[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 108, SUBCHAPTER I, Part A: Repositories for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel
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42 USC CHAPTER 108, SUBCHAPTER I, Part A: Repositories for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 108—NUCLEAR WASTE POLICYSUBCHAPTER I—DISPOSAL AND STORAGE OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, AND LOW-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE

Part A—Repositories for Disposal of High-Level Radioactive Waste and Spent Nuclear Fuel

§10131. Findings and purposes

(a) The Congress finds that—

(1) radioactive waste creates potential risks and requires safe and environmentally acceptable methods of disposal;

(2) a national problem has been created by the accumulation of (A) spent nuclear fuel from nuclear reactors; and (B) radioactive waste from (i) reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel; (ii) activities related to medical research, diagnosis, and treatment; and (iii) other sources;

(3) Federal efforts during the past 30 years to devise a permanent solution to the problems of civilian radioactive waste disposal have not been adequate;

(4) while the Federal Government has the responsibility to provide for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste and such spent nuclear fuel as may be disposed of in order to protect the public health and safety and the environment, the costs of such disposal should be the responsibility of the generators and owners of such waste and spent fuel;

(5) the generators and owners of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel have the primary responsibility to provide for, and the responsibility to pay the costs of, the interim storage of such waste and spent fuel until such waste and spent fuel is accepted by the Secretary of Energy in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

(6) State and public participation in the planning and development of repositories is essential in order to promote public confidence in the safety of disposal of such waste and spent fuel; and

(7) high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel have become major subjects of public concern, and appropriate precautions must be taken to ensure that such waste and spent fuel do not adversely affect the public health and safety and the environment for this or future generations.


(b) The purposes of this part are—

(1) to establish a schedule for the siting, construction, and operation of repositories that will provide a reasonable assurance that the public and the environment will be adequately protected from the hazards posed by high-level radioactive waste and such spent nuclear fuel as may be disposed of in a repository;

(2) to establish the Federal responsibility, and a definite Federal policy, for the disposal of such waste and spent fuel;

(3) to define the relationship between the Federal Government and the State governments with respect to the disposal of such waste and spent fuel; and

(4) to establish a Nuclear Waste Fund, composed of payments made by the generators and owners of such waste and spent fuel, that will ensure that the costs of carrying out activities relating to the disposal of such waste and spent fuel will be borne by the persons responsible for generating such waste and spent fuel.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §111, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2207.)

§10132. Recommendation of candidate sites for site characterization

(a) Guidelines

Not later than 180 days after January 7, 1983, the Secretary, following consultation with the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Director of the United States Geological Survey, and interested Governors, and the concurrence of the Commission shall issue general guidelines for the recommendation of sites for repositories. Such guidelines shall specify detailed geologic considerations that shall be primary criteria for the selection of sites in various geologic media. Such guidelines shall specify factors that qualify or disqualify any site from development as a repository, including factors pertaining to the location of valuable natural resources, hydrology, geophysics, seismic activity, and atomic energy defense activities, proximity to water supplies, proximity to populations, the effect upon the rights of users of water, and proximity to components of the National Park System, the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, the National Wilderness Preservation System, or National Forest Lands. Such guidelines shall take into consideration the proximity to sites where high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel is generated or temporarily stored and the transportation and safety factors involved in moving such waste to a repository. Such guidelines shall specify population factors that will disqualify any site from development as a repository if any surface facility of such repository would be located (1) in a highly populated area; or (2) adjacent to an area 1 mile by 1 mile having a population of not less than 1,000 individuals. Such guidelines also shall require the Secretary to consider the cost and impact of transporting to the repository site the solidified high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel to be disposed of in the repository and the advantages of regional distribution in the siting of repositories. Such guidelines shall require the Secretary to consider the various geologic media in which sites for repositories may be located and, to the extent practicable, to recommend sites in different geologic media. The Secretary shall use guidelines established under this subsection in considering candidate sites for recommendation under subsection (b). The Secretary may revise such guidelines from time to time, consistent with the provisions of this subsection.

(b) Recommendation by Secretary to President

(1)(A) Following the issuance of guidelines under subsection (a) and consultation with the Governors of affected States, the Secretary shall nominate at least 5 sites that he determines suitable for site characterization for selection of the first repository site.

(B) Subsequent to such nomination, the Secretary shall recommend to the President 3 of the nominated sites not later than January 1, 1985 for characterization as candidate sites.

(C) Such recommendations under subparagraph (B) shall be consistent with the provisions of section 10225 of this title.

(D) Each nomination of a site under this subsection shall be accompanied by an environmental assessment, which shall include a detailed statement of the basis for such recommendation and of the probable impacts of the site characterization activities planned for such site, and a discussion of alternative activities relating to site characterization that may be undertaken to avoid such impacts. Such environmental assessment shall include—

(i) an evaluation by the Secretary as to whether such site is suitable for site characterization under the guidelines established under subsection (a);

(ii) an evaluation by the Secretary as to whether such site is suitable for development as a repository under each such guideline that does not require site characterization as a prerequisite for application of such guideline;

(iii) an evaluation by the Secretary of the effects of the site characterization activities at such site on the public health and safety and the environment;

(iv) a reasonable comparative evaluation by the Secretary of such site with other sites and locations that have been considered;

(v) a description of the decision process by which such site was recommended; and

(vi) an assessment of the regional and local impacts of locating the proposed repository at such site.


(E)(i) 1 The issuance of any environmental assessment under this paragraph shall be considered to be a final agency action subject to judicial review in accordance with the provisions of chapter 7 of title 5 and section 10139 of this title. Such judicial review shall be limited to the sufficiency of such environmental assessment with respect to the items described in clauses (i) through (vi) of subparagraph (E).2

(F) Each environmental assessment prepared under this paragraph shall be made available to the public.

(G) Before nominating a site, the Secretary shall notify the Governor and legislature of the State in which such site is located, or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe where such site is located, as the case may be, of such nomination and the basis for such nomination.

(2) Before nominating any site the Secretary shall hold public hearings in the vicinity of such site to inform the residents of the area in which such site is located of the proposed nomination of such site and to receive their comments. At such hearings, the Secretary shall also solicit and receive any recommendations of such residents with respect to issues that should be addressed in the environmental assessment described in paragraph (1) and the site characterization plan described in section 10133(b)(1) of this title.

(3) In evaluating the sites nominated under this section prior to any decision to recommend a site as a candidate site, the Secretary shall use available geophysical, geologic, geochemical and hydrologic, and other information and shall not conduct any preliminary borings or excavations at a site unless (i) such preliminary boring or excavation activities were in progress on January 7, 1983, or (ii) the Secretary certifies that such available information from other sources, in the absence of preliminary borings or excavations, will not be adequate to satisfy applicable requirements of this chapter or any other law: Provided, That preliminary borings or excavations under this section shall not exceed a diameter of 6 inches.

(c) Presidential review of recommended candidate sites

(1) The President shall review each candidate site recommendation made by the Secretary under subsection (b). Not later than 60 days after the submission by the Secretary of a recommendation of a candidate site, the President, in his discretion, may either approve or disapprove such candidate site, and shall transmit any such decision to the Secretary and to either the Governor and legislature of the State in which such candidate site is located, or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe where such candidate site is located, as the case may be. If, during such 60-day period, the President fails to approve or disapprove such candidate site, or fails to invoke his authority under paragraph (2) to delay his decision, such candidate site shall be considered to be approved, and the Secretary shall notify such Governor and legislature, or governing body of the affected Indian tribe, of the approval of such candidate site by reason of the inaction of the President.

(2) The President may delay for not more than 6 months his decision under paragraph (1) to approve or disapprove a candidate site, upon determining that the information provided with the recommendation of the Secretary is insufficient to permit a decision within the 60-day period referred to in paragraph (1). The President may invoke his authority under this paragraph by submitting written notice to the Congress, within such 60-day period, of his intent to invoke such authority. If the President invokes such authority, but fails to approve or disapprove the candidate site involved by the end of such 6-month period, such candidate site shall be considered to be approved, and the Secretary shall notify such Governor and legislature, or governing body of the affected Indian tribe, of the approval of such candidate site by reason of the inaction of the President.

(d) Preliminary activities

Except as otherwise provided in this section, each activity of the President or the Secretary under this section shall be considered to be a preliminary decisionmaking activity. No such activity shall require the preparation of an environmental impact statement under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)), or to require any environmental review under subparagraph (E) or (F) of section 102(2) of such Act.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §112, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2208; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(d) [title III, §300], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–104, 1329-121; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5011(b)–(d), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–228; Pub. L. 102–154, title I, Nov. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1000.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (b)(1)(C) to (H). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(b), amended par. (1) identically, redesignating subpars. (D) to (H) as (C) to (G), respectively, in subpar. (C) substituting "subparagraph (B)" for "subparagraphs (B) and (C)", and striking out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "Not later than July 1, 1989, the Secretary shall nominate 5 sites, which shall include at least 3 additional sites not nominated under subparagraph (A), and recommend by such date to the President from such 5 nominated sites 3 candidate sites the Secretary determines suitable for site characterization for selection of the second repository. The Secretary may not nominate any site previously nominated under subparagraph (A), that was not recommended as a candidate site under subparagraph (B)."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(c), amended section identically, redesignating subsec. (e) as (d) and striking out former subsec (d) which read as follows: "After the required recommendation of candidate sites under subsection (b) of this section, the Secretary may continue, as he determines necessary, to identify and study other sites to determine their suitability for recommendation for site characterization, in accordance with the procedures described in this section."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(d), which contained identical amendments directing that subsec. (f) be struck out and all subsequent subsections be redesignated accordingly, was executed by striking out subsec. (e) as the probable intent of Congress because of the redesignation of former subsec. (f) as (e) by Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(c), and the absence of any subsections subsequent to former subsec. (f). Subsec. (e) read as follows: "Nothing in this section may be construed as prohibiting the Secretary from continuing ongoing or presently planned site characterization at any site on Department of Energy land for which the location of the principal borehole has been approved by the Secretary by August 1, 1982, except that (1) the environmental assessment described in subsection (b)(1) of this section shall be prepared and made available to the public before proceeding to sink shafts at any such site; and (2) the Secretary shall not continue site characterization at any such site unless such site is among the candidate sites recommended by the Secretary under the first sentence of subsection (b) of this section for site characterization and approved by the President under subsection (c) of this section; and (3) the Secretary shall conduct public hearings under section 10133(b)(2) of this title and comply with requirements under section 10137 of this title within one year of January 7, 1983."

Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(c), amended section identically, redesignating subsec. (f) as (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(c), amended section identically, redesignating subsec. (f) as (e).

Change of Name

"United States Geological Survey" substituted for "Geological Survey" in subsec. (a) pursuant to provision of title I of Pub. L. 102–154, set out as a note under section 31 of Title 43, Public Lands.

Delegation of Notification Function

Letter of the President of the United States, dated May 28, 1986, 51 F.R. 19531, provided:

Letter to the Honorable John S. Herrington, Secretary of Energy

Dear Mr. Secretary:

You are hereby authorized to perform the notification function vested in the President pursuant to Section 112(c)(1) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982, 42 U.S.C. §10132(c)(1).

This document shall be published in the Federal Register.


Sincerely,

Ronald Reagan.      

1 So in original. There is no cl. (ii).

2 So in original. Probably should be "subparagraph (D)."

§10133. Site characterization

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out, in accordance with the provisions of this section, appropriate site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site. The Secretary shall consider fully the comments received under subsection (b)(2) and section 10132(b)(2) of this title and shall, to the maximum extent practicable and in consultation with the Governor of the State of Nevada, conduct site characterization activities in a manner that minimizes any significant adverse environmental impacts identified in such comments or in the environmental assessment submitted under subsection (b)(1).1

(b) Commission and States

(1) Before proceeding to sink shafts at the Yucca Mountain site, the Secretary shall submit for such candidate site to the Commission and to the Governor or legislature of the State of Nevada, for their review and comment—

(A) a general plan for site characterization activities to be conducted at such candidate site, which plan shall include—

(i) a description of such candidate site;

(ii) a description of such site characterization activities, including the following: the extent of planned excavations, plans for any onsite testing with radioactive or nonradioactive material, plans for any investigation activities that may affect the capability of such candidate site to isolate high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, and plans to control any adverse, safety-related impacts from such site characterization activities;

(iii) plans for the decontamination and decommissioning of such candidate site, and for the mitigation of any significant adverse environmental impacts caused by site characterization activities if it is determined unsuitable for application for a construction authorization for a repository;

(iv) criteria to be used to determine the suitability of such candidate site for the location of a repository, developed pursuant to section 10132(a) of this title; and

(v) any other information required by the Commission;


(B) a description of the possible form or packaging for the high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel to be emplaced in such repository, a description, to the extent practicable, of the relationship between such waste form or packaging and the geologic medium of such site, and a description of the activities being conducted by the Secretary with respect to such possible waste form or packaging or such relationship; and

(C) a conceptual repository design that takes into account likely site-specific requirements.


(2) Before proceeding to sink shafts at the Yucca Mountain site, the Secretary shall (A) make available to the public the site characterization plan described in paragraph (1); and (B) hold public hearings in the vicinity of such candidate site to inform the residents of the area in which such candidate site is located of such plan, and to receive their comments.

(3) During the conduct of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, the Secretary shall report not less than once every 6 months to the Commission and to the Governor and legislature of the State of Nevada, on the nature and extent of such activities and the information developed from such activities.

(c) Restrictions

(1) The Secretary may conduct at the Yucca Mountain site only such site characterization activities as the Secretary considers necessary to provide the data required for evaluation of the suitability of such site for an application to be submitted to the Commission for a construction authorization for a repository at such site, and for compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(2) In conducting site characterization activities—

(A) the Secretary may not use any radioactive material at a site unless the Commission concurs that such use is necessary to provide data for the preparation of the required environmental reports and an application for a construction authorization for a repository at such site; and

(B) if any radioactive material is used at a site—

(i) the Secretary shall use the minimum quantity necessary to determine the suitability of such site for a repository, but in no event more than the curie equivalent of 10 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel; and

(ii) such radioactive material shall be fully retrievable.


(3) If the Secretary at any time determines the Yucca Mountain site to be unsuitable for development as a repository, the Secretary shall—

(A) terminate all site characterization activities at such site;

(B) notify the Congress, the 2 Governor and legislature of Nevada of such termination and the reasons for such termination;

(C) remove any high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or other radioactive materials at or in such site as promptly as practicable;

(D) take reasonable and necessary steps to reclaim the site and to mitigate any significant adverse environmental impacts caused by site characterization activities at such site;

(E) suspend all future benefits payments under part F with respect to such site; and

(F) report to Congress not later than 6 months after such determination the Secretary's recommendations for further action to assure the safe, permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste, including the need for new legislative authority.

(d) Preliminary activities

Each activity of the Secretary under this section that is in compliance with the provisions of subsection (c) shall be considered a preliminary decisionmaking activity. No such activity shall require the preparation of an environmental impact statement under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)), or to 3 require any environmental review under subparagraph (E) or (F) of section 102(2) of such Act.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §113, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2211; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(d) [title III, §300], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–104, 1329-121; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5011(e)–(g), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–228.)

References in Text

Subsection (b)(1), referred to in subsec. (a), probably means subsec. (b)(1) of section 10132 of this title, which relates to nomination of repository sites for radioactive waste and submission of environmental assessments for those sites.

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(e)(2), which contained identical amendments directing that "at the Yucca Mountain site" be substituted for "beginning" and all that follows through "geological media", were executed by substituting "at the Yucca Mountain site" for "beginning with the candidate sites that have been approved under section 10132 of this title and are located in various geologic media" as the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(e)(1), amended subsec. (a) identically, substituting "State of Nevada" for "State involved or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe involved".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(f)(1), amended par. (1) identically, substituting "the Yucca Mountain site" for "any candidate site" and "the Governor or legislature of the State of Nevada" for "either the Governor and legislature of the State in which such candidate site is located, or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe on whose reservation such candidate site is located, as the case may be".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(f)(2), amended par. (2) identically, substituting "the Yucca Mountain site" for "any candidate site".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(f)(3), amended par. (3) identically, substituting "the Yucca Mountain site" for "a candidate site", striking "either" before "the Governor", and substituting "the State of Nevada" for "the State in which such candidate site is located, or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe where such candidate site is located, as the case may be".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(g)(1), amended par. (1) identically, substituting "the Yucca Mountain site" for "any candidate site", "suitability of such site" for "suitability of such candidate site", and "repository at such site" for "repository at such candidate site".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(g)(2), amended par. (2) identically, striking out "candidate" before "site" in two places in subpar. (A) and in two places in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (c)(3), (4). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(g)(3), amended subsec. (c) identically, adding par. (3) and striking out former pars. (3) and (4) which read as follows:

"(3) If site characterization activities are terminated at a candidate site for any reason, the Secretary shall (A) notify the Congress, the Governors and legislatures of all States in which candidate sites are located, and the governing bodies of all affected Indian tribes where candidate sites are located, of such termination and the reasons for such termination; and (B) remove any high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or other radioactive materials at or in such candidate site as promptly as practicable.

"(4) If a site is determined to be unsuitable for application for a construction authorization for a repository, the Secretary shall take reasonable and necessary steps to reclaim the site and to mitigate any significant adverse environmental impacts caused by site characterization activities."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should read "Congress and the".

3 So in original. The word "to" probably should not appear.

§10134. Site approval and construction authorization

(a) Hearings and Presidential recommendation

(1) The Secretary shall hold public hearings in the vicinity of the Yucca Mountain site, for the purposes of informing the residents of the area of such consideration and receiving their comments regarding the possible recommendation of such site. If, upon completion of such hearings and completion of site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site, under section 10133 of this title, the Secretary decides to recommend approval of such site to the President, the Secretary shall notify the Governor and legislature of the State of Nevada, of such decision. No sooner than the expiration of the 30-day period following such notification, the Secretary shall submit to the President a recommendation that the President approve such site for the development of a repository. Any such recommendation by the Secretary shall be based on the record of information developed by the Secretary under section 10133 of this title and this section, including the information described in subparagraph (A) through subparagraph (G). Together with any recommendation of a site under this paragraph, the Secretary shall make available to the public, and submit to the President, a comprehensive statement of the basis of such recommendation, including the following:

(A) a description of the proposed repository, including preliminary engineering specifications for the facility;

(B) a description of the waste form or packaging proposed for use at such repository, and an explanation of the relationship between such waste form or packaging and the geologic medium of such site;

(C) a discussion of data, obtained in site characterization activities, relating to the safety of such site;

(D) a final environmental impact statement prepared for the Yucca Mountain site pursuant to subsection (f) and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), together with comments made concerning such environmental impact statement by the Secretary of the Interior, the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator, and the Commission, except that the Secretary shall not be required in any such environmental impact statement to consider the need for a repository, the alternatives to geological disposal, or alternative sites to the Yucca Mountain site;

(E) preliminary comments of the Commission concerning the extent to which the at-depth site characterization analysis and the waste form proposal for such site seem to be sufficient for inclusion in any application to be submitted by the Secretary for licensing of such site as a repository;

(F) the views and comments of the Governor and legislature of any State, or the governing body of any affected Indian tribe, as determined by the Secretary, together with the response of the Secretary to such views;

(G) such other information as the Secretary considers appropriate; and

(H) any impact report submitted under section 10136(c)(2)(B) of this title by the State of Nevada.


(2)(A) If, after recommendation by the Secretary, the President considers the Yucca Mountain site qualified for application for a construction authorization for a repository, the President shall submit a recommendation of such site to Congress.

(B) The President shall submit with such recommendation a copy of the statement for such site prepared by the Secretary under paragraph (1).

(3)(A) The President may not recommend the approval of the Yucca Mountain site unless the Secretary has recommended to the President under paragraph (1) approval of such site and has submitted to the President a statement for such site as required under such paragraph.

(B) No recommendation of a site by the President under this subsection shall require the preparation of an environmental impact statement under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)), or to 1 require any environmental review under subparagraph (E) or (F) of section 102(2) of such Act.

(b) Submission of application

If the President recommends to the Congress the Yucca Mountain site under subsection (a) and the site designation is permitted to take effect under section 10135 of this title, the Secretary shall submit to the Commission an application for a construction authorization for a repository at such site not later than 90 days after the date on which the recommendation of the site designation is effective under such section and shall provide to the Governor and legislature of the State of Nevada a copy of such application.

(c) Status report on application

Not later than 1 year after the date on which an application for a construction authorization is submitted under subsection (b), and annually thereafter until the date on which such authorization is granted, the Commission shall submit a report to the Congress describing the proceedings undertaken through the date of such report with regard to such application, including a description of—

(1) any major unresolved safety issues, and the explanation of the Secretary with respect to design and operation plans for resolving such issues;

(2) any matters of contention regarding such application; and

(3) any Commission actions regarding the granting or denial of such authorization.

(d) Commission action

The Commission shall consider an application for a construction authorization for all or part of a repository in accordance with the laws applicable to such applications, except that the Commission shall issue a final decision approving or disapproving the issuance of a construction authorization not later than the expiration of 3 years after the date of the submission of such application, except that the Commission may extend such deadline by not more than 12 months if, not less than 30 days before such deadline, the Commission complies with the reporting requirements established in subsection (e)(2). The Commission decision approving the first such application shall prohibit the emplacement in the first repository of a quantity of spent fuel containing in excess of 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal or a quantity of solidified high-level radioactive waste resulting from the reprocessing of such a quantity of spent fuel until such time as a second repository is in operation. In the event that a monitored retrievable storage facility, approved pursuant to part C of this subchapter, shall be located, or is planned to be located, within 50 miles of the first repository, then the Commission decision approving the first such application shall prohibit the emplacement of a quantity of spent fuel containing in excess of 70,000 metric tons of heavy metal or a quantity of solidified high-level radioactive waste resulting from the reprocessing of spent fuel in both the repository and monitored retrievable storage facility until such time as a second repository is in operation.

(e) Project decision schedule

(1) The Secretary shall prepare and update, as appropriate, in cooperation with all affected Federal agencies, a project decision schedule that portrays the optimum way to attain the operation of the repository, within the time periods specified in this part. Such schedule shall include a description of objectives and a sequence of deadlines for all Federal agencies required to take action, including an identification of the activities in which a delay in the start, or completion, of such activities will cause a delay in beginning repository operation.

(2) Any Federal agency that determines that it cannot comply with any deadline in the project decision schedule, or fails to so comply, shall submit to the Secretary and to the Congress a written report explaining the reason for its failure or expected failure to meet such deadline, the reason why such agency could not reach an agreement with the Secretary, the estimated time for completion of the activity or activities involved, the associated effect on its other deadlines in the project decision schedule, and any recommendations it may have or actions it intends to take regarding any improvements in its operation or organization, or changes to its statutory directives or authority, so that it will be able to mitigate the delay involved. The Secretary, within 30 days after receiving any such report, shall file with the Congress his response to such report, including the reasons why the Secretary could not amend the project decision schedule to accommodate the Federal agency involved.

(f) Environmental impact statement

(1) Any recommendation made by the Secretary under this section shall be considered a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment for purposes of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.). A final environmental impact statement prepared by the Secretary under such Act shall accompany any recommendation to the President to approve a site for a repository.

(2) With respect to the requirements imposed by the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), compliance with the procedures and requirements of this chapter shall be deemed adequate consideration of the need for a repository, the time of the initial availability of a repository, and all alternatives to the isolation of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel in a repository.

(3) For purposes of complying with the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and this section, the Secretary need not consider alternate sites to the Yucca Mountain site for the repository to be developed under this part.

(4) Any environmental impact statement prepared in connection with a repository proposed to be constructed by the Secretary under this part shall, to the extent practicable, be adopted by the Commission in connection with the issuance by the Commission of a construction authorization and license for such repository. To the extent such statement is adopted by the Commission, such adoption shall be deemed to also satisfy the responsibilities of the Commission under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) and no further consideration shall be required, except that nothing in this subsection shall affect any independent responsibilities of the Commission to protect the public health and safety under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.).

(5) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to amend or otherwise detract from the licensing requirements of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission established in title II of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5841 et seq.).

(6) In any such statement prepared with respect to the repository to be constructed under this part, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission need not consider the need for a repository, the time of initial availability of a repository, alternate sites to the Yucca Mountain site, or nongeologic alternatives to such site.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §114, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2213; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(d) [title III, §300], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–104, 1329-121; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5011(h)–(l), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–229, 1330-230.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(D) and (f), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (f)(4), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (f)(5), is Pub. L. 93–438, Oct. 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233, as amended. Title II of the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 is classified generally to subchapter II (§5841 et seq.) of chapter 73 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(h)(1)(A)–(E), amended par. (1) identically, in introductory provisions substituting "vicinity of the Yucca Mountain site" for "vicinity of each site under consideration for recommendation to the President under this paragraph as a site for the development of a repository", striking out "in which such site is located" after "residents of the area", substituting "activities at the Yucca Mountain site" for "activities at not less than 3 candidate sites for the first proposed repository, or from all of the characterized sites for the development of subsequent respositories" [sic] and "of Nevada" for "in which such site is located, or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe where such site is located, as the case may be", and struck out before last sentence "In making site recommendations and approvals subsequent to the first site recommendation, the Secretary and the President, respectively, shall also consider the need for regional distribution of repositories and the need to minimize, to the extent practicable, the impacts and cost of transporting spent fuel and solidified high-level radioactive waste."

Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(h)(1)(F), generally amended subpar. (D) identically. Prior to amendment, subpar. (D) read as follows: "a final environmental impact statement prepared pursuant to subsection (f) of this section and the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), including an analysis of the consideration given by the Secretary to not less than 3 candidate sites for the first proposed respository [sic] or to all of the characterized sites for the development of subsequent repositories, with respect to which site characterization is completed under section 10133 of this title, together with comments made concerning such environmental impact statement by the Secretary of the Interior, the Council on Environmental Quality, the Administrator, and the Commission, except that any such environmental impact statement concerning the first repository to be developed under this chapter shall not be required to consider the need for a repository or the alternatives to geologic disposal;".

Subsec. (a)(1)(H). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(h)(1)(G), amended subpar. (H) identically, substituting "the State of Nevada" for "the State in which such site is located, or under section 10138(b)(3)(B) of this title by the affected Indian tribe where such site is located, as the case may be".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(h)(2), amended subsec. (a) identically, adding par. (2) and striking out former par. (2) which required submission of recommendation of one site for repository not later than Mar. 31, 1987, and recommendation of second site not later than Mar. 31, 1990, and permitted subsequent recommendations for other sites and extension of deadlines.

Subsec. (a)(3), (4). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(h)(2), (3), amended subsec. (a) identically, redesignating par. (4) as (3), in subpar. (A), substituting "the Yucca Mountain site" for "any site under this subsection" and "statement" for "report", and striking out former par. (3) which read as follows: "If approval of any such site recommendation does not take effect as a result of a disapproval by the Governor or legislature of a State under section 10136 of this title or the governing body of an affected Indian tribe under section 10138 of this title, the President shall submit to the Congress, not later than 1 year after the disapproval of such recommendation, a recommendation of another site for the first or subsequent repository."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(i), amended subsec. (b) identically, substituting "the Yucca Mountain site" for "a site for a repository" and "State of Nevada" for "State in which such site is located, or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe where such site is located, as the case may be,".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(j), amended subsec. (d) identically, substituting "than the expiration" for "than— (1) January 1, 1989, for the first such application, and January 1, 1992 for the second such application; or (2) the expiration" and "subsection (e)(2)" for "subsection (e)(2); whichever occurs later".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(k), amended par. (1) identically, substituting "operation of the repository" for "operation of the repository involved".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203, §5011(l), generally amended subsec. (f) identically, substituting provisions consisting of pars. (1) to (6) for former provisions consisting of single unnumbered par.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions of law requiring submittal to Congress of any annual, semiannual, or other regular periodic report listed in House Document No. 103–7 (in which a report required under subsec. (c) of this section is listed as the 17th item on page 186), see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance.

Viability Assessment of Yucca Mountain Site

Pub. L. 104–206, title III, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 2995, provided in part: "That no later than September 30, 1998, the Secretary shall provide to the President and to the Congress a viability assessment of the Yucca Mountain site. The viability assessment shall include:

"(1) the preliminary design concept for the critical elements for the repository and waste package;

"(2) a total system performance assessment, based upon the design concept and the scientific data and analysis available by September 30, 1998, describing the probable behavior of the repository in the Yucca Mountain geological setting relative to the overall system performance standards;

"(3) a plan and cost estimate for the remaining work required to complete a license application; and

"(4) an estimate of the costs to construct and operate the repository in accordance with the design concept."

1 So in original. The word "to" probably should not appear.

§10135. Review of repository site selection

(a) "Resolution of repository siting approval" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "resolution of repository siting approval" means a joint resolution of the Congress, the matter after the resolving clause of which is as follows: "That there hereby is approved the site at .......... for a repository, with respect to which a notice of disapproval was submitted by .......... on ...........". The first blank space in such resolution shall be filled with the name of the geographic location of the proposed site of the repository to which such resolution pertains; the second blank space in such resolution shall be filled with the designation of the State Governor and legislature or Indian tribe governing body submitting the notice of disapproval to which such resolution pertains; and the last blank space in such resolution shall be filled with the date of such submission.

(b) State or Indian tribe petitions

The designation of a site as suitable for application for a construction authorization for a repository shall be effective at the end of the 60-day period beginning on the date that the President recommends such site to the Congress under section 10134 of this title, unless the Governor and legislature of the State in which such site is located, or the governing body of an Indian tribe on whose reservation such site is located, as the case may be, has submitted to the Congress a notice of disapproval under section 10136 or 10138 of this title. If any such notice of disapproval has been submitted, the designation of such site shall not be effective except as provided under subsection (c).

(c) Congressional review of petitions

If any notice of disapproval of a repository site designation has been submitted to the Congress under section 10136 or 10138 of this title after a recommendation for approval of such site is made by the President under section 10134 of this title, such site shall be disapproved unless, during the first period of 90 calendar days of continuous session of the Congress after the date of the receipt by the Congress of such notice of disapproval, the Congress passes a resolution of repository siting approval in accordance with this subsection approving such site, and such resolution thereafter becomes law.

(d) Procedures applicable to Senate

(1) The provisions of this subsection are enacted by the Congress—

(A) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the Senate, and as such they are deemed a part of the rules of the Senate, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in the Senate in the case of resolutions of repository siting approval, and such provisions supersede other rules of the Senate only to the extent that they are inconsistent with such other rules; and

(B) with full recognition of the constitutional right of the Senate to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of the Senate) at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of the Senate.


(2)(A) Not later than the first day of session following the day on which any notice of disapproval of a repository site selection is submitted to the Congress under section 10136 or 10138 of this title, a resolution of repository siting approval shall be introduced (by request) in the Senate by the chairman of the committee to which such notice of disapproval is referred, or by a Member or Members of the Senate designated by such chairman.

(B) Upon introduction, a resolution of repository siting approval shall be referred to the appropriate committee or committees of the Senate by the President of the Senate, and all such resolutions with respect to the same repository site shall be referred to the same committee or committees. Upon the expiration of 60 calendar days of continuous session after the introduction of the first resolution of repository siting approval with respect to any site, each committee to which such resolution was referred shall make its recommendations to the Senate.

(3) If any committee to which is referred a resolution of siting approval introduced under paragraph (2)(A), or, in the absence of such a resolution, any other resolution of siting approval introduced with respect to the site involved, has not reported such resolution at the end of 60 days of continuous session of Congress after introduction of such resolution, such committee shall be deemed to be discharged from further consideration of such resolution, and such resolution shall be placed on the appropriate calendar of the Senate.

(4)(A) When each committee to which a resolution of siting approval has been referred has reported, or has been deemed to be discharged from further consideration of, a resolution described in paragraph (3), it shall at any time thereafter be in order (even though a previous motion to the same effect has been disagreed to) for any Member of the Senate to move to proceed to the consideration of such resolution. Such motion shall be highly privileged and shall not be debatable. Such motion shall not be subject to amendment, to a motion to postpone, or to a motion to proceed to the consideration of other business. A motion to reconsider the vote by which such motion is agreed to or disagreed to shall not be in order. If a motion to proceed to the consideration of such resolution is agreed to, such resolution shall remain the unfinished business of the Senate until disposed of.

(B) Debate on a resolution of siting approval, and on all debatable motions and appeals in connection with such resolution, shall be limited to not more than 10 hours, which shall be divided equally between Members favoring and Members opposing such resolution. A motion further to limit debate shall be in order and shall not be debatable. Such motion shall not be subject to amendment, to a motion to postpone, or to a motion to proceed to the consideration of other business, and a motion to recommit such resolution shall not be in order. A motion to reconsider the vote by which such resolution is agreed to or disagreed to shall not be in order.

(C) Immediately following the conclusion of the debate on a resolution of siting approval, and a single quorum call at the conclusion of such debate if requested in accordance with the rules of the Senate, the vote on final approval of such resolution shall occur.

(D) Appeals from the decisions of the Chair relating to the application of the rules of the Senate to the procedure relating to a resolution of siting approval shall be decided without debate.

(5) If the Senate receives from the House a resolution of repository siting approval with respect to any site, then the following procedure shall apply:

(A) The resolution of the House with respect to such site shall not be referred to a committee.

(B) With respect to the resolution of the Senate with respect to such site—

(i) the procedure with respect to that or other resolutions of the Senate with respect to such site shall be the same as if no resolution from the House with respect to such site had been received; but

(ii) on any vote on final passage of a resolution of the Senate with respect to such site, a resolution from the House with respect to such site where the text is identical shall be automatically substituted for the resolution of the Senate.

(e) Procedures applicable to House of Representatives

(1) The provisions of this section 1 are enacted by the Congress—

(A) as an exercise of the rulemaking power of the House of Representatives, and as such they are deemed a part of the rules of the House, but applicable only with respect to the procedure to be followed in the House in the case of resolutions of repository siting approval, and such provisions supersede other rules of the House only to the extent that they are inconsistent with such other rules; and

(B) with full recognition of the constitutional right of the House to change the rules (so far as relating to the procedure of the House) at any time, in the same manner and to the same extent as in the case of any other rule of the House.


(2) Resolutions of repository siting approval shall upon introduction, be immediately referred by the Speaker of the House to the appropriate committee or committees of the House. Any such resolution received from the Senate shall be held at the Speaker's table.

(3) Upon the expiration of 60 days of continuous session after the introduction of the first resolution of repository siting approval with respect to any site, each committee to which such resolution was referred shall be discharged from further consideration of such resolution, and such resolution shall be referred to the appropriate calendar, unless such resolution or an identical resolution was previously reported by each committee to which it was referred.

(4) It shall be in order for the Speaker to recognize a Member favoring a resolution to call up a resolution of repository siting approval after it has been on the appropriate calendar for 5 legislative days. When any such resolution is called up, the House shall proceed to its immediate consideration and the Speaker shall recognize the Member calling up such resolution and a Member opposed to such resolution for 2 hours of debate in the House, to be equally divided and controlled by such Members. When such time has expired, the previous question shall be considered as ordered on the resolution to adoption without intervening motion. No amendment to any such resolution shall be in order, nor shall it be in order to move to reconsider the vote by which such resolution is agreed to or disagreed to.

(5) If the House receives from the Senate a resolution of repository siting approval with respect to any site, then the following procedure shall apply:

(A) The resolution of the Senate with respect to such site shall not be referred to a committee.

(B) With respect to the resolution of the House with respect to such site—

(i) the procedure with respect to that or other resolutions of the House with respect to such site shall be the same as if no resolution from the Senate with respect to such site had been received; but

(ii) on any vote on final passage of a resolution of the House with respect to such site, a resolution from the Senate with respect to such site where the text is identical shall be automatically substituted for the resolution of the House.

(f) Computation of days

For purposes of this section—

(1) continuity of session of Congress is broken only by an adjournment sine die; and

(2) the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain are excluded in the computation of the 90-day period referred to in subsection (c) and the 60-day period referred to in subsections (d) and (e).

(g) Information provided to Congress

In considering any notice of disapproval submitted to the Congress under section 10136 or 10138 of this title, the Congress may obtain any comments of the Commission with respect to such notice of disapproval. The provision of such comments by the Commission shall not be construed as binding the Commission with respect to any licensing or authorization action concerning the repository involved.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §115, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2217.)

Yucca Mountain, Nevada Repository Site

Pub. L. 107–200, July 23, 2002, 116 Stat. 735, provided: "That there hereby is approved the site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, for a repository, with respect to which a notice of disapproval was submitted by the Governor of the State of Nevada on April 8, 2002."

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection".

§10136. Participation of States

(a) Notification of States and affected tribes

The Secretary shall identify the States with one or more potentially acceptable sites for a repository within 90 days after January 7, 1983. Within 90 days of such identification, the Secretary shall notify the Governor, the State legislature, and the tribal council of any affected Indian tribe in any State of the potentially acceptable sites within such State. For the purposes of this subchapter, the term "potentially acceptable site" means any site at which, after geologic studies and field mapping but before detailed geologic data gathering, the Department undertakes preliminary drilling and geophysical testing for the definition of site location.

(b) State participation in repository siting decisions

(1) Unless otherwise provided by State law, the Governor or legislature of each State shall have authority to submit a notice of disapproval to the Congress under paragraph (2). In any case in which State law provides for submission of any such notice of disapproval by any other person or entity, any reference in this part to the Governor or legislature of such State shall be considered to refer instead to such other person or entity.

(2) Upon the submission by the President to the Congress of a recommendation of a site for a repository, the Governor or legislature of the State in which such site is located may disapprove the site designation and submit to the Congress a notice of disapproval. Such Governor or legislature may submit such a notice of disapproval to the Congress not later than the 60 days after the date that the President recommends such site to the Congress under section 10134 of this title. A notice of disapproval shall be considered to be submitted to the Congress on the date of the transmittal of such notice of disapproval to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate. Such notice of disapproval shall be accompanied by a statement of reasons explaining why such Governor or legislature disapproved the recommended repository site involved.

(3) The authority of the Governor or legislature of each State under this subsection shall not be applicable with respect to any site located on a reservation.

(c) Financial assistance

(1)(A) The Secretary shall make grants to the State of Nevada and any affected unit of local government for the purpose of participating in activities required by this section and section 10137 of this title or authorized by written agreement entered into pursuant to section 10137(c) of this title. Any salary or travel expense that would ordinarily be incurred by such State or affected unit of local government, may not be considered eligible for funding under this paragraph.

(B) The Secretary shall make grants to the State of Nevada and any affected unit of local government for purposes of enabling such State or affected unit of local government—

(i) to review activities taken under this part with respect to the Yucca Mountain site for purposes of determining any potential economic, social, public health and safety, and environmental impacts of a repository on such State, or affected unit of local government and its residents;

(ii) to develop a request for impact assistance under paragraph (2);

(iii) to engage in any monitoring, testing, or evaluation activities with respect to site characterization programs with regard to such site;

(iv) to provide information to Nevada residents regarding any activities of such State, the Secretary, or the Commission with respect to such site; and

(v) to request information from, and make comments and recommendations to, the Secretary regarding any activities taken under this part with respect to such site.


(C) Any salary or travel expense that would ordinarily be incurred by the State of Nevada or any affected unit of local government may not be considered eligible for funding under this paragraph.

(2)(A)(i) The Secretary shall provide financial and technical assistance to the State of Nevada, and any affected unit of local government requesting such assistance.

(ii) Such assistance shall be designed to mitigate the impact on such State or affected unit of local government of the development of such repository and the characterization of such site.

(iii) Such assistance to such State or affected unit of local government of such State shall commence upon the initiation of site characterization activities.

(B) The State of Nevada and any affected unit of local government may request assistance under this subsection by preparing and submitting to the Secretary a report on the economic, social, public health and safety, and environmental impacts that are likely to result from site characterization activities at the Yucca Mountain site. Such report shall be submitted to the Secretary after the Secretary has submitted to the State a general plan for site characterization activities under section 10133(b) of this title.

(C) As soon as practicable after the Secretary has submitted such site characterization plan, the Secretary shall seek to enter into a binding agreement with the State of Nevada setting forth—

(i) the amount of assistance to be provided under this subsection to such State or affected unit of local government; and

(ii) the procedures to be followed in providing such assistance.


(3)(A) In addition to financial assistance provided under paragraphs (1) and (2), the Secretary shall grant to the State of Nevada and any affected unit of local government an amount each fiscal year equal to the amount such State or affected unit of local government, respectively, would receive if authorized to tax site characterization activities at such site, and the development and operation of such repository, as such State or affected unit of local government taxes the non-Federal real property and industrial activities occurring within such State or affected unit of local government.

(B) Such grants shall continue until such time as all such activities, development, and operation are terminated at such site.

(4)(A) The State of Nevada or any affected unit of local government may not receive any grant under paragraph (1) after the expiration of the 1-year period following—

(i) the date on which the Secretary notifies the Governor and legislature of the State of Nevada of the termination of site characterization activities at the site in such State;

(ii) the date on which the Yucca Mountain site is disapproved under section 10135 of this title; or

(iii) the date on which the Commission disapproves an application for a construction authorization for a repository at such site;


whichever occurs first.

(B) The State of Nevada or any affected unit of local government may not receive any further assistance under paragraph (2) with respect to a site if repository construction activities or site characterization activities at such site are terminated by the Secretary or if such activities are permanently enjoined by any court.

(C) At the end of the 2-year period beginning on the effective date of any license to receive and possess for a repository in a State, no Federal funds, shall be made available to such State or affected unit of local government under paragraph (1) or (2), except for—

(i) such funds as may be necessary to support activities related to any other repository located in, or proposed to be located in, such State, and for which a license to receive and possess has not been in effect for more than 1 year;

(ii) such funds as may be necessary to support State activities pursuant to agreements or contracts for impact assistance entered into, under paragraph (2), by such State with the Secretary during such 2-year period; and

(iii) such funds as may be provided under an agreement entered into under subchapter IV.


(5) Financial assistance authorized in this subsection shall be made out of amounts held in the Waste Fund.

(6) No State, other than the State of Nevada, may receive financial assistance under this subsection after December 22, 1987.

(d) Additional notification and consultation

Whenever the Secretary is required under any provision of this chapter to notify or consult with the governing body of an affected Indian tribe where a site is located, the Secretary shall also notify or consult with, as the case may be, the Governor of the State in which such reservation is located.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §116, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2220; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(d) [title III, §300], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–104, 1329-121; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5032(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–241.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203 generally amended subsec. (c) identically, substituting provisions consisting of pars. (1) to (6) for former provisions consisting of pars. (1) to (5).

§10137. Consultation with States and affected Indian tribes

(a) Provision of information

(1) The Secretary, the Commission, and other agencies involved in the construction, operation, or regulation of any aspect of a repository in a State shall provide to the Governor and legislature of such State, and to the governing body of any affected Indian tribe, timely and complete information regarding determinations or plans made with respect to the site characterization siting, development, design, licensing, construction, operation, regulation, or decommissioning of such repository.

(2) Upon written request for such information by the Governor or legislature of such State, or by the governing body of any affected Indian tribe, as the case may be, the Secretary shall provide a written response to such request within 30 days of the receipt of such request. Such response shall provide the information requested or, in the alternative, the reasons why the information cannot be so provided. If the Secretary fails to so respond within such 30 days, the Governor or legislature of such State, or the governing body of any affected Indian tribe, as the case may be, may transmit a formal written objection to such failure to respond to the President. If the President or Secretary fails to respond to such written request within 30 days of the receipt by the President of such formal written objection, the Secretary shall immediately suspend all activities in such State authorized by this part, and shall not renew such activities until the Governor or legislature of such State, or the governing body of any affected Indian tribe, as the case may be, has received the written response to such written request required by this subsection.

(b) Consultation and cooperation

In performing any study of an area within a State for the purpose of determining the suitability of such area for a repository pursuant to section 10132(c) of this title, and in subsequently developing and loading 1 any repository within such State, the Secretary shall consult and cooperate with the Governor and legislature of such State and the governing body of any affected Indian tribe in an effort to resolve the concerns of such State and any affected Indian tribe regarding the public health and safety, environmental, and economic impacts of any such repository. In carrying out his duties under this part, the Secretary shall take such concerns into account to the maximum extent feasible and as specified in written agreements entered into under subsection (c).

(c) Written agreement

Not later than 60 days after (1) the approval of a site for site characterization for such a repository under section 10132(c) of this title, or (2) the written request of the State or Indian tribe in any affected State notified under section 10136(a) of this title to the Secretary, whichever,2 first occurs, the Secretary shall seek to enter into a binding written agreement, and shall begin negotiations, with such State and, where appropriate, to enter into a separate binding agreement with the governing body of any affected Indian tribe, setting forth (but not limited to) the procedures under which the requirements of subsections (a) and (b), and the provisions of such written agreement, shall be carried out. Any such written agreement shall not affect the authority of the Commission under existing law. Each such written agreement shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be completed not later than 6 months after such notification. Such written agreement shall specify procedures—

(1) by which such State or governing body of an affected Indian tribe, as the case may be, may study, determine, comment on, and make recommendations with regard to the possible public health and safety, environmental, social, and economic impacts of any such repository;

(2) by which the Secretary shall consider and respond to comments and recommendations made by such State or governing body of an affected Indian tribe, including the period in which the Secretary shall so respond;

(3) by which the Secretary and such State or governing body of an affected Indian tribe may review or modify the agreement periodically;

(4) by which such State or governing body of an affected Indian tribe is to submit an impact report and request for impact assistance under section 10136(c) of this title or section 10138(b) of this title, as the case may be;

(5) by which the Secretary shall assist such State, and the units of general local government in the vicinity of the repository site, in resolving the offsite concerns of such State and units of general local government, including, but not limited to, questions of State liability arising from accidents, necessary road upgrading and access to the site, ongoing emergency preparedness and emergency response, monitoring of transportation of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel through such State, conduct of baseline health studies of inhabitants in neighboring communities near the repository site and reasonable periodic monitoring thereafter, and monitoring of the repository site upon any decommissioning and decontamination;

(6) by which the Secretary shall consult and cooperate with such State on a regular, ongoing basis and provide for an orderly process and timely schedule for State review and evaluation, including identification in the agreement of key events, milestones, and decision points in the activities of the Secretary at the potential repository site;

(7) by which the Secretary shall notify such State prior to the transportation of any high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel into such State for disposal at the repository site;

(8) by which such State may conduct reasonable independent monitoring and testing of activities on the repository site, except that such monitoring and testing shall not unreasonably interfere with or delay onsite activities;

(9) for sharing, in accordance with applicable law, of all technical and licensing information, the utilization of available expertise, the facilitating of permit procedures, joint project review, and the formulation of joint surveillance and monitoring arrangements to carry out applicable Federal and State laws;

(10) for public notification of the procedures specified under the preceding paragraphs; and

(11) for resolving objections of a State and affected Indian tribes at any stage of the planning, siting, development, construction, operation, or closure of such a facility within such State through negotiation, arbitration, or other appropriate mechanisms.

(d) On-site representative

The Secretary shall offer to any State, Indian tribe or unit of local government within whose jurisdiction a site for a repository or monitored retrievable storage facility is located under this subchapter an opportunity to designate a representative to conduct on-site oversight activities at such site. Reasonable expenses of such representatives shall be paid out of the Waste Fund.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §117, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2222; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(d) [title III, §300], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–104, 1329-121; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5011(m), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–231; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(i), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 716.)

Amendments

1995—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out after third sentence "If such written agreement is not completed within such period, the Secretary shall report to the Congress in writing within 30 days on the status of negotiations to develop such agreement and the reasons why such agreement has not been completed. Prior to submission of such report to the Congress, the Secretary shall transmit such report to the Governor of such State or the governing body of such affected Indian tribe, as the case may be, for their review and comments. Such comments shall be included in such report prior to submission to the Congress."

1987—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203 amended section identically, adding subsec. (d).

1 So in original. Probably should be "locating".

2 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§10138. Participation of Indian tribes

(a) Participation of Indian tribes in repository siting decisions

Upon the submission by the President to the Congress of a recommendation of a site for a repository located on the reservation of an affected Indian tribe, the governing body of such Indian tribe may disapprove the site designation and submit to the Congress a notice of disapproval. The governing body of such Indian tribe may submit such a notice of disapproval to the Congress not later than the 60 days after the date that the President recommends such site to the Congress under section 10134 of this title. A notice of disapproval shall be considered to be submitted to the Congress on the date of the transmittal of such notice of disapproval to the Speaker of the House and the President pro tempore of the Senate. Such notice of disapproval shall be accompanied by a statement of reasons explaining why the governing body of such Indian tribe disapproved the recommended repository site involved.

(b) Financial assistance

(1) The Secretary shall make grants to each affected tribe notified under section 10136(a) of this title for the purpose of participating in activities required by section 10137 of this title or authorized by written agreement entered into pursuant to section 10137(c) of this title. Any salary or travel expense that would ordinarily be incurred by such tribe, may not be considered eligible for funding under this paragraph.

(2)(A) The Secretary shall make grants to each affected Indian tribe where a candidate site for a repository is approved under section 10132(c) of this title. Such grants may be made to each such Indian tribe only for purposes of enabling such Indian tribe—

(i) to review activities taken under this part with respect to such site for purposes of determining any potential economic, social, public health and safety, and environmental impacts of such repository on the reservation and its residents;

(ii) to develop a request for impact assistance under paragraph (2);

(iii) to engage in any monitoring, testing, or evaluation activities with respect to site characterization programs with regard to such site;

(iv) to provide information to the residents of its reservation regarding any activities of such Indian tribe, the Secretary, or the Commission with respect to such site; and

(v) to request information from, and make comments and recommendations to, the Secretary regarding any activities taken under this part with respect to such site.


(B) The amount of funds provided to any affected Indian tribe under this paragraph in any fiscal year may not exceed 100 percent of the costs incurred by such Indian tribe with respect to the activities described in clauses (i) through (v) of subparagraph (A). Any salary or travel expense that would ordinarily be incurred by such Indian tribe may not be considered eligible for funding under this paragraph.

(3)(A) The Secretary shall provide financial and technical assistance to any affected Indian tribe requesting such assistance and where there is a site with respect to which the Commission has authorized construction of a repository. Such assistance shall be designed to mitigate the impact on such Indian tribe of the development of such repository. Such assistance to such Indian tribe shall commence within 6 months following the granting by the Commission of a construction authorization for such repository and following the initiation of construction activities at such site.

(B) Any affected Indian tribe desiring assistance under this paragraph shall prepare and submit to the Secretary a report on any economic, social, public health and safety, and environmental impacts that are likely as a result of the development of a repository at a site on the reservation of such Indian tribe. Such report shall be submitted to the Secretary following the completion of site characterization activities at such site and before the recommendation of such site to the President by the Secretary for application for a construction authorization for a repository. As soon as practicable following the granting of a construction authorization for such repository, the Secretary shall seek to enter into a binding agreement with the Indian tribe involved setting forth the amount of assistance to be provided to such Indian tribe under this paragraph and the procedures to be followed in providing such assistance.

(4) The Secretary shall grant to each affected Indian tribe where a site for a repository is approved under section 10132(c) of this title an amount each fiscal year equal to the amount such Indian tribe would receive were it authorized to tax site characterization activities at such site, and the development and operation of such repository, as such Indian tribe taxes the other commercial activities occurring on such reservation. Such grants shall continue until such time as all such activities, development, and operation are terminated at such site.

(5) 1 An affected Indian tribe may not receive any grant under paragraph (1) after the expiration of the 1-year period following—

(i) the date on which the Secretary notifies such Indian tribe of the termination of site characterization activities at the candidate site involved on the reservation of such Indian tribe;

(ii) the date on which such site is disapproved under section 10135 of this title;

(iii) the date on which the Commission disapproves an application for a construction authorization for a repository at such site; 2

(iv) December 22, 1987;


whichever occurs first, unless there is another candidate site on the reservation of such Indian tribe that is approved under section 10132(c) of this title and with respect to which the actions described in clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) have not been taken.

(B) An affected Indian tribe may not receive any further assistance under paragraph (2) with respect to a site if repository construction activities at such site are terminated by the Secretary or if such activities are permanently enjoined by any court.

(C) At the end of the 2-year period beginning on the effective date of any license to receive and possess for a repository at a site on the reservation of an affected Indian tribe, no Federal funds shall be made available under paragraph (1) or (2) to such Indian tribe, except for—

(i) such funds as may be necessary to support activities of such Indian tribe related to any other repository where a license to receive and possess has not been in effect for more than 1 year; and

(ii) such funds as may be necessary to support activities of such Indian tribe pursuant to agreements or contracts for impact assistance entered into, under paragraph (2), by such Indian tribe with the Secretary during such 2-year period.


(6) Financial assistance authorized in this subsection shall be made out of amounts held in the Nuclear Waste Fund established in section 10222 of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §118, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2225; Pub. L. 100–202, §101(d) [title III, §300], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–104, 1329-121; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5033, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–243.)

Amendments

1987—Subsec. (b)(5)(iv). Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203 amended par. (5) identically, adding cl. (iv).

1 So in original. Probably should be designated "(5)(A)".

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "or".

§10139. Judicial review of agency actions

(a) Jurisdiction of United States courts of appeals

(1) Except for review in the Supreme Court of the United States, the United States courts of appeals shall have original and exclusive jurisdiction over any civil action—

(A) for review of any final decision or action of the Secretary, the President, or the Commission under this part;

(B) alleging the failure of the Secretary, the President, or the Commission to make any decision, or take any action, required under this part;

(C) challenging the constitutionality of any decision made, or action taken, under any provision of this part;

(D) for review of any environmental impact statement prepared pursuant to the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.) with respect to any action under this part, or as required under section 10155(c)(1) of this title, or alleging a failure to prepare such statement with respect to any such action;

(E) for review of any environmental assessment prepared under section 10132(b)(1) or 10155(c)(2) of this title; or

(F) for review of any research and development activity under subchapter II.


(2) The venue of any proceeding under this section shall be in the judicial circuit in which the petitioner involved resides or has its principal office, or in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia.

(c) 1 Deadline for commencing action

A civil action for judicial review described under subsection (a)(1) may be brought not later than the 180th day after the date of the decision or action or failure to act involved, as the case may be, except that if a party shows that he did not know of the decision or action complained of (or of the failure to act), and that a reasonable person acting under the circumstances would not have known, such party may bring a civil action not later than the 180th day after the date such party acquired actual or constructive knowledge of such decision, action, or failure to act.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §119, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2227.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(D), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

1 So in original. No subsec. (b) has been enacted.

§10140. Expedited authorizations

(a) Issuance of authorizations

(1) To the extent that the taking of any action related to the site characterization of a site or the construction or initial operation of a repository under this part requires a certificate, right-of-way, permit, lease, or other authorization from a Federal agency or officer, such agency or officer shall issue or grant any such authorization at the earliest practicable date, to the extent permitted by the applicable provisions of law administered by such agency or officer. All actions of a Federal agency or officer with respect to consideration of applications or requests for the issuance or grant of any such authorization shall be expedited, and any such application or request shall take precedence over any similar applications or requests not related to such repositories.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) shall not apply to any certificate, right-of-way, permit, lease, or other authorization issued or granted by, or requested from, the Commission.

(b) Terms of authorizations

Any authorization issued or granted pursuant to subsection (a) shall include such terms and conditions as may be required by law, and may include terms and conditions permitted by law.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §120, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2227.)

§10141. Certain standards and criteria

(a) Environmental Protection Agency standards

Not later than 1 year after January 7, 1983, the Administrator, pursuant to authority under other provisions of law, shall, by rule, promulgate generally applicable standards for protection of the general environment from offsite releases from radioactive material in repositories.

(b) Commission requirements and criteria

(1)(A) Not later than January 1, 1984, the Commission, pursuant to authority under other provisions of law, shall, by rule, promulgate technical requirements and criteria that it will apply, under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) and the Energy Reorganization Act of 1974 (42 U.S.C. 5801 et seq.), in approving or disapproving—

(i) applications for authorization to construct repositories;

(ii) applications for licenses to receive and possess spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste in such repositories; and

(iii) applications for authorization for closure and decommissioning of such repositories.


(B) Such criteria shall provide for the use of a system of multiple barriers in the design of the repository and shall include such restrictions on the retrievability of the solidified high-level radioactive waste and spent fuel emplaced in the repository as the Commission deems appropriate.

(C) Such requirements and criteria shall not be inconsistent with any comparable standards promulgated by the Administrator under subsection (a).

(2) For purposes of this chapter, nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit the Commission from promulgating requirements and criteria under paragraph (1) before the Administrator promulgates standards under subsection (a). If the Administrator promulgates standards under subsection (a) after requirements and criteria are promulgated by the Commission under paragraph (1), such requirements and criteria shall be revised by the Commission if necessary to comply with paragraph (1)(C).

(c) Environmental impact statement

The promulgation of standards or criteria in accordance with the provisions of this section shall not require the preparation of an environmental impact statement under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)), or to require any environmental review under subparagraph (E) or (F) of section 102(2) of such Act.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §121, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2228.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Energy Reorganization Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 93–438, Oct. 11, 1974, 88 Stat. 1233, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 73 (§5801 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5801 of this title and Tables.

Nuclear Waste Storage and Disposal at Yucca Mountain Site

Pub. L. 102–486, title VIII, §801, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2921, provided that:

"(a) Environmental Protection Agency Standards.—

"(1) Promulgation.—Notwithstanding the provisions of section 121(a) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 U.S.C. 10141(a)), section 161 b. of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2201(b)), and any other authority of the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to set generally applicable standards for the Yucca Mountain site, the Administrator shall, based upon and consistent with the findings and recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences, promulgate, by rule, public health and safety standards for protection of the public from releases from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in the repository at the Yucca Mountain site. Such standards shall prescribe the maximum annual effective dose equivalent to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment from radioactive materials stored or disposed of in the repository. The standards shall be promulgated not later than 1 year after the Administrator receives the findings and recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences under paragraph (2) and shall be the only such standards applicable to the Yucca Mountain site.

"(2) Study by national academy of sciences.—Within 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 1992], the Administrator shall contract with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a study to provide, by not later than December 31, 1993, findings and recommendations on reasonable standards for protection of the public health and safety, including—

"(A) whether a health-based standard based upon doses to individual members of the public from releases to the accessible environment (as that term is defined in the regulations contained in subpart B of part 191 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations, as in effect on November 18, 1985) will provide a reasonable standard for protection of the health and safety of the general public;

"(B) whether it is reasonable to assume that a system for post-closure oversight of the repository can be developed, based upon active institutional controls, that will prevent an unreasonable risk of breaching the repository's engineered or geologic barriers or increasing the exposure of individual members of the public to radiation beyond allowable limits; and

"(C) whether it is possible to make scientifically supportable predictions of the probability that the repository's engineered or geologic barriers will be breached as a result of human intrusion over a period of 10,000 years.

"(3) Applicability.—The provisions of this section shall apply to the Yucca Mountain site, rather than any other authority of the Administrator to set generally applicable standards for radiation protection.

"(b) Nuclear Regulatory Commission Requirements and Criteria.—

"(1) Modifications.—Not later than 1 year after the Administrator promulgates standards under subsection (a), the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall, by rule, modify its technical requirements and criteria under section 121(b) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (42 U.S.C. 10141(b)), as necessary, to be consistent with the Administrator's standards promulgated under subsection (a).

"(2) Required assumptions.—The Commission's requirements and criteria shall assume, to the extent consistent with the findings and recommendations of the National Academy of Sciences, that, following repository closure, the inclusion of engineered barriers and the Secretary's post-closure oversight of the Yucca Mountain site, in accordance with subsection (c), shall be sufficient to—

"(A) prevent any activity at the site that poses an unreasonable risk of breaching the repository's engineered or geologic barriers; and

"(B) prevent any increase in the exposure of individual members of the public to radiation beyond allowable limits.

"(c) Post-Closure Oversight.—Following repository closure, the Secretary of Energy shall continue to oversee the Yucca Mountain site to prevent any activity at the site that poses an unreasonable risk of—

"(1) breaching the repository's engineered or geologic barriers; or

"(2) increasing the exposure of individual members of the public to radiation beyond allowable limits."

§10142. Disposal of spent nuclear fuel

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, any repository constructed on a site approved under this part shall be designed and constructed to permit the retrieval of any spent nuclear fuel placed in such repository, during an appropriate period of operation of the facility, for any reason pertaining to the public health and safety, or the environment, or for the purpose of permitting the recovery of the economically valuable contents of such spent fuel. The Secretary shall specify the appropriate period of retrievability with respect to any repository at the time of design of such repository, and such aspect of such repository shall be subject to approval or disapproval by the Commission as part of the construction authorization process under subsections (b) through (d) of section 10134 of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §122, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2228.)

§10143. Title to material

Delivery, and acceptance by the Secretary, of any high-level radioactive waste or spent nuclear fuel for a repository constructed under this part shall constitute a transfer to the Secretary of title to such waste or spent fuel.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §123, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2229.)

§10144. Consideration of effect of acquisition of water rights

The Secretary shall give full consideration to whether the development, construction, and operation of a repository may require any purchase or other acquisition of water rights that will have a significant adverse effect on the present or future development of the area in which such repository is located. The Secretary shall mitigate any such adverse effects to the maximum extent practicable.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §124, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2229.)

§10145. Termination of certain provisions

Sections 10139 and 10140 of this title shall cease to have effect at such time as a repository developed under this part is licensed to receive and possess high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title I, §125, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2229.)