[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 108, SUBCHAPTER II: RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION REGARDING DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL
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42 USC CHAPTER 108, SUBCHAPTER II: RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION REGARDING DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 108—NUCLEAR WASTE POLICY

SUBCHAPTER II—RESEARCH, DEVELOPMENT, AND DEMONSTRATION REGARDING DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE AND SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

§10191. Purpose

It is the purpose of this subchapter—

(1) to provide direction to the Secretary with respect to the disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel;

(2) to authorize the Secretary, pursuant to this subchapter—

(A) to provide for the construction, operation, and maintenance of a deep geologic test and evaluation facility; and

(B) to provide for a focused and integrated high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel research and development program, including the development of a test and evaluation facility to carry out research and provide an integrated demonstration of the technology for deep geologic disposal of high-level radioactive waste, and the development of the facilities to demonstrate dry storage of spent nuclear fuel; and


(3) to provide for an improved cooperative role between the Federal Government and States, affected Indian tribes, and units of general local government in the siting of a test and evaluation facility.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §211, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2245.)

§10192. Applicability

The provisions of this subchapter are subject to section 10107 of this title and shall not apply to facilities that are used for the disposal of high-level radioactive waste, low-level radioactive waste, transuranic waste, or spent nuclear fuel resulting from atomic energy defense activities.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §212, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2245.)

§10193. Identification of sites

(a) Guidelines

Not later than 6 months after January 7, 1983, and notwithstanding the failure of other agencies to promulgate standards pursuant to applicable law, the Secretary, in consultation with the Commission, the Director of the United States Geological Survey, the Administrator, the Council on Environmental Quality, and such other Federal agencies as the Secretary considers appropriate, is authorized to issue, pursuant to section 553 of title 5, general guidelines for the selection of a site for a test and evaluation facility. Under such guidelines the Secretary shall specify factors that qualify or disqualify a site for development as a test and evaluation facility, including factors pertaining to the location of valuable natural resources, hydrogeophysics, seismic activity, and atomic energy defense activities, proximity to water supplies, proximity to populations, the effect upon the rights of users of water, and proximity to components of the National Park System, the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, the National Wilderness Preservation System, or National Forest Lands. Such guidelines shall require the Secretary to consider the various geologic media in which the site for a test and evaluation facility may be located and, to the extent practicable, to identify sites in different geologic media. The Secretary shall use guidelines established under this subsection in considering and selecting sites under this subchapter.

(b) Site identification by Secretary

(1) Not later than 1 year after January 7, 1983, and following promulgation of guidelines under subsection (a), the Secretary is authorized to identify 3 or more sites, at least 2 of which shall be in different geologic media in the continental United States, and at least 1 of which shall be in media other than salt. Subject to Commission requirements, the Secretary shall give preference to sites for the test and evaluation facility in media possessing geochemical characteristics that retard aqueous transport of radionuclides. In order to provide a greater possible protection of public health and safety as operating experience is gained at the test and evaluation facility, and with the exception of the primary areas under review by the Secretary on January 7, 1983, for the location of a test and evaluation facility or repository, all sites identified under this subsection shall be more than 15 statute miles from towns having a population of greater than 1,000 persons as determined by the most recent census unless such sites contain high-level radioactive waste prior to identification under this subchapter. Each identification of a site shall be supported by an environmental assessment, which shall include a detailed statement of the basis for such identification and of the probable impacts of the siting research activities planned for such site, and a discussion of alternative activities relating to siting research that may be undertaken to avoid such impacts. Such environmental assessment shall include—

(A) an evaluation by the Secretary as to whether such site is suitable for siting research under the guidelines established under subsection (a);

(B) an evaluation by the Secretary of the effects of the siting research activities at such site on the public health and safety and the environment;

(C) a reasonable comparative evaluation by the Secretary of such site with other sites and locations that have been considered;

(D) a description of the decision process by which such site was recommended; and

(E) an assessment of the regional and local impacts of locating the proposed test and evaluation facility at such site.


(2) When the Secretary identifies a site, the Secretary shall as soon as possible notify the Governor of the State in which such site is located, or the governing body of the affected Indian tribe where such site is located, of such identification and the basis of such identification. Additional sites for the location of the test and evaluation facility authorized in section 10222(d) of this title may be identified after such 1 year period, following the same procedure as if such sites had been identified within such period.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §213, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2245; Pub. L. 102–154, title I, Nov. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1000.)

Change of Name

"United States Geological Survey" substituted for "Geological Survey" in subsec. (a) pursuant to provision of title I of Pub. L. 102–154, set out as a note under section 31 of Title 43, Public Lands.

§10194. Siting research and related activities

(a) In general

Not later than 30 months after the date on which the Secretary completes the identification of sites under section 10193 of this title, the Secretary is authorized to complete sufficient evaluation of 3 sites to select a site for expanded siting research activities and for other activities under section 10198 of this title. The Secretary is authorized to conduct such preconstruction activities relative to such site selection for the test and evaluation facility as he deems appropriate. Additional sites for the location of the test and evaluation facility authorized in section 10222(d) of this title may be evaluated after such 30-month period, following the same procedures as if such sites were to be evaluated within such period.

(b) Public meetings and environmental assessment

Not later than 6 months after the date on which the Secretary completes the identification of sites under section 10193 of this title, and before beginning siting research activities, the Secretary shall hold at least 1 public meeting in the vicinity of each site to inform the residents of the area of the activities to be conducted at such site and to receive their views.

(c) Restrictions

Except as provided in section 10198 of this title with respect to a test and evaluation facility, in conducting siting research activities pursuant to subsection (a)—

(1) the Secretary shall use the minimum quantity of high-level radioactive waste or other radioactive materials, if any, necessary to achieve the test or research objectives;

(2) the Secretary shall ensure that any radioactive material used or placed on a site shall be fully retrievable; and

(3) upon termination of siting research activities at a site for any reason, the Secretary shall remove any radioactive material at or in the site as promptly as practicable.

(d) Title to material

The Secretary may take title, in the name of the Federal Government, to the high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or other radioactive material emplaced in a test and evaluation facility. If the Secretary takes title to any such material, the Secretary shall enter into the appropriate financial arrangements described in subsection (a) or (b) of section 10222 of this title for the disposal of such material.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §214, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2247.)

§10195. Test and evaluation facility siting review and reports

(a) Consultation and cooperation

The Governor of a State, or the governing body of an affected Indian tribe, notified of a site identification under section 10193 of this title shall have the right to participate in a process of consultation and cooperation as soon as the site involved has been identified pursuant to such section and throughout the life of the test and evaluation facility. For purposes of this section, the term "process of consultation and cooperation" means a methodology—

(1) by which the Secretary—

(A) keeps the Governor or governing body involved fully and currently informed about any potential economic or public health and safety impacts in all stages of the siting, development, construction, and operation of a test and evaluation facility;

(B) solicits, receives, and evaluates concerns and objections of such Governor or governing body with regard to such test and evaluation facility on an ongoing basis; and

(C) works diligently and cooperatively to resolve such concerns and objections; and


(2) by which the State or affected Indian tribe involved can exercise reasonable independent monitoring and testing of onsite activities related to all stages of the siting, development, construction and operation of the test and evaluation facility, except that any such monitoring and testing shall not unreasonably interfere with onsite activities.

(b) Written agreements

The Secretary shall enter into written agreements with the Governor of the State in which an identified site is located or with the governing body of any affected Indian tribe where an identified site is located in order to expedite the consultation and cooperation process. Any such written agreement shall specify—

(1) procedures by which such Governor or governing body may study, determine, comment on, and make recommendations with regard to the possible health, safety, and economic impacts of the test and evaluation facility;

(2) procedures by which the Secretary shall consider and respond to comments and recommendations made by such Governor or governing body, including the period in which the Secretary shall so respond;

(3) the documents the Department is to submit to such Governor or governing body, the timing for such submissions, the timing for such Governor or governing body to identify public health and safety concerns and the process to be followed to try to eliminate those concerns;

(4) procedures by which the Secretary and either such Governor or governing body may review or modify the agreement periodically; and

(5) procedures for public notification of the procedures specified under subparagraphs (A) through (D).

(c) Limitation

Except as specifically provided in this section, nothing in this subchapter is intended to grant any State or affected Indian tribe any authority with respect to the siting, development, or loading of the test and evaluation facility.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §215, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2247.)

§10196. Federal agency actions

(a) Cooperation and coordination

Federal agencies shall assist the Secretary by cooperating and coordinating with the Secretary in the preparation of any necessary reports under this subchapter and the mission plan under section 10221 of this title.

(b) Environmental review

(1) No action of the Secretary or any other Federal agency required by this subchapter or section 10221 of this title with respect to a test and evaluation facility to be taken prior to the initiation of onsite construction of a test and evaluation facility shall require the preparation of an environmental impact statement under section 102(2)(C) of the Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)), or to require the preparation of environmental reports, except as otherwise specifically provided for in this subchapter.

(2) The Secretary and the heads of all other Federal agencies shall, to the maximum extent possible, avoid duplication of efforts in the preparation of reports under the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §216, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2248.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

§10197. Research and development on disposal of high-level radioactive waste

(a) Purpose

Not later than 64 months after January 7, 1983, the Secretary is authorized to, to the extent practicable, begin at a site evaluated under section 10194 of this title, as part of and as an extension of siting research activities of such site under such section, the mining and construction of a test and evaluation facility. Prior to the mining and construction of such facility, the Secretary shall prepare an environmental assessment. The purpose of such facility shall be—

(1) to supplement and focus the repository site characterization process;

(2) to provide the conditions under which known technological components can be integrated to demonstrate a functioning repository-like system;

(3) to provide a means of identifying, evaluating, and resolving potential repository licensing issues that could not be resolved during the siting research program conducted under section 10192 1 of this title;

(4) to validate, under actual conditions, the scientific models used in the design of a repository;

(5) to refine the design and engineering of repository components and systems and to confirm the predicted behavior of such components and systems;

(6) to supplement the siting data, the generic and specific geological characteristics developed under section 10194 of this title relating to isolating disposal materials in the physical environment of a repository;

(7) to evaluate the design concepts for packaging, handling, and emplacement of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel at the design rate; and

(8) to establish operating capability without exposing workers to excessive radiation.

(b) Design

The Secretary shall design each test and evaluation facility—

(1) to be capable of receiving not more than 100 full-sized canisters of solidified high-level radioactive waste (which canisters shall not exceed an aggregate weight of 100 metric tons), except that spent nuclear fuel may be used instead of such waste if such waste cannot be obtained under reasonable conditions;

(2) to permit full retrieval of solidified high-level radioactive waste, or other radioactive material used by the Secretary for testing, upon completion of the technology demonstration activities; and

(3) based upon the principle that the high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or other radioactive material involved shall be isolated from the biosphere in such a way that the initial isolation is provided by engineered barriers functioning as a system with the geologic environment.

(c) Operation

(1) Not later than 88 months after January 7, 1983, the Secretary shall begin an in situ testing program at the test and evaluation facility in accordance with the mission plan developed under section 10221 of this title, for purposes of—

(A) conducting in situ tests of bore hole sealing, geologic media fracture sealing, and room closure to establish the techniques and performance for isolation of high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or other radioactive materials from the biosphere;

(B) conducting in situ tests with radioactive sources and materials to evaluate and improve reliable models for radionuclide migration, absorption, and containment within the engineered barriers and geologic media involved, if the Secretary finds there is reasonable assurance that such radioactive sources and materials will not threaten the use of such site as a repository;

(C) conducting in situ tests to evaluate and improve models for ground water or brine flow through fractured geologic media;

(D) conducting in situ tests under conditions representing the real time and the accelerated time behavior of the engineered barriers within the geologic environment involved;

(E) conducting in situ tests to evaluate the effects of heat and pressure on the geologic media involved, on the hydrology of the surrounding area, and on the integrity of the disposal packages;

(F) conducting in situ tests under both normal and abnormal repository conditions to establish safe design limits for disposal packages and to determine the effects of the gross release of radionuclides into surroundings, and the effects of various credible failure modes, including—

(i) seismic events leading to the coupling of aquifers through the test and evaluation facility;

(ii) thermal pulses significantly greater than the maximum calculated; and

(iii) human intrusion creating a direct pathway to the biosphere; and


(G) conducting such other research and development activities as the Secretary considers appropriate, including such activities necessary to obtain the use of high-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or other radioactive materials (such as any highly radioactive material from the Three Mile Island nuclear powerplant or from the West Valley Demonstration Project) for test and evaluation purposes, if such other activities are reasonably necessary to support the repository program and if there is reasonable assurance that the radioactive sources involved will not threaten the use of such site as a repository.


(2) The in situ testing authorized in this subsection shall be designed to ensure that the suitability of the site involved for licensing by the Commission as a repository will not be adversely affected.

(d) Use of existing Department facilities

During the conducting of siting research activities under section 10194 of this title and for such period thereafter as the Secretary considers appropriate, the Secretary shall use Department facilities owned by the Federal Government on January 7, 1983, for the conducting of generically applicable tests regarding packaging, handling, and emplacement technology for solidified high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel from civilian nuclear activities.

(e) Engineered barriers

The system of engineered barriers and selected geology used in a test and evaluation facility shall have a design life at least as long as that which the Commission requires by regulations issued under this chapter, or under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.), for repositories.

(f) Role of Commission

(1)(A) Not later than 1 year after January 7, 1983, the Secretary and the Commission shall reach a written understanding establishing the procedures for review, consultation, and coordination in the planning, construction, and operation of the test and evaluation facility under this section. Such understanding shall establish a schedule, consistent with the deadlines set forth in this subchapter,2 for submission by the Secretary of, and review by the Commission of and necessary action on—

(i) the mission plan prepared under section 10221 of this title; and

(ii) such reports and other information as the Commission may reasonably require to evaluate any health and safety impacts of the test and evaluation facility.


(B) Such understanding shall also establish the conditions under which the Commission may have access to the test and evaluation facility for the purpose of assessing any public health and safety concerns that it may have. No shafts may be excavated for the test and evaluation until the Secretary and the Commission enter into such understanding.

(2) Subject to section 10225 of this title, the test and evaluation facility, and the facilities authorized in this section, shall be constructed and operated as research, development, and demonstration facilities, and shall not be subject to licensing under section 5842 of this title.

(3)(A) The Commission shall carry out a continuing analysis of the activities undertaken under this section to evaluate the adequacy of the consideration of public health and safety issues.

(B) The Commission shall report to the President, the Secretary, and the Congress as the Commission considers appropriate with respect to the conduct of activities under this section.

(g) Environmental review

The Secretary shall prepare an environmental impact statement under section 102(2)(C) of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4332(2)(C)) prior to conducting tests with radioactive materials at the test and evaluation facility. Such environmental impact statement shall incorporate, to the extent practicable, the environmental assessment prepared under subsection (a). Nothing in this subsection may be construed to limit siting research activities conducted under section 10194 of this title. This subsection shall apply only to activities performed exclusively for a test and evaluation facility.

(h) Limitations

(1) If the test and evaluation facility is not located at the site of a repository, the Secretary shall obtain the concurrence of the Commission with respect to the decontamination and decommissioning of such facility.

(2) If the test and evaluation facility is not located at a candidate site or repository site, the Secretary shall conduct only the portion of the in situ testing program required in subsection (c) determined by the Secretary to be useful in carrying out the purposes of this chapter.

(3) The operation of the test and evaluation facility shall terminate not later than—

(A) 5 years after the date on which the initial repository begins operation; or

(B) at such time as the Secretary determines that the continued operation of a test and evaluation facility is not necessary for research, development, and demonstration purposes;


whichever occurs sooner.

(4) Notwithstanding any other provisions of this subsection, as soon as practicable following any determination by the Secretary, with the concurrence of the Commission, that the test and evaluation facility is unsuitable for continued operation, the Secretary shall take such actions as are necessary to remove from such site any radioactive material placed on such site as a result of testing and evaluation activities conducted under this section. Such requirement may be waived if the Secretary, with the concurrence of the Commission, finds that short-term testing and evaluation activities using radioactive material will not endanger the public health and safety.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §217, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2249.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (e), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to chapter 23 (§2011 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (f)(1)(A), was in the original "this subtitle", and was translated as this subchapter to reflect the probable intent of Congress because title II of Pub. L. 97–425, which enacted this subchapter, does not contain subtitles.

1 So in original. Probably should be "10194".

2 See References in Text note below.

§10198. Research and development on spent nuclear fuel

(a) Demonstration and cooperative programs

The Secretary shall establish a demonstration program, in cooperation with the private sector, for the dry storage of spent nuclear fuel at civilian nuclear power reactor sites, with the objective of establishing one or more technologies that the Commission may, by rule, approve for use at the sites of civilian nuclear power reactors without, to the maximum extent practicable, the need for additional site-specific approvals by the Commission. Not later than 1 year after January 7, 1983, the Secretary shall select at least 1, but not more than 3, sites evaluated under section 10194 of this title at such power reactors. In selecting such site or sites, the Secretary shall give preference to civilian nuclear power reactors that will soon have a shortage of interim storage capacity for spent nuclear fuel. Subject to reaching agreement as provided in subsection (b), the Secretary shall undertake activities to assist such power reactors with demonstration projects at such sites, which may use one of the following types of alternate storage technologies: spent nuclear fuel storage casks, caissons, or silos. The Secretary shall also undertake a cooperative program with civilian nuclear power reactors to encourage the development of the technology for spent nuclear fuel rod consolidation in existing power reactor water storage basins.

(b) Cooperative agreements

To carry out the programs described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall enter into a cooperative agreement with each utility involved that specifies, at a minimum, that—

(1) such utility shall select the alternate storage technique to be used, make the land and spent nuclear fuel available for the dry storage demonstration, submit and provide site-specific documentation for a license application to the Commission, obtain a license relating to the facility involved, construct such facility, operate such facility after licensing, pay the costs required to construct such facility, and pay all costs associated with the operation and maintenance of such facility;

(2) the Secretary shall provide, on a cost-sharing basis, consultative and technical assistance, including design support and generic licensing documentation, to assist such utility in obtaining the construction authorization and appropriate license from the Commission; and

(3) the Secretary shall provide generic research and development of alternative spent nuclear fuel storage techniques to enhance utility-provided, at-reactor storage capabilities, if authorized in any other provision of this chapter or in any other provision of law.

(c) Dry storage research and development

(1) The consultative and technical assistance referred to in subsection (b)(2) may include, but shall not be limited to, the establishment of a research and development program for the dry storage of not more than 300 metric tons of spent nuclear fuel at facilities owned by the Federal Government on January 7, 1983. The purpose of such program shall be to collect necessary data to assist the utilities involved in the licensing process.

(2) To the extent available, and consistent with the provisions of section 10155 of this title, the Secretary shall provide spent nuclear fuel for the research and development program authorized in this subsection from spent nuclear fuel received by the Secretary for storage under section 10155 of this title. Such spent nuclear fuel shall not be subject to the provisions of section 10155(e) of this title.

(d) Funding

The total contribution from the Secretary from Federal funds and the use of Federal facilities or services shall not exceed 25 percent of the total costs of the demonstration program authorized in subsection (a), as estimated by the Secretary. All remaining costs of such program shall be paid by the utilities involved or shall be provided by the Secretary from the Interim Storage Fund established in section 10156 of this title.

(e) Relation to spent nuclear fuel storage program

The spent nuclear fuel storage program authorized in section 10155 of this title shall not be construed to authorize the use of research development or demonstration facilities owned by the Department unless—

(1) a period of 30 calendar days (not including any day in which either House of Congress is not in session because of adjournment of more than 3 calendar days to a day certain) has passed after the Secretary has transmitted to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a written report containing a full and complete statement concerning (A) the facility involved; (B) any necessary modifications; (C) the cost thereof; and (D) the impact on the authorized research and development program; or

(2) each such committee, before the expiration of such period, has transmitted to the Secretary a written notice to the effect that such committee has no objection to the proposed use of such facility.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §218, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2252; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(c)(10), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Committee on Science, Space, and Technology" for "Committee on Science and Technology".

§10199. Payments to States and Indian tribes

(a) Payments

Subject to subsection (b), the Secretary shall make payments to each State or affected Indian tribe that has entered into an agreement pursuant to section 10195 of this title. The Secretary shall pay an amount equal to 100 percent of the expenses incurred by such State or Indian tribe in engaging in any monitoring, testing, evaluation, or other consultation and cooperation activity under section 10195 of this title with respect to any site. The amount paid by the Secretary under this paragraph shall not exceed $3,000,000 per year from the date on which the site involved was identified to the date on which the decontamination and decommission of the facility is complete pursuant to section 10197(h) of this title. Any such payment may only be made to a State in which a potential site for a test and evaluation facility has been identified under section 10193 of this title, or to an affected Indian tribe where the potential site has been identified under such section.

(b) Limitation

The Secretary shall make any payment to a State under subsection (a) only if such State agrees to provide, to each unit of general local government within the jurisdictional boundaries of which the potential site or effectively selected site involved is located, at least one-tenth of the payments made by the Secretary to such State under such subsection. A State or affected Indian tribe receiving any payment under subsection (a) shall otherwise have discretion to use such payment for whatever purpose it deems necessary, including the State or tribal activities pursuant to agreements entered into in accordance with section 10195 of this title. Annual payments shall be prorated on a 365-day basis to the specified dates.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §219, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2253.)

§10200. Study of research and development needs for monitored retrievable storage proposal

Not later than 6 months after January 7, 1983, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a report describing the research and development activities the Secretary considers necessary to develop the proposal required in section 10161(b) of this title with respect to a monitored retrievable storage facility.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §220, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2254.)

§10201. Judicial review

Judicial review of research and development activities under this subchapter shall be in accordance with the provisions of section 10139 of this title.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §221, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2254.)

§10202. Research on alternatives for permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste

The Secretary shall continue and accelerate a program of research, development, and investigation of alternative means and technologies for the permanent disposal of high-level radioactive waste from civilian nuclear activities and Federal research and development activities except that funding shall be made from amounts appropriated to the Secretary for purposes of carrying out this section. Such program shall include examination of various waste disposal options.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §222, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2254.)

§10203. Technical assistance to non-nuclear weapon states in field of spent fuel storage and disposal

(a) Statement of policy

It shall be the policy of the United States to cooperate with and provide technical assistance to non-nuclear weapon states in the field of spent fuel storage and disposal.

(b) Publication of joint notice; update

(1) Within 90 days of January 7, 1983, the Secretary and the Commission shall publish a joint notice in the Federal Register stating that the United States is prepared to cooperate with and provide technical assistance to non-nuclear weapon states in the fields of at-reactor spent fuel storage; away-from-reactor spent fuel storage; monitored, retrievable spent fuel storage; geologic disposal of spent fuel; and the health, safety, and environmental regulation of such activities. The notice shall summarize the resources that can be made available for international cooperation and assistance in these fields through existing programs of the Department and the Commission, including the availability of: (i) data from past or ongoing research and development projects; (ii) consultations with expert Department or Commission personnel or contractors; and (iii) liaison with private business entities and organizations working in these fields.

(2) The joint notice described in the preceding subparagraph shall be updated and reissued annually for 5 succeeding years.

(c) Notification to non-nuclear weapon states; expressions of interest

Following publication of the annual joint notice referred to in paragraph (2),1 the Secretary of State shall inform the governments of non-nuclear weapon states and, as feasible, the organizations operating nuclear powerplants in such states, that the United States is prepared to cooperate with and provide technical assistance to non-nuclear weapon states in the fields of spent fuel storage and disposal, as set forth in the joint notice. The Secretary of State shall also solicit expressions of interest from non-nuclear weapon state governments and non-nuclear weapon state nuclear power reactor operators concerning their participation in expanded United States cooperation and technical assistance programs in these fields. The Secretary of State shall transmit any such expressions of interest to the Department and the Commission.

(d) Funding requests

With his budget presentation materials for the Department and the Commission for fiscal years 1984 through 1989, the President shall include funding requests for an expanded program of cooperation and technical assistance with non-nuclear weapon states in the fields of spent fuel storage and disposal as appropriate in light of expressions of interest in such cooperation and assistance on the part of non-nuclear weapon state governments and non-nuclear weapon state nuclear power reactor operators.

(e) "Non-nuclear weapon state" defined

For the purposes of this subsection,2 the term "non-nuclear weapon state" shall have the same meaning as that set forth in article IX of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (21 U.S.C.3 438).

(f) Unauthorized actions

Nothing in this subsection 2 shall authorize the Department or the Commission to take any action not authorized under existing law.

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §223, Jan. 7, 1983, 96 Stat. 2254.)

References in Text

The Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, referred to in subsec. (e), is set out in 21 UST 483; TIAS 6839.

1 So in original. Probably should be "paragraph (2) of subsection (b),".

2 So in original. Probably should be "section".

3 So in original. Probably should be "UST".

§10204. Subseabed disposal

(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(d), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 716

(b) Office of Subseabed Disposal Research

(1) There is hereby established an Office of Subseabed Disposal Research within the Office of Science of the Department of Energy. The Office shall be headed by the Director, who shall be a member of the Senior Executive Service appointed by the Director of the Office of Science, and compensated at a rate determined by applicable law.

(2) The Director of the Office of Subseabed Disposal Research shall be responsible for carrying out research, development, and demonstration activities on all aspects of subseabed disposal of high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, subject to the general supervision of the Secretary. The Director of the Office shall be directly responsible to the Director of the Office of Science, and the first such Director shall be appointed within 30 days of December 22, 1987.

(3) In carrying out his responsibilities under this chapter, the Secretary may make grants to, or enter into contracts with, the Subseabed Consortium described in subsection (d) of this section, and other persons.

(4)(A) Within 60 days of December 22, 1987, the Secretary shall establish a university-based Subseabed Consortium involving leading oceanographic universities and institutions, national laboratories, and other organizations to investigate the technical and institutional feasibility of subseabed disposal.

(B) The Subseabed Consortium shall develop a research plan and budget to achieve the following objectives by 1995:

(i) demonstrate the capacity to identify and characterize potential subseabed disposal sites;

(ii) develop conceptual designs for a subseabed disposal system, including estimated costs and institutional requirements; and

(iii) identify and assess the potential impacts of subseabed disposal on the human and marine environment.


(C) In 1990, and again in 1995, the Subseabed Consortium shall report to Congress on the progress being made in achieving the objectives of paragraph (2).

(Pub. L. 97–425, title II, §224, as added Pub. L. 100–202, §101(d) [title III], Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–104, 1329-121; Pub. L. 100–203, title V, §5063, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–253; amended Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1051(d), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 716; Pub. L. 105–245, title III, §309(b)(2)(E), Oct. 7, 1998, 112 Stat. 1853.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–202 and Pub. L. 100–203 added identical sections.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–245 which directed the substitution of "Science" for "Energy Research", was executed by making the substitution in two places to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–245 substituted "Office of Science" for "Office of Energy Research".

1995—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out subsec. (a) which required Secretary of Energy to report to Congress on subseabed disposal of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 104–66 struck out par. (5) which read as follows: "The Director of the Office of Subseabed Disposal Research shall annually prepare and submit a report to the Congress on the activities and expenditures of the Office."