[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 152, SUBCHAPTER VIII, Part A: Assistance To Promote Clean and Efficient Energy Technologies in Foreign Countries
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42 USC CHAPTER 152, SUBCHAPTER VIII, Part A: Assistance To Promote Clean and Efficient Energy Technologies in Foreign Countries
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 152—ENERGY INDEPENDENCE AND SECURITYSUBCHAPTER VIII—INTERNATIONAL ENERGY PROGRAMS

Part A—Assistance To Promote Clean and Efficient Energy Technologies in Foreign Countries

§17331. United States assistance for developing countries

(a) Assistance authorized

The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall support policies and programs in developing countries that promote clean and efficient energy technologies—

(1) to produce the necessary market conditions for the private sector delivery of energy and environmental management services;

(2) to create an environment that is conducive to accepting clean and efficient energy technologies that support the overall purpose of reducing greenhouse gas emissions, including—

(A) improving policy, legal, and regulatory frameworks;

(B) increasing institutional abilities to provide energy and environmental management services; and

(C) increasing public awareness and participation in the decision-making of delivering energy and environmental management services; and


(3) to promote the use of American-made clean and efficient energy technologies, products, and energy and environmental management services.

(b) Report

The Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an annual report on the implementation of this section for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

To carry out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development $200,000,000 for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title IX, §911, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1725.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17332. United States exports and outreach programs for India, China, and other countries

(a) Assistance authorized

The Secretary of Commerce shall direct the United States and Foreign Commercial Service to expand or create a corps of the Foreign Commercial Service officers to promote United States exports in clean and efficient energy technologies and build the capacity of government officials in India, China, and any other country the Secretary of Commerce determines appropriate, to become more familiar with the available technologies—

(1) by assigning or training Foreign Commercial Service attachés, who have expertise in clean and efficient energy technologies from the United States, to embark on business development and outreach efforts to such countries; and

(2) by deploying the attachés described in paragraph (1) to educate provincial, state, and local government officials in such countries on the variety of United States-based technologies in clean and efficient energy technologies for the purposes of promoting United States exports and reducing global greenhouse gas emissions.

(b) Report

The Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an annual report on the implementation of this section for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

To carry out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Commerce such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title IX, §912, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1726.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17333. United States trade missions to encourage private sector trade and investment

(a) Assistance authorized

The Secretary of Commerce shall direct the International Trade Administration to expand or create trade missions to and from the United States to encourage private sector trade and investment in clean and efficient energy technologies—

(1) by organizing and facilitating trade missions to foreign countries and by matching United States private sector companies with opportunities in foreign markets so that clean and efficient energy technologies can help to combat increases in global greenhouse gas emissions; and

(2) by creating reverse trade missions in which the Department of Commerce facilitates the meeting of foreign private and public sector organizations with private sector companies in the United States for the purpose of showcasing clean and efficient energy technologies in use or in development that could be exported to other countries.

(b) Report

The Secretary of Commerce shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees an annual report on the implementation of this section for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

(c) Authorization of appropriations

To carry out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary of Commerce such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 2008 through 2012.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title IX, §913, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1726.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17334. Actions by Overseas Private Investment Corporation

(a) Sense of Congress

It is the sense of Congress that the Overseas Private Investment Corporation should promote greater investment in clean and efficient energy technologies by—

(1) proactively reaching out to United States companies that are interested in investing in clean and efficient energy technologies in countries that are significant contributors to global greenhouse gas emissions;

(2) giving preferential treatment to the evaluation and awarding of projects that involve the investment or utilization of clean and efficient energy technologies; and

(3) providing greater flexibility in supporting projects that involve the investment or utilization of clean and efficient energy technologies, including financing, insurance, and other assistance.

(b) Report

The Overseas Private Investment Corporation shall include in its annual report required under section 2200a of title 22

(1) a description of the activities carried out to implement this section; or

(2) if the Corporation did not carry out any activities to implement this section, an explanation of the reasons therefor.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title IX, §914, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1727; Pub. L. 115–254, div. F, title VI, §1470(v)(1), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3519.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 115–254, div. F, title VI, §1470(v)(1), (w), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3519, provided that, effective at the end of the transition period, as defined in section 9681 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in the section catchline, by striking "Overseas Private Investment Corporation" and inserting "United States International Development Finance Corporation";

(2) in subsection (a), in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking "Overseas Private Investment Corporation" and inserting "United States International Development Finance Corporation"; and

(3) in subsection (b), in the matter preceding paragraph (1), by striking "Overseas Private Investment Corporation shall include in its annual report required under section 2200a of title 22" and inserting "United States International Development Finance Corporation shall include in its annual report required under section 9653 of title 22".

See 2018 Amendment notes below.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–254, §1470(v)(1)(A), substituted "United States International Development Finance Corporation" for "Overseas Private Investment Corporation" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–254, §1470(v)(1)(B), substituted "United States International Development Finance Corporation" for "Overseas Private Investment Corporation" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–254, §1470(v)(1)(C), substituted "United States International Development Finance Corporation shall include in its annual report required under section 9653 of title 22" for "Overseas Private Investment Corporation shall include in its annual report required under section 2200a of title 22" in introductory provisions.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 effective at the end of the transition period, as defined in section 9681 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, see section 1470(w) of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17335. Actions by United States Trade and Development Agency

(a) Assistance authorized

The Director of the Trade and Development Agency shall establish or support policies that—

(1) proactively seek opportunities to fund projects that involve the utilization of clean and efficient energy technologies, including in trade capacity building and capital investment projects;

(2) where appropriate, advance the utilization of clean and efficient energy technologies, particularly to countries that have the potential for significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions; and

(3) recruit and retain individuals with appropriate expertise or experience in clean, renewable, and efficient energy technologies to identify and evaluate opportunities for projects that involve clean and efficient energy technologies and services.

(b) Report

The President shall include in the annual report on the activities of the Trade and Development Agency required under section 2421(d) of title 22 a description of the activities carried out to implement this section.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title IX, §915, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1727.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§17336. Deployment of international clean and efficient energy technologies and investment in global energy markets

(a) Task Force

(1) Establishment

Not later than 90 days after December 19, 2007, the President shall establish a Task Force on International Cooperation for Clean and Efficient Energy Technologies (in this section referred to as the "Task Force").

(2) Composition

The Task Force shall be composed of representatives, appointed by the head of the respective Federal department or agency, of—

(A) the Council on Environmental Quality;

(B) the Department of Energy;

(C) the Department of Commerce;

(D) the Department of the Treasury;

(E) the Department of State;

(F) the Environmental Protection Agency;

(G) the United States Agency for International Development;

(H) the Export-Import Bank of the United States;

(I) the Overseas Private Investment Corporation: 1

(J) the Trade and Development Agency;

(K) the Small Business Administration;

(L) the Office of the United States Trade Representative; and

(M) other Federal departments and agencies, as determined by the President.

(3) Chairperson

The President shall designate a Chairperson or Co-Chairpersons of the Task Force.

(4) Duties

The Task Force—

(A) shall develop and assist in the implementation of the strategy required under subsection (c); and

(B)(i) shall analyze technology, policy, and market opportunities for the development, demonstration, and deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies on an international basis; and

(ii) shall examine relevant trade, tax, finance, international, and other policy issues to assess which policies, in the United States and in developing countries, would help open markets and improve the export of clean and efficient energy technologies from the United States.

(5) Termination

The Task Force, including any working group established by the Task Force pursuant to subsection (b), shall terminate 12 years after December 19, 2007.

(b) Working groups

(1) Establishment

The Task Force—

(A) shall establish an Interagency Working Group on the Export of Clean and Efficient Energy Technologies (in this section referred to as the "Interagency Working Group"); and

(B) may establish other working groups as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(2) Composition

The Interagency Working Group shall be composed of—

(A) the Secretary of Energy, the Secretary of Commerce, and the Secretary of State, who shall serve as Co-Chairpersons of the Interagency Working Group; and

(B) other members, as determined by the Chairperson or Co-Chairpersons of the Task Force.

(3) Duties

The Interagency Working Group shall coordinate the resources and relevant programs of the Department of Energy, the Department of Commerce, the Department of State, and other relevant Federal departments and agencies to support the export of clean and efficient energy technologies developed or demonstrated in the United States to other countries and the deployment of such clean and efficient energy technologies in such other countries.

(4) Interagency Center

The Interagency Working Group—

(A) shall establish an Interagency Center on the Export of Clean and Efficient Energy Technologies (in this section referred to as the "Interagency Center") to assist the Interagency Working Group in carrying out its duties required under paragraph (3); and

(B) shall locate the Interagency Center at a site agreed upon by the Co-Chairpersons of the Interagency Working Group, with the approval of the Chairperson or Co-Chairpersons of the Task Force.

(c) Strategy

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after December 19, 2007, the Task Force shall develop and submit to the President and the appropriate congressional committees a strategy to—

(A) support the development and implementation of programs, policies, and initiatives in developing countries to promote the adoption and deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies, with an emphasis on those developing countries that are expected to experience the most significant growth in energy production and use over the next 20 years;

(B) open and expand clean and efficient energy technology markets and facilitate the export of clean and efficient energy technologies to developing countries, in a manner consistent with United States obligations as a member of the World Trade Organization;

(C) integrate into the foreign policy objectives of the United States the promotion of—

(i) the deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in developing countries; and

(ii) the export of clean and efficient energy technologies; and


(D) develop financial mechanisms and instruments, including securities that mitigate the political and foreign exchange risks of uses that are consistent with the foreign policy objectives of the United States by combining the private sector market and government enhancements, that—

(i) are cost-effective; and

(ii) facilitate private capital investment in clean and efficient energy technology projects in developing countries.

(2) Updates

Not later than 3 years after the date of submission of the strategy under paragraph (1), and every 3 years thereafter, the Task Force shall update the strategy in accordance with the requirements of paragraph (1).

(d) Report

(1) In general

Not later than 3 years after the date of submission of the strategy under subsection (c)(1), and every 3 years thereafter, the President shall transmit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the implementation of this section for the prior 3-year period.

(2) Matters to be included

The report required under paragraph (1) shall include the following:

(A) The update of the strategy required under subsection (c)(2) and a description of the actions taken by the Task Force to assist in the implementation of the strategy.

(B) A description of actions taken by the Task Force to carry out the duties required under subsection (a)(4)(B).

(C) A description of assistance provided under this section.

(D) The results of programs, projects, and activities carried out under this section.

(E) A description of priorities for promoting the diffusion and adoption of clean and efficient energy technologies and strategies in developing countries, taking into account economic and security interests of the United States and opportunities for the export of technology of the United States.

(F) Recommendations to the heads of appropriate Federal departments and agencies on methods to streamline Federal programs and policies to improve the role of such Federal departments and agencies in the development, demonstration, and deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies on an international basis.

(G) Strategies to integrate representatives of the private sector and other interested groups on the export and deployment of clean and efficient energy technologies.

(H) A description of programs to disseminate information to the private sector and the public on clean and efficient energy technologies and opportunities to transfer such clean and efficient energy technologies.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $5,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2020.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title IX, §916, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1728; Pub. L. 115–254, div. F, title VI, §1470(v)(2), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3519.)

Amendment of Subsection (a)(2)(I)

Pub. L. 115–254, div. F, title VI, §1470(v)(2), (w), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3519, provided that, effective at the end of the transition period, as defined in section 9681 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, subsection (a)(2)(I) of this section is amended by striking "Overseas Private Investment Corporation:" and inserting "United States International Development Finance Corporation;". See 2018 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(2)(I). Pub. L. 115–254 substituted "United States International Development Finance Corporation;" for "Overseas Private Investment Corporation:".

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 115–254 effective at the end of the transition period, as defined in section 9681 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, see section 1470(w) of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a note under section 905 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original. The colon probably should be a semicolon.

§17337. United States-Israel energy cooperation

(a) Findings

Congress finds that—

(1) it is in the highest national security interests of the United States to develop covered energy sources;

(2) the State of Israel is a steadfast ally of the United States;

(3) the special relationship between the United States and Israel is manifested in a variety of cooperative scientific research and development programs, such as—

(A) the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation; and

(B) the United States-Israel Binational Industrial Research and Development Foundation;


(4) those programs have made possible—

(A) many scientific, technological, and commercial breakthroughs in the fields of life sciences, medicine, bioengineering, agriculture, biotechnology, communications, and others; and

(B) significant contributions to the development of renewable energy and energy efficiency through the established programs of the United States-Israel Binational Industrial Research and Development Foundation and the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation;


(5) on February 1, 1996, the Secretary of Energy (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") and the Israeli Minister of Energy and Infrastructure signed an agreement to establish a framework for collaboration between the United States and Israel in energy research and development activities;

(6) Israeli scientists and engineers are at the forefront of research and development in the field of covered energy sources;

(7) enhanced cooperation between the United States and Israel for the purpose of research and development of covered energy sources would be in the national interests of both countries;

(8) United States-Israel energy cooperation and the development of natural resources by Israel are in the strategic interest of the United States;

(9) Israel is a strategic partner of the United States in water technology;

(10) the United States can play a role in assisting Israel with regional safety and security issues;

(11) the National Science Foundation of the United States, to the extent consistent with the National Science Foundation's mission, should collaborate with the Israel Science Foundation and the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation;

(12) the United States and Israel should strive to develop more robust academic cooperation in—

(A) energy innovation technology and engineering;

(B) water science;

(C) technology transfer; and

(D) analysis of emerging geopolitical implications, crises and threats from foreign natural resource and energy acquisitions, and the development of domestic resources as a response;


(13) the United States supports the goals of the Alternative Fuels Administration of Israel with respect to expanding the use of alternative fuels;

(14) the United States strongly urges open dialogue and continued mechanisms for regular engagement and encourages further cooperation between applicable departments, agencies, ministries, institutions of higher education, and the private sector of the United States and Israel on energy security issues, including—

(A) identifying policy priorities associated with the development of natural resources of Israel;

(B) discussing and sharing best practices to secure cyber energy infrastructure and other energy security matters;

(C) leveraging natural gas to positively impact regional stability;

(D) issues relating to the energy-water nexus, including improving energy efficiency and the overall performance of water technologies through research and development in water desalination, wastewater treatment and reclamation, water treatment in gas and oil production processes, and other water treatment refiners;

(E) technical and environmental management of deep-water exploration and production;

(F) emergency response and coastal protection and restoration;

(G) academic outreach and engagement;

(H) private sector and business development engagement;

(I) regulatory consultations;

(J) leveraging alternative transportation fuels and technologies; and

(K) any other areas determined appropriate by the United States and Israel;


(15) the United States—

(A) acknowledges the achievements and importance of the Binational Industrial Research and Development Foundation and the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation; and

(B) supports continued multiyear funding to ensure the continuity of the programs of the foundations specified in subparagraph (A); and


(16) the United States and Israel have a shared interest in addressing immediate, near-term, and long-term energy, energy poverty, energy independence, and environmental challenges facing the United States and Israel, respectively.

(b) Grant program

(1) Establishment

In implementing the agreement entitled the "Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure of Israel Concerning Energy Cooperation", dated February 1, 1996, the Secretary shall establish a grant program in accordance with the requirements of sections 16352 and 16353 of this title to support research, development, and commercialization of covered energy.

(2) Types of energy

In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary may make grants to promote—

(A) solar energy;

(B) biomass energy;

(C) energy efficiency;

(D) wind energy;

(E) geothermal energy;

(F) wave and tidal energy;

(G) advanced battery technology;

(H) natural gas energy, including conventional and unconventional natural gas technologies and other associated technologies, and natural gas projects conducted by or in conjunction with the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation and the United States-Israel Binational Industrial Research and Development Foundation; and

(I) improvement of energy efficiency and the overall performance of water technologies through research and development in water desalination, wastewater treatment and reclamation, and other water treatment refiners.

(3) Eligible applicants

An applicant shall be eligible to receive a grant under this subsection if the project of the applicant—

(A) addresses a requirement in the area of improved covered energy sources, as determined by the Secretary; and

(B) is a joint venture between—

(i)(I) a for-profit business entity, academic institution, National Laboratory (as defined in section 15801 of this title), or nonprofit entity in the United States; and

(II) a for-profit business entity, academic institution, or nonprofit entity in Israel; or

(ii)(I) the Federal Government; and

(II) the Government of Israel.

(4) Applications

To be eligible to receive a grant under this subsection, an applicant shall submit to the Secretary an application for the grant in accordance with procedures established by the Secretary, in consultation with the advisory board established under paragraph (5).

(5) Advisory board

(A) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish an advisory board—

(i) to monitor the method by which grants are awarded under this subsection; and

(ii) to provide to the Secretary periodic performance reviews of actions taken to carry out this subsection.

(B) Composition

The advisory board established under subparagraph (A) shall be composed of 3 members, to be appointed by the Secretary, of whom—

(i) 1 shall be a representative of the Federal Government;

(ii) 1 shall be selected from a list of nominees provided by the United States-Israel Binational Science Foundation; and

(iii) 1 shall be selected from a list of nominees provided by the United States-Israel Binational Industrial Research and Development Foundation.

(6) Contributed funds

Notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, the Secretary may accept, retain, and use funds contributed by any person, government entity, or organization for purposes of carrying out this subsection—

(A) without further appropriation; and

(B) without fiscal year limitation.

(7) Report

Not later than 180 days after the date of completion of a project for which a grant is provided under this subsection, the grant recipient shall submit to the Secretary a report that contains—

(A) a description of the method by which the recipient used the grant funds; and

(B) an evaluation of the level of success of each project funded by the grant.

(8) Classification

Grants shall be awarded under this subsection only for projects that are considered to be unclassified by both the United States and Israel.

(c) International partnerships

(1) In general

The Secretary, subject to the availability of appropriations, may enter into cooperative agreements supporting and enhancing dialogue and planning involving international partnerships between the Department, including National Laboratories of the Department, and the Government of Israel and its ministries, offices, and institutions.

(2) Federal share

The Secretary may not pay more than 50 percent of Federal share of the costs of implementing cooperative agreements entered into pursuant to paragraph (1).

(3) Annual reports

If the Secretary enters into agreements authorized by paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit an annual report to the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate, the Committee on Foreign Relations of the Senate, the Committee on Appropriations of the Senate, the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives, the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on Appropriations of the House of Representatives that describes—

(A) actions taken to implement such agreements; and

(B) any projects undertaken pursuant to such agreements.

(d) United States-Israel Energy Center

The Secretary may establish a joint United States-Israel Energy Center in the United States leveraging the experience, knowledge, and expertise of institutions of higher education and entities in the private sector, among others, in offshore energy development to further dialogue and collaboration to develop more robust academic cooperation in energy innovation technology and engineering, water science, technology transfer, and analysis of emerging geopolitical implications, crises and threats from foreign natural resource and energy acquisitions, and the development of domestic resources as a response.

(e) Termination

The grant program and the advisory committee established under this section terminate on September 30, 2024.

(Pub. L. 110–140, title IX, §917, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1730; Pub. L. 113–296, §12(a)–(c)(1), Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 4078–4080.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(a)(1), substituted "covered" for "renewable".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(a)(2), substituted "possible—" for "possible", designated remaining existing provisions as subpar. (A), and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(a)(3)(A), substituted "covered" for "renewable".

Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(a)(4)(A), substituted "covered" for "renewable".

Subsec. (a)(8) to (16). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(a)(3)(B), (4)(B), (5), added pars. (8) to (16).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(b)(1), substituted "covered energy" for "renewable energy or energy efficiency".

Subsec. (b)(2)(H), (I). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(b)(2), added subpars. (H) and (I).

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(b)(3), substituted "covered" for "energy efficiency or renewable".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(c)(1)(C), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (e).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(c)(1)(A), (C), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which related to authorization of appropriations.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–296, §12(c)(1)(B), (D), redesignated subsec. (c) as (e) and substituted "September 30, 2024" for "the date that is 7 years after December 19, 2007".

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.