[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 149, SUBCHAPTER IV: COAL
Result 1 of 1
   
 
42 USC CHAPTER 149, SUBCHAPTER IV: COAL
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 149—NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY AND PROGRAMS

SUBCHAPTER IV—COAL

Part A—Clean Coal Power Initiative

§15961. Authorization of appropriations

(a) Clean coal power initiative

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the activities authorized by this part $200,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2014, to remain available until expended.

(b) Report

The Secretary shall submit to Congress the report required by this subsection not later than March 31, 2007. The report shall include, with respect to subsection (a), a plan containing—

(1) a detailed assessment of whether the aggregate funding levels provided under subsection (a) are the appropriate funding levels for that program;

(2) a detailed description of how proposals will be solicited and evaluated, including a list of all activities expected to be undertaken;

(3) a detailed list of technical milestones for each coal and related technology that will be pursued; and

(4) a detailed description of how the program will avoid problems enumerated in Government Accountability Office reports on the Clean Coal Technology Program, including problems that have resulted in unspent funds and projects that failed either financially or scientifically.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §401, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 749.)

§15962. Project criteria

(a) In general

To be eligible to receive assistance under this part, a project shall advance efficiency, environmental performance, and cost competitiveness well beyond the level of technologies that are in commercial service or have been demonstrated on a scale that the Secretary determines is sufficient to demonstrate that commercial service is viable as of August 8, 2005.

(b) Technical criteria for clean coal power initiative

(1) Gasification projects

(A) In general

In allocating the funds made available under section 15961(a) of this title, the Secretary shall ensure that at least 70 percent of the funds are used only to fund projects on coal-based gasification technologies, including—

(i) gasification combined cycle;

(ii) gasification fuel cells and turbine combined cycle;

(iii) gasification coproduction;

(iv) hybrid gasification and combustion; and

(v) other advanced coal based technologies capable of producing a concentrated stream of carbon dioxide.

(B) Technical milestones

(i) Periodic determination

(I) In general

The Secretary shall periodically set technical milestones specifying the emission and thermal efficiency levels that coal gasification projects under this part shall be designed, and reasonably expected, to achieve.

(II) Prescriptive milestones

The technical milestones shall become more prescriptive during the period of the clean coal power initiative.

(ii) 2020 goals

The Secretary shall establish the periodic milestones so as to achieve by the year 2020 coal gasification projects able—

(I)(aa) to remove at least 99 percent of sulfur dioxide; or

(bb) to emit not more than 0.04 pound SO2 per million Btu, based on a 30-day average;

(II) to emit not more than .05 lbs of NOx per million Btu;

(III) to achieve at least 95 percent reductions in mercury emissions; and

(IV) to achieve a thermal efficiency of at least—

(aa) 50 percent for coal of more than 9,000 Btu;

(bb) 48 percent for coal of 7,000 to 9,000 Btu; and

(cc) 46 percent for coal of less than 7,000 Btu.

(2) Other projects

(A) Allocation of funds

The Secretary shall ensure that up to 30 percent of the funds made available under section 15961(a) of this title are used to fund projects other than those described in paragraph (1).

(B) Technical milestones

(i) Periodic determination

(I) In general

The Secretary shall periodically establish technical milestones specifying the emission and thermal efficiency levels that projects funded under this paragraph shall be designed, and reasonably expected, to achieve.

(II) Prescriptive milestones

The technical milestones shall become more prescriptive during the period of the clean coal power initiative.

(ii) 2020 goals

The Secretary shall set the periodic milestones so as to achieve by the year 2020 projects able—

(I) to remove at least 97 percent of sulfur dioxide;

(II) to emit no more than .08 lbs of NOx per million Btu;

(III) to achieve at least 90 percent reductions in mercury emissions; and

(IV) to achieve a thermal efficiency of at least—

(aa) 43 percent for coal of more than 9,000 Btu;

(bb) 41 percent for coal of 7,000 to 9,000 Btu; and

(cc) 39 percent for coal of less than 7,000 Btu.

(3) Consultation

Before setting the technical milestones under paragraphs (1)(B) and (2)(B), the Secretary shall consult with—

(A) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency; and

(B) interested entities, including—

(i) coal producers;

(ii) industries using coal;

(iii) organizations that promote coal or advanced coal technologies;

(iv) environmental organizations;

(v) organizations representing workers; and

(vi) organizations representing consumers.

(4) Existing units

In the case of projects at units in existence on August 8, 2005, in lieu of the thermal efficiency requirements described in paragraphs (1)(B)(ii)(IV) and (2)(B)(ii)(IV), the milestones shall be designed to achieve an overall thermal design efficiency improvement, compared to the efficiency of the unit as operated, of not less than—

(A) 7 percent for coal of more than 9,000 Btu;

(B) 6 percent for coal of 7,000 to 9,000 Btu; or

(C) 4 percent for coal of less than 7,000 Btu.

(5) Administration

(A) Elevation of site

In evaluating project proposals to achieve thermal efficiency levels established under paragraphs (1)(B)(i) and (2)(B)(i) and in determining progress towards thermal efficiency milestones under paragraphs (1)(B)(ii)(IV), (2)(B)(ii)(IV), and (4), the Secretary shall take into account and make adjustments for the elevation of the site at which a project is proposed to be constructed.

(B) Applicability of milestones

In applying the thermal efficiency milestones under paragraphs (1)(B)(ii)(IV), (2)(B)(ii)(IV), and (4) to projects that separate and capture at least 50 percent of the potential emissions of carbon dioxide by a facility, the energy used for separation and capture of carbon dioxide shall not be counted in calculating the thermal efficiency.

(C) Permitted uses

In carrying out this section, the Secretary may give priority to projects that include, as part of the project—

(i) the separation or capture of carbon dioxide; or

(ii) the reduction of the demand for natural gas if deployed.

(c) Financial criteria

The Secretary shall not provide financial assistance under this part for a project unless the recipient documents to the satisfaction of the Secretary that—

(1) the recipient is financially responsible;

(2) the recipient will provide sufficient information to the Secretary to enable the Secretary to ensure that the funds are spent efficiently and effectively; and

(3) a market exists for the technology being demonstrated or applied, as evidenced by statements of interest in writing from potential purchasers of the technology.

(d) Financial assistance

The Secretary shall provide financial assistance to projects that, as determined by the Secretary—

(1) meet the requirements of subsections (a), (b), and (c); and

(2) are likely—

(A) to achieve overall cost reductions in the use of coal to generate useful forms of energy or chemical feedstocks;

(B) to improve the competitiveness of coal among various forms of energy in order to maintain a diversity of fuel choices in the United States to meet electricity generation requirements; and

(C) to demonstrate methods and equipment that are applicable to 25 percent of the electricity generating facilities, using various types of coal, that use coal as the primary feedstock as of August 8, 2005.

(e) Cost-sharing

In carrying out this part, the Secretary shall require cost sharing in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(f) Scheduled completion of selected projects

(1) In general

In selecting a project for financial assistance under this section, the Secretary shall establish a reasonable period of time during which the owner or operator of the project shall complete the construction or demonstration phase of the project, as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(2) Condition of financial assistance

The Secretary shall require as a condition of receipt of any financial assistance under this part that the recipient of the assistance enter into an agreement with the Secretary not to request an extension of the time period established for the project by the Secretary under paragraph (1).

(3) Extension of time period

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary may extend the time period established under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, that the owner or operator of the project cannot complete the construction or demonstration phase of the project within the time period due to circumstances beyond the control of the owner or operator.

(B) Limitation

The Secretary shall not extend a time period under subparagraph (A) by more than 4 years.

(g) Fee title

The Secretary may vest fee title or other property interests acquired under cost-share clean coal power initiative agreements under this part in any entity, including the United States.

(h) Data protection

For a period not exceeding 5 years after completion of the operations phase of a cooperative agreement, the Secretary may provide appropriate protections (including exemptions from subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5) against the dissemination of information that—

(1) results from demonstration activities carried out under the clean coal power initiative program; and

(2) would be a trade secret or commercial or financial information that is privileged or confidential if the information had been obtained from and first produced by a non-Federal party participating in a clean coal power initiative project.

(i) Applicability

No technology, or level of emission reduction, solely by reason of the use of the technology, or the achievement of the emission reduction, by 1 or more facilities receiving assistance under this Act, shall be considered to be—

(1) adequately demonstrated for purposes of section 7411 of this title;

(2) achievable for purposes of section 7479 of this title; or

(3) achievable in practice for purposes of section 7501 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §402, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 750; Pub. L. 110–140, title VI, §653, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1695.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (i), is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii)(I). Pub. L. 110–140 added subcl. (I) and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: "to remove at least 99 percent of sulfur dioxide;".

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§15963. Report

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, and once every 2 years thereafter through 2014, the Secretary, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, shall submit to Congress a report describing—

(1) the technical milestones set forth in section 15962 of this title and how those milestones ensure progress toward meeting the requirements of subsections (b)(1)(B) and (b)(2) of section 15962 of this title; and

(2) the status of projects funded under this part.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §403, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 753.)

§15964. Clean coal centers of excellence

(a) In general

As part of the clean coal power initiative, the Secretary shall award competitive, merit-based grants to institutions of higher education for the establishment of centers of excellence for energy systems of the future.

(b) Basis for grants

The Secretary shall award grants under this section to institutions of higher education that show the greatest potential for advancing new clean coal technologies.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §404, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 753.)

§15965. Time limit for award; extension

If a Clean Coal Power Initiative project selected after March 11, 2009, for negotiation under this or any other Act in any fiscal year, is not awarded within 2 years from the date the application was selected, negotiations shall cease and the Federal funds committed to the application shall be retained by the Department for future coal-related research, development and demonstration projects, except that the time limit may be extended at the Secretary's discretion for matters outside the control of the applicant, or if the Secretary determines that extension of the time limit is in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 111–8, div. C, title III, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 616.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2009, and also as part of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Part B—Clean Power Projects

§15971. Integrated coal/renewable energy system

(a) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary may provide loan guarantees for a project to produce energy from coal of less than 7,000 Btu/lb. using appropriate advanced integrated gasification combined cycle technology, including repowering of existing facilities, that—

(1) is combined with wind and other renewable sources;

(2) minimizes and offers the potential to sequester carbon dioxide emissions; and

(3) provides a ready source of hydrogen for near-site fuel cell demonstrations.

(b) Requirements

The facility—

(1) may be built in stages;

(2) shall have a combined output of at least 200 megawatts at successively more competitive rates; and

(3) shall be located in the Upper Great Plains.

(c) Technical criteria

Technical criteria described in section 15962(b) of this title shall apply to the facility.

(d) Investment tax credits

(1) In general

The loan guarantees provided under this section do not preclude the facility from receiving an allocation for investment tax credits under section 48A of title 26.

(2) Other funding

Use of the investment tax credit described in paragraph (1) does not prohibit the use of other clean coal program funding.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §411, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 754.)

§15972. Loan to place Alaska clean coal technology facility in service

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Borrower

The term "borrower" means the owner of the clean coal technology plant.

(2) Clean coal technology plant

The term "clean coal technology plant" means the plant located near Healy, Alaska, constructed under Department cooperative agreement number DE–FC–22–91PC90544.

(3) Cost of a direct loan

The term "cost of a direct loan" has the meaning given the term in section 661a(5)(B) of title 2.

(b) Authorization

Subject to subsection (c), the Secretary shall use amounts made available under subsection (e) to provide the cost of a direct loan to the borrower for purposes of placing the clean coal technology plant into reliable operation for the generation of electricity.

(c) Requirements

(1) Maximum loan amount

The amount of the direct loan provided under subsection (b) shall not exceed $80,000,000.

(2) Determinations by Secretary

Before providing the direct loan to the borrower under subsection (b), the Secretary shall determine that—

(A) the plan of the borrower for placing the clean coal technology plant in reliable operation has a reasonable prospect of success;

(B) the amount of the loan (when combined with amounts available to the borrower from other sources) will be sufficient to carry out the project; and

(C) there is a reasonable prospect that the borrower will repay the principal and interest on the loan.

(3) Interest; term

The direct loan provided under subsection (b) shall bear interest at a rate and for a term that the Secretary determines appropriate, after consultation with the Secretary of the Treasury, taking into account the needs and capacities of the borrower and the prevailing rate of interest for similar loans made by public and private lenders.

(4) Additional terms and conditions

The Secretary may require any other terms and conditions that the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(d) Use of payments

The Secretary shall retain any payments of principal and interest on the direct loan provided under subsection (b) to support energy research and development activities, to remain available until expended, subject to any other conditions in an applicable appropriations Act.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as are necessary to provide the cost of a direct loan under subsection (b).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §412, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 754.)

§15973. Western integrated coal gasification demonstration project

(a) In general

Subject to the availability of appropriations, the Secretary shall carry out a project to demonstrate production of energy from coal mined in the western United States using integrated gasification combined cycle technology (referred to in this section as the "demonstration project").

(b) Components

The demonstration project—

(1) may include repowering of existing facilities;

(2) shall be designed to demonstrate the ability to use coal with an energy content of not more than 9,000 Btu/lb.; and

(3) shall be capable of removing and sequestering carbon dioxide emissions.

(c) All types of western coals

Notwithstanding the foregoing, and to the extent economically feasible, the demonstration project shall also be designed to demonstrate the ability to use a variety of types of coal (including subbituminous and bituminous coal with an energy content of up to 13,000 Btu/lb.) mined in the western United States.

(d) Location

The demonstration project shall be located in a western State at an altitude of greater than 4,000 feet above sea level.

(e) Cost sharing

The Federal share of the cost of the demonstration project shall be determined in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(f) Loan guarantees

Notwithstanding subchapter XIII, the demonstration project shall not be eligible for Federal loan guarantees.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §413, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 755.)

References in Text

Subchapter XIII, referred to in subsec. (f), was in the original "title XIV", meaning title XIV of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1061, which enacted subchapter XIII of this chapter and section 13557 of this title. For complete classification of title XIV to the Code, see Tables.

§15974. Coal gasification

The Secretary is authorized to provide loan guarantees for a project to produce energy from a plant using integrated gasification combined cycle technology of at least 400 megawatts in capacity that produces power at competitive rates in deregulated energy generation markets and that does not receive any subsidy (direct or indirect) from ratepayers.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §414, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 755.)

§15975. Petroleum coke gasification

The Secretary is authorized to provide loan guarantees for at least 5 petroleum coke gasification projects.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §415, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 756.)

§15976. Electron scrubbing demonstration

The Secretary shall use $5,000,000 from amounts appropriated to initiate, through the Chicago Operations Office, a project to demonstrate the viability of high-energy electron scrubbing technology on commercial-scale electrical generation using high-sulfur coal.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §416, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 756.)

§15977. Department of Energy transportation fuels from Illinois basin coal

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program to evaluate the commercial and technical viability of advanced technologies for the production of Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, manufactured from Illinois basin coal, including the capital modification of existing facilities and the construction of testing facilities under subsection (b).

(b) Facilities

For the purpose of evaluating the commercial and technical viability of different processes for producing Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, from Illinois basin coal, the Secretary shall support the use and capital modification of existing facilities and the construction of new facilities at—

(1) Southern Illinois University Coal Research Center;

(2) University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research; and

(3) Energy Center at Purdue University.

(c) Gasification products test center

In conjunction with the activities described in subsections (a) and (b), the Secretary shall construct a test center to evaluate and confirm liquid and gas products from syngas catalysis in order that the system has an output of at least 500 gallons of Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuel per day in a 24-hour operation.

(d) Milestones

(1) Selection of processes

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall select processes for evaluating the commercial and technical viability of different processes of producing Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, from Illinois basin coal.

(2) Agreements

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall offer to enter into agreements—

(A) to carry out the activities described in this section, at the facilities described in subsection (b); and

(B) for the capital modifications or construction of the facilities at the locations described in subsection (b).

(3) Evaluations

Not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall begin, at the facilities described in subsection (b), evaluation of the technical and commercial viability of different processes of producing Fischer-Tropsch transportation fuels, and other transportation fuels, from Illinois basin coal.

(4) Construction of facilities

(A) In general

The Secretary shall construct the facilities described in subsection (b) at the lowest cost practicable.

(B) Grants or agreements

The Secretary may make grants or enter into agreements or contracts with the institutions of higher education described in subsection (b).

(e) Cost sharing

The cost of making grants under this section shall be shared in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $85,000,000 for the period of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §417, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 756.)

Part C—Federal Coal Leases

§15991. Inventory requirement

(a) Review of assessments

(1) In general

The Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary, shall review coal assessments and other available data to identify—

(A) Federal lands with coal resources that are available for development;

(B) the extent and nature of any restrictions on the development of coal resources on Federal lands identified under paragraph (1); and

(C) with respect to areas of such lands for which sufficient data exists, resources of compliant coal and supercompliant coal.

(2) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) the term "compliant coal" means coal that contains not less than 1.0 and not more than 1.2 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu; and

(B) the term "supercompliant coal" means coal that contains less than 1.0 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million Btu.

(b) Completion and updating of the inventory

The Secretary—

(1) shall complete the inventory under subsection (a) by not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005; and

(2) shall update the inventory as the availability of data and developments in technology warrant.

(c) Report

The Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Resources of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and make publicly available—

(1) a report containing the inventory under this section, by not later than 2 years after the effective date of this section; and

(2) each update of such inventory.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IV, §437, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 762.)

References in Text

The effective date of this section, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this section.

Change of Name

Committee on Resources of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Natural Resources of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Short Title

For short title of subtitle D of title IV of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this part, as the "Coal Leasing Amendments Act of 2005", see section 431 of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as a note under section 15801 of this title.