[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 21, SUBCHAPTER I-A: INSTITUTIONALIZED PERSONS
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42 USC CHAPTER 21, SUBCHAPTER I-A: INSTITUTIONALIZED PERSONS
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 21—CIVIL RIGHTS

SUBCHAPTER I–A—INSTITUTIONALIZED PERSONS

§1997. Definitions

As used in this subchapter—

(1) The term "institution" means any facility or institution—

(A) which is owned, operated, or managed by, or provides services on behalf of any State or political subdivision of a State; and

(B) which is—

(i) for persons who are mentally ill, disabled, or retarded, or chronically ill or handicapped;

(ii) a jail, prison, or other correctional facility;

(iii) a pretrial detention facility;

(iv) for juveniles—

(I) held awaiting trial;

(II) residing in such facility or institution for purposes of receiving care or treatment; or

(III) residing for any State purpose in such facility or institution (other than a residential facility providing only elementary or secondary education that is not an institution in which reside juveniles who are adjudicated delinquent, in need of supervision, neglected, placed in State custody, mentally ill or disabled, mentally retarded, or chronically ill or handicapped); or


(v) providing skilled nursing, intermediate or long-term care, or custodial or residential care.


(2) Privately owned and operated facilities shall not be deemed "institutions" under this subchapter if—

(A) the licensing of such facility by the State constitutes the sole nexus between such facility and such State;

(B) the receipt by such facility, on behalf of persons residing in such facility, of payments under title XVI, XVIII [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq., 1395 et seq.], or under a State plan approved under title XIX [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.], of the Social Security Act, constitutes the sole nexus between such facility and such State; or

(C) the licensing of such facility by the State, and the receipt by such facility, on behalf of persons residing in such facility, of payments under title XVI, XVIII [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq., 1395 et seq.], or under a State plan approved under title XIX [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.], of the Social Security Act, constitutes the sole nexus between such facility and such State;


(3) The term "person" means an individual, a trust or estate, a partnership, an association, or a corporation;

(4) The term "State" means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, or any of the territories and possessions of the United States;

(5) The term "legislative days" means any calendar day on which either House of Congress is in session.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §2, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 349.)

References in Text

The Social Security Act, referred to in par. (2)(B), (C), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Titles XVI, XVIII, and XIX of the Social Security Act are classified generally to subchapters XVI (§1381 et seq.), XVIII (§1395 et seq.), and XIX (§1396 et seq.) of chapter 7 of this title, respectively. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

Short Title

Pub. L. 96–247, §1, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 349, provided: "That this Act [enacting this subchapter] may be cited as the 'Civil Rights of Institutionalized Persons Act'."

§1997a. Initiation of civil actions

(a) Discretionary authority of Attorney General; preconditions

Whenever the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that any State or political subdivision of a State, official, employee, or agent thereof, or other person acting on behalf of a State or political subdivision of a State is subjecting persons residing in or confined to an institution, as defined in section 1997 of this title, to egregious or flagrant conditions which deprive such persons of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States causing such persons to suffer grievous harm, and that such deprivation is pursuant to a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities, the Attorney General, for or in the name of the United States, may institute a civil action in any appropriate United States district court against such party for such equitable relief as may be appropriate to insure the minimum corrective measures necessary to insure the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities, except that such equitable relief shall be available under this subchapter to persons residing in or confined to an institution as defined in section 1997(1)(B)(ii) of this title only insofar as such persons are subjected to conditions which deprive them of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution of the United States.

(b) Discretionary award of attorney fees

In any action commenced under this section, the court may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee against the United States as part of the costs.

(c) Attorney General to personally sign complaint

The Attorney General shall personally sign any complaint filed pursuant to this section.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §3, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(a)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-70; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–134 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "Any complaint filed by the Attorney General pursuant to this section shall be personally signed by him."

§1997a–1. Subpoena authority

(a) Authority

The Attorney General, or at the direction of the Attorney General, any officer or employee of the Department of Justice may require by subpoena access to any institution that is the subject of an investigation under this subchapter and to any document, record, material, file, report, memorandum, policy, procedure, investigation, video or audio recording, or quality assurance report relating to any institution that is the subject of an investigation under this subchapter to determine whether there are conditions which deprive persons residing in or confined to the institution of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.

(b) Issuance and enforcement of subpoenas

(1) Issuance

Subpoenas issued under this section—

(A) shall bear the signature of the Attorney General or any officer or employee of the Department of Justice as designated by the Attorney General; and

(B) shall be served by any person or class of persons designated by the Attorney General or a designated officer or employee for that purpose.

(2) Enforcement

In the case of contumacy or failure to obey a subpoena issued under this section, the United States district court for the judicial district in which the institution is located may issue an order requiring compliance. Any failure to obey the order of the court may be punished by the court as a contempt that 1 court.

(c) Protection of subpoenaed records and information

Any document, record, material, file, report, memorandum, policy, procedure, investigation, video or audio recording, or quality assurance report or other information obtained under a subpoena issued under this section—

(1) may not be used for any purpose other than to protect the rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States of persons who reside, have resided, or will reside in an institution;

(2) may not be transmitted by or within the Department of Justice for any purpose other than to protect the rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States of persons who reside, have resided, or will reside in an institution; and

(3) shall be redacted, obscured, or otherwise altered if used in any publicly available manner so as to prevent the disclosure of any personally identifiable information.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §3A, as added Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10606(d)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 1008.)

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "of".

§1997b. Certification requirements; Attorney General to personally sign certification

(a) At the time of the commencement of an action under section 1997a of this title the Attorney General shall certify to the court—

(1) that at least 49 calendar days previously the Attorney General has notified in writing the Governor or chief executive officer and attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision and the director of the institution of—

(A) the alleged conditions which deprive rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities;

(B) the supporting facts giving rise to the alleged conditions and the alleged pattern or practice, including the dates or time period during which the alleged conditions and pattern or practice of resistance occurred; and when feasible, the identity of all persons reasonably suspected of being involved in causing the alleged conditions and pattern or practice at the time of the certification, and the date on which the alleged conditions and pattern or practice were first brought to the attention of the Attorney General; and

(C) the minimum measures which the Attorney General believes may remedy the alleged conditions and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance;


(2) that the Attorney General has notified in writing the Governor or chief executive officer and attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision and the director of the institution of the Attorney General's intention to commence an investigation of such institution, that such notice was delivered at least seven days prior to the commencement of such investigation and that between the time of such notice and the commencement of an action under section 1997a of this title

(A) the Attorney General has made a reasonable good faith effort to consult with the Governor or chief executive officer and attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision and the director of the institution, or their designees, regarding financial, technical, or other assistance which may be available from the United States and which the Attorney General believes may assist in the correction of such conditions and pattern or practice of resistance;

(B) the Attorney General has encouraged the appropriate officials to correct the alleged conditions and pattern or practice of resistance through informal methods of conference, conciliation and persuasion, including, to the extent feasible, discussion of the possible costs and fiscal impacts of alternative minimum corrective measures, and it is the Attorney General's opinion that reasonable efforts at voluntary correction have not succeeded; and

(C) the Attorney General is satisfied that the appropriate officials have had a reasonable time to take appropriate action to correct such conditions and pattern or practice, taking into consideration the time required to remodel or make necessary changes in physical facilities or relocate residents, reasonable legal or procedural requirements, the urgency of the need to correct such conditions, and other circumstances involved in correcting such conditions; and


(3) that the Attorney General believes that such an action by the United States is of general public importance and will materially further the vindication of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.


(b) The Attorney General shall personally sign any certification made pursuant to this section.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §4, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 350; Pub. L. 97–256, title II, §201(a), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 816; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-71; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(A)], substituted "the Attorney General" for "he" in introductory provisions and in subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(A)], substituted "the Attorney General" for "he" wherever appearing in introductory provisions and in subpars. (A) to (C).

Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(B)], substituted "the Attorney General's" for "his" in introductory provisions and in subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(1)(A)], substituted "the Attorney General" for "he".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(b)(2)], amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Any certification made by the Attorney General pursuant to this section shall be personally signed by him."

1982—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–256 substituted "section 1997a of this title" for "section 1997 of this title" in provisions preceding par. (1).

§1997c. Intervention in actions

(a) Discretionary authority of Attorney General; preconditions; time period

(1) Whenever an action has been commenced in any court of the United States seeking relief from egregious or flagrant conditions which deprive persons residing in institutions of any rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States causing them to suffer grievous harm and the Attorney General has reasonable cause to believe that such deprivation is pursuant to a pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities, the Attorney General, for or in the name of the United States, may intervene in such action upon motion by the Attorney General.

(2) The Attorney General shall not file a motion to intervene under paragraph (1) before 90 days after the commencement of the action, except that if the court determines it would be in the interests of justice, the court may shorten or waive the time period.

(b) Certification requirements by Attorney General

(1) The Attorney General shall certify to the court in the motion to intervene filed under subsection (a)—

(A) that the Attorney General has notified in writing, at least fifteen days previously, the Governor or chief executive officer, attorney general or chief legal officer of the appropriate State or political subdivision, and the director of the institution of—

(i) the alleged conditions which deprive rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance to the full enjoyment of such rights, privileges, or immunities;

(ii) the supporting facts giving rise to the alleged conditions, including the dates and time period during which the alleged conditions and pattern or practice of resistance occurred; and

(iii) to the extent feasible and consistent with the interests of other plaintiffs, the minimum measures which the Attorney General believes may remedy the alleged conditions and the alleged pattern or practice of resistance; and


(B) that the Attorney General believes that such intervention by the United States is of general public importance and will materially further the vindication of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States.


(2) The Attorney General shall personally sign any certification made pursuant to this section.

(c) Attorney General to personally sign motion to intervene

The Attorney General shall personally sign any motion to intervene made pursuant to this section.

(d) Discretionary award of attorney fees; other award provisions unaffected

In any action in which the United States joins as an intervenor under this section, the court may allow the prevailing party, other than the United States, a reasonable attorney's fee against the United States as part of the costs. Nothing in this subsection precludes the award of attorney's fees available under any other provisions of the United States Code.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §5, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 351; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-71; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(1)(A)], substituted "the Attorney General" for "he" in introductory provisions and in cl. (iii).

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(1)(A)], substituted "the Attorney General" for "he".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(1)(B)], amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Any certification made by the Attorney General pursuant to this subsection shall be personally signed by him."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–134, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(c)(2)], amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "Any motion to intervene made by the Attorney General pursuant to this section shall be personally signed by him."

§1997d. Prohibition of retaliation

No person reporting conditions which may constitute a violation under this subchapter shall be subjected to retaliation in any manner for so reporting.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §6, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 352.)

§1997e. Suits by prisoners

(a) Applicability of administrative remedies

No action shall be brought with respect to prison conditions under section 1983 of this title, or any other Federal law, by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility until such administrative remedies as are available are exhausted.

(b) Failure of State to adopt or adhere to administrative grievance procedure

The failure of a State to adopt or adhere to an administrative grievance procedure shall not constitute the basis for an action under section 1997a or 1997c of this title.

(c) Dismissal

(1) The court shall on its own motion or on the motion of a party dismiss any action brought with respect to prison conditions under section 1983 of this title, or any other Federal law, by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility if the court is satisfied that the action is frivolous, malicious, fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, or seeks monetary relief from a defendant who is immune from such relief.

(2) In the event that a claim is, on its face, frivolous, malicious, fails to state a claim upon which relief can be granted, or seeks monetary relief from a defendant who is immune from such relief, the court may dismiss the underlying claim without first requiring the exhaustion of administrative remedies.

(d) Attorney's fees

(1) In any action brought by a prisoner who is confined to any jail, prison, or other correctional facility, in which attorney's fees are authorized under section 1988 1 of this title, such fees shall not be awarded, except to the extent that—

(A) the fee was directly and reasonably incurred in proving an actual violation of the plaintiff's rights protected by a statute pursuant to which a fee may be awarded under section 1988 1 of this title; and

(B)(i) the amount of the fee is proportionately related to the court ordered relief for the violation; or

(ii) the fee was directly and reasonably incurred in enforcing the relief ordered for the violation.


(2) Whenever a monetary judgment is awarded in an action described in paragraph (1), a portion of the judgment (not to exceed 25 percent) shall be applied to satisfy the amount of attorney's fees awarded against the defendant. If the award of attorney's fees is not greater than 150 percent of the judgment, the excess shall be paid by the defendant.

(3) No award of attorney's fees in an action described in paragraph (1) shall be based on an hourly rate greater than 150 percent of the hourly rate established under section 3006A of title 18 for payment of court-appointed counsel.

(4) Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit a prisoner from entering into an agreement to pay an attorney's fee in an amount greater than the amount authorized under this subsection, if the fee is paid by the individual rather than by the defendant pursuant to section 1988 1 of this title.

(e) Limitation on recovery

No Federal civil action may be brought by a prisoner confined in a jail, prison, or other correctional facility, for mental or emotional injury suffered while in custody without a prior showing of physical injury or the commission of a sexual act (as defined in section 2246 of title 18).

(f) Hearings

(1) To the extent practicable, in any action brought with respect to prison conditions in Federal court pursuant to section 1983 of this title, or any other Federal law, by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility, pretrial proceedings in which the prisoner's participation is required or permitted shall be conducted by telephone, video conference, or other telecommunications technology without removing the prisoner from the facility in which the prisoner is confined.

(2) Subject to the agreement of the official of the Federal, State, or local unit of government with custody over the prisoner, hearings may be conducted at the facility in which the prisoner is confined. To the extent practicable, the court shall allow counsel to participate by telephone, video conference, or other communications technology in any hearing held at the facility.

(g) Waiver of reply

(1) Any defendant may waive the right to reply to any action brought by a prisoner confined in any jail, prison, or other correctional facility under section 1983 of this title or any other Federal law. Notwithstanding any other law or rule of procedure, such waiver shall not constitute an admission of the allegations contained in the complaint. No relief shall be granted to the plaintiff unless a reply has been filed.

(2) The court may require any defendant to reply to a complaint brought under this section if it finds that the plaintiff has a reasonable opportunity to prevail on the merits.

(h) "Prisoner" defined

As used in this section, the term "prisoner" means any person incarcerated or detained in any facility who is accused of, convicted of, sentenced for, or adjudicated delinquent for, violations of criminal law or the terms and conditions of parole, probation, pretrial release, or diversionary program.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §7, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 352; Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20416(a), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1833; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(d)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-71; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 113–4, title XI, §1101(a), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 134.)

References in Text

Section 1988 of this title, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), (4), was in the original a reference to section 2 of the Revised Statutes of the United States (42 U.S.C. 1988), and has been translated as reading section 722 of the Revised Statutes of the United States to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Section 2 of the Revised Statutes, which defined the term "county", was repealed and reenacted as section 2 of Title 1, General Provisions, by act July 30, 1947, ch. 388, 61 Stat. 633, 640.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–4 inserted "or the commission of a sexual act (as defined in section 2246 of title 18)" before period at end.

1996Pub. L. 104–134 amended section generally, substituting provisions relating to suits by prisoners, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (h), for former provisions relating to exhaustion of remedies, consisting of subsecs. (a) to (d).

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–322, §20416(a)(1), substituted "exceed 180 days" for "exceed ninety days" in par. (1) and inserted before period at end of par. (2) "or are otherwise fair and effective".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 103–322, §20416(a)(2), inserted "or are otherwise fair and effective" before period at end of par. (1) and "or is no longer fair and effective" before period at end of par. (2).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–322, title II, §20416(b), Sept. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 1834, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 13, 1994]."

Nondisclosure of Information in Actions Brought by Prisoners

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §127], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–50, 2681-74, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in any action brought by a prisoner under section 1979 of the Revised Statutes (42 U.S.C. 1983) against a Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility, or any employee or former employee thereof, arising out of the incarceration of that prisoner—

"(1) the financial records of a person employed or formerly employed by the Federal, State, or local jail, prison, or correctional facility, shall not be subject to disclosure without the written consent of that person or pursuant to a court order, unless a verdict of liability has been entered against that person; and

"(2) the home address, home phone number, social security number, identity of family members, personal tax returns, and personal banking information of a person described in paragraph (1), and any other records or information of a similar nature relating to that person, shall not be subject to disclosure without the written consent of that person, or pursuant to a court order."

[Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(b) [title I, §127], set out above, applicable to fiscal year 2000 and thereafter, see Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(1) [title I, §109], set out as an Applicability of Provisions Relating to Use of Counterterrorism Appropriations and Nondisclosure of Information in Actions Brought by Prisoners note under section 524 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.]

1 See References in Text note below.

§1997f. Report to Congress

The Attorney General shall include in the report to Congress on the business of the Department of Justice prepared pursuant to section 522 of title 28

(1) a statement of the number, variety, and outcome of all actions instituted pursuant to this subchapter including the history of, precise reasons for, and procedures followed in initiation or intervention in each case in which action was commenced;

(2) a detailed explanation of the procedures by which the Department has received, reviewed and evaluated petitions or complaints regarding conditions in institutions;

(3) an analysis of the impact of actions instituted pursuant to this subchapter, including, when feasible, an estimate of the costs incurred by States and other political subdivisions;

(4) a statement of the financial, technical, or other assistance which has been made available from the United States to the State in order to assist in the correction of the conditions which are alleged to have deprived a person of rights, privileges, or immunities secured or protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States; and

(5) the progress made in each Federal institution toward meeting existing promulgated standards for such institutions or constitutionally guaranteed minima.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §8, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 353; Pub. L. 97–256, title II, §201(b), Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 817; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(e)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-73; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–134 substituted "the report" for "his report" in introductory provisions .

1982Pub. L. 97–256 substituted "Attorney General" for "Attorney".

§1997g. Priorities for use of funds

It is the intent of Congress that deplorable conditions in institutions covered by this subchapter amounting to deprivations of rights protected by the Constitution or laws of the United States be corrected, not only by litigation as contemplated in this subchapter, but also by the voluntary good faith efforts of agencies of Federal, State, and local governments. It is the further intention of Congress that where Federal funds are available for use in improving such institutions, priority should be given to the correction or elimination of such unconstitutional or illegal conditions which may exist. It is not the intent of this provision to require the redirection of funds from one program to another or from one State to another.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §9, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354.)

§1997h. Notice to Federal departments

At the time of notification of the commencement of an investigation of an institution under section 1997a of this title or of the notification of an intention to file a motion to intervene under section 1997c of this title, and if the relevant institution receives Federal financial assistance from the Department of Health and Human Services or the Department of Education, the Attorney General shall notify the appropriate Secretary of the action and the reasons for such action and shall consult with such officials. Following such consultation, the Attorney General may proceed with an action under this subchapter if the Attorney General is satisfied that such action is consistent with the policies and goals of the executive branch.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §10, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354; Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101[(a)] [title VIII, §803(f)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321, 1321-73; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327.)

Amendments

1996Pub. L. 104–134 substituted "the action" for "his action" and "the Attorney General is satisfied" for "he is satisfied".

§1997i. Disclaimer respecting standards of care

Provisions of this subchapter shall not authorize promulgation of regulations defining standards of care.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §11, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354.)

§1997j. Disclaimer respecting private litigation

The provisions of this subchapter shall in no way expand or restrict the authority of parties other than the United States to enforce the legal rights which they may have pursuant to existing law with regard to institutionalized persons. In this regard, the fact that the Attorney General may be conducting an investigation or contemplating litigation pursuant to this subchapter shall not be grounds for delay of or prejudice to any litigation on behalf of parties other than the United States.

(Pub. L. 96–247, §12, May 23, 1980, 94 Stat. 354.)