[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER XV: JUDICIAL REVIEW AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE
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42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER XV: JUDICIAL REVIEW AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 23—DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL OF ATOMIC ENERGYDivision A—Atomic Energy

SUBCHAPTER XV—JUDICIAL REVIEW AND ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE

§2231. Applicability of administrative procedure provisions; definitions

The provisions of subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5 shall apply to all agency action taken under this chapter, and the terms "agency" and "agency action" shall have the meaning specified in section 551 of title 5: Provided, however, That in the case of agency proceedings or actions which involve Restricted Data, defense information, safeguards information protected from disclosure under the authority of section 2167 of this title or information protected from dissemination under the authority of section 2168 of this title, the Commission shall provide by regulation for such parallel procedures as will effectively safeguard and prevent disclosure of Restricted Data, defense information, such safeguards information, or information protected from dissemination under the authority of section 2168 of this title to unauthorized persons with minimum impairment of the procedural rights which would be available if Restricted Data, defense information, such safeguards information, or information protected from dissemination under the authority of section 2168 of this title were not involved.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §181, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 953; amended Pub. L. 96–295, title II, §207(b), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 789; Pub. L. 97–90, title II, §210(b), Dec. 4, 1981, 95 Stat. 1170; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Codification

"Subchapter II of chapter 5, and chapter 7, of title 5" substituted in text for the first reference to the Administrative Procedure Act on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees. "Section 551 of title 5" substituted for the second reference to the Administrative Procedure Act to reflect the codification of the definitions of "agency" and "agency action" in that section. Prior to the enactment of Title 5, the Administrative Procedure Act was classified to sections 1001 to 1011 of Title 5.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1814(a), (c) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1981Pub. L. 97–90, in proviso, substituted "involve Restricted Data, defense information, safeguards information protected from disclosure under the authority of section 2167 of this title or information protected from dissemination under the authority of section 2168 of this title, the Commission shall provide by regulation for such parallel procedures as will effectively safeguard and prevent disclosure of Restricted Data, defense information, such safeguards information, or information protected from dissemination under the authority of section 2168 of this title to unauthorized persons with minimum impairment of the procedural rights which would be available if Restricted Data, defense information, such safeguards information, or information protected from dissemination under the authority of section 2168 of this title were not involved" for "involve Restricted Data, defense information, or safeguards information protected from disclosure under the authority of section 2167 of this title, the Commission shall provide by regulation for such parallel procedures as will effectively safeguard and prevent disclosure of Restricted Data, defense information, or such safeguards information, to unauthorized persons with minimum impairment of the procedural rights which would be available if Restricted Data, defense information, or such safeguards information, were not involved".

1980Pub. L. 96–295 inserted references and made provisions applicable to safeguards information.

§2232. License applications

(a) Contents and form

Each application for a license hereunder shall be in writing and shall specifically state such information as the Commission, by rule or regulation, may determine to be necessary to decide such of the technical and financial qualifications of the applicant, the character of the applicant, the citizenship of the applicant, or any other qualifications of the applicant as the Commission may deem appropriate for the license. In connection with applications for licenses to operate production or utilization facilities, the applicant shall state such technical specifications, including information of the amount, kind, and source of special nuclear material required, the place of the use, the specific characteristics of the facility, and such other information as the Commission may, by rule or regulation, deem necessary in order to enable it to find that the utilization or production of special nuclear material will be in accord with the common defense and security and will provide adequate protection to the health and safety of the public. Such technical specifications shall be a part of any license issued. The Commission may at any time after the filing of the original application, and before the expiration of the license, require further written statements in order to enable the Commission to determine whether the application should be granted or denied or whether a license should be modified or revoked. All applications and statements shall be signed by the applicant or licensee. Applications for, and statements made in connection with, licenses under sections 2133 and 2134 of this title shall be made under oath or affirmation. The Commission may require any other applications or statements to be made under oath or affirmation.

(b) Review of applications by Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards; report

The Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards shall review each application under section 2133 or section 2134(b) of this title for a construction permit or an operating license for a facility, any application under section 2134(c) of this title for a construction permit or an operating license for a testing facility, any application under subsection (a) or (c) of section 2134 of this title specifically referred to it by the Commission, and any application for an amendment to a construction permit or an amendment to an operating license under section 2133 or 2134(a), (b), or (c) of this title specifically referred to it by the Commission, and shall submit a report thereon which shall be made part of the record of the application and available to the public except to the extent that security classification prevents disclosure.

(c) Commercial power; publication

The Commission shall not issue any license under section 2133 of this title for a utilization or production facility for the generation of commercial power until it has given notice in writing to such regulatory agency as may have jurisdiction over the rates and services incident to the proposed activity; until it has published notice of the application in such trade or news publications as the Commission deems appropriate to give reasonable notice to municipalities, private utilities, public bodies, and cooperatives which might have a potential interest in such utilization or production facility; and until it has published notice of such application once each week for four consecutive weeks in the Federal Register, and until four weeks after the last notice.

(d) Preferred consideration

The Commission, in issuing any license for a utilization or production facility for the generation of commercial power under section 2133 of this title, shall give preferred consideration to applications for such facilities which will be located in high cost power areas in the United States if there are conflicting applications for a limited opportunity for such license. Where such conflicting applications resulting from limited opportunity for such license include those submitted by public or cooperative bodies such applications shall be given preferred consideration.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §182, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 953; amended Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §5, 70 Stat. 1069; Pub. L. 85–256, §6, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 579; Pub. L. 87–615, §3, Aug. 29, 1962, 76 Stat. 409; Pub. L. 91–560, §9, Dec. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1474; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Amendments

1970—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–560 substituted provisions requiring notification by publication giving reasonable notice to municipalities, private utilities, public bodies, and cooperatives which might have a potential interest in such utilization or production facility, for provisions requiring notice in writing to municipalities, private utilities, public bodies and cooperatives within transmission distance authorized to engage in the distribution of electric energy.

1962—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 87–615 substituted provisions requiring review of applications under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title for a construction permit or an operating license for a facility, or under section 2134(c) of this title for a testing facility, for provisions which required review of license applications for such facilities, and inserted provisions requiring review of any application for an amendment to a construction permit or operating license under section 2133 or 2134(a), (b), or (c) of this title specifically referred to it by the Commission.

1957—Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 85–256 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) and (c) as (c) and (d), respectively.

1956—Subsec. (a). Act Aug. 6, 1956, struck out "under oath or affirmation" from last sentence, and inserted two sentences at end requiring applications and statements in connection with sections 2133 and 2134 to be made under oath or affirmation and authorizing Commission to require any other applications or statements to be made under oath or affirmation.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees in existence on Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period following Jan. 5, 1973, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§2233. Terms of licenses

Each license shall be in such form and contain such terms and conditions as the Commission may, by rule or regulation, prescribe to effectuate the provisions of this chapter, including the following provisions:

(a) Repealed. Pub. L. 88–489, §18, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 607.

(b) No right to the special nuclear material shall be conferred by the license except as defined by the license.

(c) Neither the license nor any right under the license shall be assigned or otherwise transferred in violation of the provisions of this chapter.

(d) Every license issued under this chapter shall be subject to the right of recapture or control reserved by section 2138 of this title, and to all of the other provisions of this chapter, now or hereafter in effect and to all valid rules and regulations of the Commission.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §183, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 954; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §18, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 607; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1964—Par. (a). Pub. L. 88–489 struck out par. (a) which placed title to all special nuclear material utilized or produced by facilities pursuant to license in the United States at all times.

§2234. Inalienability of licenses

No license granted hereunder and no right to utilize or produce special nuclear material granted hereby shall be transferred, assigned or in any manner disposed of, either voluntarily or involuntarily, directly or indirectly, through transfer of control of any license to any person, unless the Commission shall, after securing full information, find that the transfer is in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, and shall give its consent in writing. The Commission may give such consent to the creation of a mortgage, pledge, or other lien upon any facility or special nuclear material, owned or thereafter acquired by a licensee, or upon any leasehold or other interest to such facility, and the rights of the creditors so secured may thereafter be enforced by any court subject to rules and regulations established by the Commission to protect public health and safety and promote the common defense and security.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §184, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 954; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §19, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 607; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1964Pub. L. 88–489 inserted "or special nuclear material," after "lien upon any facility" and substituted "interest in such facility" for "interest in such property".

§2235. Construction permits and operating licenses

(a) All applicants for licenses to construct or modify production or utilization facilities shall, if the application is otherwise acceptable to the Commission, be initially granted a construction permit. The construction permit shall state the earliest and latest dates for the completion of the construction or modification. Unless the construction or modification of the facility is completed by the completion date, the construction permit shall expire, and all rights thereunder be forfeited, unless upon good cause shown, the Commission extends the completion date. Upon the completion of the construction or modification of the facility, upon the filing of any additional information needed to bring the original application up to date, and upon finding that the facility authorized has been constructed and will operate in conformity with the application as amended and in conformity with the provisions of this chapter and of the rules and regulations of the Commission, and in the absence of any good cause being shown to the Commission why the granting of a license would not be in accordance with the provisions of this chapter, the Commission shall thereupon issue a license to the applicant. For all other purposes of this chapter, a construction permit is deemed to be a "license".

(b) After holding a public hearing under section 2239(a)(1)(A) of this title, the Commission shall issue to the applicant a combined construction and operating license if the application contains sufficient information to support the issuance of a combined license and the Commission determines that there is reasonable assurance that the facility will be constructed and will operate in conformity with the license, the provisions of this chapter, and the Commission's rules and regulations. The Commission shall identify within the combined license the inspections, tests, and analyses, including those applicable to emergency planning, that the licensee shall perform, and the acceptance criteria that, if met, are necessary and sufficient to provide reasonable assurance that the facility has been constructed and will be operated in conformity with the license, the provisions of this chapter, and the Commission's rules and regulations. Following issuance of the combined license, the Commission shall ensure that the prescribed inspections, tests, and analyses are performed and, prior to operation of the facility, shall find that the prescribed acceptance criteria are met. Any finding made under this subsection shall not require a hearing except as provided in section 2239(a)(1)(B) of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §185, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 955; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), title XXVIII, §2801, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944, 3120.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1992Pub. L. 102–486, §2801, inserted "and operating licenses" after "permits" in section catchline, designated existing text as subsec. (a), and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–486, title XXVIII, §2806, Oct, 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 3121, provided that: "Sections 185 b. and 189 a. (1)(B) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [subsec. (b) of this section and section 2239(a)(1)(B) of this title], as added by sections 2801 and 2802 of this Act, shall apply to all proceedings involving a combined license for which an application was filed after May 8, 1991, under such sections."

Executive Order No. 12129

Ex. Ord. No. 12129, Apr. 5, 1979, 44 F.R. 21001, which established a Critical Energy Facility Program, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12553, Feb. 25, 1986, 51 F.R. 7237.

§2236. Revocation of licenses

(a) False applications; failure of performance

Any license may be revoked for any material false statement in the application or any statement of fact required under section 2232 of this title, or because of conditions revealed by such application or statement of fact or any report, record, or inspection or other means which would warrant the Commission to refuse to grant a license on an original application, or for failure to construct or operate a facility in accordance with the terms of the construction permit or license or the technical specifications in the application, or for violation of, or failure to observe any of the terms and provisions of this chapter or of any regulation of the Commission.

(b) Procedure

The Commission shall follow the provisions of section 558(c) of title 5 in revoking any license.

(c) Repossession of material

Upon revocation of the license, the Commission may immediately retake possession of all special nuclear material held by the licensee. In cases found by the Commission to be of extreme importance to the national defense and security or to the health and safety of the public, the Commission may recapture any special nuclear material held by the licensee or may enter upon and operate the facility prior to any of the procedures provided under subchapter II of chapter 5 and chapter 7 of title 5. Just compensation shall be paid for the use of the facility.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §186, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 955; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsecs. (b) and (c), "section 558(c) of title 5" and "subchapter II of chapter 5 and chapter 7 of title 5" substituted for "section 9(b) of the Administrative Procedure Act [5 U.S.C. 1008(b)]" and "the Administration Procedure Act [5 U.S.C. 1001–1011]", respectively, on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§2237. Modification of license

The terms and conditions of all licenses shall be subject to amendment, revision, or modification, by reason of amendments of this chapter or by reason of rules and regulations issued in accordance with the terms of this chapter.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §187, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 955; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

§2238. Continued operation of facilities

Whenever the Commission finds that the public convenience and necessity or the production program of the Commission requires continued operation of a production facility or utilization facility the license for which has been revoked pursuant to section 2236 of this title, the Commission may, after consultation with the appropriate regulatory agency, State or Federal, having jurisdiction, order that possession be taken of and such facility be operated for such period of time as the public convenience and necessity or the production program of the Commission may, in the judgment of the Commission, require, or until a license for the operation of the facility shall become effective. Just compensation shall be paid for the use of the facility.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §188, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 955; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

§2239. Hearings and judicial review

(a)(1)(A) In any proceeding under this chapter, for the granting, suspending, revoking, or amending of any license or construction permit, or application to transfer control, and in any proceeding for the issuance or modification of rules and regulations dealing with the activities of licensees, and in any proceeding for the payment of compensation, an award or royalties under sections 1 2183, 2187, 2236(c) or 2238 of this title, the Commission shall grant a hearing upon the request of any person whose interest may be affected by the proceeding, and shall admit any such person as a party to such proceeding. The Commission shall hold a hearing after thirty days' notice and publication once in the Federal Register, on each application under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title for a construction permit for a facility, and on any application under section 2134(c) of this title for a construction permit for a testing facility. In cases where such a construction permit has been issued following the holding of such a hearing, the Commission may, in the absence of a request therefor by any person whose interest may be affected, issue an operating license or an amendment to a construction permit or an amendment to an operating license without a hearing, but upon thirty days' notice and publication once in the Federal Register of its intent to do so. The Commission may dispense with such thirty days' notice and publication with respect to any application for an amendment to a construction permit or an amendment to an operating license upon a determination by the Commission that the amendment involves no significant hazards consideration.

(B)(i) Not less than 180 days before the date scheduled for initial loading of fuel into a plant by a licensee that has been issued a combined construction permit and operating license under section 2235(b) of this title, the Commission shall publish in the Federal Register notice of intended operation. That notice shall provide that any person whose interest may be affected by operation of the plant, may within 60 days request the Commission to hold a hearing on whether the facility as constructed complies, or on completion will comply, with the acceptance criteria of the license.

(ii) A request for hearing under clause (i) shall show, prima facie, that one or more of the acceptance criteria in the combined license have not been, or will not be met, and the specific operational consequences of nonconformance that would be contrary to providing reasonable assurance of adequate protection of the public health and safety.

(iii) After receiving a request for a hearing under clause (i), the Commission expeditiously shall either deny or grant the request. If the request is granted, the Commission shall determine, after considering petitioners' prima facie showing and any answers thereto, whether during a period of interim operation, there will be reasonable assurance of adequate protection of the public health and safety. If the Commission determines that there is such reasonable assurance, it shall allow operation during an interim period under the combined license.

(iv) The Commission, in its discretion, shall determine appropriate hearing procedures, whether informal or formal adjudicatory, for any hearing under clause (i), and shall state its reasons therefor.

(v) The Commission shall, to the maximum possible extent, render a decision on issues raised by the hearing request within 180 days of the publication of the notice provided by clause (i) or the anticipated date for initial loading of fuel into the reactor, whichever is later. Commencement of operation under a combined license is not subject to subparagraph (A).

(2)(A) The Commission may issue and make immediately effective any amendment to an operating license or any amendment to a combined construction and operating license, upon a determination by the Commission that such amendment involves no significant hazards consideration, notwithstanding the pendency before the Commission of a request for a hearing from any person. Such amendment may be issued and made immediately effective in advance of the holding and completion of any required hearing. In determining under this section whether such amendment involves no significant hazards consideration, the Commission shall consult with the State in which the facility involved is located. In all other respects such amendment shall meet the requirements of this chapter.

(B) The Commission shall periodically (but not less frequently than once every thirty days) publish notice of any amendments issued, or proposed to be issued, as provided in subparagraph (A). Each such notice shall include all amendments issued, or proposed to be issued, since the date of publication of the last such periodic notice. Such notice shall, with respect to each amendment or proposed amendment (i) identify the facility involved; and (ii) provide a brief description of such amendment. Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to delay the effective date of any amendment.

(C) The Commission shall, during the ninety-day period following the effective date of this paragraph, promulgate regulations establishing (i) standards for determining whether any amendment to an operating license or any amendment to a combined construction and operating license involves no significant hazards consideration; (ii) criteria for providing or, in emergency situations, dispensing with prior notice and reasonable opportunity for public comment on any such determination, which criteria shall take into account the exigency of the need for the amendment involved; and (iii) procedures for consultation on any such determination with the State in which the facility involved is located.

(b) The following Commission actions shall be subject to judicial review in the manner prescribed in chapter 158 of title 28 and chapter 7 of title 5:

(1) Any final order entered in any proceeding of the kind specified in subsection (a).

(2) Any final order allowing or prohibiting a facility to begin operating under a combined construction and operating license.

(3) Any final order establishing by regulation standards to govern the Department of Energy's gaseous diffusion uranium enrichment plants, including any such facilities leased to a corporation established under the USEC Privatization Act [42 U.S.C. 2297h et seq.].

(4) Any final determination under section 2297f(c) of this title relating to whether the gaseous diffusion plants, including any such facilities leased to a corporation established under the USEC Privatization Act [42 U.S.C. 2297h et seq.], are in compliance with the Commission's standards governing the gaseous diffusion plants and all applicable laws.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §189, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 955; amended Pub. L. 85–256, §7, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 579; Pub. L. 87–615, §2, Aug. 29, 1962, 76 Stat. 409; Pub. L. 97–415, §12(a), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2073; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), title XXVIII, §§2802, 2804, 2805, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944, 3120, 3121; Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3116(c), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–349.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(A), (2)(A), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The effective date of this paragraph, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(C), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 97–415, which was approved Jan. 4, 1983.

The USEC Privatization Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), (4), is subchapter A (§§3101–3117) of chapter 1 of title III of Pub. L. 104–134, Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–335, which is classified principally to subchapter VIII (§2297h et seq.) of this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–134 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "Any final order entered in any proceeding of the kind specified in subsection (a) of this section or any final order allowing or prohibiting a facility to begin operating under a combined construction and operating license shall be subject to judicial review in the manner prescribed in the Act of December 29, 1950, as amended (ch. 1189, 64 Stat. 1129), and to the provisions of section 10 of the Administrative Procedure Act, as amended."

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–486, §2802, designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (a)(2)(A), (C). Pub. L. 102–486, §2804, inserted "or any amendment to a combined construction and operating license" after "any amendment to an operating license".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–486, §2805, inserted "or any final order allowing or prohibiting a facility to begin operating under a combined construction and operating license" before "shall be subject to judicial review".

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–415 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–615 substituted "construction permit for a facility" and "construction permit for a testing facility" for "license for a facility" and "license for a testing facility" respectively, and authorized the commission in cases where a permit has been issued following a hearing, and in the absence of a request therefor by anyone whose interest may be affected, to issue an operating license or an amendment to a construction permit or an operating license without a hearing upon thirty days' notice and publication once in the Federal Register of its intent to do so, and to dispense with such notice and publication with respect to any application for an amendment to a construction permit or to an operating license upon its determination that the amendment involves no significant hazards consideration.

1957—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 85–256 required the Commission to hold a hearing after 30 days notice and publication once in the Federal Register on an application for a license for a facility or a testing facility.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Subsec. (a)(1)(B) of this section, as added by section 2802 of Pub. L. 102–486, applicable to all proceedings involving combined license for which application was filed after May 8, 1991, see section 2806 of Pub. L. 102–486, set out as a note under section 2235 of this title.

Authority To Effectuate Amendments to Operating Licenses

Pub. L. 97–415, §12(b), Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2073, provided that: "The authority of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, under the provisions of the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section], to issue and to make immediately effective any amendment to an operating license shall take effect upon the promulgation by the Commission of the regulations required in such provisions."

Review of Nuclear Proliferation Assessment Statements

No court or regulatory body to have jurisdiction to compel performance of or to review adequacy of performance of any Nuclear Proliferation Assessment Statement called for by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [this chapter] or by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–242, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 120, see section 2160a of this title.

Administrative Orders Review Act

Court of appeals exclusive jurisdiction respecting final orders of Atomic Energy Commission, now the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Secretary of Energy, made reviewable by this section, see section 2342 of Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§2240. Licensee incident reports as evidence

No report by any licensee of any incident arising out of or in connection with a licensed activity made pursuant to any requirement of the Commission shall be admitted as evidence in any suit or action for damages growing out of any matter mentioned in such report.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §190, as added Pub. L. 87–206, §16, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 479; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

§2241. Atomic safety and licensing boards; establishment; membership; functions; compensation

(a) Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 556(b) and 557(b) of title 5, the Commission is authorized to establish one or more atomic safety and licensing boards, each comprised of three members, one of whom shall be qualified in the conduct of administrative proceedings and two of whom shall have such technical or other qualifications as the Commission deems appropriate to the issues to be decided, to conduct such hearings as the Commission may direct and make such intermediate or final decisions as the Commission may authorize with respect to the granting, suspending, revoking or amending of any license or authorization under the provisions of this chapter, any other provision of law, or any regulation of the Commission issued thereunder. The Commission may delegate to a board such other regulatory functions as the Commission deems appropriate. The Commission may appoint a panel of qualified persons from which board members may be selected.

(b) Board members may be appointed by the Commission from private life, or designated from the staff of the Commission or other Federal agency. Board members appointed from private life shall receive a per diem compensation for each day spent in meetings or conferences, and all members shall receive their necessary traveling or other expenses while engaged in the work of a board. The provisions of section 2203 of this title shall be applicable to board members appointed from private life.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §191, as added Pub. L. 87–615, §1, Aug. 29, 1962, 76 Stat. 409; amended Pub. L. 91–560, §10, Dec. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1474; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In subsec. (a), "sections 556(b) and 557(b) of title 5" substituted for "sections 7(a) and 8(a) of the Administrative Procedure Act [5 U.S.C. 1006(a), 1007(a)]" on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–560 required that two members of the board should have such technical or other qualifications the Commission deems appropriate to the issues to be decided.

§2242. Temporary operating license

(a) Fuel loading, testing, and operation at specific power level; petition, affidavit, etc.

In any proceeding upon an application for an operating license for a utilization facility required to be licensed under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title, in which a hearing is otherwise required pursuant to section 2239(a) of this title, the applicant may petition the Commission for a temporary operating license for such facility authorizing fuel loading, testing, and operation at a specific power level to be determined by the Commission, pending final action by the Commission on the application. The initial petition for a temporary operating license for each such facility, and any temporary operating license issued for such facility based upon the initial petition, shall be limited to power levels not to exceed 5 percent of rated full thermal power. Following issuance by the Commission of the temporary operating license for each such facility, the licensee may file petitions with the Commission to amend the license to allow facility operation in staged increases at specific power levels, to be determined by the Commission, exceeding 5 percent of rated full thermal power. The initial petition for a temporary operating license for each such facility may be filed at any time after the filing of: (1) the report of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards required by section 2232(b) of this title; (2) the filing of the initial Safety Evaluation Report by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's first supplement to the report prepared in response to the report of the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards for the facility; (3) the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff's final detailed statement on the environmental impact of the facility prepared pursuant to section 4332(2)(C) of this title; and (4) a State, local, or utility emergency preparedness plan for the facility. Petitions for the issuance of a temporary operating license, or for an amendment to such a license allowing operation at a specific power level greater than that authorized in the initial temporary operating license, shall be accompanied by an affidavit or affidavits setting forth the specific facts upon which the petitioner relies to justify issuance of the temporary operating license or the amendment thereto. The Commission shall publish notice of each such petition in the Federal Register and in such trade or news publications as the Commission deems appropriate to give reasonable notice to persons who might have a potential interest in the grant of such temporary operating license or amendment thereto. Any person may file affidavits or statements in support of, or in opposition to, the petition within thirty days after the publication of such notice in the Federal Register.

(b) Operation at greater power level; criteria, effect, terms and conditions, etc.; procedures applicable

With respect to any petition filed pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, the Commission may issue a temporary operating license, or amend the license to authorize temporary operation at each specific power level greater than that authorized in the initial temporary operating license, as determined by the Commission, upon finding that—

(1) in all respects other than the conduct or completion of any required hearing, the requirements of law are met;

(2) in accordance with such requirements, there is reasonable assurance that operation of the facility during the period of the temporary operating license in accordance with its terms and conditions will provide adequate protection to the public health and safety and the environment during the period of temporary operation; and

(3) denial of such temporary operating license will result in delay between the date on which construction of the facility is sufficiently completed, in the judgment of the Commission, to permit issuance of the temporary operating license, and the date when such facility would otherwise receive a final operating license pursuant to this chapter.


The temporary operating license shall become effective upon issuance and shall contain such terms and conditions as the Commission may deem necessary, including the duration of the license and any provision for the extension thereof. Any final order authorizing the issuance or amendment of any temporary operating license pursuant to this section shall recite with specificity the facts and reasons justifying the findings under this subsection, and shall be transmitted upon such issuance to the Committees on Natural Resources and on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate. The final order of the Commission with respect to the issuance or amendment of a temporary operating license shall be subject to judicial review pursuant to chapter 158 of title 28. The requirements of section 2239(a) of this title with respect to the issuance or amendment of facility licenses shall not apply to the issuance or amendment of a temporary operating license under this section.

(c) Hearing for final operating license; suspension, issuance, compliance, etc., with temporary operating license

Any hearing on the application for the final operating license for a facility required pursuant to section 2239(a) of this title shall be concluded as promptly as practicable. The Commission shall suspend the temporary operating license if it finds that the applicant is not prosecuting the application for the final operating license with due diligence. Issuance of a temporary operating license under subsection (b) of this section shall be without prejudice to the right of any party to raise any issue in a hearing required pursuant to section 2239(a) of this title; and failure to assert any ground for denial or limitation of a temporary operating license shall not bar the assertion of such ground in connection with the issuance of a subsequent final operating license. Any party to a hearing required pursuant to section 2239(a) of this title on the final operating license for a facility for which a temporary operating license has been issued under subsection (b), and any member of the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board conducting such hearing, shall promptly notify the Commission of any information indicating that the terms and conditions of the temporary operating license are not being met, or that such terms and conditions are not sufficient to comply with the provisions of paragraph (2) of subsection (b).

(d) Administrative remedies for minimization of need for license

The Commission is authorized and directed to adopt such administrative remedies as the Commission deems appropriate to minimize the need for issuance of temporary operating licenses pursuant to this section.

(e) Expiration of issuing authority

The authority to issue new temporary operating licenses under this section shall expire on December 31, 1983.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §192, as added Pub. L. 92–307, June 2, 1972, 86 Stat. 191; amended Pub. L. 97–415, §11, Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2071; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(8), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4593.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Natural Resources and on" for "Interior and Insular Affairs and".

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–415 substituted provisions setting forth procedures for petitioning for a temporary operating license in any proceeding upon an application for an operating license for a utilization facility required to be licensed under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title in which a hearing is otherwise required pursuant to section 2239(a) of this title, for provisions setting forth procedures for petitioning for a temporary operating license in any proceeding upon an application for an operating license for a nuclear power reactor in which a hearing is otherwise required pursuant to section 2239(a) of this title.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–415 substituted provisions relating to requisite findings, effectiveness, terms and conditions, etc., with respect to petition for a temporary operating license for a utilization facility or amendment of the license to authorize temporary operation at greater power levels than authorized in the initial temporary operating license, for provisions relating to requisite findings, terms and conditions, etc., with respect to petition for a temporary operating license for a nuclear power reactor.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–415 inserted provisions relating to notification requirements on any party to the hearing and any Board member, and substituted provisions relating to suspension of the temporary operating license, for provisions relating to vacation of the temporary operating license.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 97–415 substituted provisions relating to administrative remedies for minimization of need for temporary operating licenses for provisions setting forth expiration of authority under this section on Oct. 30, 1973.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–415 added subsec. (e).

Change of Name

Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

§2243. Licensing of uranium enrichment facilities

(a) Environmental impact statement

(1) Major Federal action

The issuance of a license under sections 2073 and 2093 of this title for the construction and operation of any uranium enrichment facility shall be considered a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment for purposes of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.).

(2) Timing

An environmental impact statement prepared under paragraph (1) shall be prepared before the hearing on the issuance of a license for the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility is completed.

(b) Adjudicatory hearing

(1) In general

The Commission shall conduct a single adjudicatory hearing on the record with regard to the licensing of the construction and operation of a uranium enrichment facility under sections 2073 and 2093 of this title.

(2) Timing

Such hearing shall be completed and a decision issued before the issuance of a license for such construction and operation.

(3) Single proceeding

No further Commission licensing action shall be required to authorize operation.

(c) Inspection and operation

Prior to commencement of operation of a uranium enrichment facility licensed hereunder, the Commission shall verify through inspection that the facility has been constructed in accordance with the requirements of the license for construction and operation. The Commission shall publish notice of the inspection results in the Federal Register.

(d) Insurance and decommissioning

(1) The Commission shall require, as a condition of the issuance of a license under sections 2073 and 2093 of this title for a uranium enrichment facility, that the licensee have and maintain liability insurance of such type and in such amounts as the Commission judges appropriate to cover liability claims arising out of any occurrence within the United States, causing, within or outside the United States, bodily injury, sickness, disease, or death, or loss of or damage to property, or loss of use of property, arising out of or resulting from the radioactive, toxic, explosive, or other hazardous properties of chemical compounds containing source or special nuclear material.

(2) The Commission shall require, as a condition for the issuance of a license under sections 2073 and 2093 of this title for a uranium enrichment facility, that the licensee provide adequate assurance of the availability of funds for the decommissioning (including decontamination) of such facility using funding mechanisms that may include, but are not necessarily limited to, the following:

(A) Prepayment (in the form of a trust, escrow account, government fund, certificate of deposit, or deposit of government securities).

(B) Surety (in the form of a surety or performance bond, letter of credit, or line of credit), insurance, or other guarantee (including parent company guarantee) method.

(C) External sinking fund in which deposits are made at least annually.

(e) No Price-Anderson coverage

Section 2210 of this title shall not apply to any license under section 2073 or 2093 of this title for a uranium enrichment facility constructed after November 15, 1990.

(f) Limitation

No license or certificate of compliance may be issued to the United States Enrichment Corporation or its successor under this section or sections 1 2073, 2093, or 2297f of this title, if the Commission determines that—

(1) the Corporation is owned, controlled, or dominated by an alien, a foreign corporation, or a foreign government; or

(2) the issuance of such a license or certificate of compliance would be inimical to—

(A) the common defense and security of the United States; or

(B) the maintenance of a reliable and economical domestic source of enrichment services.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §193, as added Pub. L. 101–575, §5(e), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2835; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3116(b)(2), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–349.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–134 added subsec. (f).

References to United States Enrichment Corporation

References to the United States Enrichment Corporation deemed, as of the privatization date (July 28, 1998), to be references to the private corporation, see section 3116(e) of Pub. L. 104–134, set out as a note under former section 2297 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".