[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 149, SUBCHAPTER IX: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
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TEXT OF PART V OF SUBTITLE A (3001 ET SEQ.), EFFECTIVE JANUARY 1, 2022, CURRENTLY SET OUT AS A PREVIEW

42 USC CHAPTER 149, SUBCHAPTER IX: RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 149—NATIONAL ENERGY POLICY AND PROGRAMS

SUBCHAPTER IX—RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT

§16181. Goals

(a) In general

In order to achieve the purposes of this subchapter, the Secretary shall conduct a balanced set of programs of energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application with the general goals of—

(1) increasing the efficiency of all energy intensive sectors through conservation and improved technologies;

(2) promoting diversity of energy supply;

(3) decreasing the dependence of the United States on foreign energy supplies;

(4) improving the energy security of the United States; and

(5) decreasing the environmental impact of energy-related activities.

(b) Goals

The Secretary shall publish measurable cost and performance-based goals, comparable over time, with each annual budget submission in at least the following areas:

(1) Energy efficiency for buildings, energy-consuming industries, and vehicles.

(2) Electric energy generation (including distributed generation), transmission, and storage.

(3) Renewable energy technologies, including wind power, photovoltaics, solar thermal systems, geothermal energy, hydrogen-fueled systems, biomass-based systems, biofuels, and hydropower.

(4) Fossil energy, including power generation, onshore and offshore oil and gas resource recovery, and transportation fuels.

(5) Nuclear energy, including programs for existing and advanced reactors, and education of future specialists.

(c) Public comment

The Secretary shall provide mechanisms for input on the annually published goals from industry, institutions of higher education, and other public sources.

(d) Effect of goals

Nothing in subsection (a) or the annually published goals creates any new authority for any Federal agency, or may be used by any Federal agency, to support the establishment of regulatory standards or regulatory requirements.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §902, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 8101 and 8102 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacted provisions set out as notes under section 15801 of this title, section 8102 of Title 7, and section 2001 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and amended provisions set out as notes under section 8101 of Title 7 and section 1902 of Title 30. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

Short Title

For short title of title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted this subchapter, as the "Energy Research, Development, Demonstration, and Commercial Application Act of 2005", see section 431 of Pub. L. 109–58, set out as a note under section 15801 of this title.

§16182. Definitions

In this subchapter:

(1) Departmental mission

The term "departmental mission" means any of the functions vested in the Secretary by the Department of Energy Organization Act (42 U.S.C. 7101 et seq.) or other law.

(2) Hispanic-serving institution

The term "Hispanic-serving institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1101a(a) of title 20.

(3) Nonmilitary energy laboratory

The term "nonmilitary energy laboratory" means a National Laboratory other than a National Laboratory listed in subparagraph (G), (H), or (N) of section 15801(3) of this title.

(4) Part B institution

The term "part B institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1061 of title 20.

(5) Single-purpose research facility

The term "single-purpose research facility" means—

(A) any of the primarily single-purpose entities owned by the Department; or

(B) any other organization of the Department designated by the Secretary.

(6) University

The term "university" has the meaning given the term "institution of higher education" in section 1001 of title 20.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §903, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856.)

References in Text

This subchapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 856, which enacted this subchapter, amended sections 8101 and 8102 of Title 7, Agriculture, and section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacted provisions set out as notes under section 15801 of this title, section 8102 of Title 7, and section 2001 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and amended provisions set out as notes under section 8101 of Title 7 and section 1902 of Title 30. For complete classification of title IX to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

The Department of Energy Organization Act, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 95–91, Aug. 4, 1977, 91 Stat. 565, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 84 (§7101 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7101 of this title and Tables.

§16183.. Energy and water for sustainability

(a) Nexus of energy and water for sustainability

(1) Definitions

In this section:

(A) Department

The term "Department" means the Department of Energy.

(B) Energy-water nexus

The term "energy-water nexus" means the links between—

(i) the water needed to produce fuels, electricity, and other forms of energy; and

(ii) the energy needed to transport, reclaim, and treat water and wastewater.

(C) Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee

The term "Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee" means the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee on the Nexus of Energy and Water for Sustainability (or the "NEWS RD&D Committee") established under paragraph (3)(A).

(D) Nexus of Energy and Water Sustainability RD&D Office; NEWS RD&D Office

The term "Nexus of Energy and Water Sustainability RD&D Office" or the "NEWS RD&D Office" means an office located at the Department and managed in cooperation with the Department of the Interior pursuant to an agreement between the 2 agencies to carry out leadership and administrative functions for the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee.

(E) RD&D

The term "RD&D" means research, development, and demonstration.

(F) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(2) Statement of policy

Recognizing States' primacy over allocation and administration of water resources (except in specific instances where preempted under Federal law) and the siting of energy infrastructure within State boundaries on non-Federal lands, it is the national policy that the Federal government, in all energy-water nexus management activities, shall maximize coordination and consultation among Federal agencies and with State and local governments, and disseminate information to the public in the most effective manner.

(3) Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee

(A) Establishment

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary and the Secretary of the Interior shall establish the joint NEWS RD&D Office and Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee on the Nexus of Energy and Water for Sustainability (or the "NEWS RD&D Committee") to carry out the duties described in subparagraph (C).

(B) Administration

(i) Chairs

The Secretary and the Secretary of the Interior shall jointly manage the NEWS RD&D Office and serve as co-chairs of the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee.

(ii) Membership; staffing

Membership and staffing shall be determined by the co-chairs.

(C) Duties

The Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee shall—

(i) serve as a forum for developing common Federal goals and plans on energy-water nexus RD&D activities, in coordination with the National Science and Technology Council;

(ii) not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, and biennially thereafter, issue a strategic plan on energy-water nexus RD&D activities, priorities, and objectives pursuant to subparagraph (D), which shall be developed in consultation with relevant State and local governments;

(iii) convene and promote coordination of RD&D activities of relevant Federal departments and agencies on energy-water nexus;

(iv)(I) coordinate and develop capabilities and methodologies related to RD&D activities for data collection, data communication protocols (including models and modeling results), data management, and dissemination of validated data and results related to energy-water nexus RD&D activities to requesting Federal departments and agencies; and

(II) promote information exchange between Federal departments and agencies—

(aa) to identify and document Federal and non-Federal RD&D programs and funding opportunities that support basic and applied RD&D proposals to advance energy-water nexus related science and technologies;

(bb) to leverage existing RD&D programs by encouraging joint solicitations, block grants, and matching programs with non-Federal entities; and

(cc) to identify opportunities for domestic and international public-private partnerships, innovative financing mechanisms, and information and data exchange with respect to RD&D activities;


(v) identify ways to leverage existing RD&D programs, including programs at the State and local level;

(vi) make publicly available the results of RD&D activities on the energy water nexus;

(vii) with regard to RD&D programs, recommend improvements and best practices for the collection and dissemination of federal water use data and the use of monitoring networks; and

(viii) promote coordination on RD&D with non-Federal interests by—

(I) consulting with representatives of research and academic institutions, State, local, and Tribal governments, public utility commissions, and industry, who have expertise in technologies, technological innovations, or practices relating to the energy-water nexus; and

(II) considering conducting technical workshops.

(D) Strategic plan

In developing the strategic plan pursuant to (C)(ii), the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee shall—

(i) to the maximum extent possible, avoid duplication with other Federal RD&D programs, and projects, including with those of the National Laboratories;

(ii) consider inclusion of specific research, development and demonstration needs, including—

(I) innovative practices, technologies and other advancements improving water efficiency, treatment, recovery, or reuse associated with energy generation, including cooling, and fuel production;

(II) innovative practices, technologies and other advancements associated with energy use in water collection, supply, delivery, distribution, treatment, or reuse;

(III) innovative practices, technologies and other advancements associated with generation or production of energy from water or wastewater systems; and

(IV) modeling and systems analysis related to energy-water nexus; and


(iii) submit the plan to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committees on Science, Space, and Technology, Energy and Commerce, and Natural Resources of the House of Representatives.

(E) Rules of construction

(i) Nothing in this section grants to the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee the authority to promulgate regulations or set standards.

(ii) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, nothing in this section shall be construed to require State, Tribal, or local governments to take any action that may result in an increased financial burden to such governments.

(F) Additional participation

In developing the strategic plan described in subparagraph (C)(ii), the Secretary shall consult and coordinate with a diverse group of representatives from research and academic institutions, industry, public utility commissions, and State and local governments who have expertise in technologies and practices relating to the energy-water nexus.

(G) Review; report

At the end of the 5-year period beginning on the date on which the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee and NEWS RD&D Office are established, the NEWS RD&D Office shall—

(i) review the activities, relevance, and effectiveness of the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee; and

(ii) submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committees on Science, Space, and Technology, Energy and Commerce, and Natural Resources of the House of Representatives a report that—

(I) describes the results of the review conducted under clause (i); and

(II) includes a recommendation on whether the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee should continue.

(4) Crosscut budget

Not later than 30 days after the President submits the budget of the United States Government under section 1105 of title 31, the co-chairs of the Interagency RD&D Coordination Committee (acting through the NEWS RD&D Office) shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committees on Science, Space, and Technology, Energy and Commerce, and Natural Resources of the House of Representatives, an interagency budget crosscut report that displays at the program-, project-, and activity-level for each of the Federal agencies that carry out or support (including through grants, contracts, interagency and intraagency transfers, and multiyear and no-year funds) basic and applied RD&D activities to advance the energy-water nexus related science and technologies, including—

(A) the budget proposed in the budget request of the President for the upcoming fiscal year;

(B) expenditures and obligations for the prior fiscal year; and

(C) estimated expenditures and obligations for the current fiscal year.

(5) Termination

(A) In general

The authority provided to the NEWS RD&D Office and NEWS RD&D Committee under this subsection shall terminate on the date that is 7 years after December 27, 2020.

(B) Effect

The termination of authority under subparagraph (A) shall not affect ongoing interagency planning, coordination, or other RD&D activities relating to the energy-water nexus.

(b) Integrating energy and water research

The Secretary shall integrate the following considerations into energy RD&D programs and projects of the Department by—

(1) advancing RD&D for energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices that meet the objectives of—

(A) minimizing freshwater withdrawal and consumption;

(B) increasing water use efficiency; and

(C) utilizing nontraditional water sources;


(2) considering the effects climate variability may have on water supplies and quality for energy generation and fuel production; and

(3) improving understanding of the energy-water nexus (as defined in subsection (a)(1)).

(c) Additional activities

The Secretary may provide for such additional RD&D activities as appropriate to integrate the considerations described in subsection (b) into the RD&D activities of the Department.

(Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title I, §1010, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2438.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Act of 2020, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Part A—Energy Efficiency

§16191. Energy efficiency

(a) In general

(1) Objectives

The Secretary shall conduct programs of energy efficiency research, development, demonstration, and commercial application, including activities described in this part. Such programs shall take into consideration the following objectives:

(A) Increasing the energy efficiency of vehicles, buildings, and industrial processes.

(B) Reducing the demand of the United States for energy, especially energy from foreign sources.

(C) Reducing the cost of energy and making the economy more efficient and competitive.

(D) Improving the energy security of the United States.

(E) Reducing the environmental impact of energy-related activities.

(2) Programs

Programs under this part shall include research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of—

(A) advanced, cost-effective technologies to improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of vehicles, including—

(i) hybrid and electric propulsion systems;

(ii) plug-in hybrid systems;

(iii) advanced combustion engines;

(iv) weight and drag reduction technologies;

(v) whole-vehicle design optimization; and

(vi) advanced drive trains;


(B) cost-effective technologies, for new construction and retrofit, to improve the energy efficiency and environmental performance of buildings, using a whole-buildings approach, including onsite renewable energy generation;

(C) advanced technologies to improve the energy efficiency, environmental performance, and process efficiency of energy-intensive and waste-intensive industries;

(D) advanced control devices to improve the energy efficiency of electric motors, including those used in industrial processes, heating, ventilation, and cooling; and

(E) technologies to improve the energy efficiency of appliances and mechanical systems for buildings in cold climates, including combined heat and power units and increased use of renewable resources, including fuel.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out energy efficiency and conservation research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities, including activities authorized under this part—

(1) $783,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(2) $865,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(3) $952,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(c) Allocations

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), the following sums are authorized:

(1) For activities under section 16192 of this title, $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(2) For activities under section 16195 of this title, $7,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(3) For activities under subsection (a)(2)(A)—

(A) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $270,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) $310,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.


(4) For activities under subsection (a)(2)(D), $2,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008.

(d) Extended authorization

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out section 16192 of this title $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2010 through 2013.

(e) Limitations

None of the funds authorized to be appropriated under this section may be used for—

(1) the issuance or implementation of energy efficiency regulations;

(2) the weatherization program established under part A of title IV of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (42 U.S.C. 6861 et seq.);

(3) a State energy conservation plan established under part D of title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6321 et seq.); or

(4) a Federal energy management measure carried out under part 3 of title V of the National Energy Conservation Policy Act (42 U.S.C. 8251 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §911, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 857; Pub. L. 110–140, title III, §315(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1571.)

References in Text

The Energy Conservation and Production Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(2), is Pub. L. 94–385, Aug. 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 1125, as amended. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§6861 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 81 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6801 of this title and Tables.

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), is Pub. L. 94–163, Dec. 22, 1975, 89 Stat. 871, as amended. Part D of title III of the Act is classified generally to part B (§6321 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 77 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6201 of this title and Tables.

The National Energy Conservation Policy Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(4), is Pub. L. 95–619, Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3206, as amended. Part 3 of title V of the Act is classified generally to part B (§8251 et seq.) of subchapter III of chapter 91 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 8201 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a)(2)(E). Pub. L. 110–140 added subpar. (E).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§16192. Next Generation Lighting Initiative

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Advanced solid-state lighting

The term "advanced solid-state lighting" means a semiconducting device package and delivery system that produces white light using externally applied voltage.

(2) Industry Alliance

The term "Industry Alliance" means an entity selected by the Secretary under subsection (d).

(3) Initiative

The term "Initiative" means the Next Generation Lighting Initiative carried out under this section.

(4) Research

The term "research" includes research on the technologies, materials, and manufacturing processes required for white light emitting diodes.

(5) White light emitting diode

The term "white light emitting diode" means a semiconducting package, using either organic or inorganic materials, that produces white light using externally applied voltage.

(b) Initiative

The Secretary shall carry out a Next Generation Lighting Initiative in accordance with this section to support research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities related to advanced solid-state lighting technologies based on white light emitting diodes.

(c) Objectives

The objectives of the Initiative shall be to develop advanced solid-state organic and inorganic lighting technologies based on white light emitting diodes that, compared to incandescent and fluorescent lighting technologies, are longer lasting, are more energy-efficient and cost-competitive, and have less environmental impact.

(d) Industry Alliance

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall competitively select an Industry Alliance to represent participants who are private, for-profit firms, open to large and small businesses, that, as a group, are broadly representative of United States solid-state lighting research, development, infrastructure, and manufacturing expertise as a whole.

(e) Research

(1) Grants

The Secretary shall carry out the research activities of the Initiative through competitively awarded grants to—

(A) researchers, including Industry Alliance participants;

(B) small businesses;

(C) National Laboratories; and

(D) institutions of higher education.

(2) Industry alliance

The Secretary shall annually solicit from the Industry Alliance—

(A) comments to identify solid-state lighting technology needs;

(B) an assessment of the progress of the research activities of the Initiative; and

(C) assistance in annually updating solid-state lighting technology roadmaps.

(3) Availability to public

The information and roadmaps under paragraph (2) shall be available to the public.

(f) Development, demonstration, and commercial application

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a development, demonstration, and commercial application program for the Initiative through competitively selected awards.

(2) Preference

In making the awards, the Secretary may give preference to participants in the Industry Alliance.

(g) Cost sharing

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall require cost sharing in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(h) Intellectual property

The Secretary may require (in accordance with section 202(a)(ii) of title 35, section 2182 of this title, and section 5908 of this title) that for any new invention developed under subsection (e)—

(1) that the Industry Alliance participants who are active participants in research, development, and demonstration activities related to the advanced solid-state lighting technologies that are covered by this section shall be granted the first option to negotiate with the invention owner, at least in the field of solid-state lighting, nonexclusive licenses and royalties on terms that are reasonable under the circumstances;

(2)(A) that, for 1 year after a United States patent is issued for the invention, the patent holder shall not negotiate any license or royalty with any entity that is not a participant in the Industry Alliance described in paragraph (1); and

(B) that, during the year described in subparagraph (A), the patent holder shall negotiate nonexclusive licenses and royalties in good faith with any interested participant in the Industry Alliance described in paragraph (1); and

(3) such other terms as the Secretary determines are required to promote accelerated commercialization of inventions made under the Initiative.

(i) National Academy review

The Secretary shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct periodic reviews of the Initiative.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §912, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 858.)

§16193. National Building Performance Initiative

(a) Interagency group

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after August 8, 2005, the Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall establish an interagency group to develop, in coordination with the advisory committee established under subsection (e), a National Building Performance Initiative (referred to in this section as the "Initiative").

(2) Cochairs

The interagency group shall be co-chaired by appropriate officials of the Department and the Department of Commerce, who shall jointly arrange for the provision of necessary administrative support to the group.

(b) Integration of efforts

The Initiative shall integrate Federal, State, and voluntary private sector efforts to reduce the costs of construction, operation, maintenance, and renovation of commercial, industrial, institutional, and residential buildings.

(c) Plan

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the interagency group shall submit to Congress a plan for carrying out the appropriate Federal role in the Initiative.

(2) Inclusions

The plan shall include—

(A) research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of energy technology systems and materials for new construction and retrofit relating to the building envelope and building system components;

(B) research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of energy technology and infrastructure enabling the energy efficient, automated operation of buildings and building equipment; and

(C) the collection, analysis, and dissemination of research results and other pertinent information on enhancing building performance to industry, government entities, and the public.

(d) Department of Energy role

Within the Federal portion of the Initiative, the Department shall be the lead agency for all aspects of building performance related to use and conservation of energy.

(e) Advisory committee

The Director of the Office of Science and Technology Policy shall establish an advisory committee to—

(1) analyze and provide recommendations on potential private sector roles and participation in the Initiative; and

(2) review and provide recommendations on the plan described in subsection (c).

(f) Administration

Nothing in this section provides any Federal agency with new authority to regulate building performance.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §913, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 860.)

§16194. Building standards

(a) Definition of high performance building

In this section, the term "high performance building" means a building that integrates and optimizes all major high-performance building attributes, including energy efficiency, durability, life-cycle performance, and occupant productivity.

(b) Assessment

Not later than 120 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall enter into an agreement with the National Institute of Building Sciences to—

(1) conduct an assessment (in cooperation with industry, standards development organizations, and other entities, as appropriate) of whether the current voluntary consensus standards and rating systems for high performance buildings are consistent with the current technological state of the art, including relevant results from the research, development and demonstration activities of the Department;

(2) determine if additional research is required, based on the findings of the assessment; and

(3) recommend steps for the Secretary to accelerate the development of voluntary consensus-based standards for high performance buildings that are based on the findings of the assessment.

(c) Grant and technical assistance program

Consistent with subsection (b) and section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272 note), the Secretary shall establish a grant and technical assistance program to support the development of voluntary consensus-based standards for high performance buildings.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §914, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 861.)

References in Text

Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995, referred to in subsec. (c), is section 12(d) of Pub. L. 104–113, as amended, which is set out as a note under section 272 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

§16195. Secondary electric vehicle battery use program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Battery

The term "battery" means an energy storage device that previously has been used to provide motive power in a vehicle powered in whole or in part by electricity.

(2) Associated equipment

The term "associated equipment" means equipment located where the batteries will be used that is necessary to enable the use of the energy stored in the batteries.

(b) Program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish and conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of energy technology for the secondary use of batteries, if the Secretary finds that there are sufficient numbers of batteries to support the program.

(2) Administration

The program shall be—

(A) designed to demonstrate the use of batteries in secondary applications, including utility and commercial power storage and power quality;

(B) structured to evaluate the performance, including useful service life and costs, of such batteries in field operations, and the necessary supporting infrastructure, including reuse and disposal of batteries; and

(C) coordinated with ongoing secondary battery use programs at the National Laboratories and in industry.

(c) Solicitation

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall solicit proposals to demonstrate the secondary use of batteries and associated equipment and supporting infrastructure in geographic locations throughout the United States.

(2) Additional solicitations

The Secretary may make additional solicitations for proposals if the Secretary determines that the solicitations are necessary to carry out this section.

(d) Selection of proposals

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after the closing date established by the Secretary for receipt of proposals under subsection (c), the Secretary shall select up to five proposals that may receive financial assistance under this section once the Department receives appropriated funds to carry out this section.

(2) Factors

In selecting proposals, the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the diversity of battery type;

(B) geographic and climatic diversity; and

(C) life-cycle environmental effects of the approaches.

(3) Limitation

No one project selected under this section shall receive more than 25 percent of the funds made available to carry out the program under this section.

(4) Non-Federal involvement

In selecting proposals, the Secretary shall consider the extent of involvement of State or local government and other persons in each demonstration project to optimize use of Federal resources.

(5) Other criteria

In selecting proposals, the Secretary may consider such other criteria as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(e) Conditions

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall require that—

(1) relevant information be provided to—

(A) the Department;

(B) the users of the batteries;

(C) the proposers of a project under this section; and

(D) the battery manufacturers; and


(2) the costs of carrying out projects and activities under this section are shared in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §915, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 861.)

§16196. Energy Efficiency Science Initiative

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish an Energy Efficiency Science Initiative to be managed by the Assistant Secretary in the Department with responsibility for energy conservation under section 7133(a)(9) of this title, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Science, for grants to be competitively awarded and subject to peer review for research relating to energy efficiency.

(b) Report

The Secretary shall submit to Congress, along with the annual budget request of the President submitted to Congress, a report on the activities of the Energy Efficiency Science Initiative, including a description of the process used to award the funds and an explanation of how the research relates to energy efficiency.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §916, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 862.)

§16197. Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Centers

(a) Grants

Not later than 18 months after May 8, 2008, the Secretary shall make grants to nonprofit institutions, State and local governments, cooperative extension services, or institutions of higher education (or consortia thereof), to establish a geographically dispersed network of Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Centers, to be located in areas the Secretary determines have the greatest need of the services of such Centers. In making awards under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) give priority to applicants already operating or partnered with an outreach program capable of transferring knowledge and information about advanced energy efficiency methods and technologies;

(2) ensure that, to the extent practicable, the program enables the transfer of knowledge and information—

(A) about a variety of technologies; and

(B) in a variety of geographic areas;


(3) give preference to applicants that would significantly expand on or fill a gap in existing programs in a geographical region; and

(4) consider the special needs and opportunities for increased energy efficiency for manufactured and site-built housing, including construction, renovation, and retrofit.

(b) Activities

Each Center shall operate a program to encourage demonstration and commercial application of advanced energy methods and technologies through education and outreach to building and industrial professionals, and to other individuals and organizations with an interest in efficient energy use. Funds awarded under this section may be used for the following activities:

(1) Developing and distributing informational materials on technologies that could use energy more efficiently.

(2) Carrying out demonstrations of advanced energy methods and technologies.

(3) Developing and conducting seminars, workshops, long-distance learning sessions, and other activities to aid in the dissemination of knowledge and information on technologies that could use energy more efficiently.

(4) Providing or coordinating onsite energy evaluations, including instruction on the commissioning of building heating and cooling systems, for a wide range of energy end-users.

(5) Examining the energy efficiency needs of energy end-users to develop recommended research projects for the Department.

(6) Hiring experts in energy efficient technologies to carry out activities described in paragraphs (1) through (5).

(c) Application

A person seeking a grant under this section shall submit to the Secretary an application in such form and containing such information as the Secretary may require. The Secretary may award a grant under this section to an entity already in existence if the entity is otherwise eligible under this section. The application shall include, at a minimum—

(1) a description of the applicant's outreach program, and the geographic region it would serve, and of why the program would be capable of transferring knowledge and information about advanced energy technologies that increase efficiency of energy use;

(2) a description of the activities the applicant would carry out, of the technologies that would be transferred, and of any other organizations that will help facilitate a regional approach to carrying out those activities;

(3) a description of how the proposed activities would be appropriate to the specific energy needs of the geographic region to be served;

(4) an estimate of the number and types of energy end-users expected to be reached through such activities; and

(5) a description of how the applicant will assess the success of the program.

(d) Selection criteria

The Secretary shall award grants under this section on the basis of the following criteria, at a minimum:

(1) The ability of the applicant to carry out the proposed activities.

(2) The extent to which the applicant will coordinate the activities of the Center with other entities as appropriate, such as State and local governments, utilities, institutions of higher education, and National Laboratories.

(3) The appropriateness of the applicant's outreach program for carrying out the program described in this section.

(4) The likelihood that proposed activities could be expanded or used as a model for other areas.

(e) Cost-sharing

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall require cost-sharing in accordance with the requirements of section 16352 of this title for commercial application activities.

(f) Duration

(1) Initial grant period

A grant awarded under this section shall be for a period of 5 years.

(2) Initial evaluation

Each grantee under this section shall be evaluated during its third year of operation under procedures established by the Secretary to determine if the grantee is accomplishing the purposes of this section described in subsection (a). The Secretary shall terminate any grant that does not receive a positive evaluation. If an evaluation is positive, the Secretary may extend the grant for 3 additional years beyond the original term of the grant.

(3) Additional extension

If a grantee receives an extension under paragraph (2), the grantee shall be evaluated again during the second year of the extension. The Secretary shall terminate any grant that does not receive a positive evaluation. If an evaluation is positive, the Secretary may extend the grant for a final additional period of 3 additional years beyond the original extension.

(4) Limitation

No grantee may receive more than 11 years of support under this section without reapplying for support and competing against all other applicants seeking a grant at that time.

(g) Prohibition

None of the funds awarded under this section may be used for the construction of facilities.

(h) Definitions

For purposes of this section:

(1) Advanced energy methods and technologies

The term "advanced energy methods and technologies" means all methods and technologies that promote energy efficiency and conservation, including distributed generation technologies, and life-cycle analysis of energy use.

(2) Center

The term "Center" means an Advanced Energy Technology Transfer Center established pursuant to this section.

(3) Distributed generation

The term "distributed generation" means an electric power generation technology, including photovoltaic, small wind, and micro-combined heat and power, that serves electric consumers at or near the site of production.

(4) Cooperative Extension

The term "Cooperative Extension" means the extension services established at the land-grant colleges and universities under the Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914 [7 U.S.C. 341 et seq.].

(5) Land-grant colleges and universities

The term "land-grant colleges and universities" means—

(A) 1862 Institutions (as defined in section 7601 of title 7);

(B) 1890 Institutions (as defined in section 7601 of title 7); and

(C) 1994 Institutions (as defined in section 7601 of title 7).

(i) Authorization of appropriations

In addition to amounts otherwise authorized to be appropriated in section 16191 of this title, there are authorized to be appropriated for the program under this section such sums as may be appropriated.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §917, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 863; Pub. L. 110–229, title VI, §601, May 8, 2008, 122 Stat. 850.)

References in Text

The Smith-Lever Act of May 8, 1914, referred to in subsec. (h)(4), is act May 8, 1914, ch. 79, 38 Stat. 372, which is classified generally to subchapter IV (§341 et seq.) of chapter 13 of Title 7, Agriculture. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 341 of Title 7 and Tables.

Codification

May 8, 2008, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "the date of enactment of the National Forests, Parks, Public Land, and Reclamation Projects Authorization Act of 2008" and was translated as meaning the date of enactment of the Consolidated Natural Resources Act of 2008, Pub. L. 110–229, which amended this section generally, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. The National Forests, Parks, Public Land, and Reclamation Projects Authorization Act of 2008, was S. 2616, 110th Congress, introduced in the Senate on Feb. 8, 2008, with action thereon indefinitely postponed. The provisions of section 601 of that bill generally amended section 917 of Pub. L. 109–58 (this section) and was a predecessor version of section 601 of Pub. L. 109–229.

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–229 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to grants for the establishment of a network of Advanced Energy Efficiency Technology Transfer Centers.

§16198. Smart energy and water efficiency pilot program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) a utility;

(B) a municipality;

(C) a water district;

(D) an Indian Tribe or Alaska Native village; and

(E) any other authority that provides water, wastewater, or water reuse services.

(2) Smart energy and water efficiency pilot program

The term "smart energy and water efficiency pilot program" or "pilot program" means the pilot program established under subsection (b).

(b) Smart energy and water efficiency pilot program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish and carry out a smart energy and water efficiency pilot program in accordance with this section.

(2) Purpose

The purpose of the smart energy and water efficiency pilot program is to award grants to eligible entities to demonstrate unique, advanced, or innovative technology-based solutions that will—

(A) improve the net energy balance of water, wastewater, and water reuse systems;

(B) improve the net energy balance of water, wastewater, and water reuse systems to help communities across the United States make measurable progress in conserving water, saving energy, and reducing costs;

(C) support the implementation of innovative and unique processes and the installation of established advanced automated systems that provide real-time data on energy and water; and

(D) improve energy-water conservation and quality and predictive maintenance through technologies that utilize internet connected technologies, including sensors, intelligent gateways, and security embedded in hardware.

(3) Project selection

(A) In general

The Secretary shall make competitive, merit-reviewed grants under the pilot program to not less than 3, but not more than 5, eligible entities.

(B) Selection criteria

In selecting an eligible entity to receive a grant under the pilot program, the Secretary shall consider—

(i) energy and cost savings;

(ii) the uniqueness, commercial viability, and reliability of the technology to be used;

(iii) the degree to which the project integrates next-generation sensors software, analytics, and management tools;

(iv) the anticipated cost-effectiveness of the pilot project through measurable energy savings, water savings or reuse, and infrastructure costs averted;

(v) whether the technology can be deployed in a variety of geographic regions and the degree to which the technology can be implemented in a wide range of applications ranging in scale from small towns to large cities, including Tribal communities;

(vi) whether the technology has been successfully deployed elsewhere;

(vii) whether the technology was sourced from a manufacturer based in the United States; and

(viii) whether the project will be completed in 5 years or less.

(C) Applications

(i) In general

Subject to clause (ii), an eligible entity seeking a grant under the pilot program shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary determines to be necessary.

(ii) Contents

An application under clause (i) shall, at a minimum, include—

(I) a description of the project;

(II) a description of the technology to be used in the project;

(III) the anticipated results, including energy and water savings, of the project;

(IV) a comprehensive budget for the project;

(V) the names of the project lead organization and any partners;

(VI) the number of users to be served by the project;

(VII) a description of the ways in which the proposal would meet performance measures established by the Secretary; and

(VIII) any other information that the Secretary determines to be necessary to complete the review and selection of a grant recipient.

(4) Administration

(A) In general

Not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall select grant recipients under this section.

(B) Evaluations

(i) Annual evaluations

The Secretary shall annually carry out an evaluation of each project for which a grant is provided under this section that meets performance measures and benchmarks developed by the Secretary, consistent with the purposes of this section.

(ii) Requirements

Consistent with the performance measures and benchmarks developed under clause (i), in carrying out an evaluation under that clause, the Secretary shall—

(I) evaluate the progress and impact of the project; and

(II) assess the degree to which the project is meeting the goals of the pilot program.

(C) Technical and policy assistance

On the request of a grant recipient, the Secretary shall provide technical and policy assistance.

(D) Best practices

The Secretary shall make available to the public through the Internet and other means the Secretary considers to be appropriate—

(i) a copy of each evaluation carried out under subparagraph (B); and

(ii) a description of any best practices identified by the Secretary as a result of those evaluations.

(E) Report to Congress

The Secretary shall submit to Congress a report containing the results of each evaluation carried out under subparagraph (B).

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $15,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §918, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title I, §1014(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2451.)

Part B—Distributed Energy and Electric Energy Systems

§16211. Distributed energy and electric energy systems

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out programs of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on distributed energy resources and systems reliability and efficiency, to improve the reliability and efficiency of distributed energy resources and systems, integrating advanced energy technologies with grid connectivity, including activities described in this part. The programs shall address advanced energy technologies and systems and advanced grid reliability technologies.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

(1) Distributed energy and electric energy systems activities

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out distributed energy and electric energy systems activities, including activities authorized under this part—

(A) $240,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $255,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) $273,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(2) Power delivery research initiative

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the Power Delivery Research Initiative under subsection 1 16215(e) of this title such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(c) Micro-cogeneration energy technology

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008 shall be available to carry out activities under section 16213 of this title.

(d) High-voltage transmission lines

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), $2,000,000 for fiscal year 2007 shall be available to carry out activities under section 16215(g) of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §921, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 864.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§16212. High power density industry program

(a) In general

The Secretary shall establish a comprehensive research, development, demonstration, and commercial application to improve the energy efficiency of high power density facilities, including data centers, server farms, and telecommunications facilities.

(b) Technologies

The program shall consider technologies that provide significant improvement in thermal controls, metering, load management, peak load reduction, or the efficient cooling of electronics.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §922, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 864.)

§16213. Micro-cogeneration energy technology

(a) In general

The Secretary shall make competitive, merit-based grants to consortia for the development of micro-cogeneration energy technology.

(b) Uses

The consortia shall explore—

(1) the use of small-scale combined heat and power in residential heating appliances;

(2) the use of excess power to operate other appliances within the residence; and

(3) the supply of excess generated power to the power grid.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §923, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 865.)

§16214. Distributed energy technology demonstration programs

(a) Coordinating consortia program

The Secretary may provide financial assistance to coordinating consortia of interdisciplinary participants for demonstrations designed to accelerate the use of distributed energy technologies (such as fuel cells, microturbines, reciprocating engines, thermally activated technologies, and combined heat and power systems) in high-energy intensive commercial applications.

(b) Small-scale portable power program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall—

(A) establish a research, development, and demonstration program to develop working models of small scale portable power devices; and

(B) to the fullest extent practicable, identify and utilize the resources of universities that have shown expertise with respect to advanced portable power devices for either civilian or military use.

(2) Organization

The universities identified and utilized under paragraph (1)(B) are authorized to establish an organization to promote small scale portable power devices.

(3) Definition

For purposes of this subsection, the term "small scale portable power device" means a field-deployable portable mechanical or electromechanical device that can be used for applications such as communications, computation, mobility enhancement, weapons systems, optical devices, cooling, sensors, medical devices, and active biological agent detection systems.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §924, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 865.)

§16215. Electric transmission and distribution programs

(a) Program

The Secretary shall establish a comprehensive research, development, and demonstration program to ensure the reliability, efficiency, and environmental integrity of electrical transmission and distribution systems, which shall include—

(1) advanced energy delivery technologies, energy storage technologies, materials, and systems, giving priority to new transmission technologies, including composite conductor materials and other technologies that enhance reliability, operational flexibility, or power-carrying capability;

(2) advanced grid reliability and efficiency technology development;

(3) technologies contributing to significant load reductions;

(4) advanced metering, load management, and control technologies;

(5) technologies to enhance existing grid components;

(6) the development and use of high-temperature superconductors to—

(A) enhance the reliability, operational flexibility, or power-carrying capability of electric transmission or distribution systems; or

(B) increase the efficiency of electric energy generation, transmission, distribution, or storage systems;


(7) integration of power systems, including systems to deliver high-quality electric power, electric power reliability, and combined heat and power;

(8) supply of electricity to the power grid by small scale, distributed and residential-based power generators;

(9) the development and use of advanced grid design, operation, and planning tools;

(10) the development of cost-effective technologies that enable two-way information and power flow between distributed energy resources and the electric grid;

(11) the development of technologies and concepts that enable interoperability between distributed energy resources and other behind-the-meter devices and the electric grid;

(12) any other infrastructure technologies, as appropriate; and

(13) technology transfer and education.

(b) Program plan

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, shall prepare and submit to Congress a 5-year program plan to guide activities under this section.

(2) Consultation

In preparing the program plan, the Secretary shall consult with—

(A) utilities;

(B) energy service providers;

(C) manufacturers;

(D) institutions of higher education;

(E) other appropriate State and local agencies;

(F) environmental organizations;

(G) professional and technical societies; and

(H) any other persons the Secretary considers appropriate.

(c) Implementation

The Secretary shall consider implementing the program under this section using a consortium of participants from industry, institutions of higher education, and National Laboratories.

(d) Report

Not later than 2 years after the submission of the plan under subsection (b), the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report—

(1) describing the progress made under this section; and

(2) identifying any additional resources needed to continue the development and commercial application of transmission and distribution of infrastructure technologies.

(e) Power delivery research initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a research, development, and demonstration initiative specifically focused on power delivery using components incorporating high temperature superconductivity.

(2) Goals

The goals of the Initiative shall be—

(A) to establish world-class facilities to develop high temperature superconductivity power applications in partnership with manufacturers and utilities;

(B) to provide technical leadership for establishing reliability for high temperature superconductivity power applications, including suitable modeling and analysis;

(C) to facilitate the commercial transition toward direct current power transmission, storage, and use for high power systems using high temperature superconductivity; and

(D) to facilitate the integration of very low impedance high temperature superconducting wires and cables in existing electric networks to improve system performance, power flow control, and reliability.

(3) Inclusions

The Initiative shall include—

(A) feasibility analysis, planning, research, and design to construct demonstrations of superconducting links in high power, direct current, and controllable alternating current transmission systems;

(B) public-private partnerships to demonstrate deployment of high temperature superconducting cable into testbeds simulating a realistic transmission grid and under varying transmission conditions, including actual grid insertions; and

(C) testbeds developed in cooperation with National Laboratories, industries, and institutions of higher education to—

(i) demonstrate those technologies;

(ii) prepare the technologies for commercial introduction; and

(iii) address cost or performance roadblocks to successful commercial use.

(f) Transmission and distribution grid planning and operations initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a research, development, and demonstration initiative specifically focused on tools needed to plan, operate, and expand the transmission and distribution grids in the presence of competitive market mechanisms for energy, load demand, customer response, and ancillary services.

(2) Goals

The goals of the Initiative shall be—

(A)(i) to develop and use a geographically distributed center, consisting of institutions of higher education, and National Laboratories, with expertise and facilities to develop the underlying theory and software for power system application; and

(ii) to ensure commercial development in partnership with software vendors and utilities;

(B) to provide technical leadership in engineering and economic analysis for the reliability and efficiency of power systems planning and operations in the presence of competitive markets for electricity;

(C) to model, simulate, and experiment with new market mechanisms and operating practices to understand and optimize those new methods before actual use; and

(D) to provide technical support and technology transfer to electric utilities and other participants in the domestic electric industry and marketplace.

(g) High-voltage transmission lines

As part of the program described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall award a grant to a university research program to design and test, in consultation with the Tennessee Valley Authority, state-of-the-art optimization techniques for power flow through existing high voltage transmission lines.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §925, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 865; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title VIII, §8004(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2583.)

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (a)(10) to (13). Pub. L. 116–260 added pars. (10) and (11) and redesignated former pars. (10) and (11) as (12) and (13), respectively.

Coordination of Efforts

Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title VIII, §8006, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2586, provided that: "In carrying out the amendments made by this title [enacting sections 16236, 17014, 17384a, 17387, and 17388 of this title and amending this section, section 17384 of this title and sections 3501 and 3502 of Title 25, Indians], the Secretary [probably means Secretary of Energy] shall coordinate with relevant entities to the maximum extent practicable, including—

"(1) electric utilities;

"(2) private sector entities;

"(3) representatives of all sectors of the electric power industry;

"(4) transmission organizations;

"(5) transmission owners and operators;

"(6) distribution organizations;

"(7) distribution asset owners and operators;

"(8) State, Tribal, local, and territorial governments and regulatory authorities;

"(9) academic institutions;

"(10) the National Laboratories;

"(11) other Federal agencies;

"(12) nonprofit organizations;

"(13) the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission;

"(14) the North American Reliability Corporation;

"(15) independent system operators; and

"(16) programs and program offices at the Department."

Part C—Renewable Energy

§16231. Renewable energy

(a) In general

(1) Objectives

The Secretary shall conduct programs of renewable energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application, including activities described in this part. Such programs shall take into consideration the following objectives:

(A) Increasing the conversion efficiency of all forms of renewable energy through improved technologies.

(B) Decreasing the cost of renewable energy generation and delivery.

(C) Promoting the diversity of the energy supply.

(D) Decreasing the dependence of the United States on foreign energy supplies.

(E) Improving United States energy security.

(F) Decreasing the environmental impact of energy-related activities.

(G) Increasing the export of renewable generation equipment from the United States.

(2) Programs

(A) Geothermal

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for geothermal energy. The program shall focus on developing improved technologies for reducing the costs of geothermal energy installations, including technologies for—

(i) improving detection of geothermal resources;

(ii) decreasing drilling costs;

(iii) decreasing maintenance costs through improved materials;

(iv) increasing the potential for other revenue sources, such as mineral production; and

(v) increasing the understanding of reservoir life cycle and management.

(B) Hydropower

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for cost competitive technologies that enable the development of new and incremental hydropower capacity, adding to the diversity of the energy supply of the United States, including:

(i) Fish-friendly large turbines.

(ii) Advanced technologies to enhance environmental performance and yield greater energy efficiencies.

(C) Miscellaneous projects

The Secretary shall conduct research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs for—

(i) ocean energy, including wave energy;

(ii) the combined use of renewable energy technologies with one another and with other energy technologies, including the combined use of wind power and coal gasification technologies;

(iii) renewable energy technologies for cogeneration of hydrogen and electricity; and

(iv) kinetic hydro turbines.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out renewable energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities, including activities authorized under this part—

(1) $632,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(2) $743,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(3) $852,000,000 for fiscal year 2009; and

(4) $963,000,000 for fiscal year 2010.

(c) Bioenergy

From the amounts authorized under subsection (b), there are authorized to be appropriated to carry out section 16232 of this title

(1) $213,000,000 for fiscal year 2007, of which $100,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title;

(2) $377,000,000 for fiscal year 2008, of which $125,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title;

(3) $398,000,000 for fiscal year 2009, of which $150,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title; and

(4) $419,000,000 for fiscal year 2010, of which $150,000,000 shall be for section 16232(d) of this title.

(d) Administration

Of the funds authorized under subsection (c), not less than $5,000,000 for each fiscal year shall be made available for grants to—

(1) part B institutions;

(2) Tribal Colleges or Universities (as defined in section 1059c(b) of title 20); and

(3) Hispanic-serving institutions.

(e) Rural demonstration projects

In carrying out this section, the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall demonstrate the use of renewable energy technologies to assist in delivering electricity to rural and remote locations including —

(1) advanced wind power technology, including combined use with coal gasification;

(2) biomass; and

(3) geothermal energy systems.

(f) Analysis and evaluation

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct analysis and evaluation in support of the renewable energy programs under this part. These activities shall be used to guide budget and program decisions, and shall include—

(A) economic and technical analysis of renewable energy potential, including resource assessment;

(B) analysis of past program performance, both in terms of technical advances and in market introduction of renewable energy; and

(C) any other analysis or evaluation that the Secretary considers appropriate.

(2) Funding

The Secretary may designate up to 1 percent of the funds appropriated for carrying out this part for analysis and evaluation activities under this subsection.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §931, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 868; Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §231, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1536; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3006(b)(3), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2512.)

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 116–260, §3006(b)(3)(A)(i), (ii), redesignated subpars. (C) to (E) as (A) to (C), respectively, and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which related to solar and wind energy programs.

Subsec. (d) to (g). Pub. L. 116–260, §3006(b)(3)(B), (C), redesignated subsecs. (e) to (g) as (d) to (f), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (d) which related to solar power.

2007—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–140, §231(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 110–140, §231(2), in par. (2), substituted "$377,000,000" for "$251,000,000", in par. (3), substituted "$398,000,000" for "$274,000,000", and added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§16232. Bioenergy program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Biomass

The term "biomass" means—

(A) any organic material grown for the purpose of being converted to energy;

(B) any organic byproduct of agriculture (including wastes from food production and processing) that can be converted into energy; or

(C) any waste material that can be converted to energy, is segregated from other waste materials, and is derived from—

(i) any of the following forest-related resources: mill residues, precommercial thinnings, slash, brush, or otherwise nonmerchantable material; or

(ii) wood waste materials, including waste pallets, crates, dunnage, manufacturing and construction wood wastes (other than pressure-treated, chemically-treated, or painted wood wastes), and landscape or right-of-way tree trimmings, but not including municipal solid waste, gas derived from the biodegradation of municipal solid waste, or paper that is commonly recycled.

(2) Lignocellulosic feedstock

The term "lignocellulosic feedstock" means any portion of a plant or coproduct from conversion, including crops, trees, forest residues, and agricultural residues not specifically grown for food, including from barley grain, grapeseed, rice bran, rice hulls, rice straw, soybean matter, and sugarcane bagasse.

(b) Program

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for bioenergy, including—

(1) biopower energy systems;

(2) biofuels;

(3) bioproducts;

(4) integrated biorefineries that may produce biopower, biofuels, and bioproducts;

(5) cross-cutting research and development in feedstocks; and

(6) economic analysis.

(c) Biofuels and bioproducts

The goals of the biofuels and bioproducts programs shall be to develop, in partnership with industry and institutions of higher education—

(1) advanced biochemical and thermochemical conversion technologies capable of making fuels from lignocellulosic feedstocks that are price-competitive with gasoline or diesel in either internal combustion engines or fuel cell-powered vehicles;

(2) advanced biotechnology processes capable of making biofuels and bioproducts with emphasis on development of biorefinery technologies using enzyme-based processing systems;

(3) advanced biotechnology processes capable of increasing energy production from lignocellulosic feedstocks, with emphasis on reducing the dependence of industry on fossil fuels in manufacturing facilities; and

(4) other advanced processes that will enable the development of cost-effective bioproducts, including biofuels.

(d) Integrated biorefinery demonstration projects

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program to demonstrate the commercial application of integrated biorefineries. The Secretary shall ensure geographical distribution of biorefinery demonstrations under this subsection. The Secretary shall not provide more than $100,000,000 under this subsection for any single biorefinery demonstration. In making awards under this subsection, the Secretary shall encourage—

(A) the demonstration of a wide variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks;

(B) the commercial application of biomass technologies for a variety of uses, including—

(i) liquid transportation fuels;

(ii) high-value biobased chemicals;

(iii) substitutes for petroleum-based feedstocks and products; and

(iv) energy in the form of electricity or useful heat; and


(C) the demonstration of the collection and treatment of a variety of biomass feedstocks.

(2) Proposals

Not later than 6 months after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall solicit proposals for demonstration of advanced biorefineries. The Secretary shall select only proposals that—

(A) demonstrate that the project will be able to operate profitably without direct Federal subsidy after initial construction costs are paid; and

(B) enable the biorefinery to be easily replicated.

(e) University biodiesel program

The Secretary shall establish a demonstration program to determine the feasibility of the operation of diesel electric power generators, using biodiesel fuels with ratings as high as B100, at electric generation facilities owned by institutions of higher education. The program shall examine—

(1) heat rates of diesel fuels with large quantities of cellulosic content;

(2) the reliability of operation of various fuel blends;

(3) performance in cold or freezing weather;

(4) stability of fuel after extended storage; and

(5) other criteria, as determined by the Secretary.

(g) 1 Biorefinery energy efficiency

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application for increasing energy efficiency and reducing energy consumption in the operation of biorefinery facilities.

(h) Retrofit technologies for the development of ethanol from cellulosic materials

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on technologies and processes to enable biorefineries that exclusively use corn grain or corn starch as a feedstock to produce ethanol to be retrofitted to accept a range of biomass, including lignocellulosic feedstocks.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §932, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 870; Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §224, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1533.)

Amendments

2007—Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 110–140 added subsecs. (g) and (h).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original. No subsec. (f) has been enacted.

§16233. Low-cost renewable hydrogen and infrastructure for vehicle propulsion

The Secretary shall—

(1) establish a research, development, and demonstration program to determine the feasibility of using hydrogen propulsion in light-weight vehicles and the integration of the associated hydrogen production infrastructure using off-the-shelf components; and

(2) identify universities and institutions that—

(A) have expertise in researching and testing vehicles fueled by hydrogen, methane, and other fuels;

(B) have expertise in integrating off-the-shelf components to minimize cost; and

(C) within 2 years can test a vehicle based on an existing commercially available platform with a curb weight of not less than 2,000 pounds before modifications, that—

(i) operates solely on hydrogen;

(ii) qualifies as a light-duty passenger vehicle; and

(iii) uses hydrogen produced from water using only solar energy.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §933, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 872.)

§16234. Concentrating solar power research program

(a) In general

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research and development to evaluate the potential for concentrating solar power for hydrogen production, including cogeneration approaches for both hydrogen and electricity.

(b) Administration

The program shall take advantage of existing facilities to the extent practicable and shall include—

(1) development of optimized technologies that are common to both electricity and hydrogen production;

(2) evaluation of thermochemical cycles for hydrogen production at the temperatures attainable with concentrating solar power;

(3) evaluation of materials issues for the thermochemical cycles described in paragraph (2);

(4) cogeneration of solar thermal electric power and photo-synthetic-based hydrogen production;

(5) system architectures and economics studies; and

(6) coordination with activities under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant Project established under part B of subchapter VI on high temperature materials, thermochemical cycles, and economic issues.

(c) Assessment

In carrying out the program under this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) assess conflicting guidance on the economic potential of concentrating solar power for electricity production received from the National Research Council in the report entitled "Renewable Power Pathways: A Review of the U.S. Department of Energy's Renewable Energy Programs" and dated 2000 and subsequent reviews of that report funded by the Department; and

(2) provide an assessment of the potential impact of technology used to concentrate solar power for electricity before, or concurrent with, submission of the budget for fiscal year 2008.

(d) Report

Not later than 5 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall provide to Congress a report on the economic and technical potential for electricity or hydrogen production, with or without cogeneration, with concentrating solar power, including the economic and technical feasibility of potential construction of a pilot demonstration facility suitable for commercial production of electricity or hydrogen from concentrating solar power.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §934, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 872.)

§16235. Renewable energy in public buildings

(a) Demonstration and technology transfer program

The Secretary shall establish a program for the demonstration of innovative technologies for solar and other renewable energy sources in buildings owned or operated by a State or local government, and for the dissemination of information resulting from such demonstration to interested parties.

(b) Limit on Federal funding

Notwithstanding section 16352 of this title, the Secretary shall provide under this section no more than 40 percent of the incremental costs of the solar or other renewable energy source project funded.

(c) Requirements

As part of the application for awards under this section, the Secretary shall require all applicants—

(1) to demonstrate a continuing commitment to the use of solar and other renewable energy sources in buildings they own or operate; and

(2) to state how they expect any award to further their transition to the significant use of renewable energy.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §935, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 873.)

§16236. Research and development into integrating renewable energy onto the electric grid

(a) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall establish a research, development, and demonstration program on technologies that enable integration of renewable energy generation sources onto the electric grid across multiple program offices of the Department. The program shall include—

(1) forecasting for predicting generation from variable renewable energy sources;

(2) development of cost-effective low-loss, long-distance transmission lines; and

(3) development of cost-effective advanced technologies for variable renewable generation sources to provide grid services.

(b) Coordination

In carrying out this program, the Secretary shall coordinate across all relevant program offices at the Department to achieve the goals established in this section, including the Office of Electricity.

(c) Adoption of technologies

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall consider barriers to adoption and commercial application of technologies that enable integration of renewable energy sources onto the electric grid, including cost and other economic barriers, and shall coordinate with relevant entities to reduce these barriers.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §936, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title VIII, §8004(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2583.)

§16237. Wind energy research and development

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Critical material

The term "critical material" has the meaning given the term in section 1606 of title 30.

(2) Economically distressed area

The term "economically distressed area" means an area described in section 3161(a) of this title.

(3) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) an institution of higher education, including a minority-serving institution;

(B) a National Laboratory;

(C) a Federal research agency;

(D) a State research agency;

(E) a research agency associated with a territory or freely associated state;

(F) a Tribal energy development organization;

(G) an Indian Tribe;

(H) a Tribal organization;

(I) a Native Hawaiian community-based organization;

(J) a nonprofit research organization;

(K) an industrial entity;

(L) any other entity, as determined by the Secretary; and

(M) a consortium of 2 or more entities described in subparagraphs (A) through (L).

(4) Indian Tribe

The term "Indian Tribe" has the meaning given the term in section 5304 of title 25.

(5) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" means—

(A) an institution of higher education (as defined in section 1001(a) of title 20); or

(B) a postsecondary vocational institution (as defined in section 1002(c) of title 20).

(6) Minority serving institution

The term "minority-serving institution" has the meaning given the term "eligible institution" in section 1067q(a) of title 20.

(7) National Laboratory

The term "National Laboratory" has the meaning given such term in section 15801(3) of this title.

(8) Native Hawaiian community-based organization

The term "Native Hawaiian community-based organization" has the meaning given the term in section 7517 of title 20.

(9) Program

The term "program" means the program established under subsection (b)(1).

(10) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(11) Territory or freely associated state

The term "territory or freely associated state" has the meaning given the term "insular area" in section 3103 of title 7.

(12) Tribal energy development organization

The term "Tribal energy development organization" has the meaning given the term "tribal energy development organization" in section 3501 of title 25.

(13) Tribal organization

The term "Tribal organization" has the meaning given the term in section 5304 of title 25.

(b) Wind energy technology program

(1) Establishment

(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program to conduct research, development, demonstration, and commercialization of wind energy technologies in accordance with this subsection.

(B) Purposes

The purposes of the program are the following:

(i) To improve the energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, reliability, resilience, security, siting, integration, manufacturability, installation, decommissioning, and recyclability of wind energy technologies.

(ii) To optimize the performance and operation of wind energy components, turbines, and systems, including through the development of new materials, hardware, and software.

(iii) To optimize the design and adaptability of wind energy technologies to the broadest practical range of geographic, atmospheric, offshore, and other site conditions, including—

(I) at varying hub heights; and

(II) through the use of computer modeling.


(iv) To support the integration of wind energy technologies with the electric grid and other energy technologies and systems.

(v) To reduce the cost, risk, and other potential negative impacts across the lifespan of wind energy technologies, including—

(I) manufacturing, siting, permitting, installation, operations, maintenance, decommissioning, and recycling; and

(II) through the development of solutions to transportation barriers to wind components.


(vi) To reduce and mitigate potential negative impacts of wind energy technologies on human communities, the environment, or commerce.

(vii) To address barriers to the commercialization and export of wind energy technologies.

(viii) To support the domestic wind industry, workforce, and supply chain.

(C) Targets

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall establish targets for the program relating to near-term (up to 2 years), mid-term (up to 7 years), and long-term (up to 15 years) challenges to the advancement of wind energy technologies, including onshore, offshore, distributed, and off-grid technologies.

(2) Activities

(A) Types of activities

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall carry out research, development, demonstration, and commercialization activities, including—

(i) awarding grants and awards, on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis;

(ii) performing precompetitive research and development;

(iii) establishing or maintaining demonstration facilities and projects, including through stewardship of existing facilities such as the National Wind Test Center;

(iv) providing technical assistance;

(v) entering into contracts and cooperative agreements;

(vi) providing small business vouchers;

(vii) establishing prize competitions;

(viii) conducting education and outreach activities;

(ix) conducting professional development activities; and

(x) conducting analyses, studies, and reports.

(B) Subject areas

The Secretary shall carry out research, development, demonstration, and commercialization activities in the following subject areas:

(i) Wind power plant siting, performance, operations, and security.

(ii) New materials and designs relating to all hardware, software, and components of wind energy technologies, including technologies and strategies that reduce the use of energy, water, critical materials, and other commodities that are determined to be vulnerable to disruption.

(iii) Advanced wind energy manufacturing and installation technologies and practices, including materials, processes, such as onsite or near site manufacturing, and design.

(iv) Offshore wind-specific projects and plants, including—

(I) fixed and floating substructure systems, materials, and components;

(II) the operation of offshore facilities, such as—

(aa) an offshore research facility to conduct research for oceanic, biological, geological, and atmospheric resource characterization relevant to offshore wind energy development in coordination with the ocean and atmospheric science communities; and

(bb) an offshore support structure testing facility to conduct development, demonstration, and commercialization of large-scale and full-scale offshore wind energy support structure components and systems;


(III) the monitoring and analysis of site and environmental considerations unique to offshore sites, including freshwater environments.


(v) Integration of wind energy technologies with—

(I) the electric grid, including transmission, distribution, microgrids, and distributed energy systems; and

(II) other energy technologies, including—

(aa) other generation sources;

(bb) demand response technologies; and

(cc) energy storage technologies.


(vi) Methods to improve the lifetime, maintenance, decommissioning, recycling, reuse, and sustainability of wind energy components and systems, including technologies and strategies to reduce the use of energy, water, critical materials, and other valuable or harmful inputs.

(vii) Wind power forecasting and atmospheric measurement systems, including for turbines and plant systems of varying height.

(viii) Integrated wind energy systems, grid-connected and off-grid, that incorporate diverse—

(I) generation sources;

(II) loads; and

(III) storage technologies.


(ix) Reducing market barriers, including non-hardware and information-based barriers, to the adoption of wind energy technologies, such as impacts on, or challenges relating to—

(I) distributed wind technologies, including the development of best practices, models, and voluntary streamlined processes for local siting and permitting of distributed wind energy systems to reduce costs;

(II) airspace;

(III) military operations;

(IV) radar;

(V) local communities, with special consideration given to economically distressed areas, previously disturbed lands such as landfills and former mines, and other areas disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution;

(VI) wildlife and wildlife habitats; and

(VII) any other appropriate matter, as determined by the Secretary.


(x) Technologies or strategies to avoid, minimize, and offset the potential impacts of wind energy facilities on bird species, bat species, marine wildlife, and other sensitive species and habitats.

(xi) Advanced physics-based and data analysis computational tools, in coordination with the high-performance computing programs of the Department, to more efficiently design, site, permit, manufacture, install, operate, decommission, and recycle wind energy systems.

(xii) Technologies for distributed wind, including micro, small, and medium turbines and the components of those turbines and their microgrid applications.

(xiii) Transformational technologies for harnessing wind energy.

(xiv) Other research areas that advance the purposes of the program, as determined by the Secretary.

(C) Prioritization

In carrying out activities under the program, the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, give special consideration to—

(i) projects that—

(I) are located in a geographically diverse range of eligible entities;

(II) support the development or demonstration of projects—

(aa) in economically distressed areas and areas disproportionately impacted by pollution; and

(bb) that provide the greatest potential to reduce energy costs, as well as promote accessibility and community implementation of demonstrated technologies;


(III) can be replicated in a variety of regions and climates;

(IV) include business commercialization plans that have the potential for—

(aa) domestic manufacturing and production of wind energy technologies; or

(bb) exports of wind energy technologies; and


(V) are carried out in collaboration with Tribal energy development organizations, Indian Tribes, Tribal organizations, Native Hawaiian community-based organizations, minority-serving institutions, or territories or freely associated States; and


(ii) with regards to professional development, activities that expand the number of individuals from underrepresented groups pursuing and attaining skills relevant to wind energy.

(D) Coordination

To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall coordinate activities under the program with other relevant programs and capabilities of the Department and other Federal research programs.

(E) Use of funds

To the extent that funding is not otherwise available through other Federal programs or power purchase agreements, funding awarded for demonstration projects may be used for additional nontechnology costs, as determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, such as engineering or feasibility studies.

(F) Solicitation

Not less than once every two years, the Secretary shall conduct a national solicitation for applications for demonstration projects under this section.

(G) Report

(i) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report on the potential for, and technical viability of, airborne wind energy systems to provide a significant source of energy in the United States.

(ii) Contents

The report under paragraph (1) shall include a summary of research, development, demonstration, and commercialization needs, including an estimate of Federal funding requirements, to further examine and validate the technical and economic viability of airborne wind energy concepts over the 10-year period beginning on December 27, 2020.

(3) Wind technician training grant program

The Secretary may award grants, on a competitive basis, to eligible entities to purchase large pieces of wind component equipment, such as nacelles, towers, and blades, for use in training wind technician students in onshore or offshore wind applications.

(4) Wind energy technology recycling research, development, and demonstration program

(A) In general

In addition to the program activities described in paragraph (2), in carrying out the program, the Secretary shall award financial assistance to eligible entities for research, development, and demonstration, and commercialization projects to create innovative and practical approaches to increase the reuse and recycling of wind energy technologies, including—

(i) by increasing the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the recovery of raw materials from wind energy technology components and systems, including enabling technologies such as inverters;

(ii) by minimizing potential environmental impacts from the recovery and disposal processes;

(iii) by advancing technologies and processes for the disassembly and recycling of wind energy devices;

(iv) by developing alternative materials, designs, manufacturing processes, and other aspects of wind energy technologies and the disassembly and resource recovery process that enable efficient, cost effective, and environmentally responsible disassembly of, and resource recovery from, wind energy technologies; and

(v) strategies to increase consumer acceptance of, and participation in, the recycling of wind energy technologies.

(B) Dissemination of results

The Secretary shall make available to the public and the relevant committees of Congress the results of the projects carried out through financial assistance awarded under subparagraph (A), including—

(i) development of best practices or training materials for use in the wind energy technology manufacturing, design, installation, decommissioning, or recycling industries;

(ii) dissemination at industry conferences;

(iii) coordination with information dissemination programs relating to recycling of electronic devices in general;

(iv) demonstration projects; and

(v) educational materials.

(C) Priority

In carrying out the activities authorized under this subsection, the Secretary shall give special consideration to projects that recover critical materials.

(D) Sensitive information

In carrying out the activities authorized under this subsection, the Secretary shall ensure proper security controls are in place to protect proprietary or sensitive information, as appropriate.

(5) Wind energy technology materials physical property database

(A) In general

Not later than September 1, 2022, the Secretary shall establish a comprehensive physical property database of materials for use in wind energy technologies, which shall identify the type, quantity, country of origin, source, significant uses, projected availability, and physical properties of materials used in wind energy technologies.

(B) Coordination

In establishing the database described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall coordinate and, to the extent practicable, avoid duplication with—

(i) other Department activities, including those carried out by the Office of Science;

(ii) the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology;

(iii) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency;

(iv) the Secretary of the Interior; and

(v) relevant industry stakeholders, as determined by the Secretary.

(6) Wind energy program strategic vision

(A) In general

Not later than September 1, 2022, and every 6 years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the strategic vision, progress, goals, and targets of the program, including assessments of wind energy markets and manufacturing.

(B) Preparation

The Secretary shall coordinate the preparation of the report under subparagraph (A) with—

(i) existing peer review processes;

(ii) studies conducted by the National Laboratories; and

(iii) the multiyear program planning required under section 16358 of this title.

(7) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program $125,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3003, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2497.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Act of 2020, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Application

Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IX, §9006(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2600, provided that: "The provisions of section 602 of the Public Works and Economic Development Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 3212) shall apply with respect to construction, alteration, or repair work of demonstration projects funded by grants or contracts authorized under sections 3001 [enacting part C of subchapter III of chapter 152 of this title], 3003 [enacting this section], 3004 [enacting section 16238 of this title], 5001 [enacting section 16298d of this title], and 8007 [enacting section 17389 of this title] and the amendments made by such sections."

§16238. Solar energy research and development

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Critical material

The term "critical material" has the meaning given the term in section 1606 of title 30.

(2) Economically distressed area

The term "economically distressed area" means an area described in section 3161(a) of this title.

(3) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means—

(A) an institution of higher education, including a minority-serving institution;

(B) a National Laboratory;

(C) a Federal research agency;

(D) a State research agency;

(E) a research agency associated with a territory or freely associated state;

(F) a Tribal energy development organization;

(G) an Indian Tribe;

(H) a Tribal organization;

(I) a Native Hawaiian community-based organization;

(J) a nonprofit research organization;

(K) an industrial entity;

(L) any other entity, as determined by the Secretary; and

(M) a consortium of 2 or more entities described in subparagraphs (A) through (L).

(4) Indian Tribe

The term "Indian Tribe" has the meaning given the term in section 5304 of title 25.

(5) Institution of higher education

The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001 of title 20.

(6) Minority-serving institution

The term "minority-serving institution" has the meaning given the term "eligible institution" in section 1067q(a) of title 20.

(7) National Laboratory

The term "National Laboratory" has the meaning given such term in section 15801(3) of this title.

(8) Native Hawaiian community-based organization

The term "Native Hawaiian community-based organization" has the meaning given the term in section 7517 of title 20.

(9) Photovoltaic device

The term "photovoltaic device" means—

(A) a device that converts light directly into electricity through a solid-state, semiconductor process;

(B) the photovoltaic cells of a device described in subparagraph (A); and

(C) the electronic and electrical components of a device described in subparagraph (A).

(10) Program

The term "program" means the program established under subsection (b)(1)(A).

(11) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(12) Solar energy

The term "solar energy" means—

(A) thermal or electric energy derived from radiation from the Sun; or

(B) energy resulting from a chemical reaction caused by radiation recently originated in the Sun.

(13) Territory or freely associated state

The term "territory or freely associated state" has the meaning given the term "insular area" in section 3103 of title 7.

(14) Tribal energy development organization

The term "Tribal energy development organization" has the meaning given the term "tribal energy development organization" in section 3501 of title 25.

(15) Tribal organization

The term "Tribal organization" has the meaning given the term in section 5304 of title 25.

(b) Solar energy technology program

(1) Establishment

(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program to conduct research, development, demonstration, and commercialization of solar energy technologies in accordance with this subsection.

(B) Purposes

The purposes of the program are the following:

(i) To improve the energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, reliability, resilience, security, siting, integration, manufacturability, installation, decommissioning, and recyclability of solar energy technologies.

(ii) To optimize the performance and operation of solar energy components, cells, and systems, and enabling technologies, including through the development of new materials, hardware, and software.

(iii) To optimize the design and adaptability of solar energy systems to the broadest practical range of geographic and atmospheric conditions.

(iv) To support the integration of solar energy technologies with the electric grid and complementary energy technologies.

(v) To create and improve the conversion of solar energy to other useful forms of energy or other products.

(vi) To reduce the cost, risk, and other potential negative impacts across the lifespan of solar energy technologies, including manufacturing, siting, permitting, installation, operations, maintenance, decommissioning, and recycling.

(vii) To reduce and mitigate potential life cycle negative impacts of solar energy technologies on human communities, wildlife, and wildlife habitats.

(viii) To address barriers to the commercialization and export of solar energy technologies.

(ix) To support the domestic solar industry, workforce, and supply chain.

(C) Targets

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall establish targets for the program to address near-term (up to 2 years), mid-term (up to 7 years), and long-term (up to 15 years) challenges to the advancement of all types of solar energy systems.

(2) Activities

(A) Types of activities

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall carry out research, development, demonstration, and commercialization activities, including—

(i) awarding grants and awards, on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis;

(ii) performing precompetitive research and development;

(iii) establishing or maintaining demonstration facilities and projects, including through stewardship of existing facilities;

(iv) providing technical assistance;

(v) entering into contracts and cooperative agreements;

(vi) providing small business vouchers;

(vii) establishing prize competitions;

(viii) conducting education and outreach activities;

(ix) conducting workforce development activities; and

(x) conducting analyses, studies, and reports.

(B) Subject areas

The Secretary shall carry out research, development, demonstration, and commercialization activities in the following subject areas:

(i) Advanced solar energy technologies of varying scale and power production, including—

(I) new materials, components, designs, and systems, including perovskites, cadmium telluride, and organic materials;

(II) advanced photovoltaic and thin-film devices;

(III) concentrated solar power;

(IV) solar heating and cooling; and

(V) enabling technologies for solar energy systems, including hardware and software.


(ii) Solar energy technology siting, performance, installation, operations, resilience, and security.

(iii) Integration of solar energy technologies with—

(I) the electric grid, including transmission, distribution, microgrids, and distributed energy systems;

(II) other energy technologies, including—

(aa) other generation sources;

(bb) demand response technologies; and

(cc) energy storage technologies; and


(III) other applications, such as in the agriculture, transportation, buildings, industrial, and fuels sectors.


(iv) Advanced solar energy manufacturing technologies and practices, including materials, processes, and design.

(v) Methods to improve the lifetime, maintenance, decommissioning, recycling, reuse, and sustainability of solar energy components and systems, including technologies and strategies that reduce the use of energy, water, critical materials, and other commodities that are determined to be vulnerable to disruption.

(vi) Solar energy forecasting, modeling, and atmospheric measurement systems, including for small-scale, large-scale, and aggregated systems.

(vii) Integrated solar energy systems that incorporate diverse—

(I) generation sources;

(II) loads; and

(III) storage technologies.


(viii) Reducing market barriers, including nonhardware and information-based barriers, to the adoption of solar energy technologies, including impacts on, or challenges relating to—

(I) distributed and community solar technologies, including the development of best practices, models, and voluntary streamlined processes for local siting and permitting of distributed solar energy systems to reduce costs;

(II) local communities, with special consideration given to economically distressed areas, previously disturbed lands such as landfills and former mines, and other areas disproportionately impacted by environmental pollution;

(III) wildlife and wildlife habitats; and

(IV) any other appropriate matter, as determined by the Secretary.


(ix) Transformational technologies for harnessing solar energy.

(x) Other research areas that advance the purposes of the program, as determined by the Secretary.

(C) Prioritization

In carrying out activities under the program, the Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, give priority to projects that—

(i) are located in a geographically diverse range of eligible entities;

(ii) support the development or demonstration of projects—

(I) in economically distressed areas and areas disproportionately impacted by pollution; or

(II) that provide the greatest potential to reduce energy costs, as well as promote accessibility and community implementation of demonstrated technologies;


(iii) can be replicated in a variety of regions and climates;

(iv) include business commercialization plans that have the potential for—

(I) domestic manufacturing and production of solar energy technologies; or

(II) exports of solar energy technologies;


(v) are carried out in collaboration with Tribal energy development organizations, Indian Tribes, Tribal organizations, Native Hawaiian community-based organizations, minority-serving institutions, or territories or freely associated States; and

(vi) with regards to workforce development, activities that expand the number of individuals from underrepresented groups pursuing and attaining skills relevant to solar energy.

(D) Coordination

To the maximum extent practicable, the Secretary shall coordinate activities under the program with other relevant programs and capabilities of the Department and other Federal research programs.

(E) Use of funds

To the extent that funding is not otherwise available through other Federal programs or power purchase agreements, funding awarded for demonstration projects may be used for additional nontechnology costs, as determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, such as engineering or feasibility studies.

(F) Solicitation

Not less than once every two years, the Secretary shall conduct a national solicitation for applications for demonstration projects under this section.

(3) Advanced solar energy manufacturing initiative

(A) Grants

In addition to the program activities described in paragraph (2), in carrying out the program, the Secretary shall award financial assistance to eligible entities for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization projects to advance new solar energy manufacturing technologies and techniques.

(B) Priority

In awarding grants under subparagraph (A), to the extent practicable, the Secretary shall give priority to solar energy manufacturing projects that—

(i) increase efficiency and cost effectiveness in—

(I) the manufacturing process; and

(II) the use of resources, such as energy, water, and critical materials;


(ii) support domestic supply chains for materials and components;

(iii) identify and incorporate nonhazardous alternative materials for components and devices;

(iv) operate in partnership with Tribal energy development organizations, Indian Tribes, Tribal organizations, Native Hawaiian community-based organizations, minority-serving institutions, or territories or freely associated states; or

(v) are located in economically distressed areas.

(C) Evaluation

Not later than 3 years after December 27, 2020, and every 4 years thereafter, the Secretary shall conduct, and make available to the public and the relevant committees of Congress, an independent review of the progress of the grants awarded under subparagraph (A).

(4) Solar energy technology recycling research, development, and demonstration program

(A) In general

In addition to the program activities described in paragraph (2), in carrying out the program, the Secretary shall award financial assistance to eligible entities for research, development, demonstration, and commercialization projects to create innovative and practical approaches to increase the reuse and recycling of solar energy technologies, including—

(i) by increasing the efficiency and cost effectiveness of the recovery of raw materials from solar energy technology components and systems, including enabling technologies such as inverters;

(ii) by minimizing potential environmental impacts from the recovery and disposal processes;

(iii) by advancing technologies and processes for the disassembly and recycling of solar energy devices;

(iv) by developing alternative materials, designs, manufacturing processes, and other aspects of solar energy technologies and the disassembly and resource recovery process that enable efficient, cost effective, and environmentally responsible disassembly of, and resource recovery from, solar energy technologies; and

(v) strategies to increase consumer acceptance of, and participation in, the recycling of photovoltaic devices.

(B) Dissemination of results

The Secretary shall make available to the public and the relevant committees of Congress the results of the projects carried out through financial assistance awarded under subparagraph (A), including—

(i) development of best practices or training materials for use in the photovoltaics manufacturing, design, installation, refurbishing, disposal, or recycling industries;

(ii) dissemination at industry conferences;

(iii) coordination with information dissemination programs relating to recycling of electronic devices in general;

(iv) demonstration projects; and

(v) educational materials.

(C) Priority

In carrying out the activities authorized under this subsection, the Secretary shall give special consideration to projects that recover critical materials.

(D) Sensitive information

In carrying out the activities authorized under this subsection, the Secretary shall ensure proper security controls are in place to protect proprietary or sensitive information, as appropriate.

(5) Solar energy technology materials physical property database

(A) In general

Not later than September 1, 2022, the Secretary shall establish a comprehensive physical property database of materials for use in solar energy technologies, which shall identify the type, quantity, country of origin, source, significant uses, projected availability, and physical properties of materials used in solar energy technologies.

(B) Coordination

In establishing the database described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall coordinate with—

(i) other Department activities, including those carried out by the Office of Science;

(ii) the Director of the National Institute of Standards and Technology;

(iii) the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency;

(iv) the Secretary of the Interior; and

(v) relevant industry stakeholders, as determined by the Secretary.

(6) Solar energy technology program strategic vision

(A) In general

Not later than September 1, 2022, and every 6 years thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the strategic vision, progress, goals, and targets of the program, including assessments of solar energy markets and manufacturing.

(B) Inclusion

As a part of the report described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall include a study that examines the viable market opportunities available for solar energy technology manufacturing in the United States, including—

(i) a description of—

(I) the ability to competitively manufacture solar technology in the United States, including the manufacture of—

(aa) new and advanced materials, such as cells made with new, high efficiency materials;

(bb) solar module equipment and enabling technologies, including smart inverters, sensors, and tracking equipment; and

(cc) innovative solar module designs and applications, including those that can directly integrate with new and existing buildings and other infrastructure; and


(II) opportunities and barriers within the United States and international solar energy technology market;


(ii) policy recommendations for enhancing solar energy technology manufacturing in the United States;

(iii) a 10-year target and plan to enhance the competitiveness of solar energy technology manufacturing in the United States; and

(iv) any other research areas as determined by the Secretary.

(C) Preparation

The Secretary shall coordinate the preparation of the report under subparagraph (A) with—

(i) existing peer review processes;

(ii) studies conducted by the National Laboratories; and

(iii) the multiyear program planning required under section 16358 of this title.

(7) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program $300,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title III, §3004, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2504.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Act of 2020, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Application

Provisions of section 3212 of this title applicable to construction, alteration, or repair work of demonstration projects funded by grants or contracts authorized under this section, see section 9006(b) div. Z of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 16237 of this title.

Part D—Agricultural Biomass Research and Development Programs

§16251. Production incentives for cellulosic biofuels

(a) Purpose

The purpose of this section is to—

(1) accelerate deployment and commercialization of biofuels;

(2) deliver the first 1,000,000,000 gallons in annual cellulosic biofuels production by 2015;

(3) ensure biofuels produced after 2015 are cost competitive with gasoline and diesel; and

(4) ensure that small feedstock producers and rural small businesses are full participants in the development of the cellulosic biofuels industry.

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Cellulosic biofuels

The term "cellulosic biofuels" means any fuel that is produced from cellulosic feedstocks.

(2) Eligible entity

The term "eligible entity" means a producer of fuel from cellulosic biofuels the production facility of which—

(A) is located in the United States;

(B) meets all applicable Federal and State permitting requirements; and

(C) meets any financial criteria established by the Secretary.

(c) Program

(1) Establishment

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary of Defense, and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall establish an incentive program for the production of cellulosic biofuels.

(2) Basis of incentives

Under the program, the Secretary shall award production incentives on a per gallon basis of cellulosic biofuels from eligible entities, through—

(A) set payments per gallon of cellulosic biofuels produced in an amount determined by the Secretary, until initiation of the first reverse auction; and

(B) reverse auction thereafter.

(3) First reverse auction

The first reverse auction shall be held on the earlier of—

(A) not later than 1 year after the first year of annual production in the United States of 100,000,000 gallons of cellulosic biofuels, as determined by the Secretary; or

(B) not later than 3 years after August 8, 2005.

(4) Reverse auction procedure

(A) In general

On initiation of the first reverse auction, and each year thereafter until the earlier of the first year of annual production in the United States of 1,000,000,000 gallons of cellulosic biofuels, as determined by the Secretary, or 10 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall conduct a reverse auction at which—

(i) the Secretary shall solicit bids from eligible entities;

(ii) eligible entities shall submit—

(I) a desired level of production incentive on a per gallon basis; and

(II) an estimated annual production amount in gallons; and


(iii) the Secretary shall issue awards for the production amount submitted, beginning with the eligible entity submitting the bid for the lowest level of production incentive on a per gallon basis and meeting such other criteria as are established by the Secretary, until the amount of funds available for the reverse auction is committed.

(B) Amount of incentive received

An eligible entity selected by the Secretary through a reverse auction shall receive the amount of performance incentive requested in the auction for each gallon produced and sold by the entity during the first 6 years of operation.

(C) Commencement of production of cellulosic biofuels

As a condition of the receipt of an award under this section, an eligible entity shall enter into an agreement with the Secretary under which the eligible entity agrees to begin production of cellulosic biofuels not later than 3 years after the date of the reverse auction in which the eligible entity participates.

(d) Limitations

Awards under this section shall be limited to—

(1) a per gallon amount determined by the Secretary during the first 4 years of the program;

(2) a declining per gallon cap over the remaining lifetime of the program, to be established by the Secretary so that cellulosic biofuels produced after the first year of annual cellulosic biofuels production in the United States in excess of 1,000,000,000 gallons are cost competitive with gasoline and diesel;

(3) not more than 25 percent of the funds committed within each reverse auction to any 1 project;

(4) not more than $100,000,000 in any 1 year; and

(5) not more than $1,000,000,000 over the lifetime of the program.

(e) Priority

In selecting a project under the program, the Secretary shall give priority to projects that—

(1) demonstrate outstanding potential for local and regional economic development;

(2) include agricultural producers or cooperatives of agricultural producers as equity partners in the ventures; and

(3) have a strategic agreement in place to fairly reward feedstock suppliers.

(f) Authorizations of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $250,000,000.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §942, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 878.)

§16252. Education

(1) In general

The Architect of the Capitol shall establish in the Capitol Complex a program of public education regarding use by the Architect of the Capitol of biobased products.

(2) Purposes

The purposes of the program shall be—

(A) to establish the Capitol Complex as a showcase for the existence and benefits of biobased products; and

(B) to provide access to further information on biobased products to occupants and visitors.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §943(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 881.)

§16253. Small business bioproduct marketing and certification grants

(a) In general

Using amounts made available under subsection (g), the Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall make available on a competitive basis grants to eligible entities described in subsection (b) for the biobased product marketing and certification purposes described in subsection (c).

(b) Eligible entities

(1) In general

An entity eligible for a grant under this section is any manufacturer of biobased products that—

(A) proposes to use the grant for the biobased product marketing and certification purposes described in subsection (c); and

(B) has not previously received a grant under this section.

(2) Preference

In making grants under this section, the Secretary shall provide a preference to an eligible entity that has fewer than 50 employees.

(c) Biobased product marketing and certification grant purposes

A grant made under this section shall be used—

(1) to provide working capital for marketing of biobased products; and

(2) to provide for the certification of biobased products to—

(A) qualify for the label described in section 8102(b) of title 7; or

(B) meet other biobased standards determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(d) Matching funds

(1) In general

Grant recipients shall provide matching non-Federal funds equal to the amount of the grant received.

(2) Expenditure

Matching funds shall be expended in advance of grant funding, so that for every dollar of grant that is advanced, an equal amount of matching funds shall have been funded prior to submitting the request for reimbursement.

(e) Amount

A grant made under this section shall not exceed $100,000.

(f) Administration

The Secretary shall establish such administrative requirements for grants under this section, including requirements for applications for the grants, as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(g) Authorizations of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to make grants under this section—

(1) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and

(2) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §944, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 881; Pub. L. 113–79, title IX, §9002(b), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 928.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 113–79 substituted "section 8102(b)" for "section 8102(h)(1)".

§16254. Regional bioeconomy development grants

(a) In general

Using amounts made available under subsection (g), the Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall make available on a competitive basis grants to eligible entities described in subsection (b) for the purposes described in subsection (c).

(b) Eligible entities

An entity eligible for a grant under this section is any regional bioeconomy development association, agricultural or energy trade association, or Land Grant institution that—

(1) proposes to use the grant for the purposes described in subsection (c); and

(2) has not previously received a grant under this section.

(c) Regional bioeconomy development association grant purposes

A grant made under this section shall be used to support and promote the growth and development of the bioeconomy within the region served by the eligible entity, through coordination, education, outreach, and other endeavors by the eligible entity.

(d) Matching funds

(1) In general

Grant recipients shall provide matching non-Federal funds equal to the amount of the grant received.

(2) Expenditure

Matching funds shall be expended in advance of grant funding, so that for every dollar of grant that is advanced, an equal amount of matching funds shall have been funded prior to submitting the request for reimbursement.

(e) Administration

The Secretary shall establish such administrative requirements for grants under this section, including requirements for applications for the grants, as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(f) Amount

A grant made under this section shall not exceed $500,000.

(g) Authorizations of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to make grants under this section—

(1) $1,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and

(2) such sums as are necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2015.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §945, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 882.)

§16255. Preprocessing and harvesting demonstration grants

(a) In general

The Secretary of Agriculture (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall make grants available on a competitive basis to enterprises owned by agricultural producers, for the purposes of demonstrating cost-effective, cellulosic biomass innovations in—

(1) preprocessing of feedstocks, including cleaning, separating and sorting, mixing or blending, and chemical or biochemical treatments, to add value and lower the cost of feedstock processing at a biorefinery; or

(2) 1-pass or other efficient, multiple crop harvesting techniques.

(b) Limitations on grants

(1) Number of grants

Not more than 5 demonstration projects per fiscal year shall be funded under this section.

(2) Non-Federal cost share

The non-Federal cost share of a project under this section shall be not less than 20 percent, as determined by the Secretary.

(c) Condition of grant

To be eligible for a grant for a project under this section, a recipient of a grant or a participating entity shall agree to use the material harvested under the project—

(1) to produce ethanol; or

(2) for another energy purpose, such as the generation of heat or electricity.

(d) Authorization for appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §946, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 883.)

§16256. Education and outreach

(a) In general

The Secretary of Agriculture shall establish, within the Department of Agriculture or through an independent contracting entity, a program of education and outreach on biobased fuels and biobased products consisting of—

(1) training and technical assistance programs for feedstock producers to promote producer ownership, investment, and participation in the operation of processing facilities; and

(2) public education and outreach to familiarize consumers with the biobased fuels and biobased products.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §947, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 883.)

Part E—Nuclear Energy

§16271. Nuclear energy

(a) Mission

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out programs of civilian nuclear research, development, demonstration, and commercial application, including activities under this part.

(2) Considerations

The programs carried out under paragraph (1) shall take into consideration the following objectives:

(A) Providing research infrastructure to promote scientific progress and enable users from academia, the National Laboratories, and the private sector to make scientific discoveries relevant for nuclear, chemical, and materials science engineering.

(B) Maintaining nuclear energy research and development programs at the National Laboratories and institutions of higher education, including infrastructure at the National Laboratories and institutions of higher education.

(C) Providing the technical means to reduce the likelihood of nuclear proliferation.

(D) Increasing confidence margins for public safety of nuclear energy systems.

(E) Reducing the environmental impact of activities relating to nuclear energy.

(F) Supporting technology transfer from the National Laboratories to the private sector.

(G) Enabling the private sector to partner with the National Laboratories to demonstrate novel reactor concepts for the purpose of resolving technical uncertainty associated with the objectives described in subparagraphs (A) through (F).

(b) Definitions

In this part:

(1) Advanced nuclear reactor

The term "advanced nuclear reactor" means—

(A) a nuclear fission reactor, including a prototype plant (as defined in sections 50.2 and 52.1 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations (or successor regulations)), with significant improvements compared to reactors operating on December 27, 2020, including improvements such as—

(i) additional inherent safety features;

(ii) lower waste yields;

(iii) improved fuel and material performance;

(iv) increased tolerance to loss of fuel cooling;

(v) enhanced reliability or improved resilience;

(vi) increased proliferation resistance;

(vii) increased thermal efficiency;

(viii) reduced consumption of cooling water and other environmental impacts;

(ix) the ability to integrate into electric applications and nonelectric applications;

(x) modular sizes to allow for deployment that corresponds with the demand for electricity or process heat; and

(xi) operational flexibility to respond to changes in demand for electricity or process heat and to complement integration with intermittent renewable energy or energy storage; and


(B) a fusion reactor.

(2) Commission

The term "Commission" means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(3) Fast neutron

The term "fast neutron" means a neutron with kinetic energy above 100 kiloelectron volts.

(4) National Laboratory

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "National Laboratory" has the meaning given the term in section 15801 of this title.

(B) Limitation

With respect to the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, the Los Alamos National Laboratory, and the Sandia National Laboratories, the term "National Laboratory" means only the civilian activities of the laboratory.

(5) Neutron flux

The term "neutron flux" means the intensity of neutron radiation measured as a rate of flow of neutrons applied over an area.

(6) Neutron source

The term "neutron source" means a research machine that provides neutron irradiation services for—

(A) research on materials sciences and nuclear physics; and

(B) testing of advanced materials, nuclear fuels, and other related components for reactor systems.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §951, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 884; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(a), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3154; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2002, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2459.)

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 116–260 amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) defined the term "advanced nuclear reactor".

2018Pub. L. 115–248 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to civilian nuclear energy research programs and authorizations of appropriations to carry out such programs.

§16272. Reactor concepts research, development, demonstration, and commercial application

(a) Sustainability program for light water reactors

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application, including through the use of modeling and simulation, to support existing operating nuclear power plants which shall address technologies to modernize and improve, with respect to such plants—

(A) reliability;

(B) capacity;

(C) component aging;

(D) safety;

(E) physical security and security costs;

(F) plant lifetime;

(G) operations and maintenance costs, including by utilizing risk-informed systems analysis;

(H) the ability for plants to operate flexibly;

(I) nuclear integrated energy system applications described in subsection (c);

(J) efficiency;

(K) environmental impacts; and

(L) resilience.

(2) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program under this subsection $55,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(3) Report

The Secretary shall submit annually a public report to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate documenting funds spent under the program that describes program activities, objectives, and outcomes, including those that could benefit the entirety of the existing reactor fleet, such as with respect to aging management and related sustainability concerns, and identifying funds awarded to private entities.

(b) Advanced reactor technologies

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application to support advanced reactor technologies.

(2) Requirements

In carrying out the program under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) prioritize designs for advanced nuclear reactors that are proliferation resistant and passively safe, including designs that, compared to reactors operating on December 27, 2020—

(i) are economically competitive with other electric power generation plants;

(ii) have higher efficiency, lower cost, less environmental impacts, increased resilience, and improved safety;

(iii) use fuels that are proliferation resistant and have reduced production of high-level waste per unit of output; and

(iv) use advanced instrumentation and monitoring systems;


(B) consult with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on appropriate metrics to consider for the criteria specified in subparagraph (A);

(C) support research and development to resolve materials challenges relating to extreme environments, including environments that contain high levels of—

(i) radiation fluence;

(ii) temperature;

(iii) pressure; and

(iv) corrosion;


(D) support research and development to aid in the qualification of advanced fuels, including fabrication techniques;

(E) support activities that address near-term challenges in modeling and simulation to enable accelerated design of and licensing of advanced nuclear reactors, including the identification of tools and methodologies for validating such modeling and simulation efforts;

(F) develop technologies, including technologies to manage, reduce, or reuse nuclear waste;

(G) ensure that nuclear research infrastructure is maintained or constructed, including—

(i) currently operational research reactors at the National Laboratories and institutions of higher education;

(ii) hot cell research facilities;

(iii) a versatile fast neutron source; and

(iv) advanced coolant testing facilities, including coolants such as lead, sodium, gas, and molten salt;


(H) improve scientific understanding of nonlight water coolant physics and chemistry;

(I) develop advanced sensors and control systems, including the identification of tools and methodologies for validating such sensors and systems;

(J) investigate advanced manufacturing and advanced construction techniques and materials to reduce the cost of advanced nuclear reactors, including the use of digital twins and of strategies to implement project and construction management best practices, and study the effects of radiation and corrosion on materials created with these techniques;

(K) consult with the Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration to integrate reactor safeguards and security into design;

(L) support efforts to reduce any technical barriers that would prevent commercial application of advanced nuclear energy systems; and

(M) develop various safety analyses and emergency preparedness and response methodologies.

(3) Coordination

The Secretary shall coordinate with individuals engaged in the private sector and individuals who are experts in nuclear nonproliferation, environmental and public health and safety, and economics to advance the development of various designs of advanced nuclear reactors. In carrying out this paragraph, the Secretary shall convene an advisory committee of such individuals and such committee shall submit annually a report to the relevant committees of Congress with respect to the progress of the program.

(4) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program under this subsection $55,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(c) Nuclear integrated energy systems research, development, demonstration, and commercial application program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application to develop nuclear integrated energy systems, composed of 2 or more co-located or jointly operated subsystems of energy generation, energy storage, or other technologies and in which not less than 1 such subsystem is a nuclear energy system, to—

(A) reduce greenhouse gas emissions in both the power and nonpower sectors; and

(B) maximize energy production and efficiency.

(2) Coordination

In carrying out the program under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall coordinate with—

(A) relevant program offices within the Department of Energy;

(B) National Laboratories;

(C) institutions of higher education; and

(D) the private sector.

(3) Focus areas

The program under paragraph (1) may include research, development, demonstration, or commercial application of nuclear integrated energy systems with respect to—

(A) desalination technologies and processes;

(B) hydrogen or other liquid and gaseous fuel or chemical production;

(C) heat for industrial processes;

(D) district heating;

(E) heat or electricity generation and storage;

(F) carbon capture, use, utilization, and storage;

(G) microgrid or island applications;

(H) integrated systems modeling, analysis, and optimization, inclusive of different configurations of integrated energy systems; and

(I) integrated design, planning, building, and operation of systems with existing infrastructure, including interconnection requirements with the electric grid, as appropriate.

(4) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program under this subsection—

(A) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;

(B) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(C) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2023;

(D) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2024; and

(E) $40,000,000 for fiscal year 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §952, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 885; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(b)(1), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3155; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2003(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2459.)

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment section related to nuclear energy research programs.

2018—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 115–248 redesignated subsecs. (d) and (e) as (c) and (d), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (c) which related to establishment and administration of a Nuclear Power 2010 Program.

§16273. Fuel cycle research, development, demonstration, and commercial application

(a) Used nuclear fuel research, development, demonstration, and commercial application

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct an advanced fuel cycle research, development, demonstration, and commercial application program to improve fuel cycle performance, minimize environmental and public health and safety impacts, and support a variety of options for used nuclear fuel storage, use, and disposal, including advanced nuclear reactor and non-reactor concepts (such as radioisotope power systems), which may include—

(A) dry cask storage;

(B) consolidated interim storage;

(C) deep geological storage and disposal, including mined repository, and other technologies;

(D) used nuclear fuel transportation;

(E) integrated waste management systems;

(F) vitrification;

(G) fuel recycling and transmutation technologies, including advanced reprocessing technologies such as electrochemical and molten salt technologies, and advanced redox extraction technologies;

(H) advanced materials to be used in subparagraphs (A) through (G); and

(I) other areas as determined by the Secretary.

(2) Requirements

In carrying out the program under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) ensure all activities and designs incorporate state of the art safeguards technologies and techniques to reduce risk of proliferation;

(B) consult with the Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration to integrate safeguards and security by design;

(C) consider the potential benefits and other impacts of those activities for civilian nuclear applications, environmental health and safety, and national security, including consideration of public consent; and

(D) consider the economic viability of all activities and designs.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program under this subsection $60,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(b) Advanced fuels

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct an advanced fuels research, development, demonstration, and commercial application program on next-generation light water reactor and advanced reactor fuels that demonstrate the potential for improved—

(A) performance;

(B) accident tolerance;

(C) proliferation resistance;

(D) use of resources;

(E) environmental impact; and

(F) economics.

(2) Requirements

In carrying out the program under this subsection, the Secretary shall focus on the development of advanced technology fuels, including fabrication techniques, that offer improved accident-tolerance and economic performance with the goal of initial commercial application by December 31, 2025.

(3) Report

Not later than 180 days December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate a report that describes how the technologies and concepts studied under this program would impact reactor economics, the fuel cycle, operations, safety, proliferation, and the environment.

(4) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program under this subsection $125,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §953, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 886; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(c), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3155; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2003(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2462.)

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to advanced fuel cycle initiative.

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–248 struck out ", acting through the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology," after "The Secretary".

§16274. Nuclear science and engineering support

(a) University nuclear science and engineering support

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct a program to invest in human resources and infrastructure in the nuclear sciences and related fields, including health physics, nuclear engineering, and radiochemistry, consistent with missions of the Department related to civilian nuclear research, development, demonstration, and commercial application.

(2) Requirements

In carrying out the program under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) conduct a graduate and undergraduate fellowship program to attract new and talented students, which may include fellowships for students to spend time at National Laboratories in the areas of nuclear science, engineering, and health physics with a member of the National Laboratory staff acting as a mentor;

(B) conduct a junior faculty research initiation grant program to assist universities in recruiting and retaining new faculty in the nuclear sciences and engineering by awarding grants to junior faculty for research on issues related to nuclear energy engineering and science;

(C) support fundamental nuclear sciences, engineering, and health physics research through a nuclear engineering education and research program;

(D) encourage collaborative nuclear research among industry, National Laboratories, and universities; and

(E) support communication and outreach related to nuclear science, engineering, and health physics.

(3) University-National Laboratory interactions

The Secretary shall conduct—

(A) a fellowship program for professors at universities to spend sabbaticals at National Laboratories in the areas of nuclear science and technology; and

(B) a visiting scientist program in which National Laboratory staff can spend time in academic nuclear science and engineering departments.

(4) Strengthening university research and training reactors and associated infrastructure

In carrying out the program under this subsection, the Secretary may support—

(A) converting research reactors from high-enrichment fuels to low-enrichment fuels and upgrading operational instrumentation;

(B) consortia of universities to broaden access to university research reactors;

(C) student training programs, in collaboration with the United States nuclear industry, in relicensing and upgrading reactors, including through the provision of technical assistance; and

(D) reactor improvements that emphasize research, training, and education, including through the Innovations in Nuclear Infrastructure and Education Program or any similar program.

(5) Radiological facilities management

(A) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program under which the Secretary shall provide project management, technical support, quality engineering and inspection, and nuclear material handling support to research reactors located at universities.

(B) Authorization of appropriations

Of any amounts appropriated to carry out the program under this subsection, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program under this paragraph $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(6) Nuclear energy university program

In carrying out the programs under this section, the Department shall, to the maximum extent practicable, allocate 20 percent of funds appropriated to nuclear energy research and development programs annually to fund university-led research and university infrastructure projects through an open, competitive solicitation process.

(7) Operations and maintenance

Funding for a project provided under this subsection may be used for a portion of the operating and maintenance costs of a research reactor at a university used in the project.

(8) Definition

In this subsection, the term "junior faculty" means a faculty member who was awarded a doctorate less than 10 years before receipt of an award from the grant program described in paragraph (2)(B).

(b) Nuclear energy graduate traineeship subprogram

(1) Establishment

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish a nuclear energy graduate traineeship subprogram under which the Secretary shall competitively award graduate traineeships in coordination with universities to provide focused, advanced training to meet critical mission needs of the Department, including in industries that are represented by skilled labor unions.

(2) Requirements

In carrying out the subprogram under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) encourage appropriate partnerships among National Laboratories, affected universities, and industry; and

(B) on an annual basis, evaluate the needs of the nuclear energy community to implement graduate traineeships for focused topical areas addressing mission-specific workforce needs.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the subprogram under this subsection $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §954, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 886; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(d), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3155; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2003(c), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2463.)

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(1), substituted "Nuclear" for "University nuclear" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(10), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted heading.

Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(9), added pars. (5) and (6).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(11), added subsec. (b).

Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(7), redesignated subsec. (b) as par. (2).

Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(2), substituted "this subsection" for "this section" in introductory provisions, redesignated pars. (1) to (5) as subpars. (A) to (E), respectively, and realigned margins.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(7), redesignated subsec. (c) as par. (3).

Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(3), redesignated pars. (1) and (2) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, and realigned margins.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(7), redesignated subsec. (d) as par. (4).

Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(4), substituted "this subsection" for "this section" in introductory provisions, redesignated pars. (1) to (4) as subpars. (A) to (D), respectively, and realigned margins.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(8), redesignated subsec. (e) as par. (7). Margins realigned to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(5), substituted "this subsection" for "this section".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(8), redesignated susbec. (f) as par. (8). Margins realigned to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(c)(6), substituted "this subsection" for "this section" and "paragraph (2)(B)" for "subsection (b)(2)".

2018—Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 115–248 substituted "that emphasize" for "as part of a taking into consideration effort that emphasizes".

§16274a. University Nuclear Leadership Program

(a) In general

The Secretary of Energy, the Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration, and the Chairman of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall jointly establish a program, to be known as the "University Nuclear Leadership Program".

(b) Use of funds

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), amounts made available to carry out the Program shall be used to provide financial assistance for scholarships, fellowships, and research and development projects at institutions of higher education in areas relevant to the programmatic mission of the applicable Federal agency, with an emphasis on providing the financial assistance with respect to research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities relevant to civilian advanced nuclear reactors including, but not limited to—

(A) relevant fuel cycle technologies;

(B) project management; and

(C) advanced construction, manufacturing, and fabrication methods.

(2) Exception

Notwithstanding paragraph (1), amounts made available to carry out the Program may be used to provide financial assistance for a scholarship, fellowship, or multiyear research and development project that does not align directly with a programmatic mission of the Department of Energy, if the activity for which assistance is provided would facilitate the maintenance of the discipline of nuclear science or engineering.

(c) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Advanced nuclear reactor; institution of higher education

The terms "advanced nuclear reactor" and "institution of higher education" have the meanings given those terms in section 16271 of this title.

(2) Program

The term "Program" means the University Nuclear Leadership Program established under this section.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the Program for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025—

(1) $30,000,000 to the Secretary of Energy, of which $15,000,000 shall be for use by the Administrator of the National Nuclear Security Administration; and

(2) $15,000,000 to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(Pub. L. 111–8, div. C, title III, §313, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 627; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2003(e), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2465.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2009, and also as part of the Omnibus Appropriations Act, 2009, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to Integrated University Program.

§16275. Department of Energy civilian nuclear infrastructure and facilities

(a) In general

The Secretary shall operate and maintain infrastructure and facilities to support the nuclear energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs, including radiological facilities management, isotope production, and facilities management.

(b) Duties

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) develop an inventory of nuclear science and engineering facilities, equipment, expertise, and other assets at all of the National Laboratories;

(2) develop a prioritized list of nuclear science and engineering plant and equipment improvements needed at each of the National Laboratories;

(3) consider the available facilities and expertise at all National Laboratories and emphasize investments which complement rather than duplicate capabilities; and

(4) develop a timeline and a proposed budget for the completion of deferred maintenance on plant and equipment, with the goal of ensuring that Department programs under this part will be generally recognized to be among the best in the world.

(c) Versatile neutron source

(1) Authorization

(A) In general

Not later than December 31, 2017, the Secretary shall provide for a versatile reactor-based fast neutron source, which shall operate as a national user facility.

(B) Consultations required

In carrying out subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consult with the private sector, institutions of higher education, the National Laboratories, and relevant Federal agencies to ensure that the user facility described in subparagraph (A) will meet the research needs of the largest practicable majority of prospective users.

(2) Establishment

As soon as practicable after determining the mission need under paragraph (1)(A), the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a detailed plan for the establishment of the user facility.

(3) Facility requirements

(A) Capabilities

The Secretary shall ensure that the user facility will provide, at a minimum, the following capabilities:

(i) Fast neutron spectrum irradiation capability.

(ii) Capacity for upgrades to accommodate new or expanded research needs.

(B) Considerations

In carrying out the plan submitted under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider the following:

(i) Capabilities that support experimental high-temperature testing.

(ii) Providing a source of fast neutrons at a neutron flux, higher than that at which current research facilities operate, sufficient to enable research for an optimal base of prospective users.

(iii) Maximizing irradiation flexibility and irradiation volume to accommodate as many concurrent users as possible.

(iv) Capabilities for irradiation with neutrons of a lower energy spectrum.

(v) Multiple loops for fuels and materials testing in different coolants.

(vi) Additional pre-irradiation and post-irradiation examination capabilities.

(vii) Lifetime operating costs and lifecycle costs.

(4) Deadline for establishment

The Secretary shall, to the maximum extent practicable, complete construction of, and approve the start of operations for, the user facility by not later than December 31, 2026.

(5) Reporting

The Secretary shall include in the annual budget request of the Department an explanation for any delay in the progress of the Department in completing the user facility by the deadline described in paragraph (4).

(6) Coordination

The Secretary shall leverage the best practices for management, construction, and operation of national user facilities from the Office of Science.

(7) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out to completion the construction of the facility under this section—

(A) $295,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;

(B) $348,000,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(C) $525,000,000 for fiscal year 2023;

(D) $534,000,000 for fiscal year 2024; and

(E) $584,000,000 for fiscal year 2025.

(d) Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear

(1) In general

In carrying out the programs under this part, the Secretary is authorized to establish a new initiative to be known as the Gateway for Accelerated Innovation in Nuclear (GAIN). The initiative shall, to the maximum extent practicable and consistent with national security, provide the nuclear energy industry with access to cutting edge research and development along with the technical, regulatory, and financial support necessary to move innovative nuclear energy technologies toward commercialization in an accelerated and cost-effective fashion. The Secretary shall make available, as a minimum—

(A) experimental capabilities and testing facilities;

(B) computational capabilities, modeling, and simulation tools;

(C) access to existing datasets and data validation tools; and

(D) technical assistance with guidance or processes as needed.

(2) Selection

(A) In general

The Secretary shall select industry partners for awards on a competitive merit-reviewed basis.

(B) Considerations

In selecting industry partners under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall consider—

(i) the information disclosed by the Department as described in paragraph (1); and

(ii) any existing facilities the Department will provide for public private partnership activities.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §955, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 887; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(e), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3156; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2003(f), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2466.)

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(f)(1)(A), substituted "Authorization" for "Mission need" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(f)(1)(B), substituted "provide" for "determine the mission need".

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(f)(3), substituted "2026" for "2025".

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(f)(2), added par. (7).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 116–260, §2003(f)(4), added subsec.(d).

2018—Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 115–248 added subsec. (c) and struck out former subsecs. (c) and (d) which required development of a comprehensive plan for the facilities at the Idaho National Laboratory and transmittal of the plan to Congress.

§16276. Security of nuclear facilities

The Secretary shall conduct a research and development program on cost-effective technologies for increasing—

(1) the safety of nuclear facilities from natural phenomena; and

(2) the security of nuclear facilities from deliberate attacks.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §956, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 888; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(f), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3157.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–248 struck out ", acting through the Director of the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology," after "The Secretary" in introductory provisions.

§16277. High-performance computation and supportive research

(a) Modeling and simulation

The Secretary shall carry out a program to enhance the capabilities of the United States to develop new reactor technologies through high-performance computation modeling and simulation techniques.

(b) Coordination

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall coordinate with relevant Federal agencies as described by the National Strategic Computing Initiative established by Executive Order 13702 (80 Fed. Reg. 46177 (July 29, 2015)), while taking into account the following objectives:

(1) Using expertise from the private sector, institutions of higher education, and the National Laboratories to develop computational software and capabilities that prospective users may access to accelerate research and development of advanced nuclear reactor systems and reactor systems for space exploration.

(2) Developing computational tools to simulate and predict nuclear phenomena that may be validated through physical experimentation.

(3) Increasing the utility of the research infrastructure of the Department by coordinating with the Advanced Scientific Computing Research program within the Office of Science.

(4) Leveraging experience from the Energy Innovation Hub for Modeling and Simulation.

(5) Ensuring that new experimental and computational tools are accessible to relevant research communities, including private sector entities engaged in nuclear energy technology development.

(c) Supportive research activities

The Secretary shall consider support for additional research activities to maximize the utility of the research facilities of the Department, including physical processes—

(1) to simulate degradation of materials and behavior of fuel forms; and

(2) for validation of computational tools.

(d) Duplication

The Secretary shall ensure the coordination of, and avoid unnecessary duplication of, the activities of the program under subsection (a) with the activities of—

(1) other research entities of the Department, including the National Laboratories, the Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy, and the Advanced Scientific Computing Research program; and

(2) industry.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §957, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 888; Pub. L. 115–248, §2(g), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3157; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2004, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2470.)

References in Text

Executive Order 13702, referred to in subsec. (b), is set out as a note under section 5501 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 116–260 added subsec. (d).

2018Pub. L. 115–248 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to survey and plan regarding alternatives to industrial radioactive sources.

§16278. Enabling nuclear energy innovation

(a) National Reactor Innovation Center

There is authorized a program to enable the testing and demonstration of reactor concepts to be proposed and funded, in whole or in part, by the private sector.

(b) Technical expertise

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall leverage the technical expertise of relevant Federal agencies and the National Laboratories in order to minimize the time required to enable construction and operation of privately funded experimental reactors at National Laboratories or other Department-owned sites.

(c) Objectives

The reactors described in subsection (b) shall operate to meet the following objectives:

(1) Enabling physical validation of advanced nuclear reactor concepts.

(2) Resolving technical uncertainty and increasing practical knowledge relevant to safety, resilience, security, and functionality of advanced nuclear reactor concepts.

(3) General research and development to improve nascent technologies.

(d) Sharing technical expertise

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary may enter into a memorandum of understanding with the Chairman of the Commission in order to share technical expertise and knowledge through—

(1) enabling the testing and demonstration of advanced nuclear reactor concepts to be proposed and funded, in whole or in part, by the private sector;

(2) operating a database to store and share data and knowledge relevant to nuclear science and engineering between Federal agencies and the private sector;

(3) developing and testing electric and nonelectric integration and energy conversion systems relevant to advanced nuclear reactors;

(4) leveraging expertise from the Commission with respect to safety analysis; and

(5) enabling technical staff of the Commission to actively observe and learn about technologies developed under the program.

(e) Agency coordination

The Chairman of the Commission and the Secretary shall enter into a memorandum of understanding regarding the following:

(1) Ensuring that—

(A) the Department has sufficient technical expertise to support the timely research, development, demonstration, and commercial application by the civilian nuclear industry of safe and innovative advanced nuclear reactor technology; and

(B) the Commission has sufficient technical expertise to support the evaluation of applications for licenses, permits, and design certifications and other requests for regulatory approval for advanced nuclear reactors.


(2) The use of computers and software codes to calculate the behavior and performance of advanced nuclear reactors based on mathematical models of the physical behavior of advanced nuclear reactors.

(3) Ensuring that—

(A) the Department maintains and develops the facilities necessary to enable the timely research, development, demonstration, and commercial application by the civilian nuclear industry of safe and innovative reactor technology; and

(B) the Commission has access to the facilities described in subparagraph (A), as needed.

(f) Reporting requirements

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after September 28, 2018, the Secretary, in consultation with the National Laboratories, relevant Federal agencies, and other stakeholders, shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report assessing the capabilities of the Department to authorize, host, and oversee privately funded experimental advanced nuclear reactors as described in subsection (b).

(2) Contents

The report submitted under paragraph (1) shall address—

(A) the safety review and oversight capabilities of the Department, including options to leverage expertise from the Commission and the National Laboratories;

(B) options to regulate privately proposed and funded experimental reactors hosted by the Department;

(C) potential sites capable of hosting privately funded experimental advanced nuclear reactors;

(D) the efficacy of the available contractual mechanisms of the Department to partner with the private sector and Federal agencies, including cooperative research and development agreements, strategic partnership projects, and agreements for commercializing technology;

(E) the liability of the Federal Government with respect to the disposal of low-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or high-level radioactive waste (as those terms are defined in section 10101 of this title);

(F) the impact on the aggregate inventory in the United States of low-level radioactive waste, spent nuclear fuel, or high-level radioactive waste (as those terms are defined in section 10101 of this title);

(G) potential cost structures relating to physical security, decommissioning, liability, and other long-term project costs; and

(H) other challenges or considerations identified by the Secretary.

(3) Updates

Once every 2 years, the Secretary shall update relevant provisions of the report submitted under paragraph (1) and submit to the appropriate committees of Congress the update.

(g) Savings clauses

(1) Licensing requirement

Nothing in this section authorizes the Secretary or any person to construct or operate a nuclear reactor for the purpose of demonstrating the suitability for commercial application of the nuclear reactor unless licensed by the Commission in accordance with section 5842 of this title.

(2) Financial protection

Any activity carried out under this section that involves the risk of public liability shall be subject to the financial protection or indemnification requirements of section 2210 of this title (commonly known as the "Price-Anderson Act").

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §958, as added Pub. L. 115–248, §2(h), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3157.)

§16279. Budget plan

(a) In general

Not later than 1 year after September 28, 2018, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives 2 alternative 10-year budget plans for civilian nuclear energy research and development by the Secretary, as described in subsections (b) through (d).

(b) Budget plan alternative 1

One of the budget plans submitted under subsection (a) shall assume constant annual funding for 10 years at the appropriated level for the current fiscal year for the civilian nuclear energy research and development of the Department.

(c) Budget plan alternative 2

One of the budget plans submitted under subsection (a) shall be an unconstrained budget.

(d) Inclusions

Each alternative budget plan submitted under subsection (a) shall include—

(1) a prioritized list of the programs, projects, and activities of the Department to best support the development of advanced nuclear reactor technologies;

(2) realistic budget requirements for the Department to implement sections 16275(c), 16277, and 16278 of this title;

(3) the justification of the Department for continuing or terminating existing civilian nuclear energy research and development programs; and

(4) a description of the progress made under the programs described in section 16279a of this title.

(e) Updates

Not less frequently than once every 2 years, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate updated 10-year budget plans which shall identify, and provide a justification for, any major deviation from a previous budget plan submitted under this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §959, as added Pub. L. 115–248, §2(i), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3160; amended Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2005, 134 Stat. 2470.)

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 116–260, §2005(1), amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "One of the budget plans submitted under subsection (a) shall assume constant annual funding for 10 years at the appropriated level for the civilian nuclear energy research and development of the Department for fiscal year 2016."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 116–260, §2005(2)–(4), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 116–260, §2005(5), added subsec. (e).

§16279a. Advanced reactor demonstration program

(a) Demonstration project defined

For the purposes of this section, the term "demonstration project" means an advanced nuclear reactor operated in any manner, including as part of the power generation facilities of an electric utility system, for the purpose of demonstrating the suitability for commercial application of the advanced nuclear reactor.

(b) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a program to advance the research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of domestic advanced, affordable, nuclear energy technologies by—

(1) demonstrating a variety of advanced nuclear reactor technologies, including those that could be used to produce—

(A) safer, emissions-free power at a competitive cost of electricity compared to other new energy generation technologies on December 27, 2020;

(B) heat for community heating, industrial purposes, heat storage, or synthetic fuel production;

(C) remote or off-grid energy supply; or

(D) backup or mission-critical power supplies;


(2) identifying research areas that the private sector is unable or unwilling to undertake due to the cost of, or risks associated with, the research; and

(3) facilitating the access of the private sector—

(A) to Federal research facilities and personnel; and

(B) to the results of research relating to civil nuclear technology funded by the Federal Government.

(c) Demonstration projects

In carrying out demonstration projects under the program established in subsection (b), the Secretary shall—

(1) include, as an evaluation criterion, diversity in designs for the advanced nuclear reactors demonstrated under this section, including designs using various—

(A) primary coolants;

(B) fuel types and compositions; and

(C) neutron spectra;


(2) consider, as evaluation criterions—

(A) the likelihood that the operating cost for future commercial units for each design implemented through a demonstration project under this subsection is cost-competitive in the applicable market, including those designs configured as integrated energy systems as described in section 16272(c) of this title;

(B) the technology readiness level of a proposed advanced nuclear reactor technology;

(C) the technical abilities and qualifications of teams desiring to demonstrate a proposed advanced nuclear reactor technology; and

(D) the capacity to meet cost-share requirements of the Department;


(3) ensure that each evaluation of candidate technologies for the demonstration projects is completed through an external review of proposed designs, which review shall—

(A) be conducted by a panel that includes not fewer than 1 representative that does not have a conflict of interest of each within the applicable market of the design of—

(i) an electric utility;

(ii) an entity that uses high-temperature process heat for manufacturing or industrial processing, such as a petrochemical or synthetic fuel company, a manufacturer of metals or chemicals, or a manufacturer of concrete;

(iii) an expert from the investment community;

(iv) a project management practitioner; and

(v) an environmental health and safety expert; and


(B) include a review of each demonstration project under this subsection which shall include consideration of cost-competitiveness and other value streams, together with the technology readiness level, the technical abilities and qualifications of teams desiring to demonstrate a proposed advanced nuclear reactor technology, the capacity to meet cost-share requirements of the Department, if Federal funding is provided, and environmental impacts;


(4) for federally funded demonstration projects, enter into cost-sharing agreements with private sector partners in accordance with section 16352 of this title for the conduct of activities relating to the research, development, and demonstration of advanced nuclear reactor designs under the program;

(5) consult with—

(A) National Laboratories;

(B) institutions of higher education;

(C) traditional end users (such as electric utilities);

(D) potential end users of new technologies (such as users of high-temperature process heat for manufacturing processing, including petrochemical or synthetic fuel companies, manufacturers of metals or chemicals, or manufacturers of concrete);

(E) developers of advanced nuclear reactor technology;

(F) environmental and public health and safety experts; and

(G) non-proliferation experts;


(6) seek to ensure that the demonstration projects carried out under this section do not cause any delay in the progress of an advanced reactor project by private industry and the Department of Energy that is underway as of December 27, 2020;

(7) establish a streamlined approval process for expedited contracting between awardees and the Department;

(8) identify technical challenges to candidate technologies;

(9) support near-term research and development to address the highest risk technical challenges to the successful demonstration of a selected advanced reactor technology, in accordance with—

(A) paragraph (8);

(B) the research and development activities under section 16272(b) of this title; and

(C) the research and development activities under section 16278 of this title; and


(10) establish such technology advisory working groups as the Secretary determines to be appropriate to advise the Secretary regarding the technical challenges identified under paragraph (8) and the scope of research and development programs to address the challenges, in accordance with paragraph (9), to be comprised of—

(A) private sector advanced nuclear reactor technology developers;

(B) technical experts with respect to the relevant technologies at institutions of higher education;

(C) technical experts at the National Laboratories;

(D) environmental and public health and safety experts;

(E) non-proliferation experts; and

(F) any other entities the Secretary determines appropriate.

(d) Milestone-based demonstration projects

The Secretary may carry out demonstration projects under subsection (c) as a milestone-based demonstration project under section 7256c of this title.

(e) Nonduplication

Entities may not receive funds under this program if receiving funds from another reactor demonstration program at the Department in the same fiscal year.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out the program under this subsection—

(1) $405,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;

(2) $405,000,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(3) $420,000,000 for fiscal year 2023;

(4) $455,000,000 for fiscal year 2024; and

(5) $455,000,000 for fiscal year 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §959A, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2003(g)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2467.)

§16279b. International nuclear energy cooperation

The Secretary shall carry out a program—

(1) to collaborate in international efforts with respect to research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of nuclear technology that supports diplomatic, financing, nonproliferation, climate, and international economic objectives for the safe, secure, and peaceful use of such technology; and

(2) to develop collaboration initiatives with respect to such efforts with a variety of countries through—

(A) preparations for research and development agreements;

(B) the development of coordinated action plans; and

(C) new or existing multilateral cooperation commitments including—

(i) the International Framework for Nuclear Energy Cooperation;

(ii) the Generation IV International Forum;

(iii) the International Atomic Energy Agency;

(iv) the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development Nuclear Energy Agency; and

(v) any other international collaborative effort with respect to advanced nuclear reactor operations and safety.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §959B, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2003(h)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2470.)

§16279c. Organization and administration of programs

(a) Coordination

In carrying out this part, the Secretary shall coordinate activities, and effectively manage crosscutting research priorities across programs of the Department and other relevant Federal agencies, including the National Laboratories.

(b) Collaboration

(1) In general

In carrying out this part, the Secretary shall collaborate with industry, National Laboratories, other relevant Federal agencies, institutions of higher education, including minority-serving institutions and research reactors, Tribal entities, including Alaska Native Corporations, and international bodies with relevant scientific and technical expertise.

(2) Participation

To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall encourage research projects that promote collaboration between entities specified in paragraph (1).

(c) Dissemination of results and public availability

The Secretary shall, except to the extent protected from disclosure under section 552(b) of title 5, publish the results of projects supported under this part through Department websites, reports, databases, training materials, and industry conferences, including information discovered after the completion of such projects.

(d) Education and outreach

In carrying out the activities described in this part, the Secretary shall support education and outreach activities to disseminate information and promote public understanding of nuclear energy.

(e) Technical assistance

In carrying out this part, for the purposes of supporting technical, nonhardware, and information-based advances in nuclear energy development and operations, the Secretary shall also conduct technical assistance and analysis activities, including activities that support commercial application of nuclear energy in rural, Tribal, and low-income communities.

(f) Program review

At least annually, all programs in this part shall be subject to an annual review by the Nuclear Energy Advisory Committee of the Department or other independent entity, as appropriate.

(g) Sensitive information

The Secretary shall not publish any information generated under this part that is detrimental to national security, as determined by the Secretary.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §959C, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2006(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2471.)

§16280. Advanced Nuclear Energy Licensing Cost-Share Grant Program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Commission

The term "Commission" means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(2) Program

The term "program" means the Advanced Nuclear Energy Cost-Share Grant Program established under subsection (b).

(3) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(b) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a grant program, to be known as the "Advanced Nuclear Energy Cost-Share Grant Program", under which the Secretary shall make cost-share grants to applicants for the purpose of funding a portion of the Commission fees of the applicant for pre-application review activities and application review activities.

(c) Requirement

The Secretary shall seek out technology diversity in making grants under the program.

(d) Cost-share amount

The Secretary shall determine the cost-share amount for each grant under the program in accordance with section 16352 of this title.

(e) Use of funds

A recipient of a grant under the program may use the grant funds to cover Commission fees, including those fees associated with—

(1) developing a licensing project plan;

(2) obtaining a statement of licensing feasibility;

(3) reviewing topical reports; and

(4) other—

(A) pre-application review activities;

(B) application review activities; and

(C) interactions with the Commission.

(Pub. L. 115–248, §3, Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3160.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Nuclear Energy Innovation Capabilities Act of 2017, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

§16281. Advanced nuclear fuel availability

(a) Program

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish and carry out, through the Office of Nuclear Energy, a program to support the availability of HA–LEU for civilian domestic research, development, demonstration, and commercial use.

(2) Program elements

In carrying out the program under paragraph (1), the Secretary—

(A) shall develop, in consultation with the Commission, criticality benchmark data to assist the Commission in—

(i) the licensing and regulation of special nuclear material fuel fabrication and enrichment facilities under part 70 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations; and

(ii) certification of transportation packages under part 71 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations;


(B) shall conduct research and development, and provide financial assistance to assist commercial entities, to design and license transportation packages for HA–LEU, including canisters for metal, gas, and other HA–LEU compositions;

(C) shall, to the extent practicable—

(i) by January 1, 2024, support commercial entity submission of such transportation package designs to the Commission for certification by the Commission under part 71 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations; and

(ii) encourage the Commission to have such transportation package designs so certified by the Commission within 24 months after receipt of an application;


(D) shall consider options for acquiring or providing HA–LEU from a stockpile of uranium owned by the Department, or using enrichment technology, to make available to members of the consortium established pursuant to subparagraph (F) for commercial use or demonstration projects, taking into account cost and amount of time required, and prioritizing methods that would produce usable HA–LEU the quickest, including options for acquiring or providing HA–LEU—

(i) that—

(I) directly meets the needs of an end user; and

(II) has been previously used or fabricated for another purpose;


(ii) that meets the needs of an end user after having radioactive or other contaminants that resulted from a previous use or fabrication of the fuel for research, development, demonstration, or deployment activities of the Department removed;

(iii) that is produced from high-enriched uranium that is blended with lower assay uranium to become HA–LEU to meet the needs of an end user;

(iv) that is produced by Department research, development, and demonstration activities;

(v) that is produced in the United States by—

(I) a United States-owned commercial entity operating United States-origin technology;

(II) a United States-owned commercial entity operating a foreign-origin technology; or

(III) a foreign-owned entity operating a foreign-origin technology;


(vi) that does not require extraction of uranium or development of uranium from lands managed by the Federal Government, cause harm to the natural or cultural resources of Tribal communities or sovereign Native Nations, or result in degraded ground or surface water quality on publicly managed or privately owned lands; or

(vii) that does not negatively impact the availability of HA–LEU by the Department to support the production of medical isotopes, including the medical isotopes defined under the American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012 (Public Law 112–239; 126 Stat. 2211);


(E) not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, and biennially thereafter, shall conduct a survey of stakeholders to estimate the quantity of HA–LEU necessary for domestic commercial use for each of the 5 subsequent years;

(F) shall establish, and from time to time update, a consortium, which may include entities involved in any stage of the nuclear fuel cycle, to partner with the Department to support the availability of HA–LEU for civilian domestic demonstration and commercial use, including by—

(i) providing information to the Secretary for purposes of surveys conducted under subparagraph (E);

(ii) purchasing HA–LEU made available by the Secretary to members of the consortium for commercial use under the program; and

(iii) carrying out demonstration projects using HA–LEU provided by the Secretary under the program;


(G) if applicable, shall, prior to acquiring or providing HA–LEU under subparagraph (H), in coordination with the consortium established pursuant to subparagraph (F), develop a schedule for cost recovery of HA–LEU made available to members of the consortium using HA–LEU for commercial use pursuant to subparagraph (H);

(H) shall, beginning not later than 3 years after the establishment of a consortium under subparagraph (F), have the capability to acquire or provide HA–LEU, in order to make such HA–LEU available to members of the consortium beginning not later than January 1, 2026, in amounts that are consistent, to the extent practicable, with—

(i) the quantities estimated under the surveys conducted under subparagraph (E); plus

(ii) the quantities necessary for demonstration projects carried out under the program, as determined by the Secretary;

(I) shall, for advanced reactor demonstration projects, prioritize the provision of HA–LEU made available under this section through a merit-based, competitive selection process; and

(J) shall seek to ensure that the activities carried out under this section do not cause any delay in the progress of any HA–LEU project between private industry and the Department that is underway as of December 27, 2020.

(3) Applicability of USEC Privatization Act

(A) Sale or transfer to consortium

The requirements of section 3112 of the USEC Privatization Act (42 U.S.C. 2297h–10), except for the requirements of subparagraph (A) of section 3112(d)(2), shall not apply to the provision of enrichment services, or the sale or transfer of HA–LEU for commercial use by the Secretary to a member of the consortium under this subsection.

(B) Demonstration

HA–LEU made available to members of the consortium established pursuant to paragraph (2)(F) for demonstration projects shall remain the property of and title will remain with the Department, which shall be responsible for the storage, use, and disposition of all radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel created by the irradiation, processing, or purification of such uranium, and shall not be subject to the requirements of a sale or transfer of uranium under sections 3112, except for the requirements of subparagraph (A) of section 3112, and 3113of the USEC Privatization Act (42 U.S.C. 2297h–10; 42 U.S.C. 2297h–11).

(4) National security needs

The Secretary shall only make available to a member of the consortium under this section for commercial or demonstration project use material that the President has determined is not necessary for national security needs, provided that this available material shall not include any material that the Secretary may determine to be necessary for the National Nuclear Security Administration or other critical Departmental missions.

(5) DOE acquisition of HA–LEU

The Secretary may not make commitments under this section (including cooperative agreements (used in accordance with section 6305 of title 31), purchase agreements, guarantees, leases, service contracts, or any other type of commitment) for the purchase or other acquisition of HA–LEU unless—

(A) funds are specifically provided for such purposes in advance in subsequent appropriations Acts, and only to the extent that the full extent of anticipated costs stemming from such commitments is recorded as an obligation up front and in full at the time it is made; or

(B) such committing agreement includes a clause conditioning the Federal Government's obligation on the availability of future year appropriations.

(6) Sunset

The authority of the Secretary to carry out the program under this subsection shall expire on the earlier of—

(A) September 30, 2034; or

(B) 90 days after the date on which HA–LEU is available to provide a reliable and adequate supply for civilian domestic advanced nuclear reactors in the commercial market.

(7) Limitation

The Secretary shall not barter or otherwise sell or transfer uranium in any form in exchange for services relating to the final disposition of radioactive waste from uranium that is made available under this subsection.

(b) Reports to Congress

(1) Commission report on necessary regulatory updates

Not later than 12 months after December 27, 2020, the Commission shall submit to Congress a report that includes—

(A) identification of updates to regulations, certifications, and other regulatory policies that the Commission determines are necessary in order for HA–LEU to be commercially available, including—

(i) guidance for material control and accountability of special nuclear material;

(ii) certifications relating to transportation packaging for HA–LEU; and

(iii) licensing of enrichment, conversion, and fuel fabrication facilities for HA–LEU, and associated physical security plans for such facilities;


(B) a description of such updates; and

(C) a timeline to complete such updates.

(2) DOE report on program to support the availability of ha–leu for civilian domestic demonstration and commercial use

(A) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report that describes actions proposed to be carried out by the Secretary under the program described in subsection (a)(1).

(B) Coordination and stakeholder input

In developing the report under this paragraph, the Secretary shall consult with—

(i) the Commission;

(ii) suppliers of medical isotopes that have converted their operations to use HA–LEU;

(iii) the National Laboratories;

(iv) institutions of higher education;

(v) a diverse group of entities from the nuclear energy industry;

(vi) a diverse group of technology developers;

(vii) experts in nuclear nonproliferation, environmental safety, safeguards and security, and public health and safety; and

(viii) members of the consortium created under subsection (a)(2)(F).

(C) Cost and schedule estimates

The report under this paragraph shall include estimated costs, budgets, and timeframes for all activities carried out under this section.

(D) Required evaluations

The report under this paragraph shall evaluate—

(i) the actions required to establish and carry out the program under subsection (a)(1) and the cost of such actions, including with respect to—

(I) proposed preliminary terms for contracting between the Department and recipients of HA–LEU under the program (including guidelines defining the roles and responsibilities between the Department and the recipient); and

(II) the potential to coordinate with recipients of HA–LEU under the program regarding—

(aa) fuel fabrication; and

(bb) fuel transport;


(ii) the potential sources and fuel forms available to provide uranium for the program under subsection (a)(1);

(iii) options to coordinate the program under subsection (a)(1) with the operation of the versatile, reactor-based fast neutron source under section 16279a of this title (as added by section 2003);

(iv) the ability of uranium producers to provide materials for advanced nuclear reactor fuel;

(v) any associated legal, regulatory, and policy issues that should be addressed to enable—

(I) implementation of the program under subsection (a)(1); and

(II) the establishment of an industry capable of providing HA–LEU; and


(vi) any research and development plans to develop criticality benchmark data under subsection (a)(2)(A), if needed.

(3) Alternate fuels report

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall, after consulting with relevant entities, including National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, and technology developers, submit to Congress a report identifying any and all options for providing nuclear material, containing isotopes other than the uranium-235 isotope, such as uranium-233 and thorium-232 to be used as fuel for advanced nuclear reactor research, development, demonstration, or commercial application purposes.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out research, development, demonstration, and transportation activities in this section—

(1) $31,500,000 for fiscal year 2021;

(2) $33,075,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(3) $34,728,750 for fiscal year 2023;

(4) $36,465,188 for fiscal year 2024; and

(5) $38,288,447 for fiscal year 2025.

(d) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Commission

The term "Commission" means the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

(2) Demonstration project

The term "demonstration project" has the meaning given such term in section 16279a of this title.

(3) HA–LEU

The term "HA–LEU" means high-assay low-enriched uranium.

(4) High-assay low-enriched uranium

The term "high-assay low-enriched uranium" means uranium having an assay greater than 5.0 weight percent and less than 20.0 weight percent of the uranium-235 isotope.

(5) High-enriched uranium

The term "high-enriched uranium" means uranium with an assay of 20.0 weight percent or more of the uranium-235 isotope.

(6) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2001, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2453.)

References in Text

The American Medical Isotopes Production Act of 2012, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(D)(vii), is subtitle F (§3171 et seq.) of title XXXI of div. C of Pub. L. 112–239, Jan. 2, 2013, 126 Stat. 2211. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2013 Amendment note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Section 16279a of this title (as added by section 2003), referred to in subsec. (b)(2)(D)(iii), is section 16279a of this title as added by section 2003 of div. Z of Pub. L. 116–260.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Act of 2020, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Part F—Fossil Energy

§16291. Fossil energy

(a) Establishment

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs in fossil energy, including activities under this part, with the goal of improving the efficiency, effectiveness, and environmental performance of fossil energy production, upgrading, conversion, and consumption.

(2) Objectives

The programs described in paragraph (1) shall take into consideration the following objectives:

(A) Increasing the energy conversion efficiency of all forms of fossil energy through improved technologies.

(B) Decreasing the cost of all fossil energy production, generation, and delivery.

(C) Promoting diversity of energy supply.

(D) Decreasing the dependence of the United States on foreign energy supplies.

(E) Improving United States energy security.

(F) Decreasing the environmental impact of energy-related activities, including technology development to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and associated emissions of heavy metals within coal combustion residues and gas streams resulting from fossil fuel use and production.

(G) Increasing the export of fossil energy-related equipment, technology, including emissions control technologies, and services from the United States.

(H) Decreasing the cost of emissions control technologies for fossil energy production, generation, and delivery.

(I) Significantly lowering greenhouse gas emissions for all fossil fuel production, generation, delivery, and utilization technologies.

(J) Developing carbon removal and utilization technologies, products, and methods that result in net reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, including direct air capture and storage, and carbon use and reuse for commercial application.

(K) Improving the conversion, use, and storage of carbon oxides produced from fossil fuels.

(L) Reducing water use, improving water reuse, and minimizing surface and subsurface environmental impact in the development of unconventional domestic oil and natural gas resources.

(3) Priority

In carrying out the objectives described in subparagraphs (F) through (K) of paragraph (2), the Secretary shall prioritize activities and strategies that have the potential to significantly reduce emissions for each technology relevant to the applicable objective and the international commitments of the United States.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out fossil energy research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities, including activities authorized under this part—

(1) $611,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(2) $626,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(3) $641,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(c) Allocations

From amounts authorized under subsection (a), the following sums are authorized:

(1) For activities under section 16292 1 of this title—

(A) $367,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $376,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) $394,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.


(2) For activities under section 16294 of this title

(A) $20,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.


(3) For activities under section 16296 of this title

(A) $1,500,000 for fiscal year 2007; and

(B) $450,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 and 2009.


(4) For the Office of Arctic Energy under section 7144d of this title $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(d) Extended authorization

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for the Office of Arctic Energy established under section 7144d of this title $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2010 through 2012.

(e) Limitations

(1) Uses

None of the funds authorized under this section may be used for Fossil Energy Environmental Restoration or Import/Export Authorization.

(2) Institutions of higher education

Of the funds authorized under subsection (c)(2), not less than 20 percent of the funds appropriated for each fiscal year shall be dedicated to research and development carried out at institutions of higher education.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §961, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 889; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4001, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2527.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1) and (b), was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle F (§§961–968) of title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 889, which enacted this part and provisions set out as notes under section 2001 of Title 30, Mineral Lands and Mining, and amended provisions set out as a note under section 1902 of Title 30. For complete classification of subtitle F to the Code, see Tables.

Section 16292 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), relating to coal and related technologies program, was repealed and a new section 16292 of this title, relating to carbon capture technology program, was enacted by Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4002(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2528.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 116–260, §4001(5), designated second sentence of par. (1), as redesignated, as par. (2), inserted heading, and substituted "The programs described in paragraph (1) shall" for "Such programs".

Pub. L. 116–260, §4001(4), designated existing provisions of subsec. (a) as par. (1), substituted "Establishment" for "In general" in subsec. heading, and inserted par. (1) heading.

Pub. L. 116–260, §4001(3), added subpars. (G) to (L) and struck out former subpar. (G), as redesignated, which read as follows: "Increasing the export of fossil energy-related equipment, technology, and services from the United States."

Pub. L. 116–260, §4001(2), in subpar. (F), as redesignated, inserted ", including technology development to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide and associated emissions of heavy metals within coal combustion residues and gas streams resulting from fossil fuel use and production" before period at end.

Pub. L. 116–260, §4001(1), redesignated pars. (1) to (7) of subsec. (a) as subpars. (A) to (G) and realigned margins.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 116–260, §4001(6), added par. (3)

1 See References in Text note below.

§16291a. Property interests

That for all programs funded under Fossil Energy appropriations in this and subsequent Acts, the Secretary may vest fee title or other property interests acquired under projects in any entity, including the United States.

(Pub. L. 113–76, div. D, title III, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 165.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy and Water Development and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2014, and also as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act, 2014, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Definitions

For definition of "this [Act]", referred to in text, see section 3 of Pub. L. 113–76, set out as a note under section 1 of Title 1, General Provisions.

§16292. Carbon capture technology program

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Large-scale pilot project

The term "large-scale pilot project" means a pilot project that—

(A) represents the scale of technology development beyond laboratory development and bench scale testing, but not yet advanced to the point of being tested under real operational conditions at commercial scale;

(B) represents the scale of technology necessary to gain the operational data needed to understand the technical and performance risks of the technology before the application of that technology at commercial scale or in commercial-scale demonstration; and

(C) is large enough—

(i) to validate scaling factors; and

(ii) to demonstrate the interaction between major components so that control philosophies for a new process can be developed and enable the technology to advance from large-scale pilot project application to commercial-scale demonstration or application.

(2) Natural gas

The term "natural gas" means any fuel consisting in whole or in part of—

(A) natural gas;

(B) liquid petroleum gas;

(C) synthetic gas derived from petroleum or natural gas liquids;

(D) any mixture of natural gas and synthetic gas; or

(E) biomethane.

(3) Natural gas electric generation facility

(A) In general

The term "natural gas electric generation facility" means a facility that generates electric energy using natural gas as the fuel.

(B) Inclusions

The term "natural gas electric generation facility" includes without limitation a new or existing—

(i) simple cycle plant;

(ii) combined cycle plant;

(iii) combined heat and power plant; or

(iv) steam methane reformer that produces hydrogen from natural gas for use in the production of electric energy.

(4) Program

The term "program" means the program established under subsection (b)(1).

(5) Transformational technology

(A) In general

The term "transformational technology" means a technology that represents a significant change in the methods used to convert energy that will enable a step change in performance, efficiency, cost of electricity, and reduction of emissions as compared to the technology in existence on December 27, 2020.

(B) Inclusions

The term "transformational technology" includes a broad range of potential technology improvements, including—

(i) thermodynamic improvements in energy conversion and heat transfer, including—

(I) advanced combustion systems, including oxygen combustion systems and chemical looping; and

(II) the replacement of steam cycles with supercritical carbon dioxide cycles;


(ii) improvements in steam or carbon dioxide turbine technology;

(iii) improvements in carbon capture, utilization, and storage systems technology;

(iv) improvements in small-scale and modular coal-fired technologies with reduced carbon output or carbon capture that can support incremental power generation capacity additions;

(v) fuel cell technologies for low-cost, high-efficiency modular power systems;

(vi) advanced gasification systems;

(vii) thermal cycling technologies; and

(viii) any other technology the Secretary recognizes as transformational technology.

(b) Carbon capture technology program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a carbon capture technology program for the development of transformational technologies that will significantly improve the efficiency, effectiveness, costs, emissions reductions, and environmental performance of coal and natural gas use, including in manufacturing and industrial facilities.

(2) Requirements

The program shall include—

(A) a research and development program;

(B) large-scale pilot projects;

(C) demonstration projects, in accordance with paragraph (4); and

(D) a front-end engineering and design program.

(3) Program goals and objectives

In consultation with the interested entities described in paragraph (6)(C), the Secretary shall develop goals and objectives for the program to be applied to the transformational technologies developed within the program, taking into consideration the following:

(A) Increasing the performance of coal electric generation facilities and natural gas electric generation facilities, including by—

(i) ensuring reliable, low-cost power from new and existing coal electric generation facilities and natural gas electric generation facilities;

(ii) achieving high conversion efficiencies;

(iii) addressing emissions of carbon dioxide and other air pollutants;

(iv) developing small-scale and modular technologies to support incremental capacity additions and load following generation, in addition to large-scale generation technologies;

(v) supporting dispatchable operations for new and existing applications of coal and natural gas generation; and

(vi) accelerating the development of technologies that have transformational energy conversion characteristics.


(B) Using carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration technologies to decrease the carbon dioxide emissions, and the environmental impact from carbon dioxide emissions, from new and existing coal electric generation facilities and natural gas electric generation facilities, including by—

(i) accelerating the development, deployment, and commercialization of technologies to capture and sequester carbon dioxide emissions from new and existing coal electric generation facilities and natural gas electric generation facilities;

(ii) supporting sites for safe geological storage of large volumes of anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide and the development of the infrastructure needed to support a carbon dioxide utilization and storage industry;

(iii) improving the conversion, utilization, and storage of carbon dioxide produced from fossil fuels and other anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide;

(iv) lowering greenhouse gas emissions for all fossil fuel production, generation, delivery, and use, to the maximum extent practicable;

(v) developing carbon utilization technologies, products, and methods, including carbon use and reuse for commercial application;

(vi) developing net-negative carbon dioxide emissions technologies; and

(vii) developing technologies for the capture of carbon dioxide produced during the production of hydrogen from natural gas.


(C) Decreasing the non-carbon dioxide relevant environmental impacts of coal and natural gas production, including by—

(i) further reducing non-carbon dioxide air emissions; and

(ii) reducing the use, and managing the discharge, of water in power plant operations.


(D) Accelerating the development of technologies to significantly decrease emissions from manufacturing and industrial facilities, including—

(i) nontraditional fuel manufacturing facilities, including ethanol or other biofuel production plants or hydrogen production plants; and

(ii) energy-intensive manufacturing facilities that produce carbon dioxide as a byproduct of operations.


(E) Entering into cooperative agreements to carry out and expedite demonstration projects (including pilot projects) to demonstrate the technical and commercial viability of technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions released from coal electric generation facilities and natural gas electric generation facilities for commercial deployment.

(F) Identifying any barriers to the commercial deployment of any technologies under development for the capture of carbon dioxide produced by coal electric generation facilities and natural gas electric generation facilities.

(4) Demonstration projects

(A) In general

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall establish a demonstration program under which the Secretary, through a competitive, merit-reviewed process, shall enter into cooperative agreements by not later than September 30, 2025, for demonstration projects to demonstrate the construction and operation of 6 facilities to capture carbon dioxide from coal electric generation facilities, natural gas electric generation facilities, and industrial facilities.

(B) Technical assistance

The Secretary, to the maximum extent practicable, shall provide technical assistance to any eligible entity seeking to enter into a cooperative agreement described in subparagraph (A) for the purpose of obtaining any necessary permits and licenses to demonstrate qualifying technologies.

(C) Eligible entities

The Secretary may enter into cooperative agreements under subparagraph (A) with industry stakeholders, including any industry stakeholder operating in partnership with the National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, multiinstitutional collaborations, and other appropriate entities.

(D) Commercial-scale demonstration projects

(i) In general

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall establish a carbon capture technology commercialization program to demonstrate substantial improvements in the efficiency, effectiveness, cost, and environmental performance of carbon capture technologies for power, industrial, and other commercial applications.

(ii) Requirement

The program established under clause (i) shall include funding for commercial-scale carbon capture technology demonstrations of projects supported by the Department, including projects in addition to the projects described in subparagraph (A), including funding for not more than 2 projects to demonstrate substantial improvements in a particular technology type beyond the first of a kind demonstration and to account for considerations described in subparagraph (G).

(E) Requirement

Of the demonstration projects carried out under subparagraph (A)—

(i) 2 shall be designed to capture carbon dioxide from a natural gas electric generation facility;

(ii) 2 shall be designed to capture carbon dioxide from a coal electric generation facility; and

(iii) 2 shall be designed to capture carbon dioxide from an industrial facility not purposed for electric generation.

(F) Goals

Each demonstration project under the demonstration program under subparagraph (A)—

(i) shall be designed to further the development, deployment, and commercialization of technologies to capture and sequester carbon dioxide emissions from new and existing coal electric generation facilities, natural gas electric generation facilities, and industrial facilities;

(ii) shall be financed in part by the private sector; and

(iii) if necessary, shall secure agreements for the offtake of carbon dioxide emissions captured by qualifying technologies during the project.

(G) Applications

(i) In general

To be eligible to enter into an agreement with the Secretary for a demonstration project under subparagraphs (A) and (D), an entity shall submit to the Secretary an application at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

(ii) Review of applications

In reviewing applications submitted under clause (i), the Secretary, to the maximum extent practicable, shall—

(I) ensure a broad geographic distribution of project sites;

(II) ensure that a broad selection of electric generation facilities are represented;

(III) ensure that a broad selection of technologies are represented; and

(IV) leverage existing public-private partnerships and Federal resources.

(H) GAO study and report

(i) Study and report

(I) In general

Not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct, and submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a report on the results of, a study of the successes, failures, practices, and improvements of the Department in carrying out demonstration projects under this paragraph.

(II) Considerations

In conducting the study under subclause (I), the Comptroller General of the United States shall consider—

(aa) applicant and contractor qualifications;

(bb) project management practices at the Department;

(cc) economic or market changes and other factors impacting project viability;

(dd) completion of third-party agreements, including power purchase agreements and carbon dioxide offtake agreements;

(ee) regulatory challenges; and

(ff) construction challenges.

(ii) Recommendations

The Secretary shall—

(I) consider any relevant recommendations, as determined by the Secretary, provided in the report required under clause (i)(I); and

(II) adopt such recommendations as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(I) Report

(i) In general

Not later than 180 days after the date on which the Secretary solicits applications under subparagraph (G), and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of jurisdiction of the Senate and the House of Representatives a report that includes a detailed description of how the applications under the demonstration program established under subparagraph (A) were or will be solicited and how the applications were or will be evaluated, including—

(I) a list of any activities carried out by the Secretary to solicit or evaluate the applications; and

(II) a process for ensuring that any projects carried out under a cooperative agreement entered into under subparagraph (A) are designed to result in the development or demonstration of qualifying technologies.

(ii) Inclusions

The Secretary shall include—

(I) in the first report required under clause (i), a detailed list of technical milestones for the development and demonstration of each qualifying technology pursued under the demonstration program established under subparagraph (A);

(II) in each subsequent report required under clause (i), a description of the progress made towards achieving the technical milestones described in subclause (I) during the applicable period covered by the report; and

(III) in each report required under clause (i)—

(aa) an estimate of the cost of licensing, permitting, constructing, and operating each carbon capture facility expected to be constructed under the demonstration program established under subparagraph (A);

(bb) a schedule for the planned construction and operation of each demonstration or pilot project under the demonstration program; and

(cc) an estimate of any financial assistance, compensation, or incentives proposed to be paid by the host State, Indian Tribe, or local government with respect to each facility described in item (aa).

(5) Intraagency coordination for carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration activities

The carbon capture, utilization, and sequestration activities described in paragraph (3)(B) shall be carried out by the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy, in coordination with the heads of other relevant offices of the Department and the National Laboratories.

(6) Consultations required

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall—

(A) undertake international collaborations, taking into consideration the recommendations of the National Coal Council and the National Petroleum Council;

(B) use existing authorities to encourage international cooperation; and

(C) consult with interested entities, including—

(i) coal and natural gas producers;

(ii) industries that use coal and natural gas;

(iii) organizations that promote coal, advanced coal, and natural gas technologies;

(iv) environmental organizations;

(v) organizations representing workers; and

(vi) organizations representing consumers.

(c) Report

(1) In general

Not later than 18 months after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report describing the program goals and objectives adopted under subsection (b)(3).

(2) Update

Not less frequently than once every 2 years after the initial report is submitted under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report describing the progress made towards achieving the program goals and objectives adopted under subsection (b)(3).

(d) Funding

(1) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section, to remain available until expended—

(A) for activities under the research and development program component described in subsection (b)(2)(A)—

(i) $230,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 and 2022; and

(ii) $150,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 through 2025;


(B) subject to paragraph (2), for activities under the large-scale pilot projects program component described in subsection (b)(2)(B)—

(i) $225,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 and 2022;

(ii) $200,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2023 and 2024; and

(iii) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 2025;


(C) for activities under the demonstration projects program component described in subsection (b)(2)(C)—

(i) $500,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 though 2024; and

(ii) $600,000,000 for fiscal year 2025; and


(D) for activities under the front-end engineering and design program described in subsection (b)(2)(D), $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2024.

(2) Cost sharing for large-scale pilot projects

Activities under subsection (b)(2)(B) shall be subject to the cost-sharing requirements of section 16352(b) of this title.

(e) Carbon capture test centers

(1) In general

Not later than 2 years after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall award grants to 1 or more entities for the operation of 1 or more test centers (referred to in this subsection as a "Center") to provide distinct testing capabilities for innovative carbon capture technologies.

(2) Purpose

Each Center shall—

(A) advance research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of carbon capture technologies;

(B) support large-scale pilot projects and demonstration projects and test carbon capture technologies; and

(C) develop front-end engineering design and economic analysis.

(3) Selection

(A) In general

The Secretary shall select entities to receive grants under this subsection according to such criteria as the Secretary may develop.

(B) Competitive basis

The Secretary shall select entities to receive grants under this subsection on a competitive basis.

(C) Priority criteria

In selecting entities to receive grants under this subsection, the Secretary shall prioritize consideration of applicants that—

(i) have access to existing or planned research facilities for carbon capture technologies;

(ii) are institutions of higher education with established expertise in engineering for carbon capture technologies, or partnerships with such institutions of higher education; or

(iii) have access to existing research and test facilities for bulk materials design and testing, component design and testing, or professional engineering design.

(D) Existing centers

In selecting entities to receive grants under this subsection, the Secretary shall prioritize carbon capture test centers in existence on December 27, 2020.

(4) Formula for awarding grants

The Secretary may develop a formula for awarding grants under this subsection.

(5) Schedule

(A) In general

Each grant awarded under this subsection shall be for a term of not more than 5 years, subject to the availability of appropriations.

(B) Renewal

The Secretary may renew a grant for 1 or more additional 5-year terms, subject to a competitive merit review and the availability of appropriations.

(6) Termination

To the extent otherwise authorized by law, the Secretary may eliminate, and terminate grant funding under this subsection for, a Center during any 5-year term described in paragraph (5) if the Secretary determines that the Center is underperforming.

(7) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §962, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4002(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2528.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 16292, Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §962, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 890, related to coal and related technologies program, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4002(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2528.

§16293. Carbon storage validation and testing

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Large-scale carbon sequestration

The term "large-scale carbon sequestration" means a scale that—

(A) demonstrates the ability to inject into geologic formations and sequester carbon dioxide; and

(B) has a goal of sequestering not less than 50 million metric tons of carbon dioxide over a 10-year period.

(2) Program

The term "program" means the program established under subsection (b)(1).

(b) Carbon storage program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, and demonstration for carbon storage.

(2) Program activities

Activities under the program shall include—

(A) in coordination with relevant Federal agencies, developing and maintaining mapping tools and resources that assess the capacity of geologic storage formation in the United States;

(B) developing monitoring tools, modeling of geologic formations, and analyses—

(i) to predict carbon dioxide containment; and

(ii) to account for sequestered carbon dioxide in geologic storage sites;


(C) researching—

(i) potential environmental, safety, and health impacts in the event of a leak into the atmosphere or to an aquifer; and

(ii) any corresponding mitigation actions or responses to limit harmful consequences of such a leak;


(D) evaluating the interactions of carbon dioxide with formation solids and fluids, including the propensity of injections to induce seismic activity;

(E) assessing and ensuring the safety of operations relating to geologic sequestration of carbon dioxide;

(F) determining the fate of carbon dioxide concurrent with and following injection into geologic formations;

(G) supporting cost and business model assessments to examine the economic viability of technologies and systems developed under the program; and

(H) providing information to the Environmental Protection Agency, States, local governments, Tribal governments, and other appropriate entities, to ensure the protection of human health and the environment.

(3) Geologic settings

In carrying out research activities under this subsection, the Secretary shall consider a variety of candidate onshore and offshore geologic settings, including—

(A) operating oil and gas fields;

(B) depleted oil and gas fields;

(C) residual oil zones;

(D) unconventional reservoirs and rock types;

(E) unmineable coal seams;

(F) saline formations in both sedimentary and basaltic geologies;

(G) geologic systems that may be used as engineered reservoirs to extract economical quantities of brine from geothermal resources of low permeability or porosity; and

(H) geologic systems containing in situ carbon dioxide mineralization formations.

(c) Large-scale carbon sequestration demonstration program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a demonstration program under which the Secretary shall provide funding for demonstration projects to collect and validate information on the cost and feasibility of commercial deployment of large-scale carbon sequestration technologies.

(2) Existing regional carbon sequestration partnerships

In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary may provide additional funding to regional carbon sequestration partnerships that are carrying out or have completed a large-scale carbon sequestration demonstration project under this section (as in effect on the day before December 27, 2020) for additional work on that project.

(3) Demonstration components

Each demonstration project carried out under this subsection shall include longitudinal tests involving carbon dioxide injection and monitoring, mitigation, and verification operations.

(4) Clearinghouse

The National Energy Technology Laboratory shall act as a clearinghouse of shared information and resources for—

(A) existing or completed demonstration projects receiving additional funding under paragraph (2); and

(B) any new demonstration projects funded under this subsection.

(5) Report

Not later than 1 year after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a report that—

(A) assesses the progress of all regional carbon sequestration partnerships carrying out a demonstration project under this subsection;

(B) identifies the remaining challenges in achieving large-scale carbon sequestration that is reliable and safe for the environment and public health; and

(C) creates a roadmap for carbon storage research and development activities of the Department through 2025, with the goal of reducing economic and policy barriers to commercial carbon sequestration.

(d) Integrated storage

(1) In general

The Secretary may transition large-scale carbon sequestration demonstration projects under subsection (c) into integrated commercial storage complexes.

(2) Goals and objectives

The goals and objectives of the Secretary in seeking to transition large-scale carbon sequestration demonstration projects into integrated commercial storage complexes under paragraph (1) shall be—

(A) to identify geologic storage sites that are able to accept large volumes of carbon dioxide acceptable for commercial contracts;

(B) to understand the technical and commercial viability of carbon dioxide geologic storage sites; and

(C) to carry out any other activities necessary to transition the large-scale carbon sequestration demonstration projects under subsection (c) into integrated commercial storage complexes.

(e) Preference in project selection from meritorious proposals

In making competitive awards under this section, subject to the requirements of section 16353 of this title, the Secretary shall—

(1) give preference to proposals from partnerships among industrial, academic, and government entities; and

(2) require recipients to provide assurances that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors and subcontractors in the construction, repair, or alteration of new or existing facilities performed in order to carry out a demonstration or commercial application activity authorized under this section shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing on similar construction in the locality, as determined by the Secretary of Labor in accordance with subchapter IV of chapter 31 of title 40, and the Secretary of Labor shall, with respect to the labor standards in this paragraph, have the authority and functions set forth in Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950 (15 Fed. Reg. 3176; 5 U.S.C. Appendix) and section 3145 of title 40.

(f) Cost sharing

Activities carried out under this section shall be subject to the cost-sharing requirements of section 16352 of this title.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section—

(1) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;

(2) $200,000,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(3) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 2023;

(4) $150,000,000 for fiscal year 2024; and

(5) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §963, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 891; Pub. L. 110–140, title VII, §702(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1704; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4003(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2536.)

Amendments

2020Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(4), substituted "Carbon storage validation and testing" for "Carbon capture and sequestration research, development, and demonstration program" in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(4), added subsecs. (a) and (b) and struck out former subsecs. (a) and (b) which related to the establishment of a carbon capture and sequestration research, development, and demonstration program and program objectives.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(4), added subsec. (c) and struck out pars. (1) to (3) of former subsec. (c) which related to fundamental science and engineering research and development and demonstration supporting carbon capture and sequestration technologies and carbon use activities, field validation testing activities, and large-scale carbon dioxide sequestration testing, respectively.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (4) as subsec. (e).

Subsec. (c)(5), (6). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(2)(A), struck out pars. (5) and (6) which related to cost sharing and program review and report.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(4), added subsec. (d).

Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(1), struck out subsec. (d) which authorized appropriations for fiscal years 2008 to 2012.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(3), redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, substituted "section" for "subsection" in introductory provisions and in par. (2), and realigned margins.

Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(2)(B), redesignated par. (4) of subsec. (c) as (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(2)(A), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 116–260, §4003(a)(1), added subsec. (g).

2007Pub. L. 110–140, §702(a)(1), substituted "and sequestration research, development, and demonstration" for "research and development" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–140, §702(a)(2), in introductory provisions, substituted "and sequestration research, development, and demonstration" for "research and development" and "capture and sequestration technologies related to industrial sources of carbon dioxide" for "capture technologies on combustion-based systems".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 110–140, §702(a)(3), added par. (5).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 110–140, §702(a)(4), added subsecs. (c) and (d) and struck out former subsec. (c). Text of former subsec. (c) read as follows: "From amounts authorized under section 16291(b) of this title, the following sums are authorized for activities described in subsection (a)(2):

"(1) $25,000,000 for fiscal year 2006;

"(2) $30,000,000 for fiscal year 2007; and

"(3) $35,000,000 for fiscal year 2008."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§16294. Research and development for coal mining technologies

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall carry out a program for research and development on coal mining technologies.

(b) Cooperation

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall cooperate with appropriate Federal agencies, coal producers, trade associations, equipment manufacturers, institutions of higher education with mining engineering departments, and other relevant entities.

(c) Program

The research and development activities carried out under this section shall—

(1) be guided by the mining research and development priorities identified by the Mining Industry of the Future Program and in the recommendations from relevant reports of the National Academy of Sciences on mining technologies;

(2) include activities exploring minimization of contaminants in mined coal that contribute to environmental concerns including development and demonstration of electromagnetic wave imaging ahead of mining operations;

(3) develop and demonstrate coal bed electromagnetic wave imaging, spectroscopic reservoir analysis technology, and techniques for horizontal drilling in order to—

(A) identify areas of high coal gas content;

(B) increase methane recovery efficiency;

(C) prevent spoilage of domestic coal reserves; and

(D) minimize water disposal associated with methane extraction; and


(4) expand mining research capabilities at institutions of higher education.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §964, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 892.)

§16295. Oil and gas research programs

(a) In general

The Secretary shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of oil and gas, including—

(1) exploration and production;

(2) gas hydrates;

(3) reservoir life and extension;

(4) transportation and distribution infrastructure;

(5) ultraclean fuels;

(6) heavy oil, oil shale, and tar sands; and

(7) related environmental research.

(b) Objectives

The objectives of this program shall include advancing the science and technology available to domestic petroleum producers, particularly independent operators, to minimize the economic dislocation caused by the decline of domestic supplies of oil and natural gas resources.

(c) Natural gas and oil deposits report

Not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary of the Interior, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, shall submit to Congress a report on the latest estimates of natural gas and oil reserves, reserves growth, and undiscovered resources in Federal and State waters off the coast of Louisiana, Texas, Alabama, and Mississippi.

(d) Integrated clean power and energy research

(1) Establishment of center

The Secretary shall establish a national center or consortium of excellence in clean energy and power generation, using the resources of the Clean Power and Energy Research Consortium in existence on August 8, 2005, to address the critical dependence of the United States on energy and the need to reduce emissions.

(2) Focus areas

The center or consortium shall conduct a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application on integrating the following 6 focus areas:

(A) Efficiency and reliability of gas turbines for power generation.

(B) Reduction in emissions from power generation.

(C) Promotion of energy conservation issues.

(D) Effectively using alternative fuels and renewable energy.

(E) Development of advanced materials technology for oil and gas exploration and use in harsh environments.

(F) Education on energy and power generation issues.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §965, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 892.)

§16296. Low-volume oil and gas reservoir research program

(a) Definition of GIS

In this section, the term "GIS" means geographic information systems technology that facilitates the organization and management of data with a geographic component.

(b) Program

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application to maximize the productive capacity of marginal wells and reservoirs.

(c) Data collection

Under the program, the Secretary shall collect data on—

(1) the status and location of marginal wells and oil and gas reservoirs;

(2) the production capacity of marginal wells and oil and gas reservoirs;

(3) the location of low-pressure gathering facilities and pipelines; and

(4) the quantity of natural gas vented or flared in association with crude oil production.

(d) Analysis

Under the program, the Secretary shall—

(1) estimate the remaining producible reserves based on variable pipeline pressures; and

(2) recommend measures that will enable the continued production of those resources.

(e) Study

(1) In general

The Secretary may award a grant to an organization of States that contain significant numbers of marginal oil and natural gas wells to conduct an annual study of low-volume natural gas reservoirs.

(2) Organization with no GIS capabilities

If an organization receiving a grant under paragraph (1) does not have GIS capabilities, the organization shall contract with an institution of higher education with GIS capabilities.

(3) State geologists

The organization receiving a grant under paragraph (1) shall collaborate with the State geologist of each State being studied.

(f) Public information

The Secretary may use the data collected and analyzed under this section to produce maps and literature to disseminate to States to promote conservation of natural gas reserves.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §966, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 893.)

§16297. Complex Well Technology Testing Facility

The Secretary, in coordination with industry leaders in extended research drilling technology, shall establish a Complex Well Technology Testing Facility at the Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center to increase the range of extended drilling technologies.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §967, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 894.)

§16298. Carbon utilization program

(a) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercialization relating to carbon utilization.

(b) Activities

Under the program described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall—

(1) assess and monitor—

(A) potential changes in lifecycle carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions; and

(B) other environmental safety indicators of new technologies, practices, processes, or methods used in enhanced hydrocarbon recovery as part of the activities authorized under section 16293 of this title;


(2) identify and evaluate novel uses for carbon (including conversion of carbon oxides) that, on a full lifecycle basis, achieve a permanent reduction, or avoidance of a net increase, in carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, for use in commercial and industrial products such as—

(A) chemicals;

(B) plastics;

(C) building materials;

(D) fuels;

(E) cement;

(F) products of coal utilization in power systems or in other applications; and

(G) other products with demonstrated market value;


(3) identify and assess carbon capture technologies for industrial systems; and

(4) identify and assess alternative uses for coal that result in zero net emissions of carbon dioxide or other pollutants, including products derived from carbon engineering, carbon fiber, and coal conversion methods.

(c) Prioritization

In supporting demonstration and commercialization research under the program described in subsection (a), the Secretary shall prioritize consideration of projects that—

(1) have access to a carbon dioxide emissions stream generated by a stationary source in the United States that is capable of supplying not less than 250 metric tons per day of carbon dioxide for research;

(2) have access to equipment for testing small-scale carbon dioxide utilization technologies, with onsite access to larger test bays for scale-up; and

(3) have 1 or more existing partnerships with a National Laboratory, an institution of higher education, a private company, or a State or other government entity.

(d) Coordination

The Secretary shall coordinate the activities authorized under this section with the activities authorized in section 16298a of this title as part of a single consolidated program of the Department.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $50,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §969, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. S, §102(c)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2247.)

§16298a. Carbon utilization program

(a) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program of research, development, and demonstration for carbon utilization—

(1) to assess and monitor—

(A) potential changes in lifecycle carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gas emissions; and

(B) other environmental safety indicators of new technologies, practices, processes, or methods used in enhanced hydrocarbon recovery as part of the activities authorized under section 16293 of this title;


(2) to identify and assess novel uses for carbon, including the conversion of carbon and carbon oxides for commercial and industrial products and other products with potential market value;

(3) to identify and assess carbon capture technologies for industrial systems; and

(4) to identify and assess alternative uses for raw coal and processed coal products in all phases that result in no significant emissions of carbon dioxide or other pollutants, including products derived from carbon engineering, carbon fiber, and coal conversion methods.

(b) Demonstration programs for the purpose of commercialization

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, as part of the program established under subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish a 2-year demonstration program in each of the 2 major coal-producing regions of the United States for the purpose of partnering with private institutions in coal mining regions to accelerate the commercial deployment of coal-carbon products.

(2) Cost sharing

Activities under paragraph (1) shall be subject to the cost-sharing requirements of section 16352 of this title.

(c) Carbon Utilization Research Center

(1) In general

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish and operate a national Carbon Utilization Research Center (referred to in this subsection as the "Center"), which shall focus on early stage research and development activities including—

(A) post-combustion and pre-combustion capture of carbon dioxide;

(B) advanced compression technologies for new and existing fossil fuel-fired power plants;

(C) technologies to convert carbon dioxide to valuable products and commodities; and

(D) advanced carbon dioxide storage technologies that consider a range of storage regimes.

(2) Selection

The Secretary shall—

(A) select the Center under this subsection on a competitive, merit-reviewed basis; and

(B) consider applications from the National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, multiinstitutional collaborations, and other appropriate entities.

(3) Existing centers

In selecting the Center under this subsection, the Secretary shall prioritize carbon utilization research centers in existence on December 27, 2020.

(4) Duration

The Center established under this subsection shall receive support for a period of not more than 5 years, subject to the availability of appropriations.

(5) Renewal

On the expiration of any period of support of the Center, the Secretary may renew support for the Center, on a merit-reviewed basis, for a period of not more than 5 years.

(6) Termination

Consistent with the existing authorities of the Department, the Secretary may terminate the Center for cause during the performance period.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section—

(1) $54,000,000 for fiscal year 2021;

(2) $55,250,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(3) $56,562,500 for fiscal year 2023;

(4) $57,940,625 for fiscal year 2024; and

(5) $59,387,656 for fiscal year 2025.

(e) Coordination

The Secretary shall coordinate the activities authorized in this section with the activities authorized in section 16298 of this title as part of one consolidated program at the Department. Nothing in section 16298 of this title shall be construed as limiting the authorities provided in this section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, 969A, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4004(a)(1), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2539.)

§16298b. High efficiency turbines

(a) In general

The Secretary, acting through the Assistant Secretary for Fossil Energy (referred to in this section as the "Secretary"), shall establish a multiyear, multiphase program (referred to in this section as the "program") of research, development, and technology demonstration to improve the efficiency of gas turbines used in power generation systems and aviation.

(b) Program elements

The program shall—

(1) support first-of-a-kind engineering and detailed gas turbine design for small-scale and utility-scale electric power generation, including—

(A) high temperature materials, including superalloys, coatings, and ceramics;

(B) improved heat transfer capability;

(C) manufacturing technology required to construct complex 3-dimensional geometry parts with improved aerodynamic capability;

(D) combustion technology to produce higher firing temperature while lowering nitrogen oxide and carbon monoxide emissions per unit of output;

(E) advanced controls and systems integration;

(F) advanced high performance compressor technology; and

(G) validation facilities for the testing of components and subsystems;


(2) include technology demonstration through component testing, subscale testing, and full-scale testing in existing fleets;

(3) include field demonstrations of the developed technology elements to demonstrate technical and economic feasibility;

(4) assess overall combined cycle and simple cycle system performance;

(5) increase fuel flexibility by enabling gas turbines to operate with high proportions of, or pure, hydrogen or other renewable gas fuels;

(6) enhance foundational knowledge needed for low-emission combustion systems that can work in high-pressure, high-temperature environments required for high-efficiency cycles;

(7) increase operational flexibility by reducing turbine start-up times and improving the ability to accommodate flexible power demand; and

(8) include any other elements necessary to achieve the goals described in subsection (c), as determined by the Secretary, in consultation with private industry.

(c) Program goals

(1) In general

The goals of the program shall be—

(A) in phase I, to develop a conceptual design of, and to develop and demonstrate the technology required for—

(i) advanced high efficiency gas turbines to achieve, on a lower heating value basis—

(I) a combined cycle efficiency of not less than 65 percent; or

(II) a simple cycle efficiency of not less than 47 percent; and


(ii) aviation gas turbines to achieve a 25 percent reduction in fuel burn by improving fuel efficiency to existing best-in-class turbo-fan engines; and


(B) in phase II, to develop a conceptual design of advanced high efficiency gas turbines that can achieve, on a lower heating value basis—

(i) a combined cycle efficiency of not less than 67 percent; or

(ii) a simple cycle efficiency of not less than 50 percent.

(2) Additional goals

If a goal described in paragraph (1) has been achieved, the Secretary, in consultation with private industry and the National Academy of Sciences, may develop additional goals or phases for advanced gas turbine research and development.

(d) Financial assistance

(1) In general

The Secretary may provide financial assistance, including grants, to carry out the program.

(2) Proposals

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall solicit proposals from industry, small businesses, universities, and other appropriate parties for conducting activities under this section.

(3) Considerations

In selecting proposed projects to receive financial assistance under this subsection, the Secretary shall give special consideration to the extent to which the proposed project will—

(A) stimulate the creation or increased retention of jobs in the United States; and

(B) promote and enhance technology leadership in the United States.

(4) Competitive awards

The Secretary shall provide financial assistance under this subsection on a competitive basis, with an emphasis on technical merit.

(5) Cost sharing

Financial assistance provided under this subsection shall be subject to the cost sharing requirements of section 16352 of this title.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $50,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2021 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §969B, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4005(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2542.)

§16298c. National Energy Technology Laboratory reforms

(a) Special hiring authority for scientific, engineering, and project management personnel

(1) In general

The Director of the National Energy Technology Laboratory (referred to in this section as the "Director") may—

(A) make appointments to positions in the National Energy Technology Laboratory to assist in meeting a specific project or research need, without regard to civil service laws, of individuals who—

(i) have an advanced scientific or engineering background; or

(ii) have a business background and can assist in specific technology-to-market needs;


(B) fix the basic pay of any employee appointed under subparagraph (A) at a rate not to exceed level II of the Executive Schedule under section 5313 of title 5; and

(C) pay any employee appointed under subparagraph (A) payments in addition to the basic pay fixed under subparagraph (B), subject to the condition that the total amount of additional payments paid to an employee under this subparagraph for any 12-month period shall not exceed the least of—

(i) $25,000;

(ii) the amount equal to 25 percent of the annual rate of basic pay of that employee; and

(iii) the amount of the limitation that is applicable for a calendar year under section 5307(a)(1) of title 5.

(2) Limitations

(A) In general

The term of any employee appointed under paragraph (1)(A) shall not exceed 3 years.

(B) Full-time employees

Not more than 10 full-time employees appointed under paragraph (1)(A) may be employed at the National Energy Technology Laboratory at any given time.

(b) Laboratory-directed research and development

(1) In general

Beginning in fiscal year 2021, the National Energy Technology Laboratory shall be eligible for laboratory-directed research and development funding.

(2) Authorization of funding

(A) In general

Each fiscal year, of funds made available to the National Energy Technology Laboratory, the Secretary may deposit an amount, not to exceed the rate made available to the National Laboratories for laboratory-directed research and development, in a special fund account.

(B) Use

Amounts in the account under subparagraph (A) shall only be available for laboratory-directed research and development.

(C) Requirements

The account under subparagraph (A)—

(i) shall be administered by the Secretary;

(ii) shall be available without fiscal year limitation; and

(iii) shall not be subject to appropriation.

(3) Requirement

The Director shall carry out laboratory-directed research and development activities at the National Energy Technology Laboratory consistent with Department of Energy Order 413.2C, dated August 2, 2018 (or a successor order).

(4) Annual report on use of authority

Annually, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a report on the use of the authority provided under this subsection during the preceding fiscal year.

(c) Laboratory operations

The Secretary shall delegate human resources operations of the National Energy Technology Laboratory to the Director to assist in carrying out this section.

(d) Review

Not later than 2 years after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a report assessing the management and research activities of the National Energy Technology Laboratory, which shall include—

(1) an assessment of the quality of science and research at the National Energy Technology Laboratory, relative to similar work at other National Laboratories;

(2) a review of the effectiveness of authorities provided in subsections (a) and (b); and

(3) recommendations for policy changes within the Department and legislative changes to provide the National Energy Technology Laboratory with the necessary tools and resources to advance the research mission of the National Energy Technology Laboratory.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §969C, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title IV, §4006(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2544.)

§16298d. Carbon removal

(a) Establishment

The Secretary, in coordination with the heads of appropriate Federal agencies, including the Secretary of Agriculture, shall establish a research, development, and demonstration program (referred to in this section as the "program") to test, validate, or improve technologies and strategies to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere on a large scale.

(b) Intraagency coordination

The Secretary shall ensure that the program includes the coordinated participation of the Office of Fossil Energy, the Office of Science, and the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

(c) Program activities

The program may include research, development, and demonstration activities relating to—

(1) direct air capture and storage technologies;

(2) bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration;

(3) enhanced geological weathering;

(4) agricultural practices;

(5) forest management and afforestation; and

(6) planned or managed carbon sinks, including natural and artificial.

(d) Requirements

In developing and identifying carbon removal technologies and strategies under the program, the Secretary shall consider—

(1) land use changes, including impacts on natural and managed ecosystems;

(2) ocean acidification;

(3) net greenhouse gas emissions;

(4) commercial viability;

(5) potential for near-term impact;

(6) potential for carbon reductions on a gigaton scale; and

(7) economic cobenefits.

(e) Air capture prize competitions

(1) Definitions

In this subsection:

(A) Dilute media

The term "dilute media" means media in which the concentration of carbon dioxide is less than 1 percent by volume.

(B) Prize competition

The term "prize competition" means the competitive technology prize competition established under paragraph (2).

(C) Qualified carbon dioxide

(i) In general

The term "qualified carbon dioxide" means any carbon dioxide that—

(I) is captured directly from the ambient air; and

(II) is measured at the source of capture and verified at the point of disposal, injection, or utilization.

(ii) Inclusion

The term "qualified carbon dioxide" includes the initial deposit of captured carbon dioxide used as a tertiary injectant.

(iii) Exclusion

The term "qualified carbon dioxide" does not include carbon dioxide that is recaptured, recycled, and reinjected as part of the enhanced oil and natural gas recovery process.

(D) Qualified direct air capture facility

(i) In general

The term "qualified direct air capture facility" means any facility that—

(I) uses carbon capture equipment to capture carbon dioxide directly from the ambient air; and

(II) captures more than 50,000 metric tons of qualified carbon dioxide annually.

(ii) Exclusion

The term "qualified direct air capture facility" does not include any facility that captures carbon dioxide—

(I) that is deliberately released from naturally occurring subsurface springs; or

(II) using natural photosynthesis.

(2) Establishment

Not later than 2 years after December 27, 2020, the Secretary, in consultation with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall establish as part of the program a competitive technology prize competition to award prizes for—

(A) precommercial carbon dioxide capture from dilute media; and

(B) commercial applications of direct air capture technologies.

(3) Requirements

In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary, in accordance with section 3719 of title 15, shall develop requirements for—

(A) the prize competition process; and

(B) monitoring and verification procedures for projects selected to receive a prize under the prize competition.

(4) Eligible projects

(A) Precommercial air capture projects

With respect to projects described in paragraph (2)(A), to be eligible to be awarded a prize under the prize competition, a project shall—

(i) meet minimum performance standards set by the Secretary;

(ii) meet minimum levels set by the Secretary for the capture of carbon dioxide from dilute media; and

(iii) demonstrate in the application of the project for a prize—

(I) a design for a promising carbon capture technology that will—

(aa) be operated on a demonstration scale; and

(bb) have the potential to achieve significant reduction in the level of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere;


(II) a successful bench-scale demonstration of a carbon capture technology; or

(III) an operational carbon capture technology on a commercial scale.

(B) Commercial direct air capture projects

(i) In general

With respect to projects described in paragraph (2)(B), the Secretary shall award prizes under the prize competition to qualified direct air capture facilities for metric tons of qualified carbon dioxide captured and verified at the point of disposal, injection, or utilization.

(ii) Amount of award

The amount of the award per metric ton under clause (i)—

(I) shall be equal for each qualified direct air capture facility selected for a prize under the prize competition; and

(II) shall be determined by the Secretary and in any case shall not exceed—

(aa) $180 for qualified carbon dioxide captured and stored in saline storage formations;

(bb) a lesser amount, as determined by the Secretary, for qualified carbon dioxide captured and stored in conjunction with enhanced oil recovery operations; or

(cc) a lesser amount, as determined by the Secretary, for qualified carbon dioxide captured and utilized in any activity consistent with section 45Q(f)(5) of title 26.

(iii) Requirement

The Secretary shall make awards under this subparagraph until appropriated funds are expended.

(f) Direct air capture test center

(1) In general

Not later than 2 years after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall award grants to 1 or more entities for the operation of 1 or more test centers (referred to in this subsection as a "Center") to provide distinct testing capabilities for innovative direct air capture and storage technologies.

(2) Purpose

Each Center shall—

(A) advance research, development, demonstration, and commercial application of direct air capture and storage technologies;

(B) support large-scale pilot and demonstration projects and test direct air capture and storage technologies; and

(C) develop front-end engineering design and economic analysis.

(3) Selection

(A) In general

The Secretary shall select entities to receive grants under this subsection according to such criteria as the Secretary may develop.

(B) Competitive basis

The Secretary shall select entities to receive grants under this subsection on a competitive basis.

(C) Priority criteria

In selecting entities to receive grants under this subsection, the Secretary shall prioritize consideration of applicants that—

(i) have access to existing or planned research facilities for direct air capture and storage technologies;

(ii) are institutions of higher education with established expertise in engineering for direct air capture and storage technologies, or partnerships with such institutions of higher education; or

(iii) have access to existing research and test facilities for bulk materials design and testing, component design and testing, or professional engineering design.

(4) Formula for awarding grants

The Secretary may develop a formula for awarding grants under this subsection.

(5) Schedule

(A) In general

Each grant awarded under this subsection shall be for a term of not more than 5 years, subject to the availability of appropriations.

(B) Renewal

The Secretary may renew a grant for 1 or more additional 5-year terms, subject to a competitive merit review and the availability of appropriations.

(6) Termination

To the extent otherwise authorized by law, the Secretary may eliminate, and terminate grant funding under this subsection for, a Center during any 5-year term described in paragraph (5) if the Secretary determines that the Center is underperforming.

(g) Pilot and demonstration projects

In supporting the technology development activities under this section, the Secretary is encouraged to support carbon removal pilot and demonstration projects, including—

(1) pilot projects that test direct air capture systems capable of capturing 10 to 100 tonnes of carbon oxides per year to provide data for demonstration-scale projects; and

(2) direct air capture demonstration projects capable of capturing greater than 1,000 tonnes of carbon oxides per year.

(h) Intraagency collaboration

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall encourage and promote collaborations among relevant offices and agencies within the Department.

(i) Accounting

The Secretary shall collaborate with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the heads of other relevant Federal agencies to develop and improve accounting frameworks and tools to accurately measure carbon removal and sequestration methods and technologies.

(j) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section—

(1) $175,000,000 for fiscal year 2021, of which—

(A) $15,000,000 shall be used to carry out subsection (e)(2)(A), to remain available until expended; and

(B) $100,000,000 shall be used to carry out subsection (e)(2)(B), to remain available until expended;


(2) $63,500,000 for fiscal year 2022;

(3) $66,150,000 for fiscal year 2023;

(4) $69,458,000 for fiscal year 2024; and

(5) $72,930,000 for fiscal year 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §969D, as added Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title V, §5001(a), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2547.)

Application

Provisions of section 3212 of this title applicable to construction, alteration, or repair work of demonstration projects funded by grants or contracts authorized under this section, see section 9006(b) of div. Z of Pub. L. 116–260, set out as a note under section 16237 of this title.

§16298e. Carbon dioxide removal task force and report

(a) Definition of carbon dioxide removal

In this section, the term "carbon dioxide removal" means the capture of carbon dioxide directly from ambient air or, in dissolved form, from seawater, combined with the sequestration of that carbon dioxide, including through—

(1) direct air capture and sequestration;

(2) enhanced carbon mineralization;

(3) bioenergy with carbon capture and sequestration;

(4) forest restoration;

(5) soil carbon management; and

(6) direct ocean capture.

(b) Report

Not later than 180 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary of Energy (in this section referred to as the "Secretary"), in consultation with the heads of any other relevant Federal agencies, shall prepare a report that—

(1) estimates the magnitude of excess carbon dioxide in the atmosphere that will need to be removed by 2050 to achieve net-zero emissions and stabilize the climate;

(2) inventories current and emerging approaches of carbon dioxide removal and evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of each of the approaches; and

(3) identifies recommendations for legislation, funding, rules, revisions to rules, financing mechanisms, or other policy tools that the Federal Government can use to sufficiently advance the deployment of carbon dioxide removal projects in order to meet, in the aggregate, the magnitude of needed removals estimated under paragraph (1), including policy tools, such as—

(A) grants;

(B) loans or loan guarantees;

(C) public-private partnerships;

(D) direct procurement;

(E) incentives, including subsidized Federal financing mechanisms available to project developers;

(F) advance market commitments;

(G) regulations; and

(H) any other policy mechanism determined by the Secretary to be beneficial for advancing carbon dioxide removal methods and the deployment of carbon dioxide removal projects.

(c) Submission; publication

The Secretary shall—

(1) submit the report prepared under subsection (b) to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate and the Committees on Energy and Commerce and Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives; and

(2) as soon as practicable after completion of the report, make the report publicly available.

(d) Evaluation; revision

(1) In general

Not later than 2 years after the date on which the Secretary publishes the report under subsection (c)(2), and every 2 years thereafter, the Secretary shall evaluate the findings and recommendations of the report, or the most recent updated report submitted under paragraph (2)(B), as applicable, taking into consideration any issues and recommendations identified by the task force established under subsection (e)(1).

(2) Revision

After completing each evaluation under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall—

(A) revise the report as necessary; and

(B) if the Secretary revises the report under subparagraph (A), submit and publish the updated report in accordance with subsection (c).

(e) Task force

(1) Establishment and duties

Not later than 60 days after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall establish a task force—

(A) to identify barriers to advancement of carbon dioxide removal methods and the deployment of carbon dioxide removal projects;

(B) to inventory existing or potential Federal legislation, rules, revisions to rules, financing mechanisms, or other policy tools that are capable of advancing carbon dioxide removal methods and the deployment of carbon dioxide removal projects;

(C) to assist in preparing the report described in subsection (b) and any updates to the report under subsection (d); and

(D) to advise the Secretary on matters pertaining to carbon dioxide removal.

(2) Members and selection

The Secretary shall—

(A) develop criteria for the selection of members to the task force established under paragraph (1); and

(B) select members for the task force in accordance with the criteria developed under subparagraph (A).

(3) Meetings

The task force shall meet not less frequently than once each year.

(4) Evaluation

Not later than 7 years after December 27, 2020, the Secretary shall—

(A) reevaluate the need for the task force established under paragraph (1); and

(B) submit to Congress a recommendation as to whether the task force should continue.

(Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title V, §5002, Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2550.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Act of 2020, and not as part of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 which comprises this chapter.

Part G—Science

§16311. Science

(a) In general

The Secretary shall conduct, through the Office of Science, programs of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application in high energy physics, nuclear physics, biological and environmental research, basic energy sciences, advanced scientific computing research, and fusion energy sciences, including activities described in this part. The programs shall include support for facilities and infrastructure, education, outreach, information, analysis, and coordination activities.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities of the Office of Science, including activities authorized under this part (including the amounts authorized under the amendment made by section 976(b) 1 and including basic energy sciences, advanced scientific and computing research, biological and environmental research, fusion energy sciences, high energy physics, nuclear physics, research analysis, and infrastructure support)—

(1) $4,153,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(2) $4,586,000,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(3) $5,200,000,000 for fiscal year 2009;

(4) $5,814,000,000 for fiscal year 2010;

(5) $5,247,000,000 for fiscal year 2011;

(6) $5,614,000,000 for fiscal year 2012; and

(7) $6,007,000,000 for fiscal year 2013.

(c) Allocations

From amounts authorized under subsection (b), the following sums are authorized:

(1) For activities under the Fusion Energy Sciences program (including activities under section 16312 of this title)—

(A) $355,500,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $369,500,000 for fiscal year 2008;

(C) $384,800,000 for fiscal year 2009; and

(D) in addition to the amounts authorized under subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C), such sums as may be necessary for ITER construction, consistent with the limitations of section 16312(c)(5) of this title.


(2) For activities under the catalysis research program under section 16313 of this title

(A) $36,500,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $38,200,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 2009.


(3) For activities under the Systems Biology Program under section 16317 of this title such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(4) For activities under the Energy and Water Supplies program under section 16319 of this title, $30,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(5) For the energy research fellowships programs under section 16324 of this title, $40,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2009.

(6) For the advanced scientific computing activities under section 976— 1

(A) $270,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(B) $350,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(C) $375,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.


(7) For the science and engineering education pilot program under section 16323 of this title

(A) $4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 and 2008; and

(B) $8,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(d) Integrated bioenergy research and development

In addition to amounts otherwise authorized by this section, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary for integrated bioenergy research and development programs, projects, and activities, $49,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2005 through 2009. Activities funded under this subsection shall be coordinated with ongoing related programs of other Federal agencies, including the Plant Genome Program of the National Science Foundation. Of the funds authorized under this subsection, at least $5,000,000 for each fiscal year shall be for training and education targeted to minority and socially disadvantaged farmers and ranchers.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §971, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 898; Pub. L. 110–69, title V, §5007, Aug. 9, 2007, 121 Stat. 617; Pub. L. 111–358, title IX, §903, Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 4045.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle G (§§971–984A) of title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 898, which enacted this part and amended section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of subtitle G to the Code, see Tables.

Section 976, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c)(6), is section 976 of Pub. L. 109–58. Subsection (a) of section 976 is classified to section 16316 of this title and subsection (b) of section 976 amended section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 111–358 added pars. (5) to (7).

2007—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–69 added par. (4).

1 See References in Text note below.

§16312. Fusion energy sciences program

(a) Declaration of policy

It shall be the policy of the United States to conduct research, development, demonstration, and commercial applications to provide for the scientific, engineering, and commercial infrastructure necessary to ensure that the United States is competitive with other countries in providing fusion energy for its own needs and the needs of other countries, including by demonstrating electric power or hydrogen production for the United States energy grid using fusion energy at the earliest date.

(b) Planning

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a plan (with proposed cost estimates, budgets, and lists of potential international partners) for the implementation of the policy described in subsection (a) in a manner that ensures that—

(A) existing fusion research facilities are more fully used;

(B) fusion science, technology, theory, advanced computation, modeling, and simulation are strengthened;

(C) new magnetic and inertial fusion research and development facilities are selected based on scientific innovation and cost effectiveness, and the potential of the facilities to advance the goal of practical fusion energy at the earliest date practicable;

(D) facilities that are selected are funded at a cost-effective rate;

(E) communication of scientific results and methods between the fusion energy science community and the broader scientific and technology communities is improved;

(F) inertial confinement fusion facilities are used to the extent practicable for the purpose of inertial fusion energy research and development;

(G) attractive alternative inertial and magnetic fusion energy approaches are more fully explored; and

(H) to the extent practicable, the recommendations of the Fusion Energy Sciences Advisory Committee in the report on workforce planning, dated March 2004, are carried out, including periodic reassessment of program needs.

(2) Costs and schedules

The plan shall also address the status of and, to the extent practicable, costs and schedules for—

(A) the design and implementation of international or national facilities for the testing of fusion materials; and

(B) the design and implementation of international or national facilities for the testing and development of key fusion technologies.

(c) United States participation in ITER

(1) In general

There is authorized United States participation in the construction and operations of the ITER project, as agreed to under the April 25, 2007 "Agreement on the Establishment of the ITER International Fusion Energy Organization for the Joint Implementation of the ITER Project". The Director shall coordinate and carry out the responsibilities of the United States with respect to this Agreement.

(2) Report

Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report providing an assessment of the most recent schedule for ITER that has been approved by the ITER Council.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

Out of funds authorized to be appropriated under section 18645(o) of this title, there shall be made available to the Secretary to carry out the construction of ITER—

(A) $374,000,000 for fiscal year 2021; and

(B) $281,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2022 through 2025.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §972, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 899; Pub. L. 116–260, div. Z, title II, §2008(b), Dec. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 2478.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 116–260, which enacted subsec. (c) of this section and was approved Dec. 27, 2020.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 116–260 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) related to United States participation in ITER.

§16313. Solar Fuels Research Initiative

(a) Initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a research initiative, to be known as the "Solar Fuels Research Initiative" (referred to in this section as the "Initiative") to expand theoretical and fundamental knowledge of photochemistry, electrochemistry, biochemistry, and materials science useful for the practical development of experimental systems to convert solar energy to chemical energy.

(2) Leveraging

In carrying out programs and activities under the Initiative, the Secretary shall leverage expertise and resources from—

(A) the Basic Energy Sciences Program and the Biological and Environmental Research Program of the Office of Science; and

(B) the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

(3) Teams

(A) In general

In carrying out the Initiative, the Secretary shall organize activities among multidisciplinary teams to leverage, to the maximum extent practicable, expertise from the National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, and the private sector.

(B) Goals

The multidisciplinary teams described in subparagraph (A) shall pursue aggressive, milestone-driven, basic research goals.

(C) Resources

The Secretary shall provide sufficient resources to the multidisciplinary teams described in subparagraph (A) to achieve the goals described in subparagraph (B) over a period of time to be determined by the Secretary.

(4) Additional activities

The Secretary may organize additional activities under this subsection through Energy Frontier Research Centers, Energy Innovation Hubs, or other organizational structures.

(b) Artificial photosynthesis

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out under the Initiative a program to support research needed to bridge scientific barriers to, and discover knowledge relevant to, artificial photosynthetic systems.

(2) Activities

As part of the program described in paragraph (1)—

(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences shall support basic research to pursue distinct lines of scientific inquiry, including—

(i) photoinduced production of hydrogen and oxygen from water; and

(ii) the sustainable photoinduced reduction of carbon dioxide to fuel products including hydrocarbons, alcohols, carbon monoxide, and natural gas; and


(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support translational research, development, and validation of physical concepts developed under the program.

(3) Standard of review

The Secretary shall review activities carried out under the program described in paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.

(4) Prohibition

No funds allocated to the program described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended for commercial application of energy technology.

(c) Biochemistry, replication of natural photosynthesis, and related processes

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out under the Initiative a program to support research needed to replicate natural photosynthetic processes by use of artificial photosynthetic components and materials.

(2) Activities

As part of the program described in paragraph (1)—

(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences shall support basic research to expand fundamental knowledge to replicate natural synthesis processes, including—

(i) the photoinduced reduction of dinitrogen to ammonia;

(ii) the absorption of carbon dioxide from ambient air;

(iii) molecular-based charge separation and storage;

(iv) photoinitiated electron transfer; and

(v) catalysis in biological or biomimetic systems;


(B) the Associate Director of Biological and Environmental Research shall support systems biology and genomics approaches to understand genetic and physiological pathways connected to photosynthetic mechanisms; and

(C) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support translational research, development, and validation of physical concepts developed under the program.

(3) Standard of review

The Secretary shall review activities carried out under the program described in paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.

(4) Prohibition

No funds allocated to the program described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended for commercial application of energy technology.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §973, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 902; Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §303(d)(1), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3141.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–246 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section related to catalysis research program.

§16314. Hydrogen

(a) In general

The Secretary shall conduct a program of fundamental research and development in support of programs authorized under subchapter VIII.

(b) Methods

The program shall include support for methods of generating hydrogen without the use of natural gas.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §974, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 903.)

§16315. Electricity Storage Research Initiative

(a) Initiative

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a research initiative, to be known as the "Electricity Storage Research Initiative" (referred to in this section as the "Initiative")—

(A) to expand theoretical and fundamental knowledge to control, store, and convert—

(i) electrical energy to chemical energy; and

(ii) chemical energy to electrical energy; and


(B) to support scientific inquiry into the practical understanding of chemical and physical processes that occur within systems involving crystalline and amorphous solids, polymers, and organic and aqueous liquids.

(2) Leveraging

In carrying out programs and activities under the Initiative, the Secretary shall leverage expertise and resources from—

(A) the Basic Energy Sciences Program, the Advanced Scientific Computing Research Program, and the Biological and Environmental Research Program of the Office of Science; and

(B) the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

(3) Teams

(A) In general

In carrying out the Initiative, the Secretary shall organize activities among multidisciplinary teams to leverage, to the maximum extent practicable, expertise from the National Laboratories, institutions of higher education, and the private sector.

(B) Goals

The multidisciplinary teams described in subparagraph (A) shall pursue aggressive, milestone-driven, basic research goals.

(C) Resources

The Secretary shall provide sufficient resources to the multidisciplinary teams described in subparagraph (A) to achieve the goals described in subparagraph (B) over a period of time to be determined by the Secretary.

(4) Additional activities

The Secretary may organize additional activities under this subsection through Energy Frontier Research Centers, Energy Innovation Hubs, or other organizational structures.

(b) Multivalent systems

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out under the Initiative a program to support research needed to bridge scientific barriers to, and discover knowledge relevant to, multivalent ion materials in electric energy storage systems.

(2) Activities

As part of the program described in paragraph (1)—

(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences shall investigate electrochemical properties and the dynamics of materials, including charge transfer phenomena and mass transport in materials; and

(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support translational research, development, and validation of physical concepts developed under the program.

(3) Standard of review

The Secretary shall review activities carried out under the program described in paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.

(4) Prohibition

No funds allocated to the program described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended for commercial application of energy technology.

(c) Electrochemistry modeling and simulation

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out under the Initiative a program to support research to model and simulate organic electrolytes, including the static and dynamic electrochemical behavior and phenomena of organic electrolytes at the molecular and atomic level in monovalent and multivalent systems.

(2) Activities

As part of the program described in paragraph (1)—

(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences, in coordination with the Associate Director of Advanced Scientific Computing Research, shall support the development of high performance computational tools through a joint development process to maximize the effectiveness of current and projected high performance computing systems; and

(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support translational research, development, and validation of physical concepts developed under the program.

(3) Standard of review

The Secretary shall review activities carried out under the program described in paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.

(4) Prohibition

No funds allocated to the program described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended for commercial application of energy technology.

(d) Mesoscale electrochemistry

(1) In general

The Secretary shall carry out under the Initiative a program to support research needed to reveal electrochemistry in confined mesoscale spaces, including scientific discoveries relevant to—

(A) bio-electrochemistry and electrochemical energy conversion and storage in confined spaces; and

(B) the dynamics of the phenomena described in subparagraph (A).

(2) Activities

As part of the program described in paragraph (1)—

(A) the Director of the Office of Basic Energy Sciences and the Associate Director of Biological and Environmental Research shall investigate phenomena of mesoscale electrochemical confinement for the purpose of replicating and controlling new electrochemical behavior; and

(B) the Assistant Secretary for Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy shall support translational research, development, and validation of physical concepts developed under the program.

(3) Standard of review

The Secretary shall review activities carried out under the program described in paragraph (1) to determine the achievement of technical milestones.

(4) Prohibition

No funds allocated to the program described in paragraph (1) may be obligated or expended for commercial application of energy technology.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §975, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 903; Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §303(e)(1), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3143.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–246 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Secretary shall conduct a program of fundamental research on solid state lighting in support of the Next Generation Lighting Initiative carried out under section 16192 of this title."

§16316. Advanced scientific computing research and development program

(1) In general

The Secretary shall conduct an advanced scientific computing research and development program that includes activities related to applied mathematics and activities authorized by the American Super Computing Leadership Act of 2017 (15 U.S.C. 5541 et seq.).

(2) Goal

The Secretary shall carry out the program with the goal of supporting departmental missions, and providing the high-performance computational, networking, advanced visualization technologies, and workforce resources, that are required for world leadership in science.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §976(a), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 903; Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §304(a)(1)(B), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3145.)

References in Text

The American Super Computing Leadership Act of 2017, referred to in par. (1), is Pub. L. 108–423, Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2400, which is classified principally to subchapter III (§5541 et seq.) of chapter 81 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5501 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Par. (1). Pub. L. 115–246 substituted "American Super Computing Leadership Act of 2017" for "Department of Energy High-End Computing Revitalization Act of 2004".

§16317. Systems biology program

(a) Program

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish a research, development, and demonstration program in microbial and plant systems biology, protein science, computational biology, and environmental science to support the energy, national security, and environmental missions of the Department.

(2) Grants

The program shall support individual researchers and multidisciplinary teams of researchers through competitive, merit-reviewed grants.

(3) Consultation

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall consult with other Federal agencies that conduct genetic and protein research.

(b) Goals

The program shall have the goal of developing technologies and methods based on the biological functions of genomes, microbes, and plants that—

(1) can facilitate the production of fuels, including hydrogen in sustainable production systems that reduce greenhouse gas emissions;

(2) convert carbon dioxide to organic carbon;

(3) detoxify soils and water, including at facilities of the Department, contaminated with heavy metals and radiological materials;

(4) develop cellulosic and other feedstocks that are less resource and land intensive and that promote sustainable use of resources, including soil, water, energy, forests, and land, and ensure protection of air, water, and soil quality; and

(5) address other Department missions as identified by the Secretary.

(c) Plan

(1) Development of plan

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall prepare and transmit to Congress a research plan describing how the program authorized pursuant to this section will be undertaken to accomplish the program goals established in subsection (b).

(2) Review of plan

The Secretary shall contract with the National Academy of Sciences to review the research plan developed under this subsection. The Secretary shall transmit the review to Congress not later than 18 months after transmittal of the research plan under paragraph (1), along with the Secretary's response to the recommendations contained in the review.

(d) User facilities and ancillary equipment

Within the funds authorized to be appropriated pursuant to this part, amounts shall be available for projects to develop, plan, construct, acquire, or operate special equipment, instrumentation, or facilities, including user facilities at National Laboratories, for researchers conducting research, development, demonstration, and commercial application in systems biology and proteomics and associated biological disciplines.

(e) Prohibition on biomedical and human cell and human subject research

(1) No biomedical research

In carrying out the program under this section, the Secretary shall not conduct biomedical research.

(2) Limitations

Nothing in this section shall authorize the Secretary to conduct any research or demonstrations—

(A) on human cells or human subjects; or

(B) designed to have direct application with respect to human cells or human subjects.

(f) Bioenergy research centers

(1) Establishment of centers

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Secretary shall establish at least 7 bioenergy research centers, which may be of varying size.

(2) Geographic distribution

The Secretary shall establish at least 1 bioenergy research center in each Petroleum Administration for Defense District or Subdistrict of a Petroleum Administration for Defense District.

(3) Goals

The goals of the centers established under this subsection shall be to accelerate basic transformational research and development of biofuels, including biological processes.

(4) Selection and duration

(A) In general

A center under this subsection shall be selected on a competitive basis for a period of 5 years.

(B) Reapplication

After the end of the period described in subparagraph (A), a grantee may reapply for selection on a competitive basis.

(5) Inclusion

A center that is in existence on December 19, 2007—

(A) shall be counted towards the requirement for establishment of at least 7 bioenergy research centers; and

(B) may continue to receive support for a period of 5 years beginning on the date of establishment of the center.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §977, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 903; Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §§232(a), 233, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1537.)

References in Text

This part, referred to in subsec. (d), was in the original "this subtitle", meaning subtitle G (§§971–984A) of title IX of Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 898, which enacted this part and amended section 5523 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of subtitle G to the Code, see Tables.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 110–140, §232(a)(1), substituted "computational biology, and environmental science" for "and computational biology".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 110–140, §232(a)(2)(A), inserted "in sustainable production systems that reduce greenhouse gas emissions" after "hydrogen".

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 110–140, §232(a)(2)(B)–(D), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–140, §233, added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§16318. Fission and fusion energy materials research program

(a) In general

Along with the budget request of the President submitted to Congress for fiscal year 2007, the Secretary shall establish a research and development program on material science issues presented by advanced fission reactors and the fusion energy program of the Department.

(b) Administration

In carrying out the program, the Secretary shall develop—

(1) a catalog of material properties required for applications described in subsection (a);

(2) theoretical models for materials possessing the required properties;

(3) benchmark models against existing data; and

(4) a roadmap to guide further research and development in the area covered by the program.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §978, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 904.)

§16319. Energy and water supplies

(a) In general

The Secretary shall carry out a program of research, development, demonstration, and commercial application to—

(1) address energy-related issues associated with provision of adequate water supplies, optimal management, and efficient use of water;

(2) address water-related issues associated with the provision of adequate supplies, optimal management, and efficient use of energy; and

(3) assess the effectiveness of existing programs within the Department and other Federal agencies to address these energy and water related issues.

(b) Program elements

The program under this section shall include—

(1) arsenic treatment;

(2) desalination; and

(3) planning, analysis, and modeling of energy and water supply and demand.

(c) Collaboration

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Secretary of the Interior, the Chief Engineer of the Army Corps of Engineers, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, and other Federal agencies as appropriate.

(d) Facilities

The Secretary may utilize all existing facilities within the Department and may design and construct additional facilities as needed to carry out the purposes of this program.

(e) Advisory committee

The Secretary shall establish or utilize an advisory committee to provide independent advice and review of the program.

(f) Reports

Not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the assessment described in subsection (b) and recommendations for future actions.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §979, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 905.)

§16320. Spallation Neutron Source

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) SING

The term "SING" means the Spallation Neutron Source Instruments Next Generation major item of equipment.

(2) SNS power upgrade

The term "SNS power upgrade" means the Spallation Neutron Source power upgrade described in the 20-year facilities plan of the Office of Science of the Department.

(3) SNS second target station

The term "SNS second target station" means the Spallation Neutron Source second target station described in the 20-year facilities plan of the Office of Science of the Department.

(4) Spallation Neutron Source Facility

The terms "Spallation Neutron Source Facility" and "Facility" mean the completed Spallation Neutron Source scientific user facility located at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

(5) Spallation Neutron Source Project

The terms "Spallation Neutron Source Project" and "Project" means Department Project 99–E–334, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.

(b) Spallation Neutron Source Project

(1) In general

The Secretary shall submit to Congress, as part of the annual budget request of the President submitted to Congress, a report on progress on the Spallation Neutron Source Project.

(2) Contents

The report shall include for the Project—

(A) a description of the achievement of milestones;

(B) a comparison of actual costs to estimated costs; and

(C) any changes in estimated Project costs or schedule.

(c) Spallation Neutron Source Facility plan

(1) In general

The Secretary shall develop an operational plan for the Spallation Neutron Source Facility that ensures that the Facility is employed to the full capability of the Facility in support of the study of advanced materials, nanoscience, and other missions of the Office of Science of the Department.

(2) Plan

The operational plan shall—

(A) include a plan for the operation of an effective scientific user program that—

(i) is based on peer review of proposals submitted for use of the Facility;

(ii) includes scientific and technical support to ensure that external users, including researchers based at institutions of higher education, are able to make full use of a variety of high quality scientific instruments; and

(iii) phases in systems upgrades to ensure that the Facility remains at the forefront of international scientific endeavors in the field of the Facility throughout the operating life of the Facility;


(B) include an ongoing program to develop new instruments that builds on the high performance neutron source and that allows neutron scattering techniques to be applied to a growing range of scientific problems and disciplines; and

(C) address the status of and, to the maximum extent practicable, costs and schedules for—

(i) full user mode operations of the Facility;

(ii) instrumentation built at the Facility during the operating phase through full use of the experimental hall, including the SING;

(iii) the SNS power upgrade; and

(iv) the SNS second target station.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

(1) Spallation Neutron Source Project

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out the Spallation Neutron Source Project for the lifetime of the Project $1,411,700,000 for total project costs, of which—

(A) $1,192,700,000 shall be used for the costs of construction; and

(B) $219,000,000 shall be used for other Project costs.

(2) Spallation Neutron Source Facility

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), there is authorized to be appropriated for the Spallation Neutron Source Facility for—

(i) the SING, $75,000,000 for each of fiscal year 2007 through 2009; and

(ii) the SNS power upgrade, $160,000,000, to remain available until expended.

(B) Insufficient stockpiles of heavy water

If stockpiles of heavy water of the Department are insufficient to meet the needs of the Facility, there is authorized to be appropriated for the Facility $12,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §980, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 905.)

§16321. Facility for Rare Isotope Beams

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall construct and operate a Facility for Rare Isotope Beams. The Secretary shall commence construction no later than September 30, 2008.

(b) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section. The Secretary shall not spend more than $1,100,000,000 in Federal funds for all activities associated with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams, prior to operation of the Accelerator.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §981, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 115–246, title III, §308(b), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3150.)

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–246 substituted "Facility for Rare Isotope Beams" for "Rare Isotope Accelerator" in section catchline and in subsecs. (a) and (b).

§16322. Office of Scientific and Technical Information

The Secretary, through the Office of Scientific and Technical Information, shall maintain within the Department publicly available collections of scientific and technical information resulting from research, development, demonstration, and commercial applications activities supported by the Department.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §982, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 907.)

§16323. Science and engineering education pilot program

(a) Establishment of pilot program

The Secretary shall award a grant to a Southeastern United States consortium of major research universities that currently advances science and education by partnering with National Laboratories, to establish a regional pilot program of its SEEK–16 program for enhancing scientific, technological, engineering, and mathematical literacy, creativity, and decision-making. The consortium shall include leading research universities, one or more universities that train substantial numbers of elementary and secondary school teachers, and (where appropriate) National Laboratories.

(b) Program elements

The regional pilot program shall include—

(1) expanding strategic, formal partnerships among universities with strength in research, universities that train substantial numbers of elementary and secondary school teachers, and the private sector;

(2) combining Department expertise with one or more National Aeronautics and Space Administration Educator Resource Centers;

(3) developing programs to permit current and future teachers to participate in ongoing research projects at National Laboratories and research universities and to adapt lessons learned to the classroom;

(4) designing and implementing course work;

(5) designing and implementing a strategy for measuring and assessing progress under the program; and

(6) developing models for transferring knowledge gained under the pilot program to other institutions and areas of the United States.

(c) Categorization

A grant under this section shall be considered an authorized activity under section 7381b of this title.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §983, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 907; Pub. L. 113–188, title VI, §601(a), Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2019.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–188 struck out subsec. (d). Text read as follows: "No later than 2 years after the award of the grant, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report outlining lessons learned and, if determined appropriate by the Secretary, containing a plan for expanding the program throughout the United States."

§16324. Energy research fellowships

(a) Postdoctoral fellowship program

The Secretary shall establish a program under which the Secretary provides fellowships to encourage outstanding young scientists and engineers to pursue postdoctoral research appointments in energy research and development at institutions of higher education of their choice.

(b) Senior research fellowships

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish a program under which the Secretary provides fellowships to allow outstanding senior researchers and their research groups in energy research and development to explore research and development topics of their choosing for a period of not less than 3 years, to be determined by the Secretary.

(2) Consideration

In providing a fellowship under the program described in paragraph (1), the Secretary shall consider—

(A) the past scientific or technical accomplishment of a senior researcher; and

(B) the potential for continued accomplishment by the researcher during the period of the fellowship.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §984, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 908.)

§16325. Science and Technology Scholarship Program

(a) In general

The Secretary is authorized to establish a Science and Technology Scholarship Program to award scholarships to individuals that is designed to recruit and prepare students for careers in the Department and National Laboratories.

(b) Service requirement

The Secretary may require that an individual receiving a scholarship under this section serve as a full-time employee of the Department or a National Laboratory for a fixed period in return for receiving the scholarship.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §984A, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 908.)

Part H—International Cooperation

§16341. Western Hemisphere energy cooperation

(a) Program

The Secretary shall carry out a program to promote cooperation on energy issues with countries of the Western Hemisphere.

(b) Activities

Under the program, the Secretary shall fund activities to work with countries of the Western Hemisphere to—

(1) increase the production of energy supplies;

(2) improve energy efficiency; and

(3) assist in the development and transfer of energy supply and efficiency technologies that would have a beneficial impact on world energy markets.

(c) Participation by institutions of higher education

To the extent practicable, the Secretary shall carry out the program under this section with the participation of institutions of higher education so as to take advantage of the acceptance of institutions of higher education by countries of the Western Hemisphere as sources of unbiased technical and policy expertise when assisting the Secretary in—

(1) evaluating new technologies;

(2) resolving technical issues;

(3) working with those countries in the development of new policies; and

(4) training policymakers, particularly in the case of institutions of higher education that involve the participation of minority students, such as—

(A) Hispanic-serving institutions; and

(B) part B institutions.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section—

(1) $10,000,000 for fiscal year 2007;

(2) $13,000,000 for fiscal year 2008; and

(3) $16,000,000 for fiscal year 2009.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §985, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 908.)

§16342. International energy training

(a) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of the Interior, and Secretary of State, and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, shall coordinate training and outreach efforts for international commercial energy markets in countries with developing and restructuring economies.

(b) Components

The training and outreach efforts referred to in subsection (a) may include—

(1) production-related fiscal regimes;

(2) grid and network issues;

(3) energy user and demand side response;

(4) international trade of energy; and

(5) international transportation of energy.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $1,500,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2010.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §986A, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 910.)

Part I—Research Administration and Operations

§16351. Availability of funds

Funds authorized to be appropriated to the Department under this Act or an amendment made by this Act shall remain available until expended.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §987, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 910.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

§16352. Cost sharing

(a) Applicability

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in carrying out a research, development, demonstration, or commercial application program or activity that is initiated after August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall require cost-sharing in accordance with this section.

(b) Research and development

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4) and subsection (f), the Secretary shall require not less than 20 percent of the cost of a research or development activity described in subsection (a) to be provided by a non-Federal source.

(2) Exclusion

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a research or development activity described in subsection (a) that is of a basic or fundamental nature, as determined by the appropriate officer of the Department.

(3) Reduction

The Secretary may reduce or eliminate the requirement of paragraph (1) for a research and development activity of an applied nature if the Secretary determines that the reduction is necessary and appropriate.

(4) Exemption for institutions of higher education and other nonprofit institutions

(A) In general

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to a research or development activity performed by an institution of higher education or nonprofit institution (as defined in section 4 of the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3703)).

(B) Termination date

The exemption under subparagraph (A) shall apply during the 2-year period beginning on September 28, 2018.

(c) Demonstration and commercial application

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2) and subsection (f), the Secretary shall require that not less than 50 percent of the cost of a demonstration or commercial application activity described in subsection (a) to 1 be provided by a non-Federal source.

(2) Reduction of non-Federal share

The Secretary may reduce the non-Federal share required under paragraph (1) if the Secretary determines the reduction to be necessary and appropriate, taking into consideration any technological risk relating to the activity.

(d) Calculation of amount

In calculating the amount of a non-Federal contribution under this section, the Secretary—

(1) may include allowable costs in accordance with the applicable cost principles, including—

(A) cash;

(B) personnel costs;

(C) the value of a service, other resource, or third party in-kind contribution determined in accordance with the applicable circular of the Office of Management and Budget;

(D) indirect costs or facilities and administrative costs; or

(E) any funds received under the power program of the Tennessee Valley Authority (except to the extent that such funds are made available under an annual appropriation Act); and


(2) shall not include—

(A) revenues or royalties from the prospective operation of an activity beyond the time considered in the award;

(B) proceeds from the prospective sale of an asset of an activity; or

(C) other appropriated Federal funds.

(e) Repayment of Federal share

The Secretary shall not require repayment of the Federal share of a cost-shared activity under this section as a condition of making an award.

(f) Exclusions

This section shall not apply to—

(1) a cooperative research and development agreement under the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980 (15 U.S.C. 3701 et seq.);

(2) a fee charged for the use of a Department facility; or

(3) an award under—

(A) the small business innovation research program under section 638 of title 15; or

(B) the small business technology transfer program under that section.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §988, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 910; Pub. L. 115–246, title I, §108(a), Sept. 28, 2018, 132 Stat. 3134.)

References in Text

The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (f)(1), is Pub. L. 96–480, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2311, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 63 (§3701 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3701 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 115–246, §108(a)(1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraphs (2), (3), and (4)" for "Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3)".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 115–246, §108(a)(2), added par. (4).

1 So in original. The word "to" probably should not appear.

§16353. Merit review of proposals

(a) Awards

Awards of funds authorized under this Act or an amendment made by this Act shall be made only after an impartial review of the scientific and technical merit of the proposals for the awards has been carried out by or for the Department.

(b) Competition

Competitive awards under this Act shall involve competitions open to all qualified entities within one or more of the following categories:

(1) Institutions of higher education.

(2) National Laboratories.

(3) Nonprofit and for-profit private entities.

(4) State and local governments.

(5) Consortia of entities described in paragraphs (1) through (4).

(c) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that research, development, demonstration, and commercial application activities carried out by the Department should be awarded using competitive procedures, to the maximum extent practicable.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §989, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 911.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

§16354. External technical review of departmental programs

(a) National energy research and development advisory boards

(1) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish one or more advisory boards to review research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs of the Department in energy efficiency, renewable energy, nuclear energy, and fossil energy.

(2) Alternatives

The Secretary may—

(A) designate an existing advisory board within the Department to fulfill the responsibilities of an advisory board under this section; and

(B) enter into appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences to establish such an advisory board.

(b) Use of existing committees

The Secretary shall continue to use the scientific program advisory committees chartered under the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) by the Office of Science to oversee research and development programs under that Office.

(c) Membership

Each advisory board under this section shall consist of persons with appropriate expertise representing a diverse range of interests.

(d) Meetings and goals

(1) Meetings

Each advisory board under this section shall meet at least semiannually to review and advise on the progress made by the respective one or more research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs.

(2) Goals

The advisory board shall review the measurable cost and performance-based goals for the programs as established under section 16181 of this title, and the progress on meeting the goals.

(e) Periodic reviews and assessments

(1) In general

The Secretary shall enter into appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct periodic reviews and assessments of—

(A) the research, development, demonstration, and commercial application programs authorized by this Act and amendments made by this Act;

(B) the measurable cost and performance-based goals for the programs as established under section 16181 of this title, if any; and

(C) the progress on meeting the goals.

(2) Timing

The reviews and assessments shall be conducted every 5 years or more often as the Secretary considers necessary.

(3) Reports

The Secretary shall submit to Congress reports describing the results of all the reviews and assessments.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §990, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 912.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594, as amended, known as the Energy Policy Act of 2005, which enacted this chapter and enacted, amended, and repealed numerous other sections and notes in the Code. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

§16355. National Laboratory designation

After August 8, 2005, the Secretary shall not designate a facility that is not listed in section 15801(3) of this title as a National Laboratory.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §991, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 913.)

§16356. Report on equal employment opportunity practices

Not later than 12 months after August 8, 2005, and biennially thereafter, the Secretary shall transmit to Congress a report on the equal employment opportunity practices at National Laboratories. Such report shall include—

(1) a thorough review of each National Laboratory contractor's equal employment opportunity policies, including promotion to management and professional positions and pay raises;

(2) a statistical report on complaints and their disposition in the National Laboratories;

(3) a description of how equal employment opportunity practices at the National Laboratories are treated in the contract and in calculating award fees for each contractor;

(4) a summary of disciplinary actions and their disposition by either the Department or the relevant contractors for each National Laboratory;

(5) a summary of outreach efforts to attract women and minorities to the National Laboratories;

(6) a summary of efforts to retain women and minorities in the National Laboratories; and

(7) a summary of collaboration efforts with the Office of Federal Contract Compliance Programs to improve equal employment opportunity practices at the National Laboratories.

(Pub. L. 109–58, title IX, §992, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 913.)

§16357. Strategy for facilities and infrastructure

(a) Facility and infrastructure policy

(1) In general

The Secretary shall develop and implement a strategy for facilities and infrastructure supported primarily from the Office of Science, the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, the Office of Fossil Energy, or the Office of Nuclear Energy, Science and Technology Programs at all National Laboratories and single-purpose research facilities.

(2) Strategy

The strategy sh