[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER XVII: ENFORCEMENT OF CHAPTER
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42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER XVII: ENFORCEMENT OF CHAPTER
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 23—DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL OF ATOMIC ENERGYDivision A—Atomic Energy

SUBCHAPTER XVII—ENFORCEMENT OF CHAPTER

§2271. General provisions

(a) Authority of President to utilize Government agencies

To protect against the unlawful dissemination of Restricted Data and to safeguard facilities, equipment, materials, and other property of the Commission, the President shall have authority to utilize the services of any Government agency to the extent he may deem necessary or desirable.

(b) Criminal violations

The Federal Bureau of Investigation of the Department of Justice shall investigate all alleged or suspected criminal violations of this chapter.

(c) Violations of this chapter

No action shall be brought against any individual or person for any violation under this chapter unless and until the Attorney General of the United States has advised the Commission with respect to such action and no such action shall be commenced except by the Attorney General of the United States: Provided, however, That nothing in this subsection shall be construed as applying to administrative action taken by the Commission.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §221, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 958; amended Pub. L. 91–161, §5, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 101–647, title XII, §1211, Nov. 29, 1990, 104 Stat. 4833; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–647 struck out "That no action shall be brought under section 2272, 2273, 2274, 2275, or 2276 of this title except by the express direction of the Attorney General: And provided further," after "Provided however,".

1969—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–161 provided that nothing in this subsection should be construed to apply to administrative action taken by the Commission.

§2272. Violation of specific sections

(a) Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate, any provision of sections 1 2077 or 2131 of this title, or whoever unlawfully interferes, attempts to interfere, or conspires to interfere with any recapture or entry under section 2138 of this title, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $10,000 or by imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both, except that whoever commits such an offense with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for life, or by imprisonment for any term of years or a fine of not more than $20,000 or both.

(b) Any person who violates, or attempts or conspires to violate, section 2122 of this title shall be fined not more than $2,000,000 and sentenced to a term of imprisonment not less than 25 years or to imprisonment for life. Any person who, in the course of a violation of section 2122 of this title, uses, attempts or conspires to use, or possesses and threatens to use, any atomic weapon shall be fined not more than $2,000,000 and imprisoned for not less than 30 years or imprisoned for life. If the death of another results from a person's violation of section 2122 of this title, the person shall be fined not more than $2,000,000 and punished by imprisonment for life.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §222, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 958; amended Pub. L. 91–161, §§2, 3(a), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 444; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6904(b), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3771.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1816(a), (b) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

2004Pub. L. 108–458 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), struck out ", 2122," after "2077", and added subsec. (b).

1969Pub. L. 91–161 increased maximum term of imprisonment from five years to ten years for willful violation, or attempted violation of enumerated sections, and struck out applicability of death penalty for violation of same offenses committed with intent to injure the United States, or secure an advantage to any foreign nation.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–161, §7, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 445, provided that: "The amendments contained in sections 2 and 3 of this Act [amending this section and sections 2274 and 2276 of this title] shall apply only to offenses under sections 222, 224, 225, and 226 [this section and sections 2274, 2275, and 2276 of this title] which are committed on or after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 24, 1969]. Nothing in section 2 or 3 of this Act shall affect penalties authorized under existing law for offenses under section 222, 224, 225, or 226 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended, committed prior to the date of enactment of this Act."

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§2273. Violation of sections

(a) Generally

Whoever willfully violates, attempts to violate, or conspires to violate, any provision of this chapter for which no criminal penalty is specifically provided or of any regulation or order prescribed or issued under section 2095 or 2201(b), (i), or (o) of this title shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $5,000 or by imprisonment for not more than two years, or both, except that whoever commits such an offense with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, shall, upon conviction thereof, be punished by a fine of not more than $20,000 or by imprisonment for not more than twenty years, or both.

(b) Construction or supply of components for utilization facilities; impairment of basic components; "basic component" defined; posting at construction sites of utilization facilities and on premises of component fabrication plants

Any individual director, officer, or employee of a firm constructing, or supplying the components of any utilization facility required to be licensed under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title who by act or omission, in connection with such construction or supply, knowingly and willfully violates or causes to be violated, any section of this chapter, any rule, regulation, or order issued thereunder, or any license condition, which violation results, or if undetected could have resulted, in a significant impairment of a basic component of such a facility shall, upon conviction, be subject to a fine of not more than $25,000 for each day of violation, or to imprisonment not to exceed two years, or both. If the conviction is for a violation committed after a first conviction under this subsection, punishment shall be a fine of not more than $50,000 per day of violation, or imprisonment for not more than two years, or both. For the purposes of this subsection, the term "basic component" means a facility structure, system, component or part thereof necessary to assure—

(1) the integrity of the reactor coolant pressure boundary,

(2) the capability to shut-down the facility and maintain it in a safe shut-down condition, or

(3) the capability to prevent or mitigate the consequences of accidents which could result in an unplanned offsite release of quantities of fission products in excess of the limits established by the Commission.


The provisions of this subsection shall be prominently posted at each site where a utilization facility required to be licensed under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title is under construction and on the premises of each plant where components for such a facility are fabricated.

(c) Criminal penalties

Any individual director, officer or employee of a person indemnified under an agreement of indemnification under section 2210(d) of this title (or of a subcontractor or supplier thereto) who, by act or omission, knowingly and willfully violates or causes to be violated any section of this chapter or any applicable nuclear safety-related rule, regulation or order issued thereunder by the Secretary of Energy (or expressly incorporated by reference by the Secretary for purposes of nuclear safety, except any rule, regulation, or order issued by the Secretary of Transportation), which violation results in or, if undetected, would have resulted in a nuclear incident as defined in section 2014(q) of this title shall, upon conviction, notwithstanding section 3571 of title 18, be subject to a fine of not more than $25,000, or to imprisonment not to exceed two years, or both. If the conviction is for a violation committed after the first conviction under this subsection, notwithstanding section 3571 of title 18, punishment shall be a fine of not more than $50,000, or imprisonment for not more than five years, or both.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §223, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 958; amended Pub. L. 90–190, §12, Dec. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 578; Pub. L. 91–161, §6, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 445; Pub. L. 96–295, title II, §203, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 786; Pub. L. 100–408, §18, Aug. 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 1083; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–408 added subsec. (c).

1980Pub. L. 96–295 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1969Pub. L. 91–161 limited application of section to instances where no criminal penalties have been provided.

1967Pub. L. 90–190 substituted "(o)" for "(p)".

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 100–408 effective Aug. 20, 1988, but inapplicable to any violation occurring before Aug. 20, 1988, see section 20 of Pub. L. 100–408, set out as a note under section 2014 of this title.

§2274. Communication of Restricted Data

Whoever, lawfully or unlawfully, having possession of, access to, control over, or being entrusted with any document, writing, sketch, photograph, plan, model, instrument, appliance, note, or information involving or incorporating Restricted Data—

(a) communicates, transmits, or discloses the same to any individual or person, or attempts or conspires to do any of the foregoing, with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, upon conviction thereof, shall be punished by imprisonment for life, or by imprisonment for any term of years or a fine of not more than $100,000 or both;

(b) communicates, transmits, or discloses the same to any individual or person, or attempts or conspires to do any of the foregoing, with reason to believe such data will be utilized to injure the United States or to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, shall, upon conviction, be punished by a fine of not more than $50,000 or imprisonment for not more than ten years, or both.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §224, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 958; amended Pub. L. 91–161, §3(b), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 444; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, §3148(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(g)(9)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-294.)

Amendments

2000—Cl. (b). Pub. L. 106–398 substituted "$50,000" for "$500,000".

1999—Cl. (a). Pub. L. 106–65, §3148(a)(1), substituted "$100,000" for "$20,000".

Cl. (b). Pub. L. 106–65, §3148(a)(2), substituted "$500,000" for "$10,000".

1969Pub. L. 91–161 made death penalty inapplicable for willful violation, or attempted violation of this section with intent to injure the United States, or secure an advantage for any foreign nation.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–398, §1 [[div. A], title X, §1087(g)(9)], Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1654, 1654A-294, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective as of Oct. 5, 1999.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–161 applicable to offenses committed on or after Dec. 24, 1969, see section 7 of Pub. L. 91–161, set out as a note under section 2272 of this title.

§2275. Receipt of Restricted Data

Whoever, with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, acquires, or attempts or conspires to acquire any document, writing, sketch, photograph, plan, model, instrument, appliance, note, or information involving or incorporating Restricted Data, shall upon conviction thereof, be punished by imprisonment for life, or by imprisonment for any term of years or a fine of not more than $100,000 or both.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §225, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 959; amended Pub. L. 91–161, §3(b), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 444; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, §3148(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 938.)

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "$100,000" for "$20,000".

1969Pub. L. 91–161 made death penalty inapplicable for willful violation, or attempted violation of this section with intent to injure the United States, or secure an advantage for any foreign nation.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–161 applicable to offenses committed on or after Dec. 24, 1969, see section 7 of Pub. L. 91–161, set out as a note under section 2272 of this title.

§2276. Tampering with Restricted Data

Whoever, with intent to injure the United States or with intent to secure an advantage to any foreign nation, removes, conceals, tampers with, alters, mutilates, or destroys any document, writing, sketch, photograph, plan, model, instrument, appliance, or note involving or incorporating Restricted Data and used by any individual or person in connection with the production of special nuclear material, or research or development relating to atomic energy, conducted by the United States, or financed in whole or in part by Federal funds, or conducted with the aid of special nuclear material, shall be punished by imprisonment for life, or by imprisonment for any term of years or a fine of not more than $20,000 or both.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §226, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 959; amended Pub. L. 91–161, §3(b), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 444; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Amendments

1969Pub. L. 91–161 made death penalty inapplicable for willful violation, or attempted violation of this section with intent to injure the United States, or secure an advantage for any foreign nation.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 91–161 applicable to offenses committed on or after Dec. 24, 1969, see section 7 of Pub. L. 91–161, set out as a note under section 2272 of this title.

§2277. Disclosure of Restricted Data

Whoever, being or having been an employee or member of the Commission, a member of the Armed Forces, an employee of any agency of the United States, or being or having been a contractor of the Commission or of an agency of the United States, or being or having been an employee of a contractor of the Commission or of an agency of the United States, or being or having been a licensee of the Commission, or being or having been an employee of a licensee of the Commission, knowingly communicates, or whoever conspires to communicate or to receive, any Restricted Data, knowing or having reason to believe that such data is Restricted Data, to any person not authorized to receive Restricted Data pursuant to the provisions of this chapter or under rule or regulation of the Commission issued pursuant thereto, knowing or having reason to believe such person is not so authorized to receive Restricted Data shall, upon conviction thereof, be punishable by a fine of not more than $12,500.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §227, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 959; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, §3148(c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 938.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–65 substituted "$12,500" for "$2,500".

§2278. Statute of limitations

Except for a capital offense, no individual or person shall be prosecuted, tried, or punished for any offense prescribed or defined in sections 2274 to 2276 of this title unless the indictment is found or the information is instituted within ten years next after such offense shall have been committed.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §228, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 959; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

§2278a. Trespass on Commission installations

(a) Issuance and posting of regulations

(1) The Commission is authorized to issue regulations relating to the entry upon or carrying, transporting, or otherwise introducing or causing to be introduced any dangerous weapon, explosive, or other dangerous instrument or material likely to produce substantial injury or damage to persons or property, into or upon any facility, installation, or real property subject to the jurisdiction, administration, in the custody of the Commission, or subject to the licensing authority of the Commission or certification by the Commission under this chapter or any other Act.

(2) Every such regulation of the Commission shall be posted conspicuously at the location involved.

(b) Penalty for violation of regulations

Whoever shall willfully violate any regulation of the Commission issued pursuant to subsection (a) shall, upon conviction thereof, be punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000.

(c) Penalty for violation of regulations regarding enclosed property

Whoever shall willfully violate any regulation of the Commission issued pursuant to subsection (a) with respect to any installation or other property which is enclosed by a fence, wall, floor, roof, or other structural barrier shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and upon conviction thereof shall be punished by a fine of not to exceed $5,000 or to imprisonment for not more than one year, or both.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §229, as added Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §6, 70 Stat. 1070; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §654, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 812.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–58, §654(1), (2), substituted "on" for "upon" in section catchline and realigned margins.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–58, §654(3), designated first sentence as par. (1), substituted "in the custody of the Commission, or subject to the licensing authority of the Commission or certification by the Commission under this chapter or any other Act" for "or in the custody of the Commission", and designated second sentence as par. (2).

§2278b. Photographing, etc., of Commission installations; penalty

It shall be an offense, punishable by a fine of not more than $1,000 or imprisonment for not more than one year, or both—

(1) to make any photograph, sketch, picture, drawing, map or graphical representation, while present on property subject to the jurisdiction, administration or in the custody of the Commission, of any installations or equipment designated by the President as requiring protection against the general dissemination of information relative thereto, in the interest of the common defense and security, without first obtaining the permission of the Commission, and promptly submitting the product obtained to the Commission for inspection or such other action as may be deemed necessary; or

(2) to use or permit the use of an aircraft or any contrivance used, or designed for navigation or flight in air, for the purpose of making a photograph, sketch, picture, drawing, map or graphical representation of any installation or equipment designated by the President as provided in the preceding paragraph, unless authorized by the Commission.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §230, as added Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §6, 70 Stat. 1070; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

§2279. Applicability of other laws

Sections 2274 to 2278b of this title shall not exclude the applicable provisions of any other laws.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §231, formerly §229, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 959; renumbered §231 and amended Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §§6, 7, 70 Stat. 1070; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Amendments

1956—Act Aug. 6, 1956, §7, substituted "2274 to 2278b" for "2274 to 2278".

§2280. Injunction proceedings

Whenever in the judgment of the Commission any person has engaged or is about to engage in any acts or practices which constitute or will constitute a violation of any provision of this chapter, or any regulation or order issued thereunder, the Attorney General on behalf of the United States may make application to the appropriate court for an order enjoining such acts or practices, or for an order enforcing compliance with such provision, and upon a showing by the Commission that such person has engaged or is about to engage in any such acts or practices, a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or other order may be granted.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §232, formerly §230, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 959; renumbered §232, Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §6, 70 Stat. 1070; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1816(c) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2281. Contempt proceedings

In case of failure or refusal to obey a subpena served upon any person pursuant to section 2201(c) of this title, the district court for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the Attorney General on behalf of the United States, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony or to appear and produce documents, or both, in accordance with the subpena; and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §233, formerly §231, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 960; renumbered §233, Aug. 6, 1956, ch. 1015, §6, 70 Stat. 1070; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1816(d) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

§2282. Civil penalties

(a) Violations of licensing requirements

Any person who (1) violates any licensing or certification provision of section 2073, 2092, 2093, 2111, 2112, 2131, 2133, 2134, 2137, 2139, or 2297f of this title or any rule, regulation, or order issued thereunder, or any term, condition, or limitation of any license or certification issued thereunder, (2) violates any provision of section 2077 of this title, or (3) commits any violation for which a license may be revoked under section 2236 of this title, shall be subject to a civil penalty, to be imposed by the Commission, of not to exceed $100,000 for each such violation. If any violation is a continuing one, each day of such violation shall constitute a separate violation for the purpose of computing the applicable civil penalty. The Commission shall have the power to compromise, mitigate, or remit such penalties.

(b) Notice

Whenever the Commission has reason to believe that a person has become subject to the imposition of a civil penalty under the provisions of this section, it shall notify such person in writing (1) setting forth the date, facts, and nature of each act or omission with which the person is charged, (2) specifically identifying the particular provision or provisions of the section, rule, regulation, order, or license involved in the violation, and (3) advising of each penalty which the Commission proposes to impose and its amount. Such written notice shall be sent by registered or certified mail by the Commission to the last known address of such person. The person so notified shall be granted an opportunity to show in writing, within such reasonable period as the Commission shall by regulation prescribe, why such penalty should not be imposed. The notice shall also advise such person that upon failure to pay the civil penalty subsequently determined by the Commission, if any, the penalty may be collected by civil action.

(c) Collection of penalties

On the request of the Commission, the Attorney General is authorized to institute a civil action to collect a penalty imposed pursuant to this section. The Attorney General shall have the exclusive power to compromise, mitigate, or remit such civil penalties as are referred to him for collection.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §234, as added Pub. L. 91–161, §4, Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 444; amended Pub. L. 96–295, title II, §206, June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 787; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3116(d), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–350; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXI, §3116(b), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2291.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–232 struck out "2077," after "2073," and substituted "(2) violates any provision of section 2077 of this title, or (3)" for "or (2)".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–134, in first sentence, substituted "any licensing or certification provision of section 2073, 2077, 2092, 2093, 2111, 2112, 2131, 2133, 2134, 2137, 2139, or 2297f of this title" for "any licensing provision of section 2073, 2077, 2092, 2093, 2111, 2112, 2131, 2133, 2134, 2137, or 2139 of this title" and "any license or certification issued thereunder" for "any license issued thereunder".

1980—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–295 substituted $100,000 penalty limitation per violation for $5,000 limit per violation and $25,000 limit for all violations taking place within any thirty consecutive day period.

§2282a. Civil monetary penalties for violation of Department of Energy safety regulations

(a) Persons subject to penalty

Any person who has entered into an agreement of indemnification under section 2210(d) of this title (or any subcontractor or supplier thereto) who violates (or whose employee violates) any applicable rule, regulation or order related to nuclear safety prescribed or issued by the Secretary of Energy pursuant to this chapter (or expressly incorporated by reference by the Secretary for purposes of nuclear safety, except any rule, regulation, or order issued by the Secretary of Transportation) shall be subject to a civil penalty of not to exceed $100,000 for each such violation. If any violation under this subsection is a continuing one, each day of such violation shall constitute a separate violation for the purpose of computing the applicable civil penalty.

(b) Determination of amount

(1) The Secretary shall have the power to compromise, modify or remit, with or without conditions, such civil penalties and to prescribe regulations as he may deem necessary to implement this section.

(2) In determining the amount of any civil penalty under this subsection, the Secretary shall take into account the nature, circumstances, extent, and gravity of the violation or violations and, with respect to the violator, ability to pay, effect on ability to continue to do business, any history of prior such violations, the degree of culpability, and such other matters as justice may require.

(c) Assessment and payment

(1) Before issuing an order assessing a civil penalty against any person under this section, the Secretary shall provide to such person notice of the proposed penalty. Such notice shall inform such person of his opportunity to elect in writing within thirty days after the date of receipt of such notice to have the procedures of paragraph (3) (in lieu of those of paragraph (2)) apply with respect to such assessment.

(2)(A) Unless an election is made within thirty calendar days after receipt of notice under paragraph (1) to have paragraph (3) apply with respect to such penalty, the Secretary shall assess the penalty, by order, after a determination of violation has been made on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing pursuant to section 554 of title 5 before an administrative law judge appointed under section 3105 of such title 5. Such assessment order shall include the administrative law judge's findings and the basis for such assessment.

(B) Any person against whom a penalty is assessed under this paragraph may, within sixty calendar days after the date of the order of the Secretary assessing such penalty, institute an action in the United States court of appeals for the appropriate judicial circuit for judicial review of such order in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5. The court shall have jurisdiction to enter a judgment affirming, modifying, or setting aside in whole or in part, the order of the Secretary, or the court may remand the proceeding to the Secretary for such further action as the court may direct.

(3)(A) In the case of any civil penalty with respect to which the procedures of this paragraph have been elected, the Secretary shall promptly assess such penalty, by order, after the date of the election under paragraph (1).

(B) If the civil penalty has not been paid within sixty calendar days after the assessment order has been made under subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall institute an action in the appropriate district court of the United States for an order affirming the assessment of the civil penalty. The court shall have authority to review de novo the law and facts involved, and shall have jurisdiction to enter a judgment enforcing, modifying, and enforcing as so modified, or setting aside in whole or in part, such assessment.

(C) Any election to have this paragraph apply may not be revoked except with consent of the Secretary.

(4) If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty after it has become a final and unappealable order under paragraph (2), or after the appropriate district court has entered final judgment in favor of the Secretary under paragraph (3), the Secretary shall institute an action to recover the amount of such penalty in any appropriate district court of the United States. In such action, the validity and appropriateness of such final assessment order or judgment shall not be subject to review.

(d) Limitation for not-for-profit institutions

(1) Notwithstanding subsection (a), in the case of any not-for-profit contractor, subcontractor, or supplier, the total amount of civil penalties paid under subsection (a) may not exceed the total amount of fees paid within any 1-year period (as determined by the Secretary) under the contract under which the violation occurs.

(2) For purposes of this section, the term "not-for-profit" means that no part of the net earnings of the contractor, subcontractor, or supplier inures to the benefit of any natural person or for-profit artificial person.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §234A, as added Pub. L. 100–408, §17, Aug. 20, 1988, 102 Stat. 1081; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, §3147(c), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 938; Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §610(a), (b), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 781.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–58, §610(a), struck out at end "In implementing this section, the Secretary shall determine by rule whether nonprofit educational institutions should receive automatic remission of any penalty under this section."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–58, §610(b), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) provided that the provisions of this section would not apply to the University of Chicago for activities associated with Argonne National Laboratory; the University of California for activities associated with Los Alamos National Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; American Telephone and Telegraph Company and its subsidiaries for activities associated with Sandia National Laboratories; Universities Research Association, Inc. for activities associated with FERMI National Laboratory; Princeton University for activities associated with Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory; the Associated Universities, Inc. for activities associated with the Brookhaven National Laboratory; and Battelle Memorial Institute for activities associated with Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

1999Pub. L. 106–65 inserted "safety" before "regulations" in section catchline.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §610(c), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 782, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall not apply to any violation of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) occurring under a contract entered into before the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 8, 2005]."

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 20, 1988, but inapplicable to any violation occurring before Aug. 20, 1988, see section 20 of Pub. L. 100–408, set out as an Effective Date of 1988 Amendment note under section 2014 of this title.

§2282b. Civil monetary penalties for violations of Department of Energy regulations regarding security of classified or sensitive information or data

(a) Persons subject to penalty

Any person who has entered into a contract or agreement with the Department of Energy, or a subcontract or subagreement thereto, and who violates (or whose employee violates) any applicable rule, regulation, or order prescribed or otherwise issued by the Secretary pursuant to this chapter relating to the safeguarding or security of Restricted Data or other classified or sensitive information shall be subject to a civil penalty of not to exceed $100,000 for each such violation.

(b) Fee or payment reductions for violations

The Secretary shall include in each contract with a contractor of the Department provisions which provide an appropriate reduction in the fees or amounts paid to the contractor under the contract in the event of a violation by the contractor or contractor employee of any rule, regulation, or order relating to the safeguarding or security of Restricted Data or other classified or sensitive information. The provisions shall specify various degrees of violations and the amount of the reduction attributable to each degree of violation.

(c) Powers and limitations

The powers and limitations applicable to the assessment of civil penalties under section 2282a of this title, except for subsection (d) of that section, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties under this section.

(d) Application to certain entities

In the case of an entity specified in subsection (d) of section 2282a of this title

(1) the assessment of any civil penalty under subsection (a) against that entity may not be made until the entity enters into a new contract with the Department of Energy or an extension of a current contract with the Department; and

(2) the total amount of civil penalties under subsection (a) in a fiscal year may not exceed the total amount of fees paid by the Department of Energy to that entity in that fiscal year.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §234B, as added Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, §3147(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 937.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 106–65, div. C, title XXXI, §3147(b), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 938, provided that: "Subsection a. of section 234B of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2282b(a)], as added by subsection (a), applies to any violation after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 1999]."

§2282c. Worker health and safety rules for Department of Energy nuclear facilities

(a) Regulations required

(1) In general

The Secretary shall promulgate regulations for industrial and construction health and safety at Department of Energy facilities that are operated by contractors covered by agreements of indemnification under section 2210(d) of this title, after public notice and opportunity for comment under section 553 of title 5 (commonly known as the "Administrative Procedure Act"). Such regulations shall, subject to paragraph (3), provide a level of protection for workers at such facilities that is substantially equivalent to the level of protection currently provided to such workers at such facilities.

(2) Applicability

The regulations promulgated under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any facility that is a component of, or any activity conducted under, the Naval Nuclear Propulsion Program provided for under Executive Order No. 12344, dated February 1, 1982 (as in force pursuant to section 1634 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1985 (Public Law 98–525)).

(3) Flexibility

In promulgating the regulations under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall include flexibility—

(A) to tailor implementation of such regulations to reflect activities and hazards associated with a particular work environment;

(B) to take into account special circumstances at a facility that is, or is expected to be, permanently closed and that is expected to be demolished, or title to which is expected to be transferred to another entity for reuse; and

(C) to achieve national security missions of the Department of Energy in an efficient and timely manner.

(4) No effect on health and safety enforcement

This subsection does not diminish or otherwise affect the enforcement or the application of any other law, regulation, order, or contractual obligation relating to worker health and safety.

(b) Civil penalties

(1) In general

A person (or any subcontractor or supplier of the person) who has entered into an agreement of indemnification under section 2210(d) of this title (or any subcontractor or supplier of the person) that violates (or is the employer of a person that violates) any regulation promulgated under subsection (a) shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $70,000 for each such violation.

(2) Continuing violations

If any violation under this subsection is a continuing violation, each day of the violation shall constitute a separate violation for the purpose of computing the civil penalty under paragraph (1).

(c) Contract penalties

(1) In general

The Secretary shall include in each contract with a contractor of the Department who has entered into an agreement of indemnification under section 2210(d) of this title provisions that provide an appropriate reduction in the fees or amounts paid to the contractor under the contract in the event of a violation by the contractor or contractor employee of any regulation promulgated under subsection (a).

(2) Contents

The provisions shall specify various degrees of violations and the amount of the reduction attributable to each degree of violation.

(d) Coordination of penalties

(1) Choice of penalties

For any violation by a person of a regulation promulgated under subsection (a), the Secretary shall pursue either civil penalties under subsection (b) or contract penalties under subsection (c), but not both.

(2) Maximum amount

In the case of an entity described in subsection (d) of section 2282a of this title, the total amount of civil penalties under subsection (b) and contract penalties under subsection (c) in a fiscal year may not exceed the total amount of fees paid by the Department of Energy to that entity in that fiscal year.

(3) Coordination with section 2282a of this title

The Secretary shall ensure that a contractor of the Department is not penalized both under this section and under section 2282a of this title for the same violation.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §234C, as added Pub. L. 107–314, div. C, title XXXI, §3173(a), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2743.)

References in Text

Executive Order No. 12344, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is set out as a note under section 2511 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Section 1634 of the Department of Defense Authorization Act, 1985 (Public Law 98–525), referred to in subsec. (a)(2), is set out as a note under section 2511 of Title 50, War and National Defense.

Promulgation of Initial Regulations

Pub. L. 107–314, div. C, title XXXI, §3173(b), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2745, provided that:

"(1) Deadline for promulgating regulations.—The Secretary of Energy shall promulgate the regulations required by subsection a. of section 234C of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2282c(a)] (as added by subsection (a)) not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 2, 2002].

"(2) Effective date.—The regulations promulgated under paragraph (1) shall take effect on the date that is one year after the promulgation date of the regulations."

Prohibition

Pub. L. 107–314, div. C, title XXXI, §3173(c), Dec. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 2745, provided that: "The Secretary of Energy shall not participate in or otherwise support any study or other project relating to a modification in the scope of the regulations enforceable by civil penalties under section 234A or 234C of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2282a, 2282c], or the responsibility of the Secretary to implement and enforce such regulations, until after the date on which the regulations for such purposes under such section 234C take effect in accordance with subsection (b) [set out as a note above]."

§2283. Protection of nuclear inspectors

(a) Homicide

Whoever kills any person who performs any inspections which—

(1) are related to any activity or facility licensed by the Commission, and

(2) are carried out to satisfy requirements under this chapter or under any other Federal law governing the safety of utilization facilities required to be licensed under section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title, or the safety of radioactive materials,


shall be punished as provided under sections 1111 and 1112 of title 18. The preceding sentence shall be applicable only if such person is killed while engaged in the performance of such inspection duties or on account of the performance of such duties.

(b) Assault

Whoever forcibly assaults, resists, opposes, impedes, intimidates, or interferes with any person who performs inspections as described under subsection (a) of this section, while such person is engaged in such inspection duties or on account of the performance of such duties, shall be punished as provided under section 111 of title 18.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §235, as added Pub. L. 96–295, title II, §202(a), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 786; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(2), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

§2284. Sabotage of nuclear facilities or fuel

(a) Physical damage to facilities, etc.

Any person who knowingly destroys or causes physical damage to—

(1) any production facility or utilization facility licensed under this chapter;

(2) any nuclear waste treatment, storage, or disposal facility licensed under this chapter;

(3) any nuclear fuel for a utilization facility licensed under this chapter, or any spent nuclear fuel from such a facility;

(4) any uranium enrichment, uranium conversion, or nuclear fuel fabrication facility licensed or certified by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission;

(5) any production, utilization, waste storage, waste treatment, waste disposal, uranium enrichment, uranium conversion, or nuclear fuel fabrication facility subject to licensing or certification under this chapter during construction of the facility, if the destruction or damage caused or attempted to be caused could adversely affect public health and safety during the operation of the facility;

(6) any primary facility or backup facility from which a radiological emergency preparedness alert and warning system is activated; or

(7) any radioactive material or other property subject to regulation by the Commission that, before the date of the offense, the Commission determines, by order or regulation published in the Federal Register, is of significance to the public health and safety or to common defense and security; 1


or attempts or conspires to do such an act, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both, and, if death results to any person, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life.

(b) Unauthorized use or tampering with facilities, etc.

Any person who knowingly causes an interruption of normal operation of any such facility through the unauthorized use of or tampering with the machinery, components, or controls of any such facility, or attempts or conspires to do such an act, shall be fined not more than $10,000 or imprisoned for not more than 20 years, or both, and, if death results to any person, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §236, as added Pub. L. 96–295, title II, §204(a), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 787; amended Pub. L. 97–415, §16, Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2076; Pub. L. 101–575, §5(d), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2835; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 107–56, title VIII, §§810(f), 811(h), Oct. 26, 2001, 115 Stat. 380, 381; Pub. L. 109–58, title VI, §655, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 813.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsec. (a)(1) to (3), (5), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2005—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–58, §655(b), substituted "knowingly" for "intentionally and willfully" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 109–58, §655(a), substituted "treatment, storage, or disposal facility" for "storage facility" in par. (2), "a utilization facility licensed under this chapter" for "such a utilization facility" in par. (3), and ", uranium conversion, or nuclear fuel fabrication facility licensed or certified" for "facility licensed" in par. (4) and added pars. (5) to (7).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–58, §655(b), substituted "knowingly" for "intentionally and willfully".

2001—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–56, §§810(f)(1), (2), 811(h)(1)(A), (C), in introductory provisions, struck out ", or who intentionally and willfully attempts to destroy or cause physical damage to" before "—", and in concluding provisions, inserted "or attempts or conspires to do such an act," before "shall be fined" and substituted "20 years, or both, and, if death results to any person, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life." for "ten years, or both."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 107–56, §811(h)(1)(B), substituted comma for period at end.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–56, §§810(f)(1), (3), 811(h)(2), struck out "or attempts to cause" before "an interruption of normal operation", inserted "or attempts or conspires to do such an act," before "shall be fined", and substituted "20 years, or both, and, if death results to any person, shall be imprisoned for any term of years or for life." for "ten years, or both."

1990—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–575, which directed amendment of this section by adding par. (4) after par. (3), was executed by adding par. (4) after par. (3) of subsec. (a) of this section to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1983Pub. L. 97–415 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.