[USC02] 42 USC Ch. 105: COMMUNITY SERVICES PROGRAMS
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*Public Laws 116-284 through 117-1 have been enacted but classifications have not yet been finalized. The currency ("laws in effect") date does not reflect acts for which classification has not been finalized.

42 USC Ch. 105: COMMUNITY SERVICES PROGRAMS
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 105—COMMUNITY SERVICES PROGRAMS

SUBCHAPTER I—COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Sec.
9801.
Statement of purpose.
9802.
"Community development corporation" defined.
9803.
Repealed.
9804.
Advisory Community Investment Board.

        

Part A—Urban and Rural Special Impact Programs

9805.
Statement of purpose.
9806.
Establishment and scope of programs.
9807.
Financial assistance requirements.
9808.
Federal share; amount; availability; ownership of property acquired with Federal financial assistance.

        

Part B—Special Rural Programs

9809.
Statement of purpose.
9810.
Financial assistance to low-income families, local cooperative associations, and local public or private nonprofit organizations or entities; amount, purposes, etc.
9811.
Limitation on assistance.

        

Part C—Development Loans to Community Economic Development Programs

9812.
Development loan fund.
9812a.
Interest rates payable on certain rural development loans; assignment of loan contracts.
9813.
Model Community Economic Development Finance Corporation; establishment; functions.

        

Part D—Supportive Programs and Activities

9814.
Training and technical assistance.
9815.
Small Business Administration and Department of Commerce economic development programs; regulations.
9816.
Department of Housing and Urban Development programs.
9817.
Department of Agriculture; Rural Development Administration programs.
9818.
Coordination and eligibility.
9819.
Evaluation of programs; implementation and funding, etc.; research and demonstration projects; implementation and purposes.
9820.
Grants to plan economic development and cooperative programs.
9821.
Nondiscrimination provisions.
9822.
Availability of certain appropriated funds.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—HEAD START PROGRAMS

9831.
Statement of purpose.
9832.
Definitions.
9833.
Financial assistance for Head Start programs.
9834.
Authorization of appropriations.
9835.
Allotment of funds.
9835a.
Repealed.
9836.
Designation of Head Start agencies.
9836a.
Standards; monitoring of Head Start agencies and programs.
9837.
Powers and functions of Head Start agencies.
9837a.
Head Start transition and alignment with K–12 education.
9837b.
Head Start collaboration; State early education and care.
9838.
Submission of plans to chief executive officer.
9839.
Administrative requirements and standards.
9840.
Participation in Head Start programs.
9840a.
Early Head Start programs.
9841.
Appeals, notice, hearing, and mediation; alternative agency for Indian tribe.
9842.
Records and audits.
9843.
Technical assistance and training.
9843a.
Staff qualifications and development.
9844.
Research, demonstrations, and evaluation.
9845.
Repealed.
9846.
Reports.
9846a, 9847. Repealed.
9848.
Comparability of wages.
9849.
Nondiscrimination provisions.
9850.
Limitation with respect to certain unlawful activities.
9851.
Political activities.
9852.
Advance funding.
9852a.
Parental consent requirement for nonemergency intrusive physical examinations.
9852b.
Centers of Excellence in Early Childhood.
9852c.
General provisions.

        

SUBCHAPTER II–A—HEAD START TRANSITION PROJECT

9855 to 9855g. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER II–B—CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT BLOCK GRANT

9857.
Short title and purposes.
9858.
Authorization of appropriations.
9858a.
Establishment of block grant program.
9858b.
Lead agency.
9858c.
Application and plan.
9858d.
Limitations on State allotments.
9858e.
Activities to improve the quality of child care.
9858f.
Criminal background checks.
9858g.
Administration and enforcement.
9858h.
Payments.
9858i.
Reports and audits.
9858j.
Reports, hotline, and Web site.
9858k.
Limitations on use of financial assistance for certain purposes.
9858l.
Nondiscrimination.
9858m.
Amounts reserved; allotments.
9858n.
Definitions.
9858o.
Parental rights and responsibilities.
9858p.
Severability.
9858q.
Miscellaneous provisions.
9858r.
Studies on waiting lists.

        

SUBCHAPTER II–C—CHILD CARE SAFETY AND HEALTH GRANTS

9859.
Definitions.
9859a.
Authorization of appropriations.
9859b.
Programs.
9859c.
Amounts reserved; allotments.
9859d.
State applications.
9859e.
Use of funds.
9859f.
Reports.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—FOLLOW THROUGH PROGRAMS

9861 to 9869. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER IV—GRANTS TO STATES FOR PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT OF DEPENDENT CARE PROGRAMS AND FOR OTHER PURPOSES

9871.
Authorization of appropriations.
9872.
Allotments.
9873.
Payments under allotments to States.
9874.
Use of allotments.
9875.
Application and description of activities; requirements.
9876.
Report.
9877.
Definitions.

        

SUBCHAPTER V—COMPREHENSIVE CHILD DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM

9881 to 9887. Repealed.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—COMMUNITY ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Codification

Subchapter is based on subchapter A of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 489, as amended.

§9801. Statement of purpose

The purpose of this subchapter is to encourage the development of special programs by which the residents of urban and rural low-income areas may, through self-help and mobilization of the community at large, with appropriate Federal assistance, improve the quality of their economic and social participation in community life in such a way as to contribute to the elimination of poverty and the establishment of permanent economic and social benefits.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §612, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 489.)

Short Title of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–186, §1, Nov. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 1971, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 9858f and 9858r of this title and amending sections 9858, 9858b to 9858e, 9858g, 9858i, 9858j, and 9858m to 9858o of this title and provisions set out as notes under this section and section 9858 of this title] may be cited as the 'Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014'."

Short Title of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–134, §1(a), Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1363, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 9837b and 9852a to 9852c of this title and amending sections 1758, 1766, 9831 to 9835, 9836 to 9844, 9846, 9848, 9850, and 9851 of this title and sections 6312 and 9409 of Title 20, Education] may be cited as the 'Improving Head Start for School Readiness Act of 2007'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–285, §1, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2702, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Community Opportunities, Accountability, and Training and Educational Services Act of 1998' or the 'Coats Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1998'."

Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §101, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2703, provided that: "This title [enacting section 9837a of this title, amending sections 9831 to 9835, 9836 to 9837, 9838 to 9840a, 9843 to 9844, and 9846 of this title, and repealing sections 9852a and 9855 to 9855g of this title and provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Head Start Amendments of 1998'."

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–193, title VI, §601(a), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2278, provided that: "This title [enacting section 618 of this title, amending sections 9858, 9858b to 9858e, 9858g to 9858j, 9858m, and 9858n of this title, repealing section 9858f of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 9858 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note below] may be cited as the 'Child Care and Development Block Grant Amendments of 1996'."

Short Title of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–252, §1, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 623, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Human Services Amendments of 1994'."

Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §101(a), May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 624, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 9836a, 9840a, 9843a, and 9852a of this title, transferring sections 3161 to 3161g of Title 20, Education, to sections 1235 to 1235g of Title 20, respectively, amending sections 1396r–5, 9832 to 9835, 9836, 9837, 9839, 9840, 9841, 9843, 9844, 9846, 9855a, 9871, and 10905 of this title and sections 1235, 1235a, and 1235c to 1235e of Title 20, repealing sections 9835a, 9845, 9846a, 9847, and 9881 to 9887 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 9832, 9839, 9844, and 9881 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this section and section 9881 of this title] may be cited as the 'Head Start Act Amendments of 1994'."

Short Title of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–401, §1, Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1956, provided that: "This Act [amending sections 9835 to 9839, 9846, 9846a, and 9858n of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 9835 and 9836 of this title] may be cited as the 'Head Start Improvement Act of 1992'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–501, §1(a), Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1222, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Augustus F. Hawkins Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §101, Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1224, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle A (§§101–123) of title I of Pub. L. 101–501, enacting sections 9835a and 9846a of this title and amending sections 9831, 9832, 9834, 9835, 9836 to 9841, 9843 to 9846, 9847, and 9848 of this title] may be cited as the 'Head Start Expansion and Quality Improvement Act'."

Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §131, Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1238, provided that subtitle B (§§131–140) of title I of Pub. L. 101–501, enacting subchapter II–A of this chapter and amending section 9834 of this title, could be cited as the "Head Start Transition Project Act", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §119, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2728.

Short Title of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–120, §1, Oct. 23, 1989, 103 Stat. 700, provided that: "This Act [amending section 9834 of this title] may be cited as the 'Head Start Supplemental Authorization Act of 1989'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–297, title II, §2501, Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 325, provided that part E (§§2501–2504) of title II of Pub. L. 100–297, which enacted subchapter V of this chapter, amended section 9833 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under this section and section 9881 of this title, could be cited as the "Comprehensive Child Development Centers Act of 1988", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §112(b)(1), (2)(A), May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 640, 641.

Short Title of 1986 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–425, §1, Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 966, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 8628a, 9812a, 9910b, and 10901 to 10905 of this title, amending sections 8621, 8623, 8624, 8629, 9803, 9834, 9835, 9837, 9840, 9862, 9867, 9871, 9874, 9877, 9901 to 9904, 9905a, 9908 to 9910, and 9910a of this title and section 4033 of Title 20, Education, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 8621, 8623, and 10901 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under section 9861 of this title and section 1932 of Title 7, Agriculture] may be cited as the 'Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1986'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–558, §1, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2878, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 9871 to 9877, 9905a, and 9910a of this title and sections 1070d–31 to 1070d–41, 1119d to 1119d–8, 1119e to 1119e–5, and 4201 to 4206 of Title 20, Education, amending sections 2991b, 2992b to 2992d, 6862, 6865, 8621 to 8624, 8626, 8627, 8629, 9832, 9834 to 9836, 9840, 9843, 9844, 9846, 9862, 9901, 9902, 9904, 9908, and 9910 of this title and section 4061 of Title 20, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2991, 8621, and 9904 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 9861 of this title] may be cited as the 'Human Services Reauthorization Act'."

Short Title

Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §611, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 489, provided that: "This subchapter [subchapter A (§§611–633) of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the 'Community Economic Development Act of 1981'."

Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §635, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499, provided that: "This subchapter [subchapter B (§§635–657) of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, enacting subchapter II of this chapter] may be cited as the 'Head Start Act'."

Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, subtitle A, ch. 8, subch. C, §658A(a), as added by Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5082(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–236, and amended by Pub. L. 102–401, §3(a), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1959; Pub. L. 102–586, §8(c)(1), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5036; Pub. L. 104–193, title VI, §602(2), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2279; Pub. L. 113–186, §2, Nov. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 1971, which provided that subchapter II–B of this chapter could be cited as the "Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990" and was formerly set out as a note under this section, was transferred to section 9857(a) of this title.

Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, subtitle A, ch. 8, subch. D, §661, formerly subch. C, §661, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 508, as renumbered by Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5082(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–236, and amended by Pub. L. 102–401, §3(a), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1959; Pub. L. 102–586, §8(c)(1), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5036, provided that former subchapter III of this chapter could be cited as the "Follow Through Act", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–382, title III, §391(w), Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4025.

Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, subtitle A, ch. 8, subch. E, §670H, formerly subch. D, §670H, as added by Pub. L. 99–425, title III, §304, Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 968, renumbered by Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5082(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–236, and amended by Pub. L. 102–401, §3(a), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1959; Pub. L. 102–586, §8(c)(1), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5036, provided that: "This subchapter [subchapter E (§§670A–670H), formerly subchapter D, of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, enacting subchapter IV of this chapter] may be cited as the 'State Dependent Care Development Grants Act'."

Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, subtitle A, ch. 8, subch. F, §670M, formerly subch. E, §670M, as added by Pub. L. 100–297, title II, §2503, Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 325, renumbered by Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5082(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–236, and amended by Pub. L. 102–401, §3(a), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1959; Pub. L. 102–586, §8(c)(1), Nov. 4, 1992, 106 Stat. 5036, provided that former subchapter V of this chapter could be cited as the "Comprehensive Child Development Act", prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §112(b)(1), (2)(B), May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 640, 641.

Inconsistent Laws Superseded During Fiscal Years 1982, 1983, and 1984

Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §601, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 483, provided that:

"(a) Any provision of law which is not consistent with the provisions of this subtitle [subtitle A (§§601–670) of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, see Tables for classification] hereby is superseded and shall have only such force and effect during each of the fiscal years 1982, 1983, and 1984 which is consistent with this subtitle.

"(b) Notwithstanding any authorization of appropriations for fiscal year 1982, 1983, or 1984 contained in any provision of law which is specified in this subtitle, no funds are authorized to be appropriated in excess of the limitations imposed upon appropriations by the provisions of this subtitle."

§9802. "Community development corporation" defined

For purposes of this subchapter, the term "community development corporation" means a nonprofit organization responsible to residents of the area it serves which is receiving financial assistance under part A and any organization more than 50 percent of which is owned by such an organization, or otherwise controlled by such an organization, or designated by such an organization for the purpose of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §613, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 489.)

§9803. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–285, title II, §202(b)(1), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2755

Section, Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §614, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 489; Pub. L. 99–425, title IV, §405(c)(3), Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 970, related to source of funds for carrying out this subchapter.

§9804. Advisory Community Investment Board

(a) National Community Investment Board; functions, composition, etc.

(1) The President is authorized to establish a National Advisory Community Investment Board (hereinafter in this section referred to as the "Investment Board"). Such Investment Board shall be composed of 15 members appointed, for staggered terms and without regard to the civil service laws, by the President, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services (hereinafter in this subchapter referred to as the "Secretary"). Such members shall be representative of the investment and business communities and appropriate fields of endeavor related to this subchapter. The Investment Board shall meet at the call of the chairperson, but not less often than 3 times each year. The Secretary and the administrator of community economic development programs shall be ex officio members of the Investment Board.

(2) The Secretary shall carry out the provisions of this subchapter through an appropriate office.

(b) Function

The Investment Board shall promote cooperation between private investors and businesses and community development corporation projects through—

(1) advising the Secretary and the community development corporations on ways to facilitate private investment;

(2) advising businesses and other investors of opportunities in community development corporation projects; and

(3) advising the Secretary, community development corporations, and private investors and businesses of ways in which they might engage in mutually beneficial efforts.

(c) Local advisory community investment boards; establishment, composition, etc.

The governing body of each Community Development Corporation may establish an advisory community investment board composed of not to exceed 15 members who shall be appointed by the governing body after consultation with appropriate local officials. Each such board shall promote cooperation between private investors and businesses and the governing body of the Community Development Corporation through—

(1) advising the governing body on ways to facilitate private investors;

(2) advising businesses and other investors of opportunities in Community Development Corporation projects; and

(3) advising the governing body, private investors, and businesses of ways in which they might engage in mutually beneficial efforts.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §615, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 489; Pub. L. 105–285, title II, §202(b)(2), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2755.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–285 substituted "through an appropriate office" for "through the Office of Community Services established in section 9905(a) of this title".

Termination of Advisory Boards

Advisory boards established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a board established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such board is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a board established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Part A—Urban and Rural Special Impact Programs

§9805. Statement of purpose

The purpose of this part is to establish special programs of assistance to nonprofit private locally initiated community development corporations which (1) are directed to the solution of the critical problems existing in particular communities or neighborhoods (defined without regard to political or other subdivisions or boundaries) within those urban and rural areas having concentrations or substantial numbers of low-income persons; (2) are of sufficient size, scope, and duration to have an appreciable impact in such communities, neighborhoods, and rural areas in arresting tendencies toward dependency, chronic unemployment, and community deterioration; (3) hold forth the prospect of continuing to have such impact after the termination of financial assistance under this part; and (4) provide financial and other assistance to start, expand, or locate enterprises in or near the area to be served so as to provide employment and ownership opportunities for residents of such areas, including those who are disadvantaged in the labor market because of their limited speaking, reading, and writing abilities in the English language.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §616, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 490.)

§9806. Establishment and scope of programs

(a) The Secretary is authorized to provide financial assistance in the form of grants to nonprofit and for profit community development corporations and other affiliated and supportive agencies and organizations associated with qualifying community development corporations for the payment of all or part of the cost of programs which are designed to carry out the purposes of this part. Financial assistance shall be provided so that each community economic development program is of sufficient size, scope, and duration to have an appreciable impact on the area served. Such programs may include—

(1) community business and commercial development programs, including (A) programs which provide financial and other assistance (including equity capital) to start, expand, or locate businesses in or near the area served so as to provide employment and ownership opportunities for residents of such areas; and (B) programs for small businesses located in or owned by residents of such areas;

(2) community physical development programs, including industrial parks and housing activities, which contribute to an improved environment and which create new training, employment and ownership opportunities for residents of such area;

(3) training and public service employment programs and related services for unemployed or low-income persons which support and complement community development programs financed under this part, including, without limitation, activities such as the activities described in title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998; 1 and

(4) social service programs which support and complement community business and commercial development programs financed under this part, including child care, educational services, health services, credit counseling, energy conservation, recreation services, and programs for the maintenance of housing facilities.


(b) The Secretary shall conduct programs assisted under this part so as to contribute, on an equitable basis between urban and rural areas, to the elimination of poverty and the establishment of permanent economic and social benefits in such areas.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §617, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 491; Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(40), (f)(31)], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–337, 2681-427, 2681-434.)

References in Text

The Workforce Investment Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), is Pub. L. 105–220, Aug. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 936, and was repealed by Pub. L. 113–128, title V, §§506, 511(a), July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1703, 1705, effective July 1, 2015. Title I of the Act was classified principally to former chapter 30 (former §2801 et seq.) of Title 29, Labor. Pursuant to section 3361(a) of Title 29, references to a provision of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 are deemed to refer to the corresponding provision of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act, Pub. L. 113–128, July 22, 2014, 128 Stat. 1425, effective July 1, 2015. For complete classification of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998 to the Code, see Tables. For complete classification of the Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(f)(31)], struck out "the Job Training Partnership Act or" after "activities described in".

Pub. L. 105–277, §101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(40)], substituted "activities such as the activities described in the Job Training Partnership Act or title I of the Workforce Investment Act of 1998" for "activities such as those described in the Comprehensive Employment and Training Act".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(d)(40)] of Pub. L. 105–277 effective Oct. 21, 1998, and amendment by section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(f)(31)] of Pub. L. 105–277 effective July 1, 2000, see section 101(f) [title VIII, §405(g)(1), (2)(B)] of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as a note under section 3502 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

1 See References in Text note below.

§9807. Financial assistance requirements

(a) Conditions

The Secretary, under such regulations as the Secretary may establish, shall not provide financial assistance for any community economic development program under this part unless the Secretary determines that—

(1) such community development corporation is responsible to residents of the area served (A) through a governing body not less than 50 percent of the members of which are area residents; and (B) in accordance with such other guidelines as may be established by the Secretary, except that the composition of the governing bodies of organizations owned or controlled by the community development corporation need not be subject to such residency requirement;

(2) the program will be appropriately coordinated with local planning under this subchapter with housing and community development programs, with employment and training programs, and with other relevant planning for physical and human resources in the areas served;

(3) adequate technical assistance is made available and committed to the programs being supported;

(4) such financial assistance will materially further the purposes of this part;

(5) the applicant is fulfilling or will fulfill a need for services, supplies, or facilities which is otherwise not being met;

(6) all projects and related facilities will, to the maximum feasible extent, be located in the areas served;

(7) projects will, where feasible, promote the development of entrepreneurial and management skills and the ownership or participation in ownership of assisted businesses and housing, cooperatively or otherwise, by residents of the area served;

(8) projects will be planned and carried out with the fullest possible participation of resident or local businessmen and representatives of financial institutions, including participation through contract, joint venture, partnership, stock ownership or membership on the governing boards or advisory councils of such projects consistent with the self-help purposes of this subchapter;

(9) no participant will be employed on projects involving political parties, or the construction, operation, or maintenance of so much of any facility as is used or to be used for sectarian instruction or as a place for religious worship;

(10) the program will not result in the displacement of employed workers or impair existing contracts for services, or result in the substitution of Federal or other funds in connection with work that would otherwise be performed;

(11) the rates of pay for time spent in work training and education, and other conditions of employment, will be appropriate and reasonable in the light of such factors as the type of work, geographical region, and proficiency of the participant;

(12) the program will, to the maximum extent feasible, contribute to the occupational development or upward mobility of individual participants;

(13) preference will be given to low-income or economically disadvantaged residents of the areas served in filling jobs and training opportunities; and

(14) training programs carried out in connection with projects financed under this part shall be designed wherever feasible to provide those persons who successfully complete such training with skills which are also in demand in communities, neighborhoods, or rural areas other than those for which programs are established under this part.

(b) Relocations substantially increasing unemployment

Financial assistance under this section shall not be extended to assist in the relocation of establishments from one location to another if such relocation would result in a substantial increase in unemployment in the area of original location.

(c) Community economic development program; application; specification of goals

Financial assistance for commercial development under this part shall not be extended until the community economic development program that has applied for assistance under this subchapter has specified in some detail its development goals and its development timetable. The Secretary, in providing continued financial assistance to a community economic development program, shall give serious consideration to the experience such program has had in meeting development goals or in adhering to development timetables.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §618, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 491.)

§9808. Federal share; amount; availability; ownership of property acquired with Federal financial assistance

(a)(1) Assistance provided under this subchapter to any program described in section 9807(a) of this title shall not exceed 90 percent of the cost of such program, including costs of administration, unless the Secretary determines that the assistance in excess of such percentage is required in furtherance of the purposes of this subchapter. Non-Federal contributions may be in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including but not limited to plant, equipment, and services.

(2) The assistance referred to in paragraph (1) shall be made available (A) for deposit to the order of grantees which have demonstrated successful program performance, under conditions which the Secretary deems appropriate, within 30 days following approval of the grant agreement by the Secretary and such grantee; or (B) whenever the Secretary deems appropriate, in accordance with applicable rules and regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury, and including any other conditions which the Secretary of Health and Human Services deems appropriate, within 30 days following approval of the grant agreement by the Secretary and such grantee.

(b) Property acquired as a result of capital investments made by any community development corporation with funds granted as its Federal share of the cost of programs carried out under this subchapter, and the proceeds from such property, shall become the property of the community development corporation and shall not be considered to be Federal property. The Federal Government retains the right to direct that on severance of the grant relationship the assets purchased with grant funds shall continue to be used for the original purpose for which they were granted.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §619, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 493.)

Part B—Special Rural Programs

§9809. Statement of purpose

It is the purpose of this part to meet the special economic needs of rural communities or areas with concentrations or substantial numbers of low-income persons by providing support to self-help programs which promote economic development and independence, as a supplement to existing similar programs conducted by other departments and agencies of the Federal Government. Such programs should encourage low-income families to pool their talents and resources so as to create and expand rural economic enterprise.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §620, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 493.)

§9810. Financial assistance to low-income families, local cooperative associations, and local public or private nonprofit organizations or entities; amount, purposes, etc.

(a) The Secretary is authorized to provide financial assistance, including loans having a maximum maturity of fifteen years and in amounts not resulting in an aggregate principal indebtedness of more than $3,500 at any one time, to any low-income rural family where, in the judgment of the Secretary, such financial assistance has a reasonable possibility of effecting a permanent increase in the income of such families, or will contribute to the improvement of their living or housing conditions, by assisting or permitting them to—

(1) acquire or improve real estate or reduce encumbrances or erect improvements thereon;

(2) operate or improve the operation of farms not larger than family sized, including but not limited to the purchase of feed, seed, fertilizer, livestock, poultry, and equipment; or

(3) participate in cooperative associations, or finance nonagricultral 1 enterprises which will enable such families to supplement their income.


(b) The Secretary is authorized to provide financial assistance to local cooperative associations or local public and private nonprofit organizations or agencies in rural areas containing concentrations or substantial numbers of low-income persons for the purpose of defraying all or part of the costs of establishing and operating cooperative programs for farming, purchasing, marketing, processing, and to improve their income as producers and their purchasing power as consumers, and to provide such essentials as credit and health services. Costs which may be defrayed shall include—

(1) administrative costs of staff and overhead;

(2) costs of planning and developing new enterprises;

(3) costs of acquiring technical assistance; and

(4) initial capital where it is determined by the Secretary that the poverty of the families participating in the program and the social conditions of the rural area require such assistance.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §621, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 493.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "nonagricultural".

§9811. Limitation on assistance

No financial assistance shall be provided under this part unless the Secretary determines that—

(1) any cooperative association receiving assistance has a minimum of fifteen active members, a majority of which are low-income rural persons;

(2) adequate technical assistance is made available and committed to the programs being supported;

(3) such financial assistance will materially further the purposes of this part; and

(4) the applicant is fulfilling or will fulfill a need for services, supplies, or facilities which is otherwise not being met.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §622, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 494.)

Part C—Development Loans to Community Economic Development Programs

§9812. Development loan fund

(a) Authorities, scope, and purposes; conditions; interest rate; repayment

The Secretary is authorized to make or guarantee loans (either directly or in cooperation with banks or other organizations through agreements to participate on an immediate or deferred basis) to community development corporations, to families and local cooperatives and the designated supportive organizations of cooperatives eligible for financial assistance under this subchapter, to private nonprofit organizations receiving assistance under chapter 106 of this title, or to public and private nonprofit organizations or agencies, for business facilities and community development projects, including community development credit unions, which the Secretary determines will carry out the purposes of this part. No loans, guarantees, or other financial assistance shall be provided under this section unless the Secretary determines that—

(1) there is reasonable assurance of repayment of the loan;

(2) the loan is not otherwise available on reasonable terms from private sources or other Federal, State, or local programs; and

(3) the amount of the loan, together with other funds available, is adequate to assure completion of the project or achievement of the purposes for which the loan is made.


Loans made by the Secretary pursuant to this section shall bear interest at a rate not less than a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury taking into consideration the average market yield on outstanding Treasury obligations of comparable maturity, plus such additional charge, if any, toward covering other costs of the program as the Secretary of Health and Human Services may determine to be consistent with its purposes, except that, for the 5 years following the date in which funds are initially available to the borrower, the rate of interest shall be set at a rate considered appropriate by the Secretary in light of the particular needs of the borrower, which rate shall not be lower than 1 percent. All such loans shall be repayable within a period of not more than 30 years.

(b) Adjustment of interest rates, moratorium on principal and interest, etc.

The Secretary is authorized to adjust interest rates, grant moratoriums on repayment of principal and interest, collect or compromise any obligations held by the Secretary, and to take such other actions in respect to such loans as the Secretary shall determine to be necessary or appropriate, consistent with the purposes of this section.

(c) Establishment, funding, etc.

(1) To carry out the lending and guaranty functions authorized under this part, there shall be established a Development Loan Fund consisting of two separate accounts, one of which shall be a revolving fund called the Rural Development Loan Fund and the other of which shall be a revolving fund called the Community Development Loan Fund. The capital of each such revolving fund shall remain available until expended.

(2) The Rural Development Loan Fund shall consist of the remaining funds provided for in part A of title III of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2841 et seq.], as in effect on September 19, 1972, and such amounts as may be deposited in such fund by the Secretary out of funds made available from appropriations for purposes of carrying out this part. The Secretary shall utilize the services of the Farmers Home Administration,1 or the Rural Development Administration in administering such fund.

(3) The Community Development Loan Fund shall consist of such amounts as may be deposited in such fund by the Secretary out of funds made available from appropriations for purposes of carrying out this subchapter. The Secretary may make deposits in the Community Development Loan Fund in any fiscal year in which the Secretary has made available for grants to community development corporations under this subchapter not less than $60,000,000 out of funds made available from appropriations for purposes of carrying out this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §623, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 494; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXIII, §2303(f)(1), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3981.)

References in Text

Chapter 106 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "subtitle B of this title", meaning subtitle B (§671 et seq.) of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 511, as amended, known as the Community Services Block Grant Act, which is classified generally to chapter 106 (§9901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9901 of this title and Tables.

The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is Pub. L. 88–452, Aug. 20, 1964, 78 Stat. 508, as amended. Part A of title III of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was classified generally to part A (§2841 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 34 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §683(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 519. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–624 inserted ", or the Rural Development Administration" after "Farmers Home Administration".

Transfer of Functions

Functions relating to administration of Community Development Credit Union Revolving Loan Fund transferred from Secretary of Health and Human Services to National Credit Union Administration Board by Pub. L. 99–609, set out as a note under section 9822 of this title.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§9812a. Interest rates payable on certain rural development loans; assignment of loan contracts

(a) Modification of interest rates

Notwithstanding any other provision of law—

(1) any outstanding loan made after December 31, 1982, by the Secretary of Health and Human Services; or

(2) any loan made after September 30, 1986;


with moneys from the Rural Development Loan Fund established by section 9812(c)(1) of this title or with funds available (before October 27, 1998) under section 9910(a) of this title (as in effect before October 27, 1998) to an intermediary borrower shall bear interest at a fixed rate equal to the rate of interest that was in effect on the date of issuance for loans made in 1980 with such moneys or such funds if the weighted average rate of interest for all loans made after December 31, 1982, by such intermediary borrower with such moneys or such funds does not exceed the sum of 6 percent and the rate of interest payable under this subsection by such intermediary borrower.

(b) Assignment of certain loan contracts

Any contract for a loan made during the period beginning on December 31, 1982, and ending on September 30, 1986, with—

(1) moneys from the Rural Development Loan Fund established by section 9812(c)(1) of this title; or

(2) funds available (before October 27, 1998) under section 9910(a) of this title (as in effect before October 27, 1998);


to an intermediary borrower that is a county government may be assigned by such borrower to an entity to which such loan could have been made for the purpose for which such contract was made. Any entity to which such contract is so assigned shall be substituted as a party to such contract and shall be obligated to carry out such contract and the purpose for which such contract was made.

(Pub. L. 99–425, title IV, §407(a), (b), Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 971; Pub. L. 105–285, title II, §202(c), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2755.)

References in Text

Section 9910 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(2), was in the original a reference to section 681 of Pub. L. 97–35. Section 681 of Pub. L. 97–35 was omitted, and a new section 681 enacted, in the general amendment of chapter 106 of this title by Pub. L. 105–285, title II, §201, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2728. The new section 681 is classified to section 9922 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Human Services Reauthorization Act of 1986, and not as part of the Community Economic Development Act of 1981 which comprises this subchapter.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–285, §202(c)(1), in concluding provisions, inserted "(before October 27, 1998)" after "funds available" and "(as in effect before October 27, 1998)" after "9910(a) of this title".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–285, §202(c)(2), inserted "(before October 27, 1998)" after "funds available" and "(as in effect before October 27, 1998)" after "9910(a) of this title".

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 1986, see section 1001 of Pub. L. 99–425, set out as an Effective Date of 1986 Amendment note under section 8621 of this title.

Transfer of Loan by Utah or Ohio Local Public Body to Nonprofit Corporation

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(a) [title VI, §640], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783, 1783-35, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(a) [title VI, §640], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341, 3341-35, purported to amend section 623B(b)(2) of the Community Economic Development Act of 1981, a nonexistent section of that Act (Pub. L. 99–35, title VI, §611 et seq.), by adding at the end thereof the following new sentence: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any Utah or Ohio local public body to which a loan was made after December 31, 1982, from the Rural Development Loan Fund may, at the discretion of such local public body and with the approval of the Secretary of Health and Human Services, transfer such loan to a nonprofit corporation designated by such body to serve as an intermediate borrower and to carry out the purposes of the loan."

§9813. Model Community Economic Development Finance Corporation; establishment; functions

To the extent he deems appropriate, the Secretary shall utilize funds available under this part to prepare a plan of action for the establishment of a Model Community Economic Development Finance Corporation to provide a user-controlled independent and professionally operated long-term financing vehicle with the principal purpose of providing financial support for community economic development corporations, cooperatives, other affiliated and supportive agencies and organizations associated with community economic development corporations, and other entities eligible for assistance under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §624, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 495.)

Part D—Supportive Programs and Activities

§9814. Training and technical assistance

(a) Grants, contracts, and other arrangements; preconditions

The Secretary shall provide, directly or through grants, contracts, or other arrangements, such technical assistance and training of personnel as may be required to effectively implement the purposes of this subchapter. No financial assistance shall be provided to any public or private organization under this section unless the Secretary provides the beneficiaries of these services with opportunity to participate in the selection of and to review the quality and utility of the services furnished them by such organization.

(b) Technical assistance to community development corporations and urban and rural cooperatives

Technical assistance to community development corporations and both urban and rural cooperatives may include planning, management, legal assistance or support, preparation of feasibility studies, product development, marketing, and the provision of stipends to encourage skilled professionals to engage in full-time activities under the direction of a community organization financially assisted under this subchapter.

(c) Training for employees of community development corporations and employees and members of urban and rural cooperatives

Training for employees of community development corporations and for employees and members of urban and rural cooperatives shall include on-the-job training, classroom instruction, and scholarships to assist them in development, managerial, entrepreneurial, planning, and other technical and organizational skills which will contribute to the effectiveness of programs assisted under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §625, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 496.)

§9815. Small Business Administration and Department of Commerce economic development programs; regulations

(a)(1) Funds granted under this subchapter which are invested directly or indirectly, in a small investment company, local development company, limited small business investment company, or small business investment company licensee under section 681(d) 1 of title 15 shall be included as "private paid-in capital and paid-in surplus", "combined paid-in capital and paid-in surplus", and "paid-in capital" for purposes of sections 682, 683, and 696, respectively, of title 15.

(2) Not later than 90 days after August 13, 1981, the Administrator of the Small Business Administration, after consultation with the Secretary, shall promulgate regulations to ensure the availability to community development corporations of such programs as shall further the purposes of this subchapter, including programs under section 637(a) of title 15.

(b)(1) Areas selected for assistance under this subchapter shall be deemed "redevelopment areas" within the meaning of section 401 of the Publc 2 Works and Economic Development Act of 1965,1 shall qualify for assistance under the provisions of title I and title II of such Act, and shall be deemed to have met the overall economic development program requirements of section 202(b)(10) of such Act.

(2) Not later than 90 days after August 13, 1981, the Secretary of Commerce shall prescribe regulations which will ensure that community development corporations and cooperatives shall qualify for assistance and shall be eligible to receive such assistance under all such programs of the Economic Development Administration as shall further the purposes of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §626, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 496.)

References in Text

Section 681(d) of title 15, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–208, div. D, title II, §208(b)(3)(A), Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–742.

The Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is Pub. L. 89–136, Aug. 26, 1965, 79 Stat. 552, as amended. Titles I to VI of the Act of 1965 were repealed and new titles I to VI were enacted by Pub. L. 105–393, title I, §102(a), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3597. As so enacted, section 401 of the Act no longer defines "redevelopment areas" and section 202 of the Act no longer contains a subsec. (b). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3121 of this title and Tables.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "Public".

§9816. Department of Housing and Urban Development programs

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, after consultation with the Secretary, shall take all necessary steps to assist community development corporations and local cooperative associations to qualify for and receive (1) such assistance in connection with technical assistance, counseling to tenants and homeowners, and loans to sponsors of low-income and moderate-income housing under section 106 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 [12 U.S.C. 1701x], as amended by section 811 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974; (2) such land for housing and business location and expansion under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.]; and (3) such funds for comprehensive planning under section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954,1 as amended by section 401 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, as shall further the purposes of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §627, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 497.)

References in Text

Section 811 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, referred to in text, is section 811 of Pub. L. 93–383, title VIII, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 735, which amended section 1701x of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 93–383, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 633, as amended. Title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 is classified principally to chapter 69 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Section 701 of the Housing Act of 1954, referred to in text, is section 701 of act Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, 68 Stat. 640, as amended, which was classified to section 461 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, and was repealed by Pub. L. 97–35, title III, 313(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 398.

Section 401 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, referred to in text, is section 401 of Pub. L. 93–383, title IV, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 686, subsecs. (a) and (b) of which amended section 461 of former Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works, prior to its repeal by Pub. L. 97–35, and subsec. (c) of which amended section 460 of former Title 40.

Capacity Building for Community Development and Affordable Housing

Pub. L. 103–120, §4, Oct. 27, 1993, 107 Stat. 1148, as amended by Pub. L. 105–18, title II, §10004, June 12, 1997, 111 Stat. 201, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary is authorized to provide assistance through the National Community Development Initiative, Local Initiatives Support Corporation, The Enterprise Foundation, Habitat for Humanity, and Youthbuild USA to develop the capacity and ability of community development corporations and community housing development organizations to undertake community development and affordable housing projects and programs.

"(b) Form of Assistance.—Assistance under this section may be used for—

"(1) training, education, support, and advice to enhance the technical and administrative capabilities of community development corporations and community housing development organizations;

"(2) loans, grants, or predevelopment assistance to community development corporations and community housing development organizations to carry out community development and affordable housing activities that benefit low-income families; and

"(3) such other activities as may be determined by the National Community Development Initiative, Local Initiatives Support Corporation, The Enterprise Foundation, Habitat for Humanity, and Youthbuild USA in consultation with the Secretary.

"(c) Matching Requirement.—Assistance provided under this section shall be matched from private sources in an amount equal to 3 times the amount made available under this section.

"(d) Implementation.—The Secretary shall by notice establish such requirements as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section. The notice shall take effect upon issuance.

"(e) Authorization.—There are authorized to be appropriated $25,000,000 for fiscal year 1994 to carry out this section."

1 See References in Text note below.

§9817. Department of Agriculture; Rural Development Administration programs

The Secretary of Agriculture or, where appropriate, the Administrator of the Farmers Home Administration, or of the Rural Development Administration, after consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, shall take all necessary steps to ensure that community development corporations and local cooperative associations shall qualify for and shall receive—

(1) such assistance in connection with housing development under the Housing Act of 1949, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1441 et seq.];

(2) such assistance in connection with housing, business, industrial, and community development under the Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961 [7 U.S.C. 1921 et seq.] and the Rural Development Act of 1972; and

(3) such further assistance under all such programs of the United States Department of Agriculture; as shall further the purposes of this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §628, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 497; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXIII, §2303(f)(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3981.)

References in Text

The Housing Act of 1949, referred to in par. (1), is act July 15, 1949, ch. 338, 63 Stat. 413, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8A (§1441 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title and Tables.

The Consolidated Farmers Home Administration Act of 1961, referred to in par. (2), is title III of Pub. L. 87–128, Aug. 8, 1961, 75 Stat. 307, as amended, which was redesignated the Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act by Pub. L. 92–419, §101, Aug. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 657, and is classified principally to chapter 50 (§1921 et seq.) of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1921 of Title 7 and Tables.

The Rural Development Act of 1972, referred to in par. (2), is Pub. L. 92–419, Aug. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 657, as amended. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1972 Amendment note set out under section 1921 of Title 7.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–624 substituted "Department of Agriculture; Rural Development Administration programs" for "Department of Agriculture and Farmers Home Administration programs" in section catchline and inserted ", or of the Rural Development Administration" after "of the Farmers Home Administration" in text.

§9818. Coordination and eligibility

(a) The Secretary shall take all necessary and appropriate steps to encourage Federal departments and agencies and State and local governments to make grants, provide technical assistance, enter into contracts, and generally support and cooperate with community development corporations and local cooperative associations.

(b) Eligibility for assistance under other Federal programs shall not be denied to any applicant on the ground that it is a community development corporation or any other entity assisted under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §629, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 497.)

§9819. Evaluation of programs; implementation and funding, etc.; research and demonstration projects; implementation and purposes

(a) Each program for which grants are made under this subchapter shall provide for a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of the program in achieving its purposes, which evaluation shall be conducted by such public or private organizations as the Secretary in consultation with existing grantees familiar with programs carried out under the Community Services Block Grant Act [42 U.S.C. 9901 et seq.] may designate, and all or part of the costs of evaluation may be paid from funds appropriated to carry out this part. In evaluating the performance of any community development corporation funded under part A, the criteria for evaluation shall be based upon such program objectives, goals, and priorities as are consistent with the purposes of this subchapter and were set forth by such community development corporation in its proposal for funding as approved and agreed upon by or as subsequently modified from time to time by mutual agreement between the Secretary and such community development corporation.

(b) The Secretary shall conduct, either directly or through grants or other arrangements, research and demonstration projects designed to suggest new programs and policies to achieve the purposes of this subchapter in such ways as to provide opportunities for employment, ownership, and a better quality of life for low-income residents.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §630, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 497.)

References in Text

The Community Services Block Grant Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is subtitle B (§671 et seq.) of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 511, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 106 (§9901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 9901 of this title and Tables.

§9820. Grants to plan economic development and cooperative programs

In order to facilitate the purposes of this subchapter, the Secretary is authorized to provide financial assistance to any public or private nonprofit agency or organization for planning of community economic development programs and cooperative programs under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §631, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 498.)

§9821. Nondiscrimination provisions

(a) The Secretary shall not provide financial assistance for any program, project, or activity under this subchapter unless the grant or contract with respect thereto specifically provides that no person with responsibilities in the operation thereof will discriminate with respect to any such program, project, or activity because of race, creed, color, national origin, sex, political affiliation, or beliefs.

(b) No person in the United States shall on the ground of sex be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, be subjected to discrimination under, or be denied employment in connection with any program or activity receiving assistance under this subchapter. The Secretary shall enforce the provisions of the preceding sentence in accordance with section 2000d–1 of this title. Section 2000d–2 of this title shall apply with respect to any action taken by the Secretary to enforce such sentence. This section shall not be construed as affecting any other legal remedy that a person may have if such person is excluded from participation in, denied the benefits of, subjected to discrimination under, or denied employment in connection with, any program, project, or activity receiving assistance under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §632, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 498.)

§9822. Availability of certain appropriated funds

Funds appropriated to the Rural Development Loan Fund under title VII of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2981 et seq.] (as in effect on August 12, 1981), and interest accumulated in such fund, shall be deposited in the Rural Development Loan Fund established under section 9812(c)(1) of this title and shall continue to be available to carry out the purposes of such fund. Funds appropriated to the Community Development Credit Union Revolving Loan Fund under title VII of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 (as in effect on August 12, 1981), and interest accumulated in such fund, shall continue to be available to carry out the purposes of such fund.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §633, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 498.)

References in Text

The Economic Opportunity Act of 1964, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 88–452, Aug. 20, 1964, 78 Stat. 508, as amended. Title VII of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 was classified generally to subchapter VII (§2981 et seq.) of chapter 34 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §683(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 519. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

"August 12, 1981" substituted in text for "the day before the date of the enactment of this Act".

Transfer of Community Development Credit Union Revolving Loan Fund

Pub. L. 99–609, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3475, provided that:

"SECTION 1. SHORT TITLE.

"This Act may be cited as the 'Community Development Credit Union Revolving Loan Fund Transfer Act'.

"SEC. 2. TRANSFER OF COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT CREDIT UNION REVOLVING LOAN FUND.

"(a) Administration of Fund by NCUA.—

"(1) In general.—Beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986], the National Credit Union Administration Board shall administer the Community Development Credit Union Revolving Loan Fund.

"(2) Transfer of authority.—All authority to carry out the purposes of the Fund and to prescribe regulations in connection with the administration of the Fund which, on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act, was vested in the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall vest on such date in the Board. Except as provided in subsection (c), the Secretary shall have no further responsibility with respect to the Fund.

"(b) Continued Availability of Appropriated Funds.—All funds appropriated to the Fund and interest accumulated in the Fund which continue to be available under section 633 of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 [42 U.S.C. 9822] shall continue to be available to the Board to carry out the purposes of the Fund.

"(c) Transfer of Assets; Etc.—The Secretary shall transfer to the National Credit Union Administration all assets, liabilities, grants, contracts, property, records, and funds held, used, arising from, or available to the Secretary in connection with the administration of the Fund before the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986].

"(d) Savings Provisions.—

"(1) Regulations.—Any regulations prescribed by the Secretary in connection with the administration of the Fund shall continue in effect until superseded by regulations prescribed by the Board.

"(2) Existing rights, duties, and obligations not affected.—Subsection (a) shall not be construed as affecting the validity of any right, duty, or obligation of the United States or any other person arising under or pursuant to any contract, loan, or other instrument or agreement which was in effect on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 6, 1986].

"(3) Continuation of suits.—No action or other proceeding commenced by or against the Secretary in connection with the administration of the Fund shall abate by reason of the enactment of this Act, except that the Board shall be substituted for the Secretary as a party to any such action or proceeding.

"(e) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) Board.—The term 'Board' means the National Credit Union Administration Board.

"(2) Fund.—The term 'Fund' means the Community Development Credit Union Revolving Loan Fund established under title VII of the Economic Opportunity Act of 1964 [see References in Text note above] (as in effect before the date of the enactment of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1981 [Aug. 13, 1981]).

"(3) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Health and Human Services."

SUBCHAPTER II—HEAD START PROGRAMS

Codification

Subchapter is based on subchapter B of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499, as amended.

§9831. Statement of purpose

It is the purpose of this subchapter to promote the school readiness of low-income children by enhancing their cognitive, social, and emotional development—

(1) in a learning environment that supports children's growth in language, literacy, mathematics, science, social and emotional functioning, creative arts, physical skills, and approaches to learning; and

(2) through the provision to low-income children and their families of health, educational, nutritional, social, and other services that are determined, based on family needs assessments, to be necessary.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §636, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §102, Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1224; Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §102, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2703; Pub. L. 110–134, §2, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1363.)

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–134 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "It is the purpose of this subchapter to promote school readiness by enhancing the social and cognitive development of low-income children through the provision, to low-income children and their families, of health, educational, nutritional, social, and other services that are determined, based on family needs assessments, to be necessary."

1998Pub. L. 105–285 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) In recognition of the role which Project Head Start has played in the effective delivery of comprehensive health, educational, nutritional, social, and other services to economically disadvantaged children and their families, it is the purpose of this subchapter to extend the authority for the appropriation of funds for such program.

"(b) In carrying out the provisions of this subchapter, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall continue the administrative arrangement responsible for meeting the needs of migrant, non-English language background, and Indian children and shall assure that appropriate funding is provided to meet such needs."

1990—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–501 inserted ", non-English language background," after "migrant".

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–501 effective Oct. 1, 1990, see section 1001(a) of Pub. L. 101–501, set out as a note under section 8621 of this title.

Short Title

For short title of this subchapter as the "Head Start Act", see section 635 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as a note under section 9801 of this title.

Preschool Development Grants

Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9212, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2152, provided that:

"(a) Purposes.—The purposes of this section are—

"(1) to assist States to develop, update, or implement a strategic plan that facilitates collaboration and coordination among existing programs of early childhood care and education in a mixed delivery system across the State designed to prepare low-income and disadvantaged children to enter kindergarten and to improve transitions from such system into the local educational agency or elementary school that enrolls such children, by—

"(A) more efficiently using existing Federal, State, local, and non-governmental resources to align and strengthen the delivery of existing programs;

"(B) coordinating the delivery models and funding streams existing in the State's mixed delivery system; and

"(C) developing recommendations to better use existing resources in order to improve—

"(i) the overall participation of children in a mixed delivery system of Federal, State, and local early childhood education programs;

"(ii) program quality while maintaining availability of services;

"(iii) parental choice among existing programs; and

"(iv) school readiness for children from low-income and disadvantaged families, including during such children's transition into elementary school;

"(2) to encourage partnerships among Head Start providers, State and local governments, Indian tribes and tribal organizations, private entities (including faith- and community-based entities), and local educational agencies, to improve coordination, program quality, and delivery of services; and

"(3) to maximize parental choice among a mixed delivery system of early childhood education program providers.

"(b) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) ESEA definitions.—The terms 'elementary school', 'local educational agency', and 'State' have the meanings given the terms in section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7801].

"(2) Center of excellence in early childhood.—The term 'Center of Excellence in Early Childhood' means a Center of Excellence in Early Childhood designated under section 657B(b) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9852b(b)).

"(3) Early childhood education program.—The term 'early childhood education program' has the meaning given the term in section 103 of the Higher Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 1003).

"(4) Existing program.—The term 'existing program' means a Federal, State, local, or privately-funded early childhood education program that—

"(A) was operating in the State on the day before the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 10, 2015]; or

"(B) began operating in the State at any time on or after the date of enactment of this Act through funds that were not provided by a grant under this section.

"(5) Mixed delivery system.—The term 'mixed delivery system' means a system—

"(A) of early childhood education services that are delivered through a combination of programs, providers, and settings (such as Head Start, licensed family and center-based child care programs, public schools, and community-based organizations); and

"(B) that is supported with a combination of public funds and private funds.

"(6) Secretary.—The term 'Secretary' means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

"(7) State advisory council.—The term 'State Advisory Council' means a State Advisory Council on Early Childhood Education and Care designated or established under section 642B(b)(1)(A) of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9837b(b)(1)(A)).

"(c) Grants Authorized.—

"(1) In general.—From amounts made available under subsection (k), the Secretary, jointly with the Secretary of Education, shall award grants to States to enable the States to carry out the activities described in subsection (f).

"(2) Award basis.—Grants under this subsection shall be awarded—

"(A) on a competitive basis; and

"(B) with priority for States that meet the requirements of subsection (e)(3).

"(3) Duration of grants.—A grant awarded under paragraph (1) shall be for a period of not more than 1 year and may be renewed by the Secretary, jointly with the Secretary of Education, under subsection (g).

"(4) Matching requirement.—Each State that receives a grant under this section shall provide funds from non-Federal sources (which may be provided in cash or in kind) to carry out the activities supported by the grant, in an amount equal to not less than 30 percent of the amount of such grant.

"(d) Initial Application.—A State desiring a grant under subsection (c)(1) shall submit an application at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require. The application shall contain—

"(1) an identification of the State entity that the Governor of the State has appointed to be responsible for duties under this section;

"(2) a description of how such State entity proposes to accomplish the activities described in subsection (f) and meet the purposes of this section described in subsection (a), including—

"(A) a timeline for strategic planning activities; and

"(B) a description of how the strategic planning activities and the proposed activities described in subsection (f) will increase participation of children from low-income and disadvantaged families in high-quality early childhood education and preschool programs as a result of the grant;

"(3) a description of the Federal, State, and local existing programs in the State for which such State entity proposes to facilitate activities described in subsection (f), including—

"(A) programs carried out under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9801 et seq.) [42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.], including the Early Head Start programs carried out under such Act;

"(B) child care programs carried out under the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.) [42 U.S.C. 9857 et seq.] or section 418 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 618); and

"(C) other Federal, State, and local programs of early learning and development, early childhood education, and child care, operating in the State (including programs operated by Indian tribes and tribal organizations and private entities, including faith- and community-based entities), as of the date of the application for the grant;

"(4) a description of how the State entity, in collaboration with Centers of Excellence in Early Childhood, if appropriate, will provide technical assistance and disseminate best practices;

"(5) a description of how the State plans to sustain the activities described in, and carried out in accordance with, subsection (f) with non-Federal sources after grant funds under this section are no longer available, if the State plans to continue such activities after such time; and

"(6) a description of how the State entity will work with the State Advisory Council and Head Start collaboration offices.

"(e) Review Process.—The Secretary shall review the applications submitted under subsection (d) to—

"(1) determine which applications satisfy the requirements of such subsection;

"(2) confirm that each State submitting an application has, as of the date of the application, a mixed delivery system in place; and

"(3) determine if a priority is merited in accordance with subsection (c)(2)(B) because the State has never received—

"(A) a grant under subsection (c); or

"(B) a preschool development grant for development or expansion under such program as it existed on the day before the date of enactment of this Act.

"(f) Use of Funds.—A State, acting through the State entity appointed under subsection (d)(1), that receives a grant under subsection (c)(1) shall use the grant funds for all of the following activities:

"(1) Conducting a periodic statewide needs assessment of—

"(A) the availability and quality of existing programs in the State, including such programs serving the most vulnerable or underserved populations and children in rural areas;

"(B) to the extent practicable, the unduplicated number of children being served in existing programs; and

"(C) to the extent practicable, the unduplicated number of children awaiting service in such programs.

"(2) Developing a strategic plan that recommends collaboration, coordination, and quality improvement activities (including activities to improve children's transition from early childhood education programs into elementary schools) among existing programs in the State and local educational agencies. Such plan shall include information that—

"(A) identifies opportunities for, and barriers to, collaboration and coordination among existing programs in the State, including among State, local, and tribal (if applicable) agencies responsible for administering such programs;

"(B) recommends partnership opportunities among Head Start providers, local educational agencies, State and local governments, Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and private entities (including faith- and community-based entities) that would improve coordination, program quality, and delivery of services;

"(C) builds on existing plans and goals with respect to early childhood education programs, including improving coordination and collaboration among such programs, of the State Advisory Council while incorporating new or updated Federal, State, and local statutory requirements, including—

"(i) the requirements of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.) [42 U.S.C. 9857 et seq.]; and

"(ii) when appropriate, information found in the report required under section 13 of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014 (Public Law 113–186; 128 Stat. 2002); and

"(D) describes how accomplishing the activities described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) will better serve children and families in existing programs and how such activities will increase the overall participation of children in the State.

"(3) Maximizing parental choice and knowledge about the State's mixed delivery system of existing programs and providers by—

"(A) ensuring that parents are provided information about the variety of early childhood education programs for children from birth to kindergarten entry in the State's mixed delivery system; and

"(B) promoting and increasing involvement by parents and family members, including families of low-income and disadvantaged children, in the development of their children and the transition of such children from an early childhood education program into an elementary school.

"(4) Sharing best practices among early childhood education program providers in the State to increase collaboration and efficiency of services, including to improve transitions from such programs to elementary school.

"(5) After activities described in paragraphs (1) and (2) have been completed, improving the overall quality of early childhood education programs in the State, including by developing and implementing evidence-based practices that meet the requirements of section 8101(21)(A)(i) of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7801(21)(A)(i)], to improve professional development for early childhood education providers and educational opportunities for children.

"(g) Renewal Grants.—

"(1) In general.—The Secretary, jointly with the Secretary of Education, may use funds available under subsection (k) to award renewal grants to States described in paragraph (2) to enable such States to continue activities described in subsection (f) and to carry out additional activities described in paragraph (6).

"(2) Eligible states.—A State shall be eligible for a grant under paragraph (1) if—

"(A) the State has received a grant under subsection (c)(1) and the grant period has concluded; or

"(B)(i) the State has received a preschool development grant for development or expansion under such program as it existed on the day before the date of enactment of this Act, and the grant period for such grant has concluded; and

"(ii) the Secretary allows such State to apply directly for a renewal grant under this subsection, rather than an initial grant under subsection (c)(1), and the State submits with its application the needs assessment completed under the preschool development grant (updated as necessary to reflect the needs of the State as of the time of the application) in place of the activity described in subsection (f)(1).

"(3) Duration of grants.—A grant awarded under this subsection shall be for a period of not more than 3 years and shall not be renewed.

"(4) Matching requirement.—Each State that receives a grant under this subsection shall provide funds from non-Federal sources (which may be provided in cash or in kind) to carry out the activities supported by the grant, in an amount equal to not less than 30 percent of the amount of the grant.

"(5) Application.—A State described in paragraph (2) that desires a grant under this subsection shall submit an application for renewal at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may reasonably require. The application shall contain—

"(A) applicable information required in the application described in subsection (d), and in the case of a State described in paragraph (2)(A), updated as the State determines necessary;

"(B) in the case of a State described in paragraph (2)(A), a description of how funds were used for the activities described in subsection (f) in the initial grant period and the extent to which such activities will continue to be supported in the renewal period;

"(C) in the case of a State described in paragraph (2)(B), how a needs assessment completed prior to the date of the application, such as the needs assessment completed under the preschool development grant program (as such program existed prior to the date of enactment of this Act), and updated as necessary in accordance with paragraph (2)(B)(ii), will be sufficient information to inform the use of funds under this subsection, and a copy of such needs assessment;

"(D) a description of how funds will be used for the activities described in paragraph (6) during the renewal grant period, if the State proposes to use grant funds for such activities; and

"(E) in the case of a State that proposes to carry out activities described in paragraph (6) and to continue such activities after grant funds under this subsection are no longer available, a description of how such activities will be sustained with non-Federal sources after such time.

"(6) Additional activities.—

"(A) In general.—Each State that receives a grant under this subsection may use grant funds to award subgrants to programs in a mixed delivery system across the State designed to benefit low-income and disadvantaged children prior to entering kindergarten, to—

"(i)(I) enable programs to implement activities addressing areas in need of improvement as determined by the State, through the use of funds for the activities described in paragraph (5)(C) or subsection (f), as applicable; and

"(II) as determined through the activities described in paragraph (5)(C) or subsection (f), as applicable, expand access to such existing programs; or

"(ii) develop new programs to address the needs of children and families eligible for, but not served by, such programs, if the State ensures that—

     "(I) the distribution of subgrants under this subparagraph supports a mixed delivery system; and

     "(II) funds made available under this subparagraph will be used to supplement, and not supplant, any other Federal, State, or local funds that would otherwise be available to carry out the activities assisted under this section.

"(B) Priority.—In awarding subgrants under subparagraph (A), a State shall prioritize activities to improve areas in which there are State-identified needs that would improve services for low-income and disadvantaged children living in rural areas.

"(C) Special rule.—A State receiving a renewal grant under this subsection that elects to award subgrants under subparagraph (A) shall not—

"(i) for the first year of the renewal grant, use more than 60 percent of the grant funds available for such year to award such subgrants; and

"(ii) for each of the second and third years of the renewal grant, use more than 75 percent of the grant funds available for such year to award such subgrants.

"(h) State Reporting.—

"(1) Initial grants.—A State that receives an initial grant under subsection (c)(1) shall submit a final report to the Secretary not later than 6 months after the end of the grant period. The report shall include a description of—

"(A) how, and to what extent, the grant funds were utilized for activities described in subsection (f), and any other activities through which funds were used to meet the purposes of this section, as described in subsection (a);

"(B) strategies undertaken at the State level and, if applicable, local or program level, to implement recommendations in the strategic plan developed under subsection (f)(2);

"(C)(i) any new partnerships among Head Start providers, State and local governments, Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and private entities (including faith- and community-based entities); and

"(ii) how these partnerships improve coordination and delivery of services;

"(D) if applicable, the degree to which the State used information from the report required under section 13 of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014 to inform activities under this section, and how this information was useful in coordinating, and collaborating among, programs and funding sources;

"(E) the extent to which activities funded by the initial grant led to the blending or braiding of other public and private funding;

"(F) how information about available existing programs for children from birth to kindergarten entry was disseminated to parents and families, and how involvement by parents and family was improved; and

"(G) other State-determined and voluntarily provided information to share best practices regarding early childhood education programs and the coordination of such programs.

"(2) Renewal grants.—A State receiving a renewal grant under subsection (g) shall submit a follow-up report to the Secretary not later than 6 months after the end of the grant period that includes—

"(A) information described in subparagraphs (A) through (G) of paragraph (1), as applicable and updated for the period covered by the renewal grant; and

"(B) if applicable, information on how the State was better able to serve children through the distribution of funds in accordance with subsection (g)(5), through—

"(i) a description of the activities conducted through the use of subgrant funds, including, where appropriate, measurable areas of program improvement and better use of existing resources; and

"(ii) best practices from the use of subgrant funds, including how to better serve the most vulnerable, underserved, and rural populations.

"(i) Rules of Construction.—

"(1) Limitations on federal interference.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the Secretary or the Secretary of Education to establish any criterion for grants made under this section that specifies, defines, or prescribes—

"(A) early learning and development guidelines, standards, or specific assessments, including the standards or measures that States use to develop, implement, or improve such guidelines, standards, or assessments;

"(B) specific measures or indicators of quality early learning and care, including—

"(i) the systems that States use to assess the quality of early childhood education programs and providers, school readiness, and achievement; and

"(ii) the term 'high-quality' as it relates to early learning, development, or care;

"(C) early learning or preschool curriculum, programs of instruction, or instructional content;

"(D) teacher and staff qualifications and salaries;

"(E) class sizes and ratios of children to instructional staff;

"(F) any new requirement that an early childhood education program is required to meet that is not explicitly authorized in this section;

"(G) the scope of programs, including length of program day and length of program year; and

"(H) any aspect or parameter of a teacher, principal, other school leader, or staff evaluation system within a State, local educational agency, or early childhood education program.

"(2) Limitation on governmental requirements.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the Secretary, Secretary of Education, the State, or any other governmental agency to alter requirements for existing programs for which coordination and alignment activities are recommended under this section, or to force programs to adhere to any recommendations developed through this program. The Secretary, Secretary of Education, State, or other governmental agency may only take an action described in the preceding sentence as otherwise authorized under Federal, State, or local law.

"(3) Secretary of education.—Nothing in this section shall be construed to authorize the Secretary of Education to have sole decision-making or regulatory authority in carrying out the program authorized under this section.

"(j) Planning and Transition.—

"(1) In general.—The recipient of an award for a preschool development grant for development or expansion under such program as it existed on the day before the date of enactment of this Act may continue to receive funds in accordance with the terms of such existing award.

"(2) Transition.—The Secretary, jointly with the Secretary of Education, shall take such steps as are necessary to ensure an orderly transition to, and implementation of, the program under this section from the preschool development grants for development or expansion program as such program was operating prior to the date of enactment of this Act, in accordance with subsection (k).

"(k) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Health and Human Services to carry out this section $250,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2020."

Review of Federal Early Childhood Education Programs

Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9213, Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2160, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the heads of all Federal agencies that administer Federal early childhood education programs, shall conduct an interdepartmental review of all early childhood education programs for children less than 6 years of age in order to—

"(1) develop a plan for the elimination of overlapping programs, as identified by the Government Accountability Office's 2012 annual report (GAO–12–342SP);

"(2) determine if the activities conducted by States using grant funds from preschool development grants under section 9212 [set out above] have led to better utilization of resources; and

"(3) make recommendations to Congress for streamlining all such programs.

"(b) Report and Updates.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services, in consultation with the heads of all Federal agencies that administer Federal early childhood education programs, shall—

"(1) not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 10, 2015], prepare and submit to the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate and the Committee on Education and the Workforce of the House of Representatives a detailed report that—

"(A) outlines the efficiencies that can be achieved by, and specific recommendations for, eliminating overlap and fragmentation among all Federal early childhood education programs;

"(B) explains how the use by States of preschool development grant funds under section 9212 has led to the better utilization of resources; and

"(C) builds upon the review of Federal early learning and care programs required under section 13 of the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 2014 (Public Law 113–186; 128 Stat. 2002); and

"(2) annually prepare and submit to such Committees a detailed update of the report described in paragraph (1)."

§9832. Definitions

For purposes of this subchapter:

(1) The term "child with a disability" means—

(A) a child with a disability, as defined in section 1401(3) of title 20; and

(B) an infant or toddler with a disability, as defined in section 1432(5) of title 20.


(2) The term "deficiency" means—

(A) a systemic or substantial material failure of an agency in an area of performance that the Secretary determines involves—

(i) a threat to the health, safety, or civil rights of children or staff;

(ii) a denial to parents of the exercise of their full roles and responsibilities related to program operations;

(iii) a failure to comply with standards related to early childhood development and health services, family and community partnerships, or program design and management;

(iv) the misuse of funds received under this subchapter;

(v) loss of legal status (as determined by the Secretary) or financial viability, loss of permits, debarment from receiving Federal grants or contracts, or the improper use of Federal funds; or

(vi) failure to meet any other Federal or State requirement that the agency has shown an unwillingness or inability to correct, after notice from the Secretary, within the period specified;


(B) systemic or material failure of the governing body of an agency to fully exercise its legal and fiduciary responsibilities; or

(C) an unresolved area of noncompliance.


(3) The term "delegate agency" means a public, private nonprofit (including a community-based organization, as defined in section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7801]), or for-profit organization or agency to which a grantee has delegated all or part of the responsibility of the grantee for operating a Head Start program.

(4) The term "family literacy services" means services that are of sufficient intensity in terms of hours, and of sufficient duration, to make sustainable changes in a family, and that integrate all of the following activities:

(A) Interactive literacy activities between parents and their children.

(B) Training for parents regarding how to be the primary teacher for their children and full partners in the education of their children.

(C) Parent literacy training that leads to economic self-sufficiency, and financial literacy..1

(D) An age-appropriate education to prepare children for success in school and life experiences.


(5) The term "financial assistance" includes assistance provided by grant, agreement, or contract, and payments may be made in installments and in advance or by way of reimbursement with necessary adjustments on account of overpayments or underpayments.

(6) The term "full calendar year" means all days of the year other than Saturday, Sunday, and a legal public holiday.

(7) The term "full-working-day" means not less than 10 hours per day. Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require an agency to provide services to a child who has not reached the age of compulsory school attendance for more than the number of hours per day permitted by State law (including regulation) for the provision of services to such a child.

(8) The term "Head Start classroom" means a group of children supervised and taught by two paid staff members (a teacher and a teacher's aide or two teachers) and, where possible, a volunteer.

(9) The term "Head Start family day care" means Head Start services provided in a private residence other than the residence of the child receiving such services.

(10) The term "home-based Head Start program" means a Head Start program that provides Head Start services in the private residence of the child receiving such services.

(11) The term "homeless children" has the meaning given the term "homeless children and youths" in section 11434a(2) of this title.

(12) The term "Indian tribe" means any tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group or community of Indians, including any Native village described in section 3(c) of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (43 U.S.C. 1602(c)) or established pursuant to such Act (43 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.), that is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(13) The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001(a) of title 20.

(14) The term "interrater reliability" means the extent to which 2 or more independent raters or observers consistently obtain the same result when using the same assessment tool.

(15) The term "limited English proficient", used with respect to a child, means a child—

(A)(i) who was not born in the United States or whose native language is a language other than English;

(ii)(I) who is a Native American (as defined in section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 7801]), an Alaska Native, or a native resident of an outlying area (as defined in such section 8101); and

(II) who comes from an environment where a language other than English has had a significant impact on the child's level of English language proficiency; or

(iii) who is migratory, whose native language is a language other than English, and who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant; and

(B) whose difficulties in speaking or understanding the English language may be sufficient to deny such child—

(i) the ability to successfully achieve in a classroom in which the language of instruction is English; or

(ii) the opportunity to participate fully in society.


(16) The term "local educational agency" has the meaning given such term in the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 [20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.].

(17) The term "migrant or seasonal Head Start program" means—

(A) with respect to services for migrant farmworkers, a Head Start program that serves families who are engaged in agricultural labor and who have changed their residence from one geographic location to another in the preceding 2-year period; and

(B) with respect to services for seasonal farmworkers, a Head Start program that serves families who are engaged primarily in seasonal agricultural labor and who have not changed their residence to another geographic location in the preceding 2-year period.


(18) The term "mobile Head Start program" means the provision of Head Start services utilizing transportable equipment set up in various community-based locations on a routine, weekly schedule, operating in conjunction with home-based Head Start programs, or as a Head Start classroom.

(19) The term "poverty line" means the official poverty line (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget)—

(A) adjusted to reflect the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index For 2 All Urban Consumers, issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics, occurring in the 1-year period or other interval immediately preceding the date such adjustment is made; and

(B) adjusted for family size.


(20) The term "principles of scientific research" means principles of research that—

(A) applies rigorous, systematic, and objective methodology to obtain reliable and valid knowledge relevant to education activities and programs;

(B) presents findings and makes claims that are appropriate to and supported by methods that have been employed; and

(C) includes, as appropriate to the research being conducted—

(i) use of systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment;

(ii) use of data analyses that are adequate to support the general findings;

(iii) reliance on measurements or observational methods that provide reliable and generalizable findings;

(iv) strong claims of causal relationships, only with research designs that eliminate plausible competing explanations for observed results, such as, but not limited to, random assignment experiments;

(v) presentation of studies and methods in sufficient detail and clarity to allow for replication or, at a minimum, to offer the opportunity to build systematically on the findings of the research;

(vi) acceptance by a peer-reviewed journal or critique by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review; and

(vii) consistency of findings across multiple studies or sites to support the generality of results and conclusions.


(21) The term "professional development" means high-quality activities that will improve the knowledge and skills of Head Start teachers and staff, as relevant to their roles and functions, in program administration and the provision of services and instruction, as appropriate, in a manner that improves service delivery to enrolled children and their families, including activities that—

(A) are part of a sustained effort to improve overall program quality and outcomes for enrolled children and their families;

(B) are developed or selected with extensive participation of administrators and teachers from Head Start programs;

(C) are developmentally appropriate for the children being served;

(D) include instruction in ways that Head Start teachers and staff may work more effectively with parents, as appropriate;

(E) are designed to give Head Start teachers and staff the knowledge and skills to provide instruction and appropriate support services to children of diverse backgrounds, as appropriate;

(F) may include a 1-day or short-term workshop or conference, if the workshop or conference is consistent with the goals in the professional development plan described in section 9843a(f) of this title and will be delivered by an institution of higher education or other entity, with expertise in delivering training in early childhood development, training in family support, and other assistance designed to improve the delivery of Head Start services; and

(G) in the case of teachers, assist teachers with—

(i) the acquisition of the content knowledge and teaching strategies needed to provide effective instruction and other school readiness services regarding early language and literacy, early mathematics, early science, cognitive skills, approaches to learning, creative arts, physical health and development, and social and emotional development linked to school readiness;

(ii) meeting the requirements in paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 9843a(a) of this title, as appropriate;

(iii) improving classroom management skills, as appropriate;

(iv) advancing their understanding of effective instructional strategies that are—

(I) based on scientifically valid research; and

(II) aligned with—

(aa) the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework developed by the Secretary and, as appropriate, State early learning standards; and

(bb) curricula, ongoing assessments, and other instruction and services, designed to help meet the standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title;


(v) acquiring the knowledge and skills to provide instruction and appropriate language and support services to increase the English language skills of limited English proficient children, as appropriate; or

(vi) methods of teaching children with disabilities, as appropriate.


(22) The term "scientifically based reading research"—

(A) means the application of rigorous, systematic, and objective procedures to obtain valid knowledge relevant to reading development, reading instruction, and reading difficulties; and

(B) shall include research that—

(i) employs systematic, empirical methods that draw on observation or experiment;

(ii) involves rigorous data analyses that are adequate to test the stated hypotheses and justify the general conclusions drawn;

(iii) relies on measurements or observational methods that provide valid data across evaluators and observers and across multiple measurements and observations; and

(iv) has been accepted by a peer-reviewed journal or approved by a panel of independent experts through a comparably rigorous, objective, and scientific review.


(23) The term "scientifically valid research" includes applied research, basic research, and field-initiated research in which the rationale, design, and interpretation are soundly developed in accordance with principles of scientific research.

(24) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Health and Human Services.

(25) The term "State" means a State, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands. The term includes the Republic of Palau for fiscal years 2008 and 2009, and (if the legislation described in section 9835(a)(2)(B)(v) of this title has not been enacted by September 30, 2009) for fiscal years 2010 through 2012.

(26) The term "unresolved area of noncompliance" means failure to correct a noncompliance item within 120 days, or within such additional time (if any) as is authorized by the Secretary, after receiving from the Secretary notice of such noncompliance item, pursuant to section 9836a(c) of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §637, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 98–558, title I, §101, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2878; Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §§104(b), 116(b), 117(b), 121(b), 123(a), Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1228, 1232, 1233, 1237; Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §102, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 624; Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §103, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2703; Pub. L. 110–134, §3, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1364; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(nn)(1), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2176.)

References in Text

The Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, referred to in par. (12), is Pub. L. 92–203, Dec. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 688, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1601 of Title 43 and Tables.

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in par. (16), is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27, which is classified generally to chapter 70 (§6301 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Par. (3). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(nn)(1)(A), substituted "section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965" for "section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801)".

Par. (15)(A)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(nn)(1)(B), substituted "(as defined in section 8101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965), an Alaska Native, or a native resident of an outlying area (as defined in such section 8101);" for "(as defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801)), an Alaska Native, or a native resident of an outlying area (as defined in such section 9101);".

2007Pub. L. 110–134, §3(b)(2), rearranged pars. into numerical order.

Pub. L. 110–134, §3(b)(1), which directed amendment of this section by redesignating pars. (1) to (23) as (1), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (12), (16), (17), (18), (19), (22), (24), (25), (2), (11), (13), (14), (15), (20), (21), (23), and (26), respectively, was executed by redesignating pars. (1) to (26) as (1), (3), (4), (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), (10), (12), (16), (17), (18), (19), (22), (24), (25), (2), (11), (13), (14), (15), (20), (21), (23), and (26), respectively, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Par. (2). Pub. L. 110–134, §3(a)(1), inserted "(including a community-based organization, as defined in section 9101 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 7801))" after "nonprofit".

Par. (3)(C). Pub. L. 110–134, §3(a)(2), inserted ", and financial literacy." after "self-sufficiency".

Par. (12). Pub. L. 110–134, §3(a)(3), substituted "migrant or seasonal Head Start program" for "migrant and seasonal Head Start program".

Par. (17). Pub. L. 110–134, §3(a)(4), added par. (17) and struck out former par. (17) which read as follows: "The term 'State' means a State, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the District of Columbia, Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, but for fiscal years ending before October 1, 2001 (and fiscal year 2002, if the legislation described in section 9835(a)(2)(B)(iii) of this title has not been enacted before September 30, 2001), also means the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau."

Pars. (18) to (26). Pub. L. 110–134, §3(a)(5), added pars. (18) to (26).

1998—Pars. (1), (2). Pub. L. 105–285, §103(2), added pars. (1) and (2). Former pars. (1) and (2) redesignated (16) and (17), respectively.

Pars. (3), (4). Pub. L. 105–285, §103(3)–(5), added par. (3), redesignated former par. (3) as (4), and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "The term 'family literacy services' means services and activities that include interactive literacy activities between parents and their children, training for parents on techniques for being the primary teacher of their children and full partners in the education of their children, parent literacy training (including training in English as a second language), and early childhood education."

Par. (6). Pub. L. 105–285, §103(6), inserted at end "Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to require an agency to provide services to a child who has not reached the age of compulsory school attendance for more than the number of hours per day permitted by State law (including regulation) for the provision of services to such a child."

Par. (12). Pub. L. 105–285, §103(7), added par. (12) and struck out former par. (12) which read as follows: "The term 'migrant Head Start program' means a Head Start program that serves families who are engaged in agricultural work and who have changed their residence from one geographical location to another in the preceding 2-year period."

Par. (15). Pub. L. 105–285, §103(8), added par. (15).

Par. (16). Pub. L. 105–285, §103(1), redesignated par. (1) as (16) and transferred it to appear after par. (15).

Par. (17). Pub. L. 105–285, §103(9)(B), (C), substituted "Virgin Islands of the United States, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, but for fiscal years ending before October 1, 2001 (and fiscal year 2002, if the legislation described in section 9835(a)(2)(B)(iii) of this title has not been enacted before September 30, 2001), also means" for "Virgin Islands," and "and the Republic of Palau" for "Palau, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands".

Pub. L. 105–285, §103(9)(A), which directed substitution of "term" for "Term", could not be executed because "Term" does not appear in par. (17).

Pub. L. 105–285, §103(1), redesignated par. (2) as (17) and transferred it to appear after par. (16).

1994—Par. (4). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(1), (4), (5)(A), redesignated par. (12) as (4) and struck out former par. (4) which defined "adjusted appropriation".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(1), (4), (5)(B), redesignated par. (10) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which defined "quality improvement funds".

Par. (6). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(4), (5)(B), redesignated par. (11) as (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Pars. (7), (8). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(4), redesignated pars. (6) and (7) as (7) and (8), respectively. Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(4), redesignated par. (8) as (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (14).

Pub. L. 103–252, §102(2), added par. (9) and struck out former par. (9) which defined "poverty line".

Par. (10). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(4), (5)(C), redesignated par. (13) as (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (5).

Par. (11). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(5)(D), added par. (11). Former par. (11) redesignated (6).

Par. (12). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(5)(D), added par. (12). Former par. (12) redesignated (4).

Pub. L. 103–252, §102(3), (4), added par. (12) and redesignated it as (4).

Par. (13). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(5)(D), added par. (13). Former par. (13) redesignated (10).

Pub. L. 103–252, §102(3), (4), added par. (13) and redesignated it as (10).

Par. (14). Pub. L. 103–252, §102(4), redesignated par. (9) as (14).

1990—Par. (2). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(b)(1), substituted "the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Palau" for "the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

Pars. (4), (5). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(b)(2), added pars. (4) and (5).

Par. (6). Pub. L. 101–501, §116(b), added par. (6).

Pars. (7), (8). Pub. L. 101–501, §117(b), added pars. (7) and (8).

Par. (9). Pub. L. 101–501, §121(b), added par. (9).

Pars. (10), (11). Pub. L. 101–501, §123(a), added pars. (10) and (11).

1984—Par. (2). Pub. L. 98–558 inserted "the Commonwealth of" before "the Northern Mariana Islands".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §127, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 651, provided that:

"(a) Effective Date.—This title [see Short Title of 1994 Amendment note set out under section 9801 of this title], and the amendments made by this title, shall take effect on the date of enactment of this title [May 18, 1994].

"(b) Application.—The requirements of this title and the amendments made by this title shall not apply to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act [42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.] until October 1, 1994."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–501 effective Oct. 1, 1990, see section 1001(a) of Pub. L. 101–501, set out as a note under section 8621 of this title.

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§9833. Financial assistance for Head Start programs

The Secretary may, upon application by an agency which is eligible for designation as a Head Start agency pursuant to section 9836 of this title, provide financial assistance to such agency for a period of 5 years for the planning, conduct, administration, and evaluation of a Head Start program focused primarily upon children from low-income families who have not reached the age of compulsory school attendance which (1) will provide such comprehensive health, education, parental involvement, nutritional, social, and other services as will enable the children to attain their full potential and attain school readiness; and (2) will provide for direct participation of the parents of such children in the development, conduct, and overall program direction at the local level.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §638, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 100–297, title II, §2504, Apr. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §§103, 112(c), May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 625, 641; Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §104, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2705; Pub. L. 110–134, §4, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1367.)

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–134 inserted "for a period of 5 years" after "provide financial assistance to such agency".

1998—Cl. (1). Pub. L. 105–285 substituted "enable the children" for "aid the children" and inserted "and attain school readiness" before the semicolon.

1994Pub. L. 103–252 struck out subsec. (a) designation, in cl. (1), substituted "health, education, parental involvement, nutritional, social, and other services" for "health, nutritional, educational, social, and other services", and struck out subsec. (b) which read as follows: "For purposes of providing financial assistance under subsection (a) of this section to agencies, the Secretary may not take into consideration whether such agency applies for or receives funds under subchapter V of this chapter."

1988Pub. L. 100–297 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–252 effective May 18, 1994, but not applicable to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.) until Oct. 1, 1994, see section 127 of Pub. L. 103–252, set out as a note under section 9832 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For effective date and applicability of amendment by Pub. L. 100–297, see section 6303 of Pub. L. 100–297, set out as a note under section 1071 of Title 20, Education.

§9834. Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subchapter (other than section 9852b of this title) $7,350,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, $7,650,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, $7,995,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2011 and 2012.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §639, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 98–558, title I, §102, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2878; Pub. L. 99–425, title I, §101, Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 966; Pub. L. 101–120, §2, Oct. 23, 1989, 103 Stat. 700; Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §§103, 120(b), 140, Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1224, 1236, 1242; Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §104, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 625; Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §105, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2705; Pub. L. 110–134, §5, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1367.)

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–134 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to authorization of appropriations to carry out this subchapter for fiscal years 1999 through 2003 and availability of amount appropriated.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–285, §105(1), substituted "1999 through 2003" for "1995 through 1998".

Subsec. (b)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 105–285, §105(2), added pars. (1) to (3) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which read as follows:

"(1) $35,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1998 to—

"(A) carry out the Head Start Transition Project Act; and

"(B) carry out activities authorized under section 9837(d) of this title; and

"(2) not more than $3,000,000 for fiscal year 1995, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1996 through 1998, to carry out longitudinal research under section 9844(e) of this title."

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–252, §104(1), substituted "such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1995 through 1998" for "(other than section 9846a of this title) $1,552,000,000 for fiscal year 1990, $2,386,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, $4,273,000,000 for fiscal year 1992, $5,924,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and $7,660,000,000 for fiscal year 1994".

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 103–252, §104(2), added subsec. (b) and struck out former subsecs. (b) and (c) which read as follows:

"(b) There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 9846a of this title, such sums as may be necessary for fiscal years 1991 through 1996.

"(c)(1) If the amount appropriated under subsection (a) of this section for fiscal year 1991 exceeds the adjusted appropriation, the Secretary shall make available not less than $20,000,000 to carry out the Head Start Transition Project Act.

"(2) The Secretary shall make available not less than $20,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994 to carry out the Head Start Transition Project Act."

1990Pub. L. 101–501, §140, added subsec. (c).

Pub. L. 101–501, §120(b), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted "(other than section 9846a of this title)" after "of this subchapter", and added subsec. (b).

Pub. L. 101–501, §103, struck out "$1,198,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, $1,263,000,000 for fiscal year 1988, $1,332,000,000 for fiscal year 1989, and" after "of this subchapter" and inserted ", $2,386,000,000 for fiscal year 1991, $4,273,000,000 for fiscal year 1992, $5,924,000,000 for fiscal year 1993, and $7,660,000,000 for fiscal year 1994" after "1990".

1989Pub. L. 101–120 substituted "$1,552,000,000" for "$1,405,000,000".

1986Pub. L. 99–425 amended section generally, substituting "$1,198,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, $1,263,000,000 for fiscal year 1988, $1,332,000,000 for fiscal year 1989, and $1,405,000,000 for fiscal year 1990" for "$1,093,030,000 for fiscal year 1985, and $1,221,000,000 for fiscal year 1986".

1984Pub. L. 98–558 substituted "$1,093,030,000 for fiscal year 1985, and $1,221,000,000 for fiscal year 1986" for "$950,000,000 for fiscal year 1982, $1,007,000,000 for fiscal year 1983, and $1,058,357,000 for fiscal year 1984".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–252 effective May 18, 1994, but not applicable to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.) until Oct. 1, 1994, see section 127 of Pub. L. 103–252, set out as a note under section 9832 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–501 effective Oct. 1, 1990, see section 1001(a) of Pub. L. 101–501, set out as a note under section 8621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–425 effective Oct. 1, 1986, see section 1001 of Pub. L. 99–425, set out as a note under section 8621 of this title.

§9835. Allotment of funds

(a) Distribution of appropriations; priorities, etc.

(1) Using the sums appropriated pursuant to section 9834 of this title for a fiscal year, the Secretary shall allocate such sums in accordance with paragraphs (2) through (5).

(2)(A) The Secretary shall determine an amount for each fiscal year for each State that is equal to the amount received through base grants for the prior fiscal year by the Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies) in the State that are not described in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (B).

(B) The Secretary shall reserve for each fiscal year such sums as are necessary—

(i) to provide each amount determined for a State under subparagraph (A) to the Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies) in the State that are not described in clause (ii) or (iii), by allotting to each agency described in this clause an amount equal to that agency's base grant for the prior fiscal year;

(ii) to provide an amount for the Indian Head Start programs that is equal to the amount provided for base grants for such programs under this subchapter for the prior fiscal year, by allotting to each Head Start agency (including each Early Head Start agency) administering an Indian Head Start program an amount equal to that agency's base grant for the prior fiscal year;

(iii) to provide an amount for the migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, on a nationwide basis, that is equal to the amount provided nationwide for base grants for such programs under this subchapter for the prior fiscal year, by allotting to each Head Start agency administering a migrant or seasonal Head Start program an amount equal to that agency's base grant for the prior fiscal year;

(iv) to provide an amount for each of Guam, American Samoa, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands of the United States (for Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies) in the jurisdiction) that is equal to the amount provided for base grants for such jurisdiction under this subchapter for the prior fiscal year, by allotting to each agency described in this clause an amount equal to that agency's base grant for the prior fiscal year;

(v) to provide an amount for the Republic of Palau (for Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies) in the jurisdiction) for each of fiscal years 2008 and 2009, and (if legislation approving a new agreement regarding United States assistance for the Republic of Palau has not been enacted by September 30, 2009) for each of fiscal years 2010 through 2012, that is equal to the amount provided for base grants for such jurisdiction under this subchapter for the prior fiscal year, by allotting to each agency described in this clause an amount equal to that agency's base grant for the prior fiscal year; and

(vi) to provide an amount for a collaboration grant under section 9837b(a) of this title for each State, for the Indian Head Start programs, and for the migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, in the same amount as the corresponding collaboration grant provided under this subchapter for fiscal year 2007.


(C)(i) The Secretary shall reserve for each fiscal year an amount that is not less than 2.5 percent and not more than 3 percent of the sums appropriated pursuant to section 9834 of this title for that fiscal year, to fund training and technical assistance activities, from which reserved amount—

(I) the Secretary shall set aside a portion, but not less than 20 percent, to be used to fund training and technical assistance activities for Early Head Start programs, in accordance with section 9840a(g)(2) of this title; and

(II) the Secretary shall set aside a portion, equal to the rest of the reserved amount, to fund training and technical assistance activities for other Head Start programs, in accordance with section 9843 of this title, of which portion—

(aa) not less than 50 percent shall be made available to Head Start agencies to use directly, which may include at their discretion the establishment of local or regional agreements with community experts, institutions of higher education, or private consultants, to make program improvements identified by such agencies, by carrying out the training and technical assistance activities described in section 9843(d) of this title;

(bb) not less than 25 percent shall be available to the Secretary to support a State-based training and technical assistance system, or a national system, described in section 9843(e) of this title for supporting program quality; and

(cc) the remainder of the portion set aside under this subclause shall be available to the Secretary to assist Head Start agencies in meeting and exceeding the standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title by carrying out activities described in subsections (a), (b), (c), (f), and (g) of section 9843 of this title, including helping Head Start programs address weaknesses identified by monitoring activities conducted by the Secretary under section 9836a(c) of this title, except that not less than $3,000,000 of the remainder shall be made available to carry out activities described in section 9843(a)(3)(B)(ii) of this title.


(ii) In determining the portion set aside under clause (i)(I) and the amount reserved under this subparagraph, the Secretary shall consider the number of Early Head Start programs newly funded for that fiscal year.

(D) The Secretary shall reserve not more than $20,000,000 to fund research, demonstration, and evaluation activities under section 9844 of this title, of which not more than $7,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012 shall be available to carry out impact studies under section 9844(g) of this title.

(E) The Secretary shall reserve not more than $42,000,000 for discretionary payments by the Secretary, including payments for all costs (other than compensation of Federal employees) for activities carried out under subsection (c) or (e) of section 9836a of this title.

(F) If the sums appropriated under section 9834 of this title are not sufficient to provide the amounts required to be reserved under subparagraphs (B) through (E), the amounts shall be reduced proportionately.

(G) Nothing in this section shall be construed to deny the Secretary the authority, consistent with sections 9836, 9836a, and 9841 of this title to terminate, suspend, or reduce funding to a Head Start agency.

(3)(A) From any amount remaining for a fiscal year after the Secretary carries out paragraph (2) (referred to in this paragraph as the "remaining amount"), the Secretary shall—

(i) subject to clause (ii)—

(I) provide a cost of living increase for each Head Start agency (including each Early Head Start agency) funded under this subchapter for that fiscal year, to maintain the level of services provided during the prior year; and

(II) subject to subparagraph (B), provide $10,000,000 for Indian Head Start programs (including Early Head Start programs), and $10,000,000 for migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, to increase enrollment in the programs involved;


(ii) subject to clause (iii), if the remaining amount is not sufficient to carry out clause (i)—

(I) for each of fiscal years 2008, 2009, and 2010—

(aa) subject to subparagraph (B), provide 5 percent of that amount for Indian Head Start programs (including Early Head Start programs), and 5 percent of that amount for migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, to increase enrollment in the programs involved; and

(bb) use 90 percent of that amount to provide, for each Head Start agency (including each Early Head Start agency) funded as described in clause (i)(I), the same percentage (but not less than 50 percent) of the cost of living increase described in clause (i); and


(II) for fiscal year 2011 and each subsequent fiscal year—

(aa) provide, for each Head Start agency (including each Early Head Start agency) funded as described in clause (i)(I), the cost of living increase described in clause (i); and

(bb) subject to subparagraph (B), with any portion of the remaining amount that is not used under item (aa), provide equal amounts for Indian Head Start programs (including Early Head Start programs), and for migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, to increase enrollment in the programs involved; and


(iii) if the remaining amount is not sufficient to carry out clause (ii) for the fiscal year involved, use that amount to provide, for each Head Start agency (including each Early Head Start agency) funded as described in clause (i)(I), the same percentage of the cost of living increase described in clause (i).


(B)(i) Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the Indian Head Start programs shall not receive more than a total cumulative amount of $50,000,000 for all fiscal years, and the migrant and seasonal Head Start programs shall not receive more than a total cumulative amount of $50,000,000 for all fiscal years, under clause (i)(II), and subclauses (I)(aa) and (II)(bb) of clause (ii), of subparagraph (A) (referred to in this subsection as the "special expansion provisions"), to increase enrollment in the programs involved.

(ii)(I) Funds that are appropriated under section 9834 of this title for a fiscal year, and made available to Indian Head Start programs or migrant or seasonal Head Start programs under the special expansion provisions, shall remain available until the end of the following fiscal year.

(II) For purposes of subclause (I)—

(aa) if no portion is reallocated under clause (iii), those funds shall remain available to the programs involved; or

(bb) if a portion is reallocated under clause (iii), the portion shall remain available to the recipients of the portion.


(iii) Of the funds made available as described in clause (ii), the Secretary shall reallocate the portion that the Secretary determines is unobligated 18 months after the funds are made available. The Secretary shall add that portion to the balance described in paragraph (4), and reallocate the portion in accordance with paragraph (4), for the following fiscal year referred to in clause (ii).

(4)(A) Except as provided in subparagraph (B), from any amount remaining for a fiscal year after the Secretary carries out paragraphs (2) and (3) (referred to in this paragraph as the "balance"), the Secretary shall—

(i) reserve 40 percent to carry out subparagraph (C) and paragraph (5);

(ii) reserve 45 percent to carry out subparagraph (D); and

(iii) reserve 15 percent (which shall remain available through the end of fiscal year 2012) to provide funds for carrying out section 9837b(b)(2) of this title.


(B)(i) Under the circumstances described in clause (ii), from the balance, the Secretary shall—

(I) reserve 45 percent to carry out subparagraph (C) and paragraph (5); and

(II) reserve 55 percent to carry out subparagraph (D).


(ii) The Secretary shall make the reservations described in clause (i) for a fiscal year if—

(I) the total cumulative amount reserved under subparagraph (A)(iii) for all preceding fiscal years equals $100,000,000; or

(II) in the 2-year period preceding such fiscal year, funds were reserved under subparagraph (A)(iii) in an amount that totals not less than $15,000,000 and the Secretary received no approvable applications for such funds.


(iii) The total cumulative amount reserved under subparagraph (A)(iii) for all fiscal years may not be greater than $100,000,000.

(C) The Secretary shall fund the quality improvement activities described in paragraph (5) using the amount reserved under subparagraph (A)(i) or subparagraph (B)(i)(I), as appropriate, of which—

(i) a portion that is less than 10 percent may be reserved by the Secretary to provide funding to Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies) that demonstrate the greatest need for additional funding for such activities, as determined by the Secretary; and

(ii) a portion that is not less than 90 percent shall be reserved by the Secretary to allot, to each Head Start agency (including each Early Head Start agency), an amount that bears the same ratio to such portion as the number of enrolled children served by the agency involved bears to the number of enrolled children served by all the Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies), except that the Secretary shall account for the additional costs of serving children in Early Head Start programs and may consider whether an agency is providing a full-day program or whether an agency is providing a full-year program.


(D) The Secretary shall fund expansion of Head Start programs (including Early Head Start programs) using the amount reserved under subparagraph (A)(ii) or subparagraph (B)(i)(II), as appropriate, of which the Secretary shall—

(i) use 0.2 percent for Head Start programs funded under clause (iv) or (v) of paragraph (2)(B) (other than Early Head Start programs);

(ii) for any fiscal year after the last fiscal year for which Indian Head Start programs receive funds under the special expansion provisions, use 3 percent for Head Start programs funded under paragraph (2)(B)(ii) (other than Early Head Start programs), except that the Secretary may increase that percentage if the Secretary determines that the results of the study conducted under section 9844(k) of this title indicate that the percentage should be increased;

(iii) for any fiscal year after the last fiscal year for which migrant or seasonal Head Start programs receive funds under the special expansion provisions, use 4.5 percent for Head Start programs funded under paragraph (2)(B)(iii) (other than Early Head Start programs), except that the Secretary may increase that percentage if the Secretary determines that the results of the study conducted under section 9844(l) of this title indicate that the percentage should be increased; and

(iv) from the remainder of the reserved amount—

(I) use 50 percent for Head Start programs funded under paragraph (2)(B)(i) (other than Early Head Start programs), of which—

(aa) the covered percentage shall be allocated among the States serving less than 60 percent (as determined by the Secretary) of children who are 3 or 4 years of age from families whose income is below the poverty line, by allocating to each of those States an amount that bears the same relationship to that covered percentage as the number of children who are less than 5 years of age from families whose income is below the poverty line (referred to in this subclause as "young low-income children") in that State bears to the number of young low-income children in all those States; and

(bb) the remainder shall be allocated proportionately among the States on the basis of the number of young low-income children; and


(II) use 50 percent for Early Head Start programs.


(E) In this paragraph, the term "covered percentage" means—

(i) for fiscal year 2008, 30 percent;

(ii) for fiscal year 2009, 40 percent;

(iii) for fiscal year 2010, 50 percent;

(iv) for fiscal year 2011, 55 percent; and

(v) for fiscal year 2012, 55 percent.


(5)(A) Not less than 50 percent of the amount reserved under subparagraph (A)(i) or subparagraph (B)(i)(I), as appropriate, of paragraph (4) to carry out quality improvement activities under paragraph (4)(C) and this paragraph shall be used to improve the compensation (including benefits) of educational personnel, family service workers, and child counselors, as described in sections 9839(a) and 9848 of this title, in the manner determined by the Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies) involved, to—

(i) ensure that compensation is adequate to attract and retain qualified staff for the programs involved in order to enhance program quality;

(ii) improve staff qualifications and assist with the implementation of career development programs for staff that support ongoing improvement of their skills and expertise; and

(iii) provide education and professional development to enable teachers to be fully competent to meet the professional standards established under section 9843a(a)(1) of this title, including—

(I) providing assistance to complete postsecondary course work;

(II) improving the qualifications and skills of educational personnel to become certified and licensed as bilingual education teachers, or as teachers of English as a second language; and

(III) improving the qualifications and skills of educational personnel to teach and provide services to children with disabilities.


(B) Any remaining funds from the reserved amount described in subparagraph (A) shall be used to carry out any of the following activities:

(i) Supporting staff training, child counseling, and other services, necessary to address the challenges of children from immigrant, refugee, and asylee families, homeless children, children in foster care, limited English proficient children, children of migrant or seasonal farmworker families, children from families in crisis, children referred to Head Start programs (including Early Head Start programs) by child welfare agencies, and children who are exposed to chronic violence or substance abuse.

(ii) Ensuring that the physical environments of Head Start programs are conducive to providing effective program services to children and families, and are accessible to children with disabilities and other individuals with disabilities.

(iii) Employing additional qualified classroom staff to reduce the child-to-teacher ratio in the classroom and additional qualified family service workers to reduce the family-to-staff ratio for those workers.

(iv) Ensuring that Head Start programs have qualified staff that promote the language skills and literacy growth of children and that provide children with a variety of skills that have been identified, through scientifically based reading research, as predictive of later reading achievement.

(v) Increasing hours of program operation, including—

(I) conversion of part-day programs to full-working-day programs; and

(II) increasing the number of weeks of operation in a calendar year.


(vi) Improving communitywide strategic planning and needs assessments for Head Start programs and collaboration efforts for such programs, including outreach to children described in clause (i).

(vii) Transporting children in Head Start programs safely, except that not more than 10 percent of funds made available to carry out this paragraph may be used for such purposes.

(viii) Improving the compensation and benefits of staff of Head Start agencies, in order to improve the quality of Head Start programs.


(6) No sums appropriated under this subchapter may be combined with funds appropriated under any provision other than this subchapter if the purpose of combining funds is to make a single discretionary grant or a single discretionary payment, unless such sums appropriated under this subchapter are separately identified in such grant or payment and are used for the purposes of this subchapter.

(7) In this subsection:

(A) The term "base grant", used with respect to a fiscal year, means the amount of permanent ongoing funding (other than funding described in sections 9840a(g)(2)(A)(i) of this title and paragraph (2)(C)(i)(II)(aa)) provided to a Head Start agency (including an Early Head Start agency) under this subchapter for that fiscal year.

(B) The term "cost-of-living increase", used with respect to an agency for a fiscal year, means an increase in the funding for that agency, based on the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index for All Urban Consumers (issued by the Bureau of Labor Statistics) for the prior fiscal year, calculated on the amount of the base grant for that agency for the prior fiscal year.

(C) For the purposes of this subsection, the term "State" does not include Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands of the United States, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the Republic of Palau.

(b) Federal share

Financial assistance extended under this subchapter for a Head Start program shall not exceed 80 percent of the approved costs of the assisted program or activities, except that the Secretary may approve assistance in excess of such percentage if the Secretary determines that such action is required in furtherance of the purposes of this subchapter. For the purpose of making such determination, the Secretary shall take into consideration with respect to the Head Start program involved—

(1) the lack of resources available in the community that may prevent the Head Start agency from providing all or a portion of the non-Federal contribution that may be required under this subsection;

(2) the impact of the cost the Head Start agency may incur in initial years it carries out such program;

(3) the impact of an unanticipated increase in the cost the Head Start agency may incur to carry out such program;

(4) whether the Head Start agency is located in a community adversely affected by a major disaster; and

(5) the impact on the community that would result if the Head Start agency ceased to carry out such program.


Non-Federal contributions may be in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, or services. The Secretary shall not require non-Federal contributions in excess of 20 percent of the approved costs of programs or activities assisted under this subchapter.

(c) Services covered

No programs shall be approved for assistance under this subchapter unless the Secretary is satisfied that the services to be provided under such program will be in addition to, and not in substitution for, comparable services previously provided without Federal assistance. The requirement imposed by the preceding sentence shall be subject to such regulations as the Secretary may prescribe.

(d) Enrollment of children with disabilities and provision of services

(1) The Secretary shall establish policies and procedures to assure that, for fiscal year 2009 and thereafter, not less than 10 percent of the total number of children actually enrolled by each Head Start agency and each delegate agency will be children with disabilities who are determined to be eligible for special education and related services, or early intervention services, as appropriate, as determined under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1400 et seq.), by the State or local agency providing services under section 619 or part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.).

(2) Such policies and procedures shall ensure the provision of early intervening services, such as educational and behavioral services and supports, to meet the needs of children with disabilities, prior to an eligibility determination under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

(3) Such policies and procedures shall require Head Start agencies to provide timely referral to and collaborate with the State or local agency providing services under section 619 or part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to ensure the provision of special education and related services and early intervention services, and the coordination of programmatic efforts, to meet the special needs of such children.

(4) The Secretary shall establish policies and procedures to provide Head Start agencies with waivers of the requirements of paragraph (1) for not more than 3 years. Such policies and procedures shall require Head Start agencies, in order to receive such waivers, to provide evidence demonstrating that the Head Start agencies are making reasonable efforts on an annual basis to comply with the requirements of that paragraph.

(5) Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit or create a right to a free appropriate public education under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.

(e) Distribution of benefits between residents of rural and urban areas

The Secretary shall adopt appropriate administrative measures to assure that the benefits of this subchapter will be distributed equitably between residents of rural and urban areas.

(f) Guidelines for local service delivery models

(1) Not later than 1 year after December 12, 2007, the Secretary shall establish procedures to enable Head Start agencies to develop locally designed or specialized service delivery models to address local community needs, including models that leverage the capacity and capabilities of the delivery system of early childhood education and development services or programs.

(2) In establishing the procedures the Secretary shall establish procedures to provide for—

(A) the conversion of part-day programs to full-working-day programs or part-day slots to full-working-day slots; and

(B) serving additional infants and toddlers pursuant to section 9840(a)(5) of this title.

(g) Maintenance of current services; expansion of Head Start programs

(1) For the purpose of expanding Head Start programs 1 the Secretary shall take into consideration—

(A) the quality of the applicant's programs (including Head Start and other child care or child development programs) in existence on the date of the allocation, including, in the case of Head Start programs in existence on the date of the allocation, the extent to which such programs meet or exceed standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title and other requirements under this subchapter, and the performance history of the applicant in providing services under other Federal programs (other than the program carried out under this subchapter);

(B) the applicant's capacity to expand services (including, in the case of Head Start programs in existence on the date of the allocation, whether the applicant accomplished any prior expansions in an effective and timely manner);

(C) the extent to which the applicant has undertaken a communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment involving other entities, including community organizations, and Federal, State, and local public agencies (including the local educational agency liaison designated under section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii))), that provide services to children and families, such as—

(i) family support services;

(ii) child abuse prevention services;

(iii) protective services;

(iv) foster care;

(v) services for families in whose homes English is not the language customarily spoken;

(vi) services for children with disabilities; and

(vii) services for homeless children;


(D) the extent to which the family needs assessment and communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment of the applicant reflect a need to provide full-working-day or full calendar year services and the extent to which, and manner in which, the applicant demonstrates the ability to collaborate and participate with the State and local community providers of child care or preschool services to provide full-working-day full calendar year services;

(E) the number of eligible children, as described in clause (i) or (ii) of section 9840(a)(1)(B) of this title, in each community who are not participating in a Head Start program or any other publicly funded early childhood education and development program;

(F) the concentration of low-income families in each community;

(G) the extent to which the applicant proposes to foster partnerships with other service providers in a manner that will leverage the existing delivery systems of such services and enhance the resource capacity of the applicant; and

(H) the extent to which the applicant, in providing services, successfully coordinated activities with the local educational agency serving the community involved (including the local educational agency liaison designated under section 722(g)(1)(J)(ii) of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11432(g)(1)(J)(ii))), and with schools in which children participating in such applicant's program will enroll following such program, with respect to such services and the education services provided by such local educational agency.


(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), in using funds made available for expansion under subsection (a)(4)(D), the Secretary shall first allocate the funds to qualified applicants proposing to use such funds to serve children from families with incomes below the poverty line. Agencies that receive such funds are subject to the eligibility and enrollment requirements under section 9840(a)(1) of this title.

(3)(A) In the event that the amount appropriated to carry out the program under this subchapter for a fiscal year does not exceed the amount appropriated for the prior fiscal year, or is not sufficient to maintain services comparable to the services provided under this subchapter during the prior fiscal year, a Head Start agency may negotiate with the Secretary a reduced funded enrollment level without a reduction in the amount of the grant received by the agency under this subchapter, if such agency can reasonably demonstrate that such reduced funded enrollment level is necessary to maintain the quality of services.

(B) In accordance with this paragraph, the Secretary shall set up a process for Head Start agencies to negotiate the reduced funded enrollment levels referred to in subparagraph (A) for the fiscal year involved.

(C) In the event described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall be required to notify Head Start agencies of their ability to negotiate the reduced funded enrollment levels if such an agency can reasonably demonstrate that such reduced funded enrollment level is necessary to maintain the quality of services.

(h) Full-working-day services

Financial assistance provided under this subchapter may be used by each Head Start program to provide full-working-day Head Start services to any eligible child throughout the full calendar year.

(i) Vehicle safety regulations

The Secretary shall issue regulations establishing requirements for the safety features, and the safe operation, of vehicles used by Head Start agencies to transport children participating in Head Start programs. The regulations shall also establish requirements to ensure the appropriate supervision of, and appropriate background checks for, individuals with whom the agencies contract to transport those children.

(j) Compensation of staff

Any agency that receives financial assistance under this subchapter to improve the compensation of staff who provide services under this subchapter 2 shall use the financial assistance to improve the compensation of such staff, regardless of whether the agency has the ability to improve the compensation of staff employed by the agency who do not provide Head Start services.

(k) Flexibility in hours of service requirement

(1) The Secretary shall allow center-based Head Start programs the flexibility to satisfy the total number of hours of service required by the regulations in effect on May 18, 1994, to be provided to children in Head Start programs so long as such agencies do not—

(A) provide less than 3 hours of service per day;

(B) reduce the number of days of service per week; or

(C) reduce the number of days of service per year.


(2) The provisions of this subsection shall not be construed to restrict the authority of the Secretary to fund alternative program variations authorized under section 1306.35 of title 45 of the Code of Federal Regulations in effect on May 18, 1994.

(l) Frequent relocation of migrant families

(1) With funds made available under this subchapter to expand migrant and seasonal Head Start programs, the Secretary shall give priority to migrant and seasonal Head Start programs that serve eligible children of migrant or seasonal farmworker families whose work requires them to relocate most frequently.

(2) In determining the need and demand for migrant and seasonal Head Start programs (and services provided through such programs), the Secretary shall consult with appropriate entities, including providers of services for migrant and seasonal Head Start programs. The Secretary shall, after taking into consideration the need and demand for migrant and seasonal Head Start programs (and such services), ensure that there is an adequate level of such services for eligible children of migrant farmworker families before approving an increase in the allocation of funds provided under this subchapter for unserved eligible children of seasonal farmworker families. In serving the eligible children of seasonal farmworker families, the Secretary shall ensure that services provided by migrant and seasonal Head Start programs do not duplicate or overlap with other Head Start services available to eligible children of such farmworker families.

(3) In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall continue the administrative arrangement at the national level for meeting the needs of Indian children and children of migrant and seasonal farmworker families and shall ensure—

(A) the provision of training and technical assistance by staff with knowledge of and experience in working with such populations; and

(B) the appointment of a national Indian Head Start collaboration director and a national migrant and seasonal Head Start collaboration director.


(4)(A) For the purposes of paragraph (3), the Secretary shall conduct an annual consultation in each affected Head Start region, with tribal governments operating Head Start (including Early Head Start) programs.

(B) The consultations shall be for the purpose of better meeting the needs of Indian, including Alaska Native, children and their families, in accordance with this subchapter, taking into consideration funding allocations, distribution formulas, and other issues affecting the delivery of Head Start services in their geographic locations.

(C) The Secretary shall publish a notification of the consultations in the Federal Register before conducting the consultations.

(D) The Secretary shall ensure that a detailed report of each consultation shall be prepared and made available, within 90 days after the consultation, to all tribal governments receiving funds under this subchapter.

(m) Enrollment and participation of homeless children

The Secretary shall issue rules to establish policies and procedures to remove barriers to the enrollment and participation of homeless children in Head Start programs. Such rules shall require Head Start agencies—

(1) to implement policies and procedures to ensure that homeless children are identified and prioritized for enrollment;

(2) to allow families of homeless children to apply to, enroll in, and attend Head Start programs while required documents, such as proof of residency, immunization and other medical records, birth certificates, and other documents, are obtained within a reasonable time frame; and

(3) to coordinate individual Head Start programs with efforts to implement subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 et seq.).

(n) Construction of prerequisites to participation in program

Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed to require a State to establish a publicly funded program of early childhood education and development, or to require any child to participate in such a publicly funded program, including a State-funded preschool program, or to participate in any initial screening before participating in a publicly funded program of early childhood education and development, except as provided under sections 612(a)(3) and 635(a)(5) of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1412(a)(3), 1435(a)(5)).

(o) Curricula

All curricula funded under this subchapter shall be based on scientifically valid research, and be age and developmentally appropriate. The curricula shall reflect all areas of child development and learning and be aligned with the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework. Parents shall have the opportunity to examine any such curricula or instructional materials funded under this subchapter.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §640, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 98–558, title I, §103, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2878; Pub. L. 99–425, title I, §102, Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 966; Pub. L. 101–476, title IX, §901(d), Oct. 30, 1990, 104 Stat. 1151; Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §§104(a), 105, 123(b), Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1224, 1228, 1237; Pub. L. 102–119, §26(g), Oct. 7, 1991, 105 Stat. 607; Pub. L. 102–401, §2(a)–(d), (k)(1), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1956, 1958; Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §105, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 626; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §110(t), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2175; Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §106(a)–(d), Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2705–2711; Pub. L. 108–446, title III, §305(l)(1), (2), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2806; Pub. L. 110–134, §6, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1367.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175, which is classified generally to chapter 33 (§1400 et seq.) of Title 20, Education. Part C of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1431 et seq.) of chapter 33 of Title 20. Section 619 of the Act is classified to section 1419 of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (m)(3), is Pub. L. 100–77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482. Subtitle B of title VII of the Act is classified generally to part B (§11431 et seq.) of subchapter VI of chapter 119 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11301 of this title and Tables.

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (j), was in the original "this Act" and was translated as reading "this subchapter", meaning subchapter B (§§635–657) of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 499, known as the Head Start Act, which is classified generally to this subchapter, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(a), amended subsec. (a) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (a) related to distribution of appropriations, allotment requirements, and priorities for Head Start funds.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(b), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary shall establish policies and procedures designed to assure that for fiscal year 1999 and thereafter no less than 10 percent of the total number of enrollment opportunities in Head Start programs in each State shall be available for children with disabilities and that services shall be provided to meet their special needs. Such policies and procedures shall require Head Start agencies to coordinate programmatic efforts with efforts to implement part C and section 619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1431–1444, 1419)."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Not later than 1 year after December 12, 2007, the" for "The" and "needs, including models that leverage the capacity and capabilities of the delivery system of early childhood education and development services or programs." for "needs.", and added par (2).

Subsec. (g)(1). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(1), (3), redesignated par. (2) as (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "If in any fiscal year, the amounts appropriated to carry out the program under this subchapter exceed the amount appropriated in the prior fiscal year, the Secretary shall, prior to using such additional funds to serve an increased number of children, allocate such funds in a manner that makes available the funds necessary to maintain the level of services provided during the prior year, taking into consideration the percentage change in the Consumer Price Index For All Urban Consumers, as published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics."

Subsec. (g)(2). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(3), (4), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (1).

Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(2)(A), struck out ", in allocating funds to an applicant within a State, from amounts allotted to a State pursuant to subsection (a)(4) of this section," after "Head Start programs" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(2)(B), substituted "standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title" for "performance standards".

Subsec. (g)(2)(C). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(2)(C), added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "the extent to which the applicant has undertaken community-wide strategic planning and needs assessments involving other community organizations and public agencies serving children and families (including organizations serving families in whose homes English is not the language customarily spoken), and organizations and public entities serving children with disabilities;".

Subsec. (g)(2)(D). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(2)(D), substituted "family needs assessment and communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment" for "family and community needs assessment", "reflect" for "reflects", and "the State and local" for "other local".

Subsec. (g)(2)(E). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(2)(E), added subpar. (E) and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows: "the numbers of eligible children in each community who are not participating in a Head Start program or any other early childhood program;".

Subsec. (g)(2)(G), (H). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(2)(F), added subpars. (G) and (H) and struck out former subpars. (G) and (H) which read as follows:

"(G) the extent to which the applicant proposes to foster partnerships with other service providers in a manner that will enhance the resource capacity of the applicant; and

"(H) the extent to which the applicant, in providing services, plans to coordinate with the local educational agency serving the community involved and with schools in which children participating in a Head Start program operated by such agency will enroll following such program, regarding such services and the education services provided by such local educational agency."

Subsec. (g)(3), (4). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(d)(1), (4), added par. (3) and struck out former pars. (3) and (4) which read as follows:

"(3) In determining the amount of funds reserved pursuant to subparagraph (A) or (B) of subsection (a)(2) of this section to be used for expanding Head Start programs under this subchapter, the Secretary shall take into consideration, to the extent appropriate, the factors specified in paragraph (2).

"(4) Notwithstanding subsection (a)(2) of this section, after taking into account paragraph (1), the Secretary may allocate a portion of the remaining additional funds under subsection (a)(2)(A) of this section for the purpose of increasing funds available for activities described in such subsection."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(e), inserted at end "The regulations shall also establish requirements to ensure the appropriate supervision of, and appropriate background checks for, individuals with whom the agencies contract to transport those children."

Subsec. (l)(1). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(f)(1), substituted "With funds made available under this subchapter to expand migrant and seasonal Head Start programs," for "With funds made available under subsection (a)(2) of this section to migrant and seasonal Head Start programs," and "children of migrant or seasonal farmworker families" for "children of migrant and seasonal farmworker families".

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(f)(2), substituted "In determining" for "For purposes of subsection (a)(2)(A) of this section, in determining", "children of migrant farmworker families" for "children of migrant farmworkers", "under this subchapter" for "under such subsection", "children of seasonal farmworker families" for "children of seasonal farmworkers" in two places, and "children of such farmworker families" for "children of such farmworkers".

Subsec. (l)(3), (4). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(f)(3), added pars. (3) and (4) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall continue the administrative arrangement responsible for meeting the needs of children of migrant and seasonal farmworkers and Indian children and shall ensure that appropriate funding is provided to meet such needs."

Subsecs. (m) to (o). Pub. L. 110–134, §6(g), added subsecs. (m) to (o).

2004—Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 108–446, §305(l)(1), substituted "1431–1444" for "1431–1445".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–446, §305(l)(2), substituted "U.S.C." for "U.S.C" and "1431–1444" for "1431–1445".

1998—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(1)(F), inserted at end of concluding provisions "No Freely Associated State may receive financial assistance under this subchapter after fiscal year 2002."

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(1)(A), substituted "Head Start programs, services for children with disabilities, and migrant and seasonal Head Start programs" for "and migrant Head Start programs and services for handicapped children", "Head Start programs and by migrant and seasonal" for "and migrant" before "Head Start programs" in two places, and "1998" for "1994".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(1)(B), substituted "(B) payments, subject to paragraph (7)—", cls. (i) to (iii), and "according" for "(B) payments to Guam, American Samoa, the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Palau, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the Virgin Islands according".

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(1)(C), substituted ", of which not less than $3,000,000 of the amount appropriated for such fiscal year shall be made available to carry out activities described in section 9843(c)(4) of this title;" for "; and".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(1)(D), which directed substitution of "carried out under paragraph (1), (2), or (3) of section 9836a(d) of this title related to correcting deficiencies and conducting proceedings to terminate the designation of Head Start agencies; and" for "related to the development and implementation of quality improvement plans under section 9836a(d)(2) of this title.", was executed by making the substitution for "related to the development and implementation of quality improvement plans under section 9836a(d)(2) of this title)."

Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(1)(E), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (a)(3)(A)(i)(I). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(A), substituted "60 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 1999, 50 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 2000, 47.5 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 2001, 35 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 2002, and 25 percent of such excess amount for fiscal year 2003;" for "25 percent of such excess amount;".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(B)(i), substituted "adequate numbers of qualified staff" for "adequate qualified staff" and inserted "and children with disabilities" before ", when appropriate".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iv). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(B)(ii), inserted before period at end ", and to encourage the staff to continually improve their skills and expertise by informing the staff of the availability of Federal and State incentive and loan forgiveness programs for professional development".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(v). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(B)(iii), inserted "and collaboration efforts for such programs" before period at end.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(B)(iv), inserted before period at end ", and are accessible to children with disabilities and their parents".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(vii), (viii). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(B)(v), (vi), added cl. (vii) and redesignated former cl. (vii) as (viii).

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(i)(I). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(C)(i)(I), substituted "this paragraph" for "this subparagraph", "of classroom teachers and other staff" for "of staff", and "qualified staff, including recruitment and retention pursuant to achieving the requirements set forth in section 9843a(a) of this title" for "such staff", and inserted at end "Preferences in awarding salary increases, in excess of cost-of-living allowances, with such funds shall be granted to classroom teachers and staff who obtain additional training or education related to their responsibilities as employees of a Head Start program."

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(i)(II). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(C)(i)(II), substituted "this subparagraph" for "the subparagraph".

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(i)(III). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(C)(i)(III), added subcl. (III).

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(C)(ii), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "To pay transportation costs incurred by Head Start agencies to enable eligible children to participate in a Head Start program."

Subsec. (a)(3)(C)(v) to (vii). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(C)(iii), (iv), redesignated cls. (vi) and (vii) as (v) and (vi), respectively, and struck out former cl. (v) which read as follows: "To make nonstructural and minor structural changes, and to acquire and install equipment, for the purpose of improving facilities necessary to expand the availability, or enhance the quality, of Head Start programs."

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(i)(II). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(2)(D), substituted "Head Start programs and migrant and seasonal" for "and migrant".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(3)(C), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(3)(A), substituted "1998" for "1981".

Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(3)(B), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows:

"(B)(i) 331/3 percent of any amount available after all allotments have been made under subparagraph (A) for such fiscal year shall be distributed on the basis of the relative number of children from birth through 18 years of age, on whose behalf payments are made under the State program of assistance funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act in each State as compared to all States; and

"(ii) 662/3 percent of such amount shall be distributed on the basis of the relative number of children from birth through 5 years of age living with families with incomes below the poverty line in each State as compared to all States."

Subsec. (a)(5)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(4)(A), substituted "subparagraphs (B) and (D)" for "subparagraph (B)".

Subsec. (a)(5)(B). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(4)(B), inserted before period at end "and to encourage Head Start agencies to collaborate with entities involved in State and local planning processes (including the State lead agency administering the financial assistance received under subchapter II–B of this chapter and the entities providing resource and referral services in the State) in order to better meet the needs of low-income children and families".

Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(i)(I). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(4)(C)(i), inserted "the appropriate regional office of the Administration for Children and Families and" before "agencies".

Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(iii). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(4)(C)(ii), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(iv). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(4)(C)(iii), substituted "education, and community service activities," for "education, and national service activities,", "activities" for "and activities" before "relating to children with disabilities", and "(including coordination of services with those State officials who are responsible for administering part C and section 619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1431–1445, 1419)), and services for homeless children;" for period at end.

Subsec. (a)(5)(C)(v), (vi). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(4)(C)(iv), added cls. (v) and (vi).

Subsec. (a)(5)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(4)(D), (E), added subpars. (D) and (E) and redesignated former subpar. (D) as (F).

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(a)(5), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), substituted "7.5 percent for fiscal year 1999, 8 percent for fiscal year 2000, 9 percent for fiscal year 2001, 10 percent for fiscal year 2002, and 10 percent for fiscal year 2003, of the amount appropriated pursuant to section 9834(a) of this title, except as provided in subparagraph (B)." for "3 percent for fiscal year 1995, 4 percent for each of fiscal years 1996 and 1997, and 5 percent for fiscal year 1998, of the amount appropriated pursuant to section 9834(a) of this title.", and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(b)(2), which directed striking out "(as defined in section 1401(a) of title 20)", was executed by striking out "(as defined in section 1401(a)(1) of title 20)" after "children with disabilities" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105–285, §106(b)(1), (3), substituted "1999" for "1982" and inserted at end "Such policies and procedures shall require Head Start agencies to coordinate programmatic efforts with efforts to implement part C and section 619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C 1431–1445, 1419).".

Subsec. (g)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(c)(1)(A), inserted before semicolon at end ", and the performance history of the applicant in providing services under other Federal programs (other than the program carried out under this subchapter)".

Subsec. (g)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(c)(1)(B), inserted ", and organizations and public entities serving children with disabilities" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (g)(2)(D). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(c)(1)(C), inserted before semicolon at end "and the extent to which, and manner in which, the applicant demonstrates the ability to collaborate and participate with other local community providers of child care or preschool services to provide full-working-day full calendar year services".

Subsec. (g)(2)(E). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(c)(1)(D), substituted "program or any other early childhood program;" for "program; and".

Subsec. (g)(2)(G), (H). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(c)(1)(E), (F), added subpars. (G) and (H).

Subsec. (g)(4). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(c)(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–285, §106(d), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "migrant and seasonal Head Start programs" for "migrant Head Start programs" in two places and "migrant and seasonal farmworker families" for "migrant families", and added pars. (2) and (3).

1996—Subsec. (a)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 104–193 substituted "State program of assistance funded" for "program of aid to families with dependent children under a State plan approved".

1994—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(b)(1), substituted "through (4), and subject to paragraphs (5) and (6)" for "through (5)".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(b)(2)(A), substituted "1994" for "1990".

Subsec. (a)(2)(D). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(b)(2)(B), inserted "(including payments for all costs (other than compensation of Federal employees) of reviews of Head Start agencies and programs under section 9836a(c) of this title, and of activities related to the development and implementation of quality improvement plans under section 9836a(d)(2) of this title)" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (a)(3)(A), (B). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(2), added subpars. (A) and (B). Former subpars. (A) and (B) redesignated subpars. (C) and (D), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(1)–(3), redesignated subpar. (A) as (C), substituted in introductory provisions "Quality improvement funds shall be used to carry out any or all of the following activities:" for "For any fiscal year for which the amount appropriated under section 9834(a) of this title exceeds the adjusted appropriation, the Secretary shall reserve the quality improvement funds for such fiscal year, for one or more of the following quality improvement activities:", and added cl. (vii).

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(1), redesignated subpar. (B) as (D).

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(i). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(A), (b)(3), struck out "for the first, second, and third fiscal years for which funds are so reserved" after "subparagraph (A)" in introductory provisions, substituted "paragraph (4)" for "paragraph (5)" in subcl. (I), and inserted "geographical areas specified in subsection (a)(2)(B) of this section and Indian and migrant Head Start programs," after "States," in subcl. (II).

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(b)(3), substituted "paragraph (4)" for "paragraph (5)".

Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(B), (E), redesignated cl. (iv) as (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "Funds reserved under subparagraph (A) for any fiscal year subsequent to the third fiscal year for which funds are so reserved shall be allotted by the Secretary among the States in the same proportion as the Secretary allots funds among the States under paragraph (5) for the respective subsequent fiscal year."

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(B), (E), redesignated cl. (vi) as (iii) and struck out former cl. (iii) which read as follows: "To be expended for the activities specified in subparagraph (A) in the first fiscal, second, and third fiscal years for which funds are required by such subparagraph to be reserved, funds allotted under clause (i)(I) shall be used by the Secretary to make a grant to each Head Start agency that receives a grant from funds allotted under paragraph (5) for such fiscal year, in the amount that bears the same ratio to the amount allotted under clause (i)(I) for such fiscal year for the State in which such agency is located as the number of children participating in the Head Start program of such agency in such fiscal year bears to the number of children participating in all Head Start programs in such State in such fiscal year."

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(E), redesignated cl. (iv) as (ii).

Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(C), substituted "Funds" for "To be expended for the activities specified in subparagraph (A) in each subsequent fiscal year for which funds are required by such subparagraph to be reserved, funds" and "clause (i)" for "clause (ii)", inserted ", for expenditure for activities specified in subparagraph (C)", and struck out at end "The aggregate amount of grants made under this clause to Head Start agencies in a State for a fiscal year may not exceed the amount allotted under clause (ii) for such State for such fiscal year."

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(v). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(E), struck out cl. (v) which read as follows: "If a Head Start agency certifies for such fiscal year to the Secretary that it does not need any funds under subparagraph (A), or does not need part of such funds it would otherwise receive under clause (iii) or (iv), then unneeded funds shall be used by the Secretary to make grants under this subparagraph without regard to such agency."

Subsec. (a)(3)(D)(vi). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(E), redesignated cl. (vi) as (iii).

Pub. L. 103–252, §105(a)(4)(D), substituted "paragraph (2) or (4)" for "paragraphs (2), (4), and (5)".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(b)(4), (5), redesignated par. (5) as (4), substituted "Subject to section 9834(b) of this title, the Secretary" for "The Secretary", and struck out former par. (4), which related to Secretary reserving sums for grants to carry out early childhood intervention programs, known as "Parent-Child Centers".

Subsec. (a)(5), (6). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(b)(6), added pars. (5) and (6). Former pars. (5) and (6) redesignated (4) and (7), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(b)(4), redesignated par. (6) as (7).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(c), designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(d), substituted "Financial assistance provided under this subchapter may be used by each Head Start program to" for "Each Head Start program may".

Subsecs. (j) to (l). Pub. L. 103–252, §105(e), added subsecs. (j) to (l).

1992—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(k)(1)(A)(i)(I), inserted "children" after "handicapped".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(k)(1)(A)(i)(II), substituted "Commonwealth of" for "Commonwealth of,".

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(k)(1)(A)(i)(III), substituted "such fiscal year" for "any such fiscal year".

Subsec. (a)(3)(A)(vi). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(k)(1)(A)(ii), substituted "paragraph (2)(C)" for "subsection (a)(2)(C) of this section".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(a)(1), substituted ", second, and third" for "and second".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(a)(2), substituted "third" for "second".

Subsec. (a)(3)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(a)(1), substituted ", second, and third" for "and second".

Subsec. (a)(4)(B)(i)(II). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(b), inserted ", literacy," after "skills".

Subsec. (a)(5)(B)(i). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(k)(1)(A)(iii), substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "clause (A)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(c), struck out ", in accordance with regulations establishing objective criteria," after "if the Secretary determines" and inserted after first sentence "For the purpose of making such determination, the Secretary shall take into consideration with respect to the Head Start program involved—" and cls. (1) to (5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(k)(1)(B), substituted "Price Index For All" for "Price Index for all".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(d), added subsec. (i).

1991—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 102–119 substituted "section 1401(a)(1) of title 20" for "paragraph (1) of section 1401 of title 20". The references to section 1401 of title 20 include the substitution of "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act" for "Education of the Handicapped Act" in the original.

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(1), substituted "through (5)" for "and (3)".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(2)(D), (E), struck out before last sentence "The minimum reservation contained in clause (C) of this paragraph shall not apply in any fiscal year in which the appropriation for the program authorized by this subchapter is less than the amount appropriated for fiscal year 1984." and inserted "or paragraph (3)" after "under this paragraph" in last sentence.

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(2)(A), substituted ", except that there shall be made available for each fiscal year for use by Indian and migrant Head Start programs, on a nationwide basis, not less than the amount that was obligated for use by Indian and migrant Head Start programs for fiscal year 1990" for "children, except that there shall be made available for use by Indian and migrant Head Start programs, on a nationwide basis, no less funds for fiscal year 1987 and each subsequent fiscal year than were obligated for use by Indian and migrant Head Start programs for fiscal year 1985".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(2)(B), substituted "the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, Palau, the Commonwealth of" for "the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

Subsec. (a)(2)(C). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(2)(C), substituted "2 percent of the amount appropriated for any such fiscal year" for "the amount expended for training and technical assistance activities under this clause for fiscal year 1982".

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(5), added pars. (3) and (4). Former pars. (3) and (4) redesignated (5) and (6), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(3), (4), redesignated par. (3) as (5) and struck out "87 percent of the" after "allot the remaining".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101–501, §104(a)(4), (6), redesignated par. (4) as (6), inserted "the Commonwealth of" before "the Northern Mariana", and substituted "the Federated States of Micronesia, the Republic of the Marshall Islands, and Palau" for "or the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–501, §105(1), struck out sentence at end requiring Secretary to report to Congress at least annually on status of children with disabilities in Head Start programs.

Pub. L. 101–476, §901(d), substituted "children with disabilities" for "handicapped children" in two places and substituted "disabling" for "handicapping".

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 101–501, §105(2), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–501, §123(b), added subsec. (h).

1986—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 99–425, in amending cl. (A) generally, designated existing subcl. (i) as all of cl. (A), substituted "1987" for "1982" and "1985" for "1981", and struck out subcl. (ii) relating to cost-of-living adjustments.

1984—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 98–558 inserted "as described in section 9843 of this title, in an amount for each fiscal year which is not less than the amount expended for training and technical assistance activities under this clause for fiscal year 1982" in cl. (C), and inserted at end "The minimum reservation contained in clause (C) of this paragraph shall not apply in any fiscal year in which the appropriation for the program authorized by this subchapter is less than the amount appropriated for fiscal year 1984. No funds reserved under this paragraph may be combined with funds appropriated under any other Act if the purpose of combining funds is to make a single discretionary grant or a single discretionary payment, unless such funds appropriated under this subchapter are separately identified in such grant or payment and are used for the purposes of this subchapter."

Change of Name

Committee on Labor and Human Resources of Senate changed to Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of Senate by Senate Resolution No. 20, One Hundred Sixth Congress, Jan. 19, 1999.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–252 effective May 18, 1994, but not applicable to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.) until Oct. 1, 1994, see section 127 of Pub. L. 103–252, set out as a note under section 9832 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–401, §4, Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1959, provided that:

"(a) Effective Dates.—(1) Except as provided in paragraph (2) and subsection (b), this Act [amending this section and sections 9835a to 9839, 9846, 9846a, and 9858n of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 9836 of this title] and the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 7, 1992].

"(2) The amendment made by section 2(e)(1) [amending section 9836 of this title] shall take effect on July 30, 1992.

"(b) Application of Amendments.—The amendments made by this Act, other than the amendment made by section 2(e)(1), shall not apply with respect to fiscal years beginning before October 1, 1992."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–501 effective Oct. 1, 1990, see section 1001(a) of Pub. L. 101–501, set out as a note under section 8621 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–476 effective Oct. 1, 1990, see section 1001 of Pub. L. 101–476, set out as a note under section 1087ee of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–425 effective Oct. 1, 1986, see section 1001 of Pub. L. 99–425, set out as a note under section 8621 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

2 See References in Text note below.

§9835a. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §106, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 629

Section, Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §640A, as added Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §106, Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1229; amended Pub. L. 102–401, §2(k)(2), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1958, directed Secretary to prepare both interim and final comprehensive reports to Congress on administration, funding, and demographics of Head Start programs.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective May 18, 1994, but not applicable to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.) until Oct. 1, 1994, see section 127 of Pub. L. 103–252, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 9832 of this title.

§9836. Designation of Head Start agencies

(a) Authority to designate

(1) In general

The Secretary is authorized to designate as a Head Start agency any local public or private nonprofit agency, including community-based and faith-based organizations, or for-profit agency, within a community, pursuant to the requirements of this section.

(2) Interim policy

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), until such time as the Secretary develops and implements the system for designation renewal under this section, the Secretary is authorized to designate as a Head Start agency, any local public or private nonprofit agency, including community-based and faith-based organizations, or for-profit agency, within a community, in the manner and process utilized by the Secretary prior to December 12, 2007.

(b) Application for designation renewal

To be considered for designation renewal, an entity shall submit an application to the Secretary, at such time and in such manner as the Secretary may require.

(c) System for designation renewal

(1) In general

The Secretary shall develop a system for designation renewal that integrates the recommendations of the expert panel convened under paragraph (2) to determine if a Head Start agency is delivering a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program that meets the educational, health, nutritional, and social needs of the children and families it serves, and meets program and financial management requirements and standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title, based on—

(A) annual budget and fiscal management data;

(B) program reviews conducted under section 9836a(c) of this title;

(C) annual audits required under section 9842 of this title;

(D) classroom quality as measured under section 9836a(c)(2)(F) of this title; and

(E) Program Information Reports.

(2) Expert panel

Not later than 3 months after December 12, 2007, the Secretary shall convene an expert panel of 7 members to make recommendations to the Secretary on the development of a transparent, reliable, and valid system for designation renewal.

(3) Composition of expert panel

The Secretary, in convening such panel, shall appoint the following:

(A)(i) One member, who has demonstrated competency, as evidenced by training, expertise, and experience, in early childhood program accreditation.

(ii) One member, who has demonstrated competency (as so evidenced) in research on early childhood development.

(iii) One member, who has demonstrated competency (as so evidenced) in governance and finance of nonprofit organizations.

(iv) One member, who has demonstrated competency (as so evidenced) in delivery of services to populations of children with special needs and their families.

(v) One member, who has demonstrated competency (as so evidenced) in assessment and evaluation of programs serving young children.

(B) An employee from the Office of Head Start.

(C) An executive director of a Head Start agency.

(4) Expert panel report

Within 9 months after being convened by the Secretary, the expert panel shall issue a report to the Secretary that provides recommendations on a proposed system for designation renewal that takes into account the criteria in subparagraphs (A) through (E) of paragraph (1) to evaluate whether a Head Start agency is fulfilling its mission to deliver a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program, including adequately meeting its governance, legal, and financial management requirements.

(5) Public comment and consideration

Not later than 3 months after receiving the report described in paragraph (4), the Secretary shall publish a notice describing a proposed system for designation renewal in the Federal Register, including a proposal for the transition to such system, providing at least 90 days for public comment. The Secretary shall review and consider public comments prior to finalizing the system for designation renewal described in this subsection.

(6) Designation renewal system

Not later than 12 months after publishing a notice describing the proposed system under paragraph (5), the Secretary shall implement the system for designation renewal and use that system to determine—

(A) whether a Head Start grantee is successfully delivering a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program; and

(B) whether the grantee has any unresolved deficiencies found during the last triennial review under section 9836a(c) of this title.

(7) Implementation of the designation renewal system

(A) In general

A grantee who is determined under such system—

(i) to be delivering a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program shall be designated (consistent with section 9838 of this title) as a Head Start agency for the period of 5 years described in section 9833 of this title;

(ii) to not be delivering a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program shall be subject to an open competition as described in subsection (d); and

(iii) in the case of an Indian Head Start agency, to not be delivering a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program shall (notwithstanding clause (ii)) be subject to the requirements of subparagraph (B).

(B) Tribal government consultation and reevaluation

On making a determination described in subparagraph (A)(iii), the Secretary shall engage in government-to-government consultation with the appropriate tribal government or governments for the purpose of establishing a plan to improve the quality of Head Start programs operated by the Indian Head Start agency. Such plan shall be established and implemented within 6 months after the Secretary's determination. Not more than 6 months after the implementation of that plan, the Secretary shall reevaluate the performance of the Indian Head Start agency. If the Indian Head Start agency is still not delivering a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program, the Secretary shall conduct an open competition as described in subsection (d), subject to the limitations described in subsection (e).

(8) Transparency, reliability, and validity

The Secretary shall ensure the system for designation renewal is fair, consistent, and transparent and is applied in a manner that renews designations, in a timely manner, grantees as Head Start agencies for periods of 5 years if such grantees are delivering high-quality and comprehensive Head Start programs. The Secretary shall periodically evaluate whether the criteria of the system are being applied in a manner that is transparent, reliable, and valid.

(9) Transition

(A) In general

Each Head Start agency shall be reviewed under the system for designation renewal described in paragraph (6), not later than 3 years after the implementation of such system.

(B) Limitation

A Head Start agency shall not be subject to the requirements of the system for designation renewal prior to 18 months after December 12, 2007.

(C) Schedule

The Secretary shall establish and implement a schedule for reviewing each Head Start agency under the system for designation renewal described in paragraph (6), consistent with subparagraphs (A) and (B).

(10) Reports to Congress

The Secretary shall—

(A) make available to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate the report described in paragraph (4);

(B) concurrently with publishing a notice in the Federal Register as described in paragraph (5), provide a report to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate that provides a detailed description of the proposed system described in paragraph (5), including a clear rationale for any differences between the proposed system and the recommendations of the expert panel, if any such differences exist; and

(C) prior to implementing the system for designation renewal, provide a report to the Committee on Education and Labor of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Health, Education, Labor, and Pensions of the Senate—

(i) summarizing the public comment on the proposed system and the Secretary's response to such comment; and

(ii) describing the final system for designation renewal and the plans for implementation of such system.

(d) Designation when no entity is renewed

(1) In general

If no entity in a community is determined to be successfully delivering a high-quality and comprehensive Head Start program, as specified in subsection (c), the Secretary shall, after conducting an open competition, designate for a 5-year period a Head Start agency from among qualified applicants in such community.

(2) Considerations for designation

In selecting from among qualified applicants for designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall consider the effectiveness of each such applicant to provide Head Start services, based on—

(A) any past performance of such applicant in providing services comparable to Head Start services, including how effectively such applicant provided such comparable services;

(B) the plan of such applicant to provide comprehensive health, educational, nutritional, social, and other services needed to aid participating children in attaining their full potential, and to prepare children to succeed in school;

(C) the plan of such applicant to attract and retain qualified staff capable of delivering, including implementing, a high-quality and comprehensive program, including the ability to carry out a research based curriculum aligned with the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework and, as appropriate, State early learning standards;

(D) the ability of such applicant to maintain child-to-teacher ratios and family service worker caseloads that reflect best practices and are tied to high-quality service delivery;

(E) the capacity of such applicant to serve eligible children with—

(i) curricula that are based on scientifically valid research, that are developmentally appropriate, and that promote the school readiness of children participating in the program involved; and

(ii) teaching practices that are based, as appropriate, on scientifically valid research, that are developmentally appropriate, and that promote the school readiness of children participating in the program involved;


(F) the plan of such applicant to meet standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title, with particular attention to the standards described in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such section;

(G) the proposed budget of the applicant and plan of such applicant to maintain strong fiscal controls and cost-effective fiscal management;

(H) the plan of such applicant to coordinate and collaborate with other public or private entities providing early childhood education and development programs and services for young children in the community involved, including—

(i) preschool programs under title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6301 et seq.);

(ii) programs under section 619 and part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.);

(iii) State prekindergarten programs;

(iv) child care programs;

(v) the educational programs that the children in the Head Start program involved will enter at the age of compulsory school attendance; and

(vi) local entities, such as a public or school library, for—

(I) conducting reading readiness programs;

(II) developing innovative programs to excite children about the world of books, including providing fresh books in the Head Start classroom;

(III) assisting in literacy training for Head Start teachers; or

(IV) supporting parents and other caregivers in literacy efforts;


(I) the plan of such applicant to coordinate the Head Start program that the applicant proposes to carry out, with public and private entities that are willing to commit resources to assist the Head Start program in meeting its program needs;

(J) the plan of such applicant—

(i) to facilitate the involvement of parents (including grandparents and kinship caregivers, as appropriate) of children participating in the proposed Head Start program, in activities (at home and, if practicable, at the location of the Head Start program) designed to help such parents become full partners in the education of their children;

(ii) to afford such parents the opportunity to participate in the development and overall conduct of the program at the local level, including transportation assistance, as appropriate;

(iii) to offer (directly or through referral to local entities, public and school libraries, and entities carrying out family support programs) to such parents—

(I) family literacy services; and

(II) parenting skills training;


(iv) to offer to parents of participating children substance abuse counseling (either directly or through referral to local entities), if needed, including information on the effect of drug exposure on infants and fetal alcohol syndrome;

(v) at the option of such applicant, to offer (directly or through referral to local entities) to such parents—

(I) training in basic child development (including cognitive, social, and emotional development);

(II) assistance in developing literacy and communication skills;

(III) opportunities to share experiences with other parents (including parent-mentor relationships);

(IV) regular in-home visitation;

(V) health services, including information on maternal depression; or

(VI) any other activity designed to help such parents become full partners in the education of their children;


(vi) to provide, with respect to each participating family, a family needs assessment that includes consultation with such parents (including foster parents, grandparents, and kinship caregivers, where applicable), in a manner and language that such parents can understand, to the extent practicable, about the benefits of parent involvement and about the activities described in this subparagraph in which such parents may choose to become involved (taking into consideration their specific family needs, work schedules, and other responsibilities); and

(vii) to extend outreach to fathers (including father figures), in appropriate cases, in order to strengthen the role of those fathers in families, in the education of young children, and in the Head Start program, by working directly with the fathers through activities such as—

(I) in appropriate cases, including the fathers in home visits and providing opportunities for direct father-child interactions; and

(II) targeting increased male participation in the conduct of the program;


(K) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of limited English proficient children and their families, including procedures to identify such children, plans to provide trained personnel, and plans to provide services to assist the children in making progress toward the acquisition of the English language, while making meaningful progress in attaining the knowledge, skills, abilities, and development described in section 9836a(a)(1)(B) of this title;

(L) the plan of such applicant to meet the diverse needs of the population served;

(M) the plan of such applicant who chooses to assist younger siblings of children who will participate in the Head Start program to obtain health services from other sources;

(N) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of children with disabilities, including procedures to identify such children, procedures for referral of such children for evaluation to State or local agencies providing services under section 619 or part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.), and plans for collaboration with those State or local agencies;

(O) the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of homeless children, including transportation needs, and the needs of children in foster care; and

(P) other factors related to the requirements of this subchapter.

(3) Priority

In selecting from among qualified applicants for designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall give priority to applicants that have demonstrated capacity in providing effective, comprehensive, and well-coordinated early childhood education and development services and programs to children and their families.

(e) Prohibition against non-Indian Head Start agency receiving a grant for an Indian Head Start program

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except as provided in paragraph (2), under no condition may a non-Indian Head Start agency receive a grant to carry out an Indian Head Start program.

(2) Exception

In a community in which there is no Indian Head Start agency available for designation to carry out an Indian Head Start program, a non-Indian Head Start agency may receive a grant to carry out an Indian Head Start program but only until such time as an Indian Head Start agency in such community becomes available and is designated pursuant to this section.

(f) Interim provider

If no agency in a community is designated under subsection (d), and there is no qualified applicant in the community, the Secretary shall designate a qualified agency to carry out the Head Start program in the community on an interim basis until a qualified applicant from the community is designated under subsection (d).

(g) Parent and community participation

The Secretary shall require that the practice of significantly involving parents and community residents in the area affected by the program involved, in the selection of Head Start agencies, be continued.

(h) Community

For purposes of this subchapter, a community may be a city, county, or multicity or multicounty unit within a State, an Indian reservation (including Indians in any off-reservation area designated by an appropriate tribal government in consultation with the Secretary), or a neighborhood or other area (irrespective of boundaries or political subdivisions) that provides a suitable organizational base and possesses the commonality of interest needed to operate a Head Start program.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §641, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 501; Pub. L. 98–558, title I, §104, Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2878; Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §§107, 108, Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1229, 1230; Pub. L. 102–401, §2(e)(1), (f)–(h), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1957; Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §107, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 629; Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §107, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2712; Pub. L. 108–446, title III, §305(l)(3), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2806; Pub. L. 110–134, §7, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1378; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(nn)(2), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2176.)

References in Text

The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(H)(i), is Pub. L. 89–10, Apr. 11, 1965, 79 Stat. 27. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§6301 et seq.) of chapter 70 of Title 20, Education. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6301 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(H)(ii), (N), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175. Part C of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1431 et seq.) of chapter 33 of Title 20, Education. Section 619 of the Act is classified to section 1419 of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

Subsec. (d)(2)(H)(i). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(nn)(2)(A), redesignated cl. (ii) as (i), struck out "other" before "preschool programs" and substituted "the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965" for "that Act", and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "programs implementing grant agreements under the Early Reading First and Even Start programs under subparts 2 and 3 of part B of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6371 et seq., 6381 et seq.);".

Subsec. (d)(2)(H)(ii) to (vii). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(nn)(2)(A)(ii), redesignated cls. (iii) to (vii) as (ii) to (vi), respectively. Former cl. (ii) redesignated (i).

Subsec. (d)(2)(J)(iii). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(nn)(2)(B), struck out ", such as entities carrying out Even Start programs under subpart 3 of part B of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6381 et seq.)" after "local entities" in introductory provisions.

2007Pub. L. 110–134 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to authorization of and prerequisites for designation of Head Start agencies in subsec. (a), definition of community in subsec. (b), priority in administration of section provisions in subsec. (c), designation in community without entity entitled to priority and qualified applicants in subsec. (d), designation on interim basis in subsec. (e), involvement of parents and area residents in selection of agencies in subsec. (f), and priority for nonprofit agencies and applicants with demonstrated capacity in subsec. (g).

2004—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 108–446 substituted "U.S.C. 1431–1444" for "U.S.C 1431–1445".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(1), inserted "or for-profit" after "nonprofit" and "(in consultation with the chief executive officer of the State involved, if such State expends non-Federal funds to carry out Head Start programs)" after "Secretary" in cl. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(2), substituted "off-reservation area designated by an appropriate tribal government in consultation with the Secretary" for "area designated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs as near-reservation".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(3)(A), inserted ", in consultation with the chief executive officer of the State involved if such State expends non-Federal funds to carry out Head Start programs," after "Secretary shall" and "or for-profit" after "nonprofit" and substituted "determines that the agency involved fails to meet program and financial management requirements, performance standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title, results-based performance measures developed by the Secretary under section 9836a(b) of this title, or other requirements established by the Secretary" for "makes a finding that the agency involved fails to meet program, financial management, and other requirements established by the Secretary".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(3)(B), (C), inserted ", in consultation with the chief executive officer of the State if such State expends non-Federal funds to carry out Head Start programs," after "Secretary shall" and realigned margins.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(3)(C), realigned margins.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(A), inserted in introductory provisions "In selecting from among qualified applicants for designation as a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall give priority to any qualified agency that functioned as a Head Start delegate agency in the community and carried out a Head Start program that the Secretary determines met or exceeded such performance standards and such results-based performance measures."

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(B), inserted "and programs under part C and section 619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C 1431–1445, 1419)" after "(20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.)".

Subsec. (d)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(C)(i), inserted "(at home and in the center involved where practicable)" after "activities".

Subsec. (d)(4)(D). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(C)(v), added subpar. (D). Former subpar. (D) redesignated (E).

Subsec. (d)(4)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(C)(ii)(I), inserted "or" at end.

Subsec. (d)(4)(D)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(C)(ii)(II), (III), redesignated cl. (v) as (iv) and struck out former cl. (iv) which read as follows: "substance abuse counseling; or".

Subsec. (d)(4)(E). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(C)(iv), redesignated subpar. (D) as (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(C)(iii), substituted ", (D), and (E)" for "and (D)".

Subsec. (d)(4)(F). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(C)(iv), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(D), amended par. (7) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "the plan of such applicant to meet the needs of non-English language background children and their families in the community; and".

Subsec. (d)(8) to (10). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(4)(E)–(G), added pars. (8) and (10) and redesignated former par. (8) as (9).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(5), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows: "If, in a community served by a Head Start program, there is no applicant qualified for designation as a Head Start agency to carry out such program, the Secretary may appoint an interim grantee to carry out such program until a qualified applicant is so designated."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 105–285, §107(6), added subsec. (g).

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(a), inserted "(including Indians in any area designated by the Bureau of Indian Affairs as near-reservation)" after "Indian reservation".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(b)(2), (3), (5), inserted "(subject to paragraph (2))" after "the provisions of this section", struck out subpar. (A), inserted "the Secretary makes a finding that the agency involved fails to meet program, financial management, and other requirements established by the Secretary." after "unless", and redesignated subpar. (B) as par. (2) and concluding provisions as par. (3).

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(b)(1), (3), (4), (6), redesignated par. (1)(B) as (2) and realigned margins, substituted "If" for "except that, if" and "paragraph (1)" for "subparagraph (A)", and struck out former par. (2) which read as follows:

"(2)(A) The Secretary shall conduct a full review of each designated Head Start agency at least once during each 3-year period, and shall determine whether each agency meets program and fiscal requirements established by the Secretary.

"(B) The Secretary shall conduct a review of each newly designated Head Start agency immediately after the completion of the first year such agency carries out a Head Start program.

"(C) The Secretary shall conduct followup reviews of Head Start agencies when appropriate."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(b)(1), (5), redesignated concluding provisions of par. (1) as (3), substituted "this subsection" for "this paragraph", and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "In carrying out a review of each Head Start agency under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall—

"(A) to the maximum extent practicable, carry out such review by using employees of the Department of Health and Human Services who are knowledgeable about Head Start programs;

"(B) ensure that an employee of the Department of Health and Human Services who is knowledgeable about Head Start programs supervises such review at the site of such agency;

"(C) measure the compliance of the programs of such agency with the performance standards in effect under section 9846(b) of this title; and

"(D) identify the types and conditions of facilities in which such programs are located."

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(b)(1), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "The results of a review conducted under this subsection shall not be sufficient alone for the purpose of determining whether to continue, or to discontinue, providing funds to a particular Head Start agency."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(c)(1)–(3)(A), in introductory provisions substituted "If no entity in a community is entitled to the priority specified in subsection (c) of this section," for "If there is no Head Start agency as described in subsection (c)(2) of this section, and no existing Head Start program serving a community," and struck out "Any such designation shall be governed by the program and fiscal requirements, criteria, and standards applicable on September 1, 1983, to then existing Head Start agencies." after first sentence and "subject to the preceding sentence" after "as a Head Start agency".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(c)(3)(B), inserted ", including Even Start programs under part B of chapter 1 of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.)," after "preschool programs".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(c)(3)(C), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "the plan of such applicant to involve parents of children who will participate in the proposed Head Start program in appropriate educational services (in accordance with the performance standards in effect under section 9846(b) of this title or through referral of such parents to educational services available in the community) in order to aid their children to attain their full potential;".

Subsec. (d)(7). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(c)(4), substituted "non-English language background children and their families" for "non-English language children" and inserted "and" after semicolon.

Subsec. (d)(8), (9). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(c)(5), (6), redesignated par. (9) as (8) and struck out former par. (8) which read as follows: "the plan of such applicant to provide (directly or through referral to educational services available in the community) parents of children who will participate in the proposed Head Start program with child development and literacy skills training in order to aid their children to attain their full potential; and".

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 103–252, §107(d), redesignated subsec. (g) as (f) and struck out former subsec. (f) which read as follows: "The provisions of subsections (c), (d), and (e) of this section shall be applied by the Secretary in the distribution of any additional appropriations made available under this subchapter during any fiscal year as well as to initial designations of Head Start agencies."

1992—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(e)(1), inserted at end "Notwithstanding any other provision of this paragraph, the Secretary shall not give such priority to any agency with respect to which financial assistance has been terminated, or an application for refunding has been denied, under this subchapter by the Secretary after affording such agency reasonable notice and opportunity for a full and fair hearing in accordance with section 9841(a)(3) of this title."

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(f), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpars. (B) and (C).

Subsec. (d)(8), (9). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(g), added pars. (8) and (9).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(h)(3), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (f).

Pub. L. 102–401, §2(h)(1), substituted "(c), (d), and (e)" for "(c) and (d)".

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 102–401, §2(h)(2), redesignated subsecs. (e) and (f) as (f) and (g), respectively.

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–501, §107, designated existing provisions as par. (1), redesignated former par. (1) as subpar. (A), added subpar. (B) and pars. (2) to (4), and struck out former par. (2) and last sentence which read as follows:

"(2) except that if there is no such agency because of any change in the assistance furnished to programs for economically disadvantaged persons, then the Secretary shall give priority in the designation of Head Start agencies to any successor agency which is operated in substantially the same manner as the predecessor agency which did receive funds in the fiscal year preceding the fiscal year for which the determination is made.

The provisions of clause (2) shall apply only to agencies actually operating Head Start programs."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–501, §108, inserted at end "In selecting from among qualified applicants for designation as a Head Start agency and subject to the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall consider the effectiveness of each such applicant to provide Head Start services, based on—" and pars. (1) to (7).

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–558, §104(a), inserted ", within a community," after "private nonprofit agency".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 98–558, §104(b)(1), substituted "unless" for ", except that" in provisions preceding cl. (1).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–558, §104(b)(2), (3), substituted "makes a finding" for "shall, before giving such priority, determine" and "fails to meet" for "meet".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–558, §104(b)(4), inserted "except that" before "if".

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 98–558, §104(c), added subsecs. (d) and (e) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (f).

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–252 effective May 18, 1994, but not applicable to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.) until Oct. 1, 1994, see section 127 of Pub. L. 103–252, set out as a note under section 9832 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–401, §2(e)(2), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1957, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall apply only with respect to terminations of financial assistance, and denials of refunding, occurring after July 29, 1992."

Amendment by section 2(f)–(h) of Pub. L. 102–401 effective Oct. 7, 1992, but not applicable with respect to fiscal years beginning before Oct. 1, 1992, and amendment by section 2(e)(1) of Pub. L. 102–401 effective July 30, 1992, see section 4 of Pub. L. 102–401, set out as a note under section 9835 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–501 effective Oct. 1, 1990, see section 1001(a) of Pub. L. 101–501, set out as a note under section 8621 of this title.

Head Start Designation Renewal System

Pub. L. 116–159, div. D, title IV, §4401, Oct. 1, 2020, 134 Stat. 743, provided that:

"Notwithstanding section 638 of the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9833), if the Secretary of Health and Human Services—

"(1) is required to make a determination under paragraph (6) of section 641(c) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 9836a(c) [sic, probably should be "42 U.S.C. 9836(c)") whether to renew the designation of a Head Start agency for which such determination under the schedule developed pursuant to paragraph (9)(C) of such section 641(c) is required to be made before December 31, 2020; and

"(2) cannot make such determination in accordance with such schedule because the Secretary lacks any information described in any of subparagraphs (A) through (E) of section 641(c)(1) of such Act required for the purpose of making such determination;

then before December 31, 2020, the Secretary shall extend for not more than 2 years the 5-year period otherwise applicable to the designation of such Head Start agency under such Act [42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.]."

§9836a. Standards; monitoring of Head Start agencies and programs

(a) Standards

(1) Content of standards

The Secretary shall modify, as necessary, program performance standards by regulation applicable to Head Start agencies and programs under this subchapter, including—

(A) performance standards with respect to services required to be provided, including health, parental involvement, nutritional, and social services, transition activities described in section 9837a of this title, and other services;

(B) scientifically based and developmentally appropriate education performance standards related to school readiness that are based on the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework to ensure that the children participating in the program, at a minimum, develop and demonstrate—

(i) language knowledge and skills, including oral language and listening comprehension;

(ii) literacy knowledge and skills, including phonological awareness, print awareness and skills, and alphabetic knowledge;

(iii) mathematics knowledge and skills;

(iv) science knowledge and skills;

(v) cognitive abilities related to academic achievement and child development;

(vi) approaches to learning related to child development and early learning;

(vii) social and emotional development related to early learning, school success, and social problemsolving;

(viii) abilities in creative arts;

(ix) physical development; and

(x) in the case of limited English proficient children, progress toward acquisition of the English language while making meaningful progress in attaining the knowledge, skills, abilities, and development described in clauses (i) through (ix), including progress made through the use of culturally and linguistically appropriate instructional services;


(C) administrative and financial management standards;

(D) standards relating to the condition and location of facilities (including indoor air quality assessment standards, where appropriate) for such agencies, and programs, including regulations that require that the facilities used by Head Start agencies (including Early Head Start agencies and any delegate agencies) for regularly scheduled center-based and combination program option classroom activities—

(i) shall meet or exceed State and local requirements concerning licensing for such facilities; and

(ii) shall be accessible by State and local authorities for purposes of monitoring and ensuring compliance, unless State or local laws prohibit such access; and


(E) such other standards as the Secretary finds to be appropriate.

(2) Considerations regarding standards

In developing any modifications to standards required under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) consult with experts in the fields of child development, early childhood education, child health care, family services (including linguistically and culturally appropriate services to non-English speaking children and their families), administration, and financial management, and with persons with experience in the operation of Head Start programs;

(B) take into consideration—

(i) past experience with use of the standards in effect under this subchapter on December 12, 2007;

(ii) changes over the period since October 27, 1998, in the circumstances and problems typically facing children and families served by Head Start agencies;

(iii) recommendations from the study on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children by the National Academy of Sciences, consistent with section 9844(j) of this title;

(iv) developments concerning research-based practices with respect to early childhood education and development, children with disabilities, homeless children, children in foster care, and family services, and best practices with respect to program administration and financial management;

(v) projected needs of an expanding Head Start program;

(vi) guidelines and standards that promote child health services and physical development, including participation in outdoor activity that supports children's motor development and overall health and nutrition;

(vii) changes in the characteristics of the population of children who are eligible to participate in Head Start programs, including country of origin, language background, and family structure of such children, and changes in the population and number of such children who are in foster care or are homeless children;

(viii) mechanisms to ensure that children participating in Head Start programs make a successful transition to the schools that the children will be attending;

(ix) the need for Head Start agencies to maintain regular communications with parents, including conducting periodic meetings to discuss the progress of individual children in Head Start programs; and

(x) the unique challenges faced by individual programs, including those programs that are seasonal or short term and those programs that serve rural populations;


(C)(i) review and revise as necessary the standards in effect under this subsection; and

(ii) ensure that any such revisions in the standards will not result in the elimination of or any reduction in quality, scope, or types of health, educational, parental involvement, nutritional, social, or other services required to be provided under such standards as in effect on December 12, 2007; and

(D) consult with Indian tribes, including Alaska Natives, experts in Indian, including Alaska Native, early childhood education and development, linguists, and the National Indian Head Start Directors Association on the review and promulgation of standards under paragraph (1) (including standards for language acquisition and school readiness).

(3) Standards relating to obligations to delegate agencies

In developing any modifications to standards under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall describe the obligations of a Head Start agency to a delegate agency to which the Head Start agency has delegated responsibility for providing services under this subchapter.

(b) Measures

(1) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with representatives of Head Start agencies and with experts in the fields of early childhood education and development, family services, and program management, shall use the study on Developmental Outcomes and Assessments for Young Children by the National Academy of Sciences and other relevant research to inform, revise, and provide guidance to Head Start agencies for utilizing, scientifically based measures that support, as appropriate—

(A) classroom instructional practices;

(B) identification of children with special needs;

(C) program evaluation; and

(D) administrative and financial management practices.

(2) Characteristics of measures

The measures under this subsection shall—

(A) be developmentally, linguistically, and culturally appropriate for the population served;

(B) be reviewed periodically, based on advances in the science of early childhood development;

(C) be consistent with relevant, nationally recognized professional and technical standards related to the assessment of young children;

(D) be valid and reliable in the language in which they are administered;

(E) be administered by staff with appropriate training for such administration;

(F) provide for appropriate accommodations for children with disabilities and children who are limited English proficient;

(G) be high-quality research-based measures that have been demonstrated to assist with the purposes for which they were devised; and

(H) be adaptable, as appropriate, for use in the self-assessment of Head Start agencies, including in the evaluation of administrative and financial management practices.

(3) Use of measures; limitations on use

(A) Use

The measures shall be designed, as appropriate, for the purpose of—

(i) helping to develop the skills, knowledge, abilities, and development described in subsection (a)(1)(B) of children participating in Head Start programs, with an emphasis on measuring skills that scientifically valid research has demonstrated are related to children's school readiness and later success in school;

(ii) improving classroom practices, including reviewing children's strengths and weaknesses and individualizing instruction to better meet the needs of the children involved;

(iii) identifying the special needs of children; and

(iv) improving overall program performance in order to help programs identify problem areas that may require additional training and technical assistance resources.

(B) Limitations

Such measures shall not be used to exclude children from Head Start programs.

(4) Confidentiality

(A) In general

The Secretary, through regulation, shall ensure the confidentiality of any personally identifiable data, information, and records collected or maintained under this subchapter by the Secretary and any Head Start agency. Such regulations shall provide the policies, protections, and rights equivalent to those provided to a parent, student, or educational agency or institution under section 1232g of title 20.

(B) Prohibition on nationwide database

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to authorize the development of a nationwide database of personally identifiable data, information, or records on children resulting from the use of measures under this subsection.

(5) Special rule

(A) Prohibition

The use of assessment items and data on any assessment authorized under this subchapter by any agent of the Federal Government is prohibited for the purposes of—

(i) ranking, comparing, or otherwise evaluating individual children for purposes other than research, training, or technical assistance; and

(ii) providing rewards or sanctions for individual children or teachers.

(B) Results

The Secretary shall not use the results of a single assessment as the sole method for assessing program effectiveness or making agency funding determinations at the national, regional, or local level under this subchapter.

(c) Monitoring of local agencies and programs

(1) In general

To determine whether Head Start agencies meet standards described in subsection (a)(1) established under this subchapter with respect to program, administrative, financial management, and other requirements, and in order to help the programs identify areas for improvement and areas of strength as part of their ongoing self-assessment process, the Secretary shall conduct the following reviews of Head Start agencies, including the Head Start programs operated by such agencies:

(A) A full review, including the use of a risk-based assessment approach, of each such agency at least once during each 3-year period.

(B) A review of each newly designated Head Start agency immediately after the completion of the first year such agency carries out a Head Start program.

(C) Followup reviews, including—

(i) return visits to Head Start agencies with 1 or more findings of deficiencies, not later than 6 months after the Secretary provides notification of such findings, or not later than 12 months after such notification if the Secretary determines that additional time is necessary for an agency to address such a deficiency prior to the review; and

(ii) a review of Head Start agencies with significant areas of noncompliance.


(D) Other reviews, including unannounced site inspections of Head Start centers, as appropriate.

(2) Conduct of reviews

The Secretary shall ensure that reviews described in subparagraphs (A) through (C) of paragraph (1)—

(A) are conducted by review teams that—

(i) include individuals who are knowledgeable about Head Start programs and, to the maximum extent practicable, individuals who are knowledgeable about—

(I) other early childhood education and development programs, personnel management, financial accountability, and systems development and monitoring; and

(II) the diverse (including linguistic and cultural) needs of eligible children (including children with disabilities, homeless children, children in foster care, and limited English proficient children) and their families;


(ii) include, to the maximum extent practicable, current or former employees of the Department of Health and Human Services who are knowledgeable about Head Start programs; and

(iii) shall receive periodic training to ensure quality and consistency across reviews;


(B) include as part of the reviews, a review and assessment of program strengths and areas in need of improvement;

(C) include as part of the reviews, a review and assessment of whether programs have adequately addressed population and community needs (including those of limited English proficient children and children of migrant or seasonal farmworker families);

(D) include as part of the reviews, an assessment of the extent to which the programs address the communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment described in section 9835(g)(1)(C) of this title;

(E) include information on the innovative and effective efforts of the Head Start agencies to collaborate with the entities providing early childhood and development services or programs in the community and any barriers to such collaboration that the agencies encounter;

(F) include as part of the reviews, a valid and reliable research-based observational instrument, implemented by qualified individuals with demonstrated reliability, that assesses classroom quality, including assessing multiple dimensions of teacher-child interactions that are linked to positive child development and later achievement;

(G) are conducted in a manner that evaluates program performance, quality, and overall operations with consistency and objectivity, are based on a transparent and reliable system of review, and are conducted in a manner that includes periodic interrater reliability checks, to ensure quality and consistency, across and within regions, of the reviews and of noncompliance and deficiency determinations;

(H) in the case of reviews of Early Head Start agencies and programs, are conducted by a review team that includes individuals who are knowledgeable about the development of infants and toddlers;

(I) include as part of the reviews a protocol for fiscal management that shall be used to assess compliance with program requirements for—

(i) using Federal funds appropriately;

(ii) using Federal funds specifically to purchase property (consistent with section 9839(f) of this title) and to compensate personnel;

(iii) securing and using qualified financial officer support; and

(iv) reporting financial information and implementing appropriate internal controls to safeguard Federal funds;


(J) include as part of the reviews of the programs, a review and assessment of whether the programs are in conformity with the eligibility requirements under section 9840(a)(1) of this title, including regulations promulgated under such section and whether the programs have met the requirements for the outreach and enrollment policies and procedures, and selection criteria, in such section, for the participation of children in programs assisted under this subchapter;

(K) include as part of the reviews, a review and assessment of whether agencies have adequately addressed the needs of children with disabilities, including whether the agencies involved have met the 10 percent minimum enrollment requirement specified in section 9835(d) of this title and whether the agencies have made sufficient efforts to collaborate with State and local agencies providing services under section 619 or part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.); and

(L) include as part of the reviews, a review and assessment of child outcomes and performance as they relate to agency-determined school readiness goals described in subsection (g)(2), consistent with subsection (b)(5).

(3) Standards relating to obligations to delegate agencies

In conducting a review described in paragraph (1)(A) of a Head Start agency, the Secretary shall determine whether the agency complies with the obligations described in subsection (a)(3). The Secretary shall consider such compliance in determining whether to renew financial assistance to the Head Start agency under this subchapter.

(4) Use of review findings

The findings of a review described in paragraph (1) of a Head Start agency shall, at a minimum—

(A) be presented to the agency in a timely, transparent, and uniform manner that conveys information of program strengths and weaknesses and assists with program improvement; and

(B) be used by the agency to inform the development and implementation of its plan for training and technical assistance.

(d) Evaluations and corrective action for delegate agencies

(1) Procedures

Each Head Start agency shall establish, subject to paragraph (4), procedures relating to its delegate agencies, including—

(A) procedures for evaluating delegate agencies;

(B) procedures for defunding delegate agencies; and

(C) procedures for a delegate agency to appeal a defunding decision.

(2) Evaluation

Each Head Start agency—

(A) shall evaluate its delegate agencies using the procedures established under this subsection; and

(B) shall inform the delegate agencies of the deficiencies identified through the evaluation that are required to be corrected.

(3) Remedies to ensure corrective actions

In the event that the Head Start agency identifies a deficiency for a delegate agency through the evaluation, the Head Start agency shall take action, which may include—

(A) initiating procedures to terminate the designation of the agency unless the agency corrects the deficiency;

(B) conducting monthly monitoring visits to such delegate agency until all deficiencies are corrected or the Head Start agency decides to defund such delegate agency; and

(C) releasing funds to such delegate agency—

(i) only as reimbursements except that, upon receiving a request from the delegate agency accompanied by assurances satisfactory to the Head Start agency that the funds will be appropriately safeguarded, the Head Start agency shall provide to the delegate agency a working capital advance in an amount sufficient to cover the estimated expenses involved during an agreed upon disbursing cycle; and

(ii) only if there is continuity of services.

(4) Termination

The Head Start agency may not terminate a delegate agency's contract or reduce a delegate agency's service area without showing cause or demonstrating the cost-effectiveness of such a decision.

(5) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the powers, duties, or functions of the Secretary with respect to Head Start agencies or delegate agencies that receive financial assistance under this subchapter.

(e) Corrective action for Head Start agencies

(1) Determination

If the Secretary determines, on the basis of a review pursuant to subsection (c), that a Head Start agency designated pursuant to this subchapter fails to meet the standards described in subsection (a)(1) or fails to address the communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment, the Secretary shall—

(A) inform the agency of the deficiencies that shall be corrected and identify the assistance to be provided consistent with paragraph (3);

(B) with respect to each identified deficiency, require the agency—

(i) to correct the deficiency immediately, if the Secretary finds that the deficiency threatens the health or safety of staff or program participants or poses a threat to the integrity of Federal funds;

(ii) to correct the deficiency not later than 90 days after the identification of the deficiency if the Secretary finds, in the discretion of the Secretary, that such a 90-day period is reasonable, in light of the nature and magnitude of the deficiency; or

(iii) in the discretion of the Secretary (taking into consideration the seriousness of the deficiency and the time reasonably required to correct the deficiency), to comply with the requirements of paragraph (2) concerning a quality improvement plan; and


(C) initiate proceedings to terminate the designation of the agency unless the agency corrects the deficiency.

(2) Quality improvement plan

(A) Agency and program responsibilities

To retain a designation as a Head Start agency under this subchapter, or in the case of a Head Start program to continue to receive funds from such agency, a Head Start agency that is the subject of a determination described in paragraph (1), or a Head Start program that is determined to have a deficiency under subsection (d)(2) (excluding an agency required to correct a deficiency immediately or during a 90-day period under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(B)) shall—

(i) develop in a timely manner, a quality improvement plan that shall be subject to the approval of the Secretary, or in the case of a program, the sponsoring agency, and that shall specify—

(I) the deficiencies to be corrected;

(II) the actions to be taken to correct such deficiencies; and

(III) the timetable for accomplishment of the corrective actions specified; and


(ii) correct each deficiency identified, not later than the date for correction of such deficiency specified in such plan (which shall not be later than 1 year after the date the agency or Head Start program that is determined to have a deficiency received notice of the determination and of the specific deficiency to be corrected).

(B) Secretarial responsibility

Not later than 30 days after receiving from a Head Start agency a proposed quality improvement plan pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall either approve such proposed plan or specify the reasons why the proposed plan cannot be approved.

(C) Agency responsibility

Not later than 30 days after receiving from a Head Start program a proposed quality improvement plan pursuant to subparagraph (A), the Head Start agency involved shall either approve such proposed plan or specify the reasons why the proposed plan cannot be approved.

(3) Training and technical assistance

The Secretary shall provide training and technical assistance to Head Start agencies and programs with respect to the development or implementation of such quality improvement plans to the extent the Secretary finds such provision to be feasible and appropriate given available funding and other statutory responsibilities.

(f) Summaries of monitoring outcomes

(1) In general

Not later than 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, the Secretary shall publish a summary report on the findings of reviews conducted under subsection (c) and on the outcomes of quality improvement plans implemented under subsection (e), during such fiscal year.

(2) Report availability

Such report shall be made widely available to—

(A) parents with children receiving assistance under this subchapter—

(i) in an understandable and uniform format; and

(ii) to the extent practicable, in a language that the parents understand; and


(B) the public through means such as—

(i) distribution through public agencies; and

(ii) posting such information on the Internet.

(3) Report information

Such report shall contain detailed data—

(A) on compliance with specific standards and measures; and

(B) sufficient to allow Head Start agencies to use such data to improve the quality of their programs.

(g) Self-assessments

(1) In general

Not less frequently than once each program year, with the consultation and participation of policy councils and, as applicable, policy committees and, as appropriate, other community members, each Head Start agency, and each delegate agency, that receives financial assistance under this subchapter shall conduct a comprehensive self-assessment of its effectiveness and progress in meeting program goals and objectives and in implementing and complying with standards described in subsection (a)(1).

(2) Goals, reports, and improvement plans

(A) Goals

An agency conducting a self-assessment shall establish agency-determined program goals for improving the school readiness of children participating in a program under this subchapter, including school readiness goals that are aligned with the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework, State early learning standards as appropriate, and requirements and expectations of the schools the children will be attending.

(B) Improvement plan

The agency shall develop, and submit to the Secretary a report containing, an improvement plan approved by the governing body of the agency to strengthen any areas identified in the self-assessment as weaknesses or in need of improvement.

(3) Ongoing monitoring

Each Head Start agency (including each Early Head Start agency) and each delegate agency shall establish and implement procedures for the ongoing monitoring of their respective programs, to ensure that the operations of the programs work toward meeting program goals and objectives and standards described in subsection (a)(1).

(h) Reduction of grants and redistribution of funds in cases of underenrollment

(1) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Actual enrollment

The term "actual enrollment" means, with respect to the program of a Head Start agency, the actual number of children enrolled in such program and reported by the agency (as required in paragraph (2)) in a given month.

(B) Base grant

The term "base grant" has the meaning given the term in section 9835(a)(7) of this title.

(C) Funded enrollment

The term "funded enrollment" means, with respect to the program of a Head Start agency in a fiscal year, the number of children that the agency is funded to serve through a grant for the program during such fiscal year, as indicated in the grant agreement.

(2) Enrollment reporting requirement

Each entity carrying out a Head Start program shall report on a monthly basis to the Secretary and the relevant Head Start agency—

(A) the actual enrollment in such program; and

(B) if such actual enrollment is less than the funded enrollment, any apparent reason for such enrollment shortfall.

(3) Secretarial review and plan

The Secretary shall—

(A) on a semiannual basis, determine which Head Start agencies are operating with an actual enrollment that is less than the funded enrollment based on not less than 4 consecutive months of data;

(B) for each such Head Start agency operating a program with an actual enrollment that is less than its funded enrollment, as determined under subparagraph (A), develop, in collaboration with such agency, a plan and timetable for reducing or eliminating underenrollment taking into consideration—

(i) the quality and extent of the outreach, recruitment, and communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment conducted by such agency;

(ii) changing demographics, mobility of populations, and the identification of new underserved low-income populations;

(iii) facilities-related issues that may impact enrollment;

(iv) the ability to provide full-working-day programs, where needed, through funds made available under this subchapter or through collaboration with entities carrying out other early childhood education and development programs, or programs with other funding sources (where available);

(v) the availability and use by families of other early childhood education and development options in the community served; and

(vi) agency management procedures that may impact enrollment; and


(C) provide timely and ongoing technical assistance to each agency described in subparagraph (B) for the purpose of assisting the Head Start agency to implement the plan described in such subparagraph.

(4) Implementation

Upon receipt of the technical assistance described in paragraph (3)(C), a Head Start agency shall immediately implement the plan described in paragraph (3)(B). The Secretary shall, where determined appropriate, continue to provide technical assistance to such agency.

(5) Secretarial review and adjustment for chronic underenrollment

(A) In general

If, after receiving technical assistance and developing and implementing the plan as described in paragraphs (3) and (4) for 12 months, a Head Start agency is operating a program with an actual enrollment that is less than 97 percent of its funded enrollment, the Secretary may—

(i) designate such agency as chronically underenrolled; and

(ii) recapture, withhold, or reduce the base grant for the program by a percentage equal to the percentage difference between funded enrollment and actual enrollment for the program for the most recent year for which the agency is determined to be underenrolled under paragraph (3)(A).

(B) Waiver or limitation of reductions

The Secretary may, as appropriate, waive or reduce the percentage recapturing, withholding, or reduction otherwise required by subparagraph (A), if, after the implementation of the plan described in paragraph (3)(B), the Secretary finds that—

(i) the causes of the enrollment shortfall, or a portion of the shortfall, are related to the agency's serving significant numbers of highly mobile children, or are other significant causes as determined by the Secretary;

(ii) the shortfall can reasonably be expected to be temporary; or

(iii) the number of slots allotted to the agency is small enough that underenrollment does not create a significant shortfall.

(6) Redistribution of funds

(A) In general

Funds held by the Secretary as a result of recapturing, withholding, or reducing a base grant in a fiscal year shall be redistributed by the end of the following fiscal year as follows:

(i) Indian Head Start programs

If such funds are derived from an Indian Head Start program, then such funds shall be redistributed to increase enrollment by the end of the following fiscal year in 1 or more Indian Head Start programs.

(ii) Migrant and seasonal Head Start programs

If such funds are derived from a migrant or seasonal Head Start program, then such funds shall be redistributed to increase enrollment by the end of the following fiscal year in 1 or more programs of the type from which such funds are derived.

(iii) Early Head Start programs

If such funds are derived from an Early Head Start program in a State, then such funds shall be redistributed to increase enrollment by the end of the following fiscal year in 1 or more Early Head Start programs in that State. If such funds are derived from an Indian Early Head Start program, then such funds shall be redistributed to increase enrollment by the end of the following fiscal year in 1 or more Indian Early Head Start programs.

(iv) Other Head Start programs

If such funds are derived from a Head Start program in a State (excluding programs described in clauses (i) through (iii)), then such funds shall be redistributed to increase enrollment by the end of the following fiscal year in 1 or more Head Start programs (excluding programs described in clauses (i) through (iii)) that are carried out in such State.

(B) Adjustment to funded enrollment

The Secretary shall adjust as necessary the requirements relating to funded enrollment indicated in the grant agreement of a Head Start agency receiving redistributed funds under this paragraph.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §641A, as added Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §108, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 631; amended Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §108, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2713; Pub. L. 110–134, §8, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1385.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(K), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175. Part C of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1431 et seq.) of chapter 33 of Title 20, Education. Section 619 of the Act is classified to section 1419 of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–134 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to, in subsec. (a), quality standards, in subsec. (b), results-based performance measures, in subsec. (c), monitoring of local agencies and programs, in subsec. (d), corrective action and termination, and, in subsec. (e), summaries of monitoring outcomes.

1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(1)(A), inserted ", including minimum levels of overall accomplishment," after "regulation standards" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(1)(B), struck out "education," after "including health,".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B) to (E). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(1)(C), (D), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) to (D) as (C) to (E), respectively.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(2), (3), redesignated par. (3) as (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: "The regulations promulgated under this subsection shall establish the minimum levels of overall accomplishment that a Head Start agency shall achieve in order to meet the standards specified in paragraph (1)."

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(4)(A), substituted "early childhood education and" for "child".

Subsec. (a)(2)(C)(i). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(4)(B)(i), struck out "not later than 1 year after May 18, 1994," before "review" and substituted "this subsection; and" for "section 9846(b) of this title on the day before May 18, 1994; and".

Subsec. (a)(2)(C)(ii). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(4)(B)(ii), substituted "October 27, 1998" for "November 2, 1978".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(5), substituted "to a delegate agency" for "to an agency (referred to in this subchapter as the 'delegate agency')".

Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(3), redesignated par. (4) as (3). Former par. (3) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(a)(3), redesignated par. (4) as (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(1), inserted "Results-based" in heading.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(2), substituted "The Secretary" for "Not later than 1 year after May 18, 1994, the Secretary", "early childhood education and" for "child", and "results-based performance measures" for "performance measures" and inserted ", and the impact of the services provided through the programs to children and their families" before "(referred".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(3)(A), (B), (F), substituted "Characteristics" for "Design" in heading and "shall—" for "shall be designed—" in introductory provisions and inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(3)(C), substituted "be used to assess the impact of" for "to assess".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(3)(D), substituted "be adaptable" for "to be adaptable" and ", peer review, and program evaluation" for "and peer review" and inserted ", not later than July 1, 1999" before semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(3)(E), inserted "be developed" before "for other".

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(4), substituted ", regionally, and locally" for "and by region".

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(b)(5), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(c)(1), inserted "and results-based performance measures developed by the Secretary under subsection (b) of this section" after "standards established under this subchapter".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(c)(2)(A), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(c)(2)(B), inserted "(including children with disabilities)" after "eligible children" and substituted semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (c)(2)(D), (E). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(c)(2)(C), added subpars. (D) and (E).

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(d)(1)(A), inserted "or results-based performance measures developed by the Secretary under subsection (b) of this section" after "subsection (a) of this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(d)(1)(B), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "with respect to each identified deficiency, require the agency—

"(i) to correct the deficiency immediately; or

"(ii) at the discretion of the Secretary (taking into consideration the seriousness of the deficiency and the time reasonably required to correct the deficiency), to comply with the requirements of paragraph (2) concerning a quality improvement plan; and".

Subsec. (d)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(d)(2), substituted "required to correct a deficiency immediately or during a 90-day period under clause (i) or (ii) of paragraph (1)(B)" for "able to correct a deficiency immediately" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–285, §108(e), inserted at end "Such report shall be widely disseminated and available for public review in both written and electronic formats."

Effective Date

Section effective May 18, 1994, but not applicable to Head Start agencies and other recipients of financial assistance under the Head Start Act (42 U.S.C. 9831 et seq.) until Oct. 1, 1994, see section 127 of Pub. L. 103–252, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 9832 of this title.

§9837. Powers and functions of Head Start agencies

(a) Authority

To be designated as a Head Start agency under this subchapter, an agency shall have authority under its charter or applicable law to receive and administer funds under this subchapter, funds and contributions from private or local public sources that may be used in support of a Head Start program, and funds under any Federal or State assistance program pursuant to which a public or private nonprofit or for-profit agency (as the case may be) organized in accordance with this subchapter, could act as grantee, contractor, or sponsor of projects appropriate for inclusion in a Head Start program. Such an agency shall also be empowered to transfer funds so received, and to delegate powers to other agencies, subject to the powers of its governing board and its overall program responsibilities. The power to transfer funds and delegate powers shall include the power to make transfers and delegations covering component projects in all cases where this will contribute to efficiency and effectiveness or otherwise further program objectives.

(b) Family and community involvement; family services

To be so designated, a Head Start agency shall, at a minimum, do all the following to involve and serve families and communities:

(1) Provide for the regular and direct participation of parents and community residents in the implementation of the Head Start program, including decisions that influence the character of such program, consistent with paragraphs (2)(D) and (3)(C) of subsection (c).

(2) Seek the involvement of parents, community residents, and local business in the design and implementation of the program.

(3) Establish effective procedures—

(A) to facilitate and seek the involvement of parents of participating children in activities designed to help such parents become full partners in the education of their children; and

(B) to afford such parents the opportunity to participate in the development and overall conduct of the program at the local level, including transportation assistance as appropriate.


(4) Offer (directly or through referral to local entities, public and school libraries, and entities carrying out family support programs) to such parents—

(A) family literacy services; and

(B) parenting skills training.


(5) Offer to parents of participating children substance abuse counseling (either directly or through referral to local entities), if needed, including information on the effect of drug exposure on infants and fetal alcohol syndrome.

(6) At the option of such agency, offer (directly or through referral to local entities) to such parents—

(A) training in basic child development (including cognitive, social, and emotional development);

(B) assistance in developing literacy and communication skills;

(C) opportunities to share experiences with other parents (including parent-mentor relationships);

(D) health services, including information on maternal depression;

(E) regular in-home visitation; or

(F) any other activity designed to help such parents become full partners in the education of their children.


(7) Provide, with respect to each participating family, a family needs assessment that includes consultation with such parents (including foster parents, grandparents, and kinship caregivers, where applicable), in a manner and language that such parents can understand (to the extent practicable), about the benefits of parent involvement and about the activities described in this subsection in which such parents may choose to be involved (taking into consideration their specific family needs, work schedules, and other responsibilities).

(8) Consider providing services to assist younger siblings of children participating in its Head Start program to obtain health services from other sources.

(9) Perform community outreach to encourage individuals previously unaffiliated with Head Start programs to participate in its Head Start program as volunteers.

(10)(A) Inform custodial parents in single-parent families that participate in programs, activities, or services carried out or provided under this subchapter about the availability of child support services for purposes of establishing paternity and acquiring child support.

(B) Refer eligible parents to the child support offices of State and local governments.

(11) Provide to parents of limited English proficient children outreach and information, in an understandable and uniform format and, to the extent practicable, in a language that the parents can understand.

(12) Provide technical and other support needed to enable parents and community residents to secure, on their own behalf, available assistance from public and private sources.

(13) Promote the continued involvement of the parents (including foster parents, grandparents, and kinship caregivers, as appropriate) of children that participate in Head Start programs in the education of their children upon transition of their children to school, by working with the local educational agency—

(A) to provide training to the parents—

(i) to inform the parents about their rights and responsibilities concerning the education of their children; and

(ii) to enable the parents—

(I) to understand and work with schools in order to communicate with teachers and other school personnel;

(II) to support the schoolwork of their children; and

(III) to participate as appropriate in decisions relating to the education of their children; and


(B) to take other actions, as appropriate and feasible, to support the active involvement of the parents with schools, school personnel, and school-related organizations.


(14) Establish effective procedures for timely referral of children with disabilities to the State or local agency providing services under section 619 or part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.), and collaboration with that agency, consistent with section 9835(d)(3) of this title.

(15) Establish effective procedures for providing necessary early intervening services to children with disabilities prior to an eligibility determination by the State or local agency responsible for providing services under section 619 or part C of such Act, consistent with section 9835(d)(2) of this title.

(16) At the option of the Head Start agency, partner with an institution of higher education and a nonprofit organization to provide college students with the opportunity to serve as mentors or reading partners for Head Start participants.

(c) Program governance

Upon receiving designation as a Head Start agency, the agency shall establish and maintain a formal structure for program governance, for the oversight of quality services for Head Start children and families and for making decisions related to program design and implementation. Such structure shall include the following:

(1) Governing body

(A) In general

The governing body shall have legal and fiscal responsibility for the Head Start agency.

(B) Composition

The governing body shall be composed as follows:

(i) Not less than 1 member shall have a background and expertise in fiscal management or accounting.

(ii) Not less than 1 member shall have a background and expertise in early childhood education and development.

(iii) Not less than 1 member shall be a licensed attorney familiar with issues that come before the governing body.

(iv) Additional members shall—

(I) reflect the community to be served and include parents of children who are currently, or were formerly, enrolled in Head Start programs; and

(II) are selected for their expertise in education, business administration, or community affairs.


(v) Exceptions shall be made to the requirements of clauses (i) through (iv) for members of a governing body when those members oversee a public entity and are selected to their positions with the public entity by public election or political appointment.

(vi) If a person described in clause (i), (ii), or (iii) is not available to serve as a member of the governing body, the governing body shall use a consultant, or an other individual with relevant expertise, with the qualifications described in that clause, who shall work directly with the governing body.

(C) Conflict of interest

Members of the governing body shall—

(i) not have a financial conflict of interest with the Head Start agency (including any delegate agency);

(ii) not receive compensation for serving on the governing body or for providing services to the Head Start agency;

(iii) not be employed, nor shall members of their immediate family be employed, by the Head Start agency (including any delegate agency); and

(iv) operate as an entity independent of staff employed by the Head Start agency.

(D) Exception

If an individual holds a position as a result of public election or political appointment, and such position carries with it a concurrent appointment to serve as a member of a Head Start agency governing body, and such individual has any conflict of interest described in clause (ii) or (iii) of subparagraph (C)—

(i) such individual shall not be prohibited from serving on such body and the Head Start agency shall report such conflict to the Secretary; and

(ii) if the position held as a result of public election or political appointment provides compensation, such individual shall not be prohibited from receiving such compensation.

(E) Responsibilities

The governing body shall—

(i) have legal and fiscal responsibility for administering and overseeing programs under this subchapter, including the safeguarding of Federal funds;

(ii) adopt practices that assure active, independent, and informed governance of the Head Start agency, including practices consistent with subsection (d)(1), and fully participate in the development, planning, and evaluation of the Head Start programs involved;

(iii) be responsible for ensuring compliance with Federal laws (including regulations) and applicable State, tribal, and local laws (including regulations); and

(iv) be responsible for other activities, including—

(I) selecting delegate agencies and the service areas for such agencies;

(II) establishing procedures and criteria for recruitment, selection, and enrollment of children;

(III) reviewing all applications for funding and amendments to applications for funding for programs under this subchapter;

(IV) establishing procedures and guidelines for accessing and collecting information described in subsection (d)(2);

(V) reviewing and approving all major policies of the agency, including—

(aa) the annual self-assessment and financial audit;

(bb) such agency's progress in carrying out the programmatic and fiscal provisions in such agency's grant application, including implementation of corrective actions; and

(cc) personnel policies of such agencies regarding the hiring, evaluation, termination, and compensation of agency employees;


(VI) developing procedures for how members of the policy council are selected, consistent with paragraph (2)(B);

(VII) approving financial management, accounting, and reporting policies, and compliance with laws and regulations related to financial statements, including the—

(aa) approval of all major financial expenditures of the agency;

(bb) annual approval of the operating budget of the agency;

(cc) selection (except when a financial auditor is assigned by the State under State law or is assigned under local law) of independent financial auditors who shall report all critical accounting policies and practices to the governing body; and

(dd) monitoring of the agency's actions to correct any audit findings and of other action necessary to comply with applicable laws (including regulations) governing financial statement and accounting practices;


(VIII) reviewing results from monitoring conducted under section 9836a(c) of this title, including appropriate followup activities;

(IX) approving personnel policies and procedures, including policies and procedures regarding the hiring, evaluation, compensation, and termination of the Executive Director, Head Start Director, Director of Human Resources, Chief Fiscal Officer, and any other person in an equivalent position with the agency;

(X) establishing, adopting, and periodically updating written standards of conduct that establish standards and formal procedures for disclosing, addressing, and resolving—

(aa) any conflict of interest, and any appearance of a conflict of interest, by members of the governing body, officers and employees of the Head Start agency, and consultants and agents who provide services or furnish goods to the Head Start agency; and

(bb) complaints, including investigations, when appropriate; and


(XI) to the extent practicable and appropriate, at the discretion of the governing body, establishing advisory committees to oversee key responsibilities related to program governance and improvement of the Head Start program involved.

(2) Policy council

(A) In general

Consistent with paragraph (1)(E), each Head Start agency shall have a policy council responsible for the direction of the Head Start program, including program design and operation, and long- and short-term planning goals and objectives, taking into account the annual communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment and self-assessment.

(B) Composition and selection

(i) The policy council shall be elected by the parents of children who are currently enrolled in the Head Start program of the Head Start agency.

(ii) The policy council shall be composed of—

(I) parents of children who are currently enrolled in the Head Start program of the Head Start agency (including any delegate agency), who shall constitute a majority of the members of the policy council; and

(II) members at large of the community served by the Head Start agency (including any delegate agency), who may include parents of children who were formerly enrolled in the Head Start program of the agency.

(C) Conflict of interest

Members of the policy council shall—

(i) not have a conflict of interest with the Head Start agency (including any delegate agency); and

(ii) not receive compensation for serving on the policy council or for providing services to the Head Start agency.

(D) Responsibilities

The policy council shall approve and submit to the governing body decisions about each of the following activities:

(i) Activities to support the active involvement of parents in supporting program operations, including policies to ensure that the Head Start agency is responsive to community and parent needs.

(ii) Program recruitment, selection, and enrollment priorities.

(iii) Applications for funding and amendments to applications for funding for programs under this subchapter, prior to submission of applications described in this clause.

(iv) Budget planning for program expenditures, including policies for reimbursement and participation in policy council activities.

(v) Bylaws for the operation of the policy council.

(vi) Program personnel policies and decisions regarding the employment of program staff, consistent with paragraph (1)(E)(iv)(IX), including standards of conduct for program staff, contractors, and volunteers and criteria for the employment and dismissal of program staff.

(vii) Developing procedures for how members of the policy council of the Head Start agency will be elected.

(viii) Recommendations on the selection of delegate agencies and the service areas for such agencies.

(3) Policy committees

Each delegate agency shall create a policy committee, which shall—

(A) be elected and composed of members, consistent with paragraph (2)(B) (with respect to delegate agencies);

(B) follow procedures to prohibit conflict of interest, consistent with clauses (i) and (ii) of paragraph (2)(C) (with respect to delegate agencies); and

(C) be responsible for approval and submission of decisions about activities as they relate to the delegate agency, consistent with paragraph (2)(D) (with respect to delegate agencies).

(d) Program governance administration

(1) Impasse policies

The Secretary shall develop policies, procedures, and guidance for Head Start agencies concerning—

(A) the resolution of internal disputes, including any impasse in the governance of Head Start programs; and

(B) the facilitation of meaningful consultation and collaboration about decisions of the governing body and policy council.

(2) Conduct of responsibilities

Each Head Start agency shall ensure the sharing of accurate and regular information for use by the governing body and the policy council, about program planning, policies, and Head Start agency operations, including—

(A) monthly financial statements, including credit card expenditures;

(B) monthly program information summaries;

(C) program enrollment reports, including attendance reports for children whose care is partially subsidized by another public agency;

(D) monthly reports of meals and snacks provided through programs of the Department of Agriculture;

(E) the financial audit;

(F) the annual self-assessment, including any findings related to such assessment;

(G) the communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment of the Head Start agency, including any applicable updates;

(H) communication and guidance from the Secretary; and

(I) the program information reports.

(3) Training and technical assistance

Appropriate training and technical assistance shall be provided to the members of the governing body and the policy council to ensure that the members understand the information the members receive and can effectively oversee and participate in the programs of the Head Start agency.

(e) Collaboration and coordination

To be so designated, a Head Start agency shall collaborate and coordinate with public and private entities, to the maximum extent practicable, to improve the availability and quality of services to Head Start children and families, including carrying out the following activities:

(1) Conduct outreach to schools in which children participating in the Head Start program will enroll following the program, local educational agencies, the local business community, community-based organizations, faith-based organizations, museums, and libraries to generate support and leverage the resources of the entire local community in order to improve school readiness.

(2)(A) In communities where both a public prekindergarten program and a Head Start program operate, collaborate and coordinate activities with the local educational agency or other public agency responsible for the operation of the prekindergarten program and providers of prekindergarten, including outreach activities to identify eligible children.

(B) With the permission of the parents of children enrolled in the Head Start program, regularly communicate with the schools in which the children will enroll following the program, to—

(i) share information about such children;

(ii) collaborate with the teachers in such schools regarding professional development and instructional strategies, as appropriate; and

(iii) ensure a smooth transition to school for such children.


(3) Coordinate activities and collaborate with programs under the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 9857 et seq.], the agencies responsible for administering section 5106a of this title and parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.], programs under subtitle B of title VII of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11431 et seq.), programs under section 619 and part C of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C. 1419, 1431 et seq.), and other entities providing early childhood education and development programs or services, serving the children and families served by the Head Start agency.

(4) Take steps to coordinate activities with the local educational agency serving the community involved and with schools in which children participating in the Head Start program will enroll following the program, including—

(A) collaborating on the shared use of transportation and facilities, in appropriate cases;

(B) collaborating to reduce the duplication and enhance the efficiency of services while increasing the program participation of underserved populations of eligible children; and

(C) exchanging information on the provision of noneducational services to such children.


(5) Enter into a memorandum of understanding, not later than 1 year after December 12, 2007, with the appropriate local entity responsible for managing publicly funded preschool programs in the service area of the Head Start agency, that shall—

(A)(i) provide for a review of each of the activities described in clause (ii); and

(ii) include plans to coordinate, as appropriate, activities regarding—

(I) educational activities, curricular objectives, and instruction;

(II) public information dissemination and access to programs for families contacting the Head Start program or any of the preschool programs;

(III) selection priorities for eligible children to be served by programs;

(IV) service areas;

(V) staff training, including opportunities for joint staff training on topics such as academic content standards, instructional methods, curricula, and social and emotional development;

(VI) program technical assistance;

(VII) provision of additional services to meet the needs of working parents, as applicable;

(VIII) communications and parent outreach for smooth transitions to kindergarten as required in paragraphs (3) and (6) of section 9837a(a) of this title;

(IX) provision and use of facilities, transportation, and other program elements; and

(X) other elements mutually agreed to by the parties to such memorandum;


(B) be submitted to the Secretary and the State Director of Head Start Collaboration not later than 30 days after the parties enter into such memorandum, except that—

(i) where there is an absence of publicly funded preschool programs in the service area of a Head Start agency, this paragraph shall not apply; or

(ii) where the appropriate local entity responsible for managing the publicly funded preschool programs is unable or unwilling to enter into such a memorandum, this paragraph shall not apply and the Head Start agency shall inform the Secretary and the State Director of Head Start Collaboration of such inability or unwillingness; and


(C) be revised periodically and renewed biennially by the parties to such memorandum, in alignment with the beginning of the school year.

(f) Quality standards, curricula, and assessment

To be so designated, each Head Start agency shall—

(1) take steps to ensure, to the maximum extent practicable, that children maintain the developmental and educational gains achieved in Head Start programs and build upon such gains in further schooling;

(2) establish a program with the standards set forth in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title, with particular attention to the standards set forth in subparagraphs (A) and (B) of such section;

(3) implement a research-based early childhood curriculum that—

(A) promotes young children's school readiness in the areas of language and cognitive development, early reading and mathematics skills, socio-emotional development, physical development, and approaches to learning;

(B) is based on scientifically valid research and has standardized training procedures and curriculum materials to support implementation;

(C) is comprehensive and linked to ongoing assessment, with developmental and learning goals and measurable objectives;

(D) is focused on improving the learning environment, teaching practices, family involvement, and child outcomes across all areas of development; and

(E) is aligned with the Head Start Child Outcomes Framework developed by the Secretary and, as appropriate, State early learning standards;


(4) implement effective interventions and support services that help promote the school readiness of children participating in the program;

(5) use research-based assessment methods that reflect the characteristics described in section 9836a(b)(2) of this title in order to support the educational instruction and school readiness of children in the program;

(6) use research-based developmental screening tools that have been demonstrated to be standardized, reliable, valid, and accurate for the child being assessed, to the maximum extent practicable, for the purpose of meeting the relevant standards described in section 9836a(a)(1) of this title;

(7) adopt, in consultation with experts in child development and with classroom teachers, an evaluation to assess whether classroom teachers have mastered the functions discussed in section 9843a(a)(1) of this title;

(8) use the information provided from the assessment conducted under section 9836a(c)(2)(F) of this title to inform professional development plans, as appropriate, that lead to improved teacher effectiveness;

(9) establish goals and measurable objectives for the provision of health, educational, nutritional, and social services provided under this subchapter and related to the program mission and to promote school readiness; and

(10) develop procedures for identifying children who are limited English proficient, and informing the parents of such children about the instructional services used to help children make progress towards acquiring the knowledge and skills described in section 9836a(a)(1)(B) of this title and acquisition of the English language.

(g) Funded enrollment; waiting list

Each Head Start agency shall enroll 100 percent of its funded enrollment and maintain an active waiting list at all times with ongoing outreach to the community and activities to identify underserved populations.

(h) Technical assistance and training plan

In order to receive funds under this subchapter, a Head Start agency shall develop an annual technical assistance and training plan. Such plan shall be based on the agency's self-assessment, the communitywide strategic planning and needs assessment, the needs of parents and children to be served by such agency, and the results of the reviews conducted under section 9836a(c) of this title.

(i) Financial management

In order to receive funds under this subchapter, a Head Start agency shall document strong fiscal controls, including the employment of well-qualified fiscal staff with a history of successful management of a public or private organization.

(Pub. L. 97–35, title VI, §642, Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 502; Pub. L. 99–425, title I, §103, Sept. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 966; Pub. L. 101–501, title I, §109, Nov. 3, 1990, 104 Stat. 1231; Pub. L. 102–401, §2(i), (k)(3), Oct. 7, 1992, 106 Stat. 1957, 1959; Pub. L. 103–252, title I, §109, May 18, 1994, 108 Stat. 634; Pub. L. 105–285, title I, §109, Oct. 27, 1998, 112 Stat. 2716; Pub. L. 108–446, title III, §305(l)(4), Dec. 3, 2004, 118 Stat. 2806; Pub. L. 110–134, §9, Dec. 12, 2007, 121 Stat. 1397; Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(nn)(3), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2177.)

References in Text

The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(14), (15), and (e)(3), is title VI of Pub. L. 91–230, Apr. 13, 1970, 84 Stat. 175. Part C of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§1431 et seq.) of chapter 33 of Title 20, Education. Section 619 of the Act is classified to section 1419 of Title 20. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1400 of Title 20 and Tables.

The Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is subchapter C (§658A et seq.) of chapter 8 of subtitle A of title VI of Pub. L. 97–35, as added by Pub. L. 101–508, title V, §5082(2), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–236, which is classified generally to subchapter II–B (§9857 et seq.) of chapter 105 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 9857(a) of this title and Tables.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620. Parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act are classified generally to parts B (§620 et seq.) and E (§670 et seq.), respectively, of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

The McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is Pub. L. 100–77, July 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 482. Subtitle B of title VII of the Act is classified generally to part B (§11431 et seq.) of subchapter VI of chapter 119 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 11301 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(nn)(3)(A), struck out ", such as entities carrying out Even Start programs under subpart 3 of part B of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6381 et seq.)" after "local entities" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(nn)(3)(B), struck out "Even Start programs under subpart 3 of part B of title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (20 U.S.C. 6381 et seq.)," before "programs under section 619".

2007Pub. L. 110–134 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to, in subsec. (a), receipt, administration, and transfer of funds, sponsorship of projects, and delegation of authority, in subsec. (b), participation of parents in decisionmaking and implementation of programs, in subsec. (c), coordination with other agencies, in subsec. (d), transition coordination with schools, and, in subsec. (e), assessment when hiring or evaluating classroom teachers.

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–446 substituted "1431–1444" for "1431–1445".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(1), inserted "or for-profit" after "nonprofit".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(E), added par. (6). Former par. (6) redesignated (7).

Subsec. (b)(6)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(A), struck out subpar. (D) which read as follows: "substance abuse counseling;" and further directed the amendment of par. (6) "by redesignating subparagraphs (E) and (F) and subparagraphs (D) and (E), respectively", which was executed by redesignating subpars. (E) and (F) as (D) and (E), respectively, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(D), redesignated par. (6) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (8).

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(D), (F), redesignated par. (7) as (8) and substituted "paragraphs (4) through (7)" for "paragraphs (4) through (6)". Former par. (8) redesignated (9).

Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(B), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(D), redesignated par. (8) as (9). Former par. (9) redesignated (10).

Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(C), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(D), redesignated par. (9) as (10).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(2)(G), added par. (11).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(3), inserted "and collaborate" after "shall coordinate" and "and programs under part C and section 619 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (20 U.S.C 1431–1445, 1419)" after "(20 U.S.C. 2741 et seq.)" and substituted "the State program carried out under the Child Care and Development Block Grant Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 9858 et seq.), and other early childhood education and development" for "section 602(g) of this title, and other".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(4)(A), substituted "take steps to ensure, to the maximum extent possible, that children maintain" for "carry out the actions specified in this subsection, to the extent feasible and appropriate in the circumstances (including the extent to which such agency is able to secure the cooperation of parents and schools) to enable children to maintain" and "build" for "to build" and inserted "and educational" after "developmental".

Subsec. (d)(2), (3). Pub. L. 105–285, §109(4)(B), (C), redesignated pars. (3) and (4) as (2) and (3), respectively, and struck out former par. (2) which related to coordination between Head Start agency and local education agency and schools.