any properties pursuant to this section unless a public agency or authority of the State of New York first enters into a cooperative agreement with the Administrator providing assurances deemed adequate by the Administrator that the State or an agency created under the laws of the State shall take title to the properties to be so acquired.

(d) Maintenance of property

The Administrator shall enter into a cooperative agreement with an appropriate public agency or authority of the State of New York under which the Administrator shall maintain or arrange for the maintenance of all properties within the Emergency Declaration Area that have been acquired by any public agency or authority of the State. Ninety (90) percent of the costs of such maintenance shall be paid by the Administrator. The remaining portion of such costs shall be paid by the State (unless a credit is available under section 9604(c) of this title). The Administrator is authorized, in his discretion, to provide technical assistance to any public agency or authority of the State of New York in order to implement the recommendations of the habitability and land-use study in order to put the land within the Emergency Declaration Area to its best use.

(e) Habitability and land use study

The Administrator shall conduct or cause to be conducted a habitability and land-use study. The study shall—

(1) assess the risks associated with inhabiting of the Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area;

(2) compare the level of hazardous waste contamination in that Area to that present in other comparable communities; and

(3) assess the potential uses of the land within the Emergency Declaration Area, including but not limited to residential, industrial, commercial and recreational, and the risks associated with such potential uses.


The Administrator shall publish the findings of such study and shall work with the State of New York to develop recommendations based upon the results of such study.

(f) Funding

For purposes of section 9611 of this title [and 9631(c) 1 of this title], the expenditures authorized by this section shall be treated as a cost specified in section 9611(c) of this title.

(g) Response

The provisions of this section shall not affect the implementation of other response actions within the Emergency Declaration Area that the Administrator has determined (before October 17, 1986) to be necessary to protect the public health or welfare or the environment.

(h) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Emergency Declaration Area

The terms "Emergency Declaration Area" and "Love Canal Emergency Declaration Area" mean the Emergency Declaration Area as defined in section 950, paragraph (2) of the General Municipal Law of the State of New York, Chapter 259, Laws of 1980, as in effect on October 17, 1986.

(2) Private property

As used in subsection (a), the term "private property" means all property which is not owned by a department, agency, or instrumentality of—

(A) the United States, or

(B) the State of New York (or any public agency or authority thereof).

(Pub. L. 96–510, title III, §312, as added Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §213(b), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1727.)

References in Text

Section 9631 of this title, referred to in subsec. (f), was repealed by Pub. L. 99–499, title V, §517(c)(1), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1774.

Love Canal Property Acquisition; Congressional Findings

Pub. L. 99–499, title II, §213(a), Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1726, provided that:

"(1) The area known as Love Canal located in the city of Niagara Falls and the town of Wheatfield, New York, was the first toxic waste site to receive national attention. As a result of that attention Congress investigated the problems associated with toxic waste sites and enacted CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (42 U.S.C. 9601 et seq.)] to deal with these problems.

"(2) Because Love Canal came to the Nation's attention prior to the passage of CERCLA and because the fund under CERCLA was not available to compensate for all of the hardships endured by the citizens in the area, Congress has determined that special provisions are required. These provisions do not affect the lawfulness, implementation, or selection of any other response actions at Love Canal or at any other facilities."

Coordination of Titles I to IV of Pub. L. 99–499

Any provision of titles I to IV of Pub. L. 99–499, imposing any tax, premium, or fee; establishing any trust fund; or authorizing expenditures from any trust fund, to have no force or effect, see section 531 of Pub. L. 99–499, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code.

1 See References in Text note below.

§9662. Limitation on contract and borrowing authority

Any authority provided by this Act, including any amendment made by this Act, to enter into contracts to obligate the United States or to incur indebtedness for the repayment of which the United States is liable shall be effective only to such extent or in such amounts as are provided in appropriation Acts.

(Pub. L. 99–499, §3, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1614.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 99–499, Oct. 17, 1986, 100 Stat. 1613, as amended, known as the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1986 Amendment note set out under section 9601 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986, and not as part of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 which comprises this chapter.