[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER XIX: REMEDIAL ACTION AND URANIUM REVITALIZATION
Result 1 of 1
   
 
42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER XIX: REMEDIAL ACTION AND URANIUM REVITALIZATION
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 23—DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL OF ATOMIC ENERGYDivision A—Atomic Energy

SUBCHAPTER XIX—REMEDIAL ACTION AND URANIUM REVITALIZATION

Part A—Remedial Action at Active Processing Sites

§2296a. Remedial action program

(a) In general

Except as provided in subsection (b), the costs of decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial action at an active uranium or thorium processing site shall be borne by persons licensed under section 2092 or 2111 of this title for any activity at such site which results or has resulted in the production of byproduct material.

(b) Reimbursement

(1) In general

The Secretary of Energy shall, subject to paragraph (2), reimburse at least annually a licensee described in subsection (a) for such portion of the costs described in such subsection as are—

(A) determined by the Secretary to be attributable to byproduct material generated as an incident of sales to the United States; and

(B) either—

(i) incurred by such licensee not later than December 31, 2007; or

(ii) incurred by a licensee after December 31, 2007, in accordance with a plan for subsequent decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial action approved by the Secretary.

(2) Amount

(A) To individual active site uranium licensees

The amount of reimbursement paid to any licensee under paragraph (1) shall be determined by the Secretary in accordance with regulations issued pursuant to section 2296a–1 of this title and, for uranium mill tailings only, shall not exceed an amount equal to $6.25 multiplied by the dry short tons of byproduct material located on October 24, 1992, at the site of the activities of such licensee described in subsection (a), and generated as an incident of sales to the United States.

(B) To all active site uranium licensees

Payments made under paragraph (1) to active site uranium licensees shall not in the aggregate exceed $350,000,000.

(C) To thorium licensees

Payments made under paragraph (1) to the licensee of the active thorium site shall not exceed $365,000,000, and may only be made for off-site disposal. Such payments shall not exceed the following amounts:

(i) $90,000,000 in fiscal year 2002.

(ii) $55,000,000 in fiscal year 2003.

(iii) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2004.

(iv) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2005.

(v) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2006.

(vi) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2007.


Any amounts authorized to be paid in a fiscal year under this subparagraph that are not paid in that fiscal year may be paid in subsequent fiscal years.

(D) Inflation escalation index

The amounts in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of this paragraph shall be increased annually based upon an inflation index. The Secretary shall determine the appropriate index to apply.

(E) Additional reimbursement

(i) Determination of excess

The Secretary shall determine as of December 31, 2008, whether the amount authorized to be appropriated pursuant to section 2296a–2 of this title, when considered with the $6.25 per dry short ton limit on reimbursement, exceeds the amount reimbursable to the licensees under subsection (b)(2).

(ii) In the event of excess

If the Secretary determines under clause (i) that there is an excess, the Secretary may allow reimbursement in excess of $6.25 per dry short ton on a prorated basis at such sites where the costs reimbursable under subsection (b)(1) exceed the $6.25 per dry short ton limitation described in paragraph (2) of such subsection.

(3) Byproduct location

Notwithstanding the requirement of paragraph (2)(A) that byproduct material be located at the site on October 24, 1992, byproduct material moved from the site of the Edgemont Mill to a disposal site as the result of the decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial action of such mill shall be eligible for reimbursement to the extent eligible under paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1001, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2946; Pub. L. 104–259, §3(a), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3173; Pub. L. 105–388, §11(a), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3484; Pub. L. 106–317, §1, Oct. 19, 2000, 114 Stat. 1277; Pub. L. 107–222, §1(a), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1336.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 107–222 substituted "$365,000,000" for "$140,000,000" and inserted at end "Such payments shall not exceed the following amounts:

"(i) $90,000,000 in fiscal year 2002.

"(ii) $55,000,000 in fiscal year 2003.

"(iii) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2004.

"(iv) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2005.

"(v) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2006.

"(vi) $20,000,000 in fiscal year 2007.

Any amounts authorized to be paid in a fiscal year under this subparagraph that are not paid in that fiscal year may be paid in subsequent fiscal years."

2000—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(i). Pub. L. 106–317, §1(1), substituted "2007" for "2002".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 106–317, §1(2), substituted "incurred by a licensee after December 31, 2007," for "placed in escrow not later than December 31, 2002,".

Subsec. (b)(2)(E)(i). Pub. L. 106–317, §1(3), substituted "December 31, 2008" for "July 31, 2005".

1998—Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–388 substituted "$140,000,000" for "$65,000,000".

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–259, §3(a)(1), substituted "$6.25" for "$5.50".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–259, §3(a)(2), substituted "$350,000,000" for "$270,000,000".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C). Pub. L. 104–259, §3(a)(3), substituted "$65,000,000" for "$40,000,000".

Subsec. (b)(2)(E). Pub. L. 104–259, §3(a)(4), (5), substituted "$6.25" for "$5.50" wherever appearing.

§2296a–1. Regulations

Within 180 days of October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall issue regulations governing reimbursement under section 2296a of this title. An active uranium or thorium processing site owner shall apply for reimbursement hereunder by submitting a request for the amount of reimbursement, together with reasonable documentation in support thereof, to the Secretary. Any such request for reimbursement, supported by reasonable documentation, shall be approved by the Secretary and reimbursement therefor shall be made in a timely manner subject only to the limitations of section 2296a of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1002, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2947.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2296a–2. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

There is authorized to be appropriated $715,000,000 to carry out this part. The aggregate amount authorized in the preceding sentence shall be increased annually as provided in section 2296a of this title, based upon an inflation index to be determined by the Secretary.

(b) Source

Funds described in subsection (a) shall be provided from the Fund established under section 2297g of this title.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1003, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2947; Pub. L. 104–259, §3(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3174; Pub. L. 105–388, §11(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3485; Pub. L. 107–222, §1(b), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1336.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–222 substituted "$715,000,000" for "$490,000,000".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–388 substituted "$490,000,000" for "$415,000,000".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–259 substituted "$415,000,000" for "$310,000,000".

§2296a–3. Definitions

For purposes of this part:

(1) The term "active uranium or thorium processing site" means—

(A) any uranium or thorium processing site, including the mill, containing byproduct material for which a license (issued by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission or its predecessor agency under the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 [42 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], or by a State as permitted under section 274 of such Act (42 U.S.C. 2021)) for the production at such site of any uranium or thorium derived from ore—

(i) was in effect on January 1, 1978;

(ii) was issued or renewed after January 1, 1978; or

(iii) for which an application for renewal or issuance was pending on, or after January 1, 1978; and


(B) any other real property or improvement on such real property that is determined by the Secretary or by a State as permitted under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2021) to be—

(i) in the vicinity of such site; and

(ii) contaminated with residual byproduct material;


(2) The term "byproduct material" has the meaning given such term in section 11 e. (2) of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954,1 (42 U.S.C. 2014(e)(2)); and

(3) The term "decontamination, decommissioning, reclamation, and other remedial action" means work performed prior to or subsequent to October 24, 1992, which is necessary to comply with all applicable requirements of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (42 U.S.C. 7901 et seq.), or where appropriate, with requirements established by a State that is a party to a discontinuance agreement under section 274 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 (42 U.S.C. 2021).

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1004, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2947.)

References in Text

The Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in par. (1)(A), is act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, which is classified principally to this chapter (§2011 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978, referred to in par. (3), is Pub. L. 95–604, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3021, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 88 (§7901 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7901 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

Part B—Uranium Revitalization

§2296b. Overfeed program

(a) Uranium purchases

To the maximum extent permitted by sound business practice, the Corporation shall purchase uranium in accordance with subsection (b) and overfeed it into the enrichment process to reduce the amount of power required to produce the enriched uranium ordered by enrichment services customers, taking into account costs associated with depleted tailings.

(b) Use of domestic uranium

Uranium purchased by the Corporation for purposes of this section shall be of domestic origin and purchased from domestic uranium producers to the extent permitted under the multilateral trade agreements (as defined in section 3501(4) of title 19) and the North American Free Trade Agreement.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1011, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2948; Pub. L. 106–36, title I, §1002(g)(1), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 133.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–36 substituted "multilateral trade agreements (as defined in section 3501(4) of title 19) and the North American Free Trade Agreement" for "General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade and the United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement".

§2296b–1. National Strategic Uranium Reserve

There is hereby established the National Strategic Uranium Reserve under the direction and control of the Secretary. The Reserve shall consist of natural uranium and uranium equivalents contained in stockpiles or inventories currently held by the United States for defense purposes. Effective on October 24, 1992, and for 6 years thereafter, use of the Reserve shall be restricted to military purposes and government research. Use of the Department of Energy's stockpile of enrichment tails existing on October 24, 1992, shall be restricted to military purposes for 6 years thereafter.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1012, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2948.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2296b–2. Sale of remaining DOE inventories

The Secretary, after making the transfer required under section 2297c–6 1 of this title, may sell, from time to time, portions of the remaining inventories of raw or low-enriched uranium of the Department that are not necessary to national security needs, to the Corporation, at a fair market price. Sales under this section may be made only if such sales will not have a substantial adverse impact on the domestic uranium mining industry. Proceeds from sales under this subsection shall be deposited into the general fund of the United States Treasury.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1013, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2949.)

References in Text

Section 2297c–6 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3116(a)(1), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–349.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

1 See References in Text note below.

§2296b–3. Responsibility for the industry

(a) Continuing Secretarial responsibility

The Secretary shall have a continuing responsibility for the domestic uranium industry to encourage the use of domestic uranium. The Secretary, in fulfilling this responsibility, shall not use any supervisory authority over the Corporation. The Secretary shall report annually to the appropriate committees of Congress on action taken with respect to the domestic uranium industry, including action to promote the export of domestic uranium pursuant to subsection (b).

(b) Encourage export

The Department, with the cooperation of the Department of Commerce, the United States Trade Representative and other governmental organizations, shall encourage the export of domestic uranium. Within 180 days after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall develop recommendations and implement government programs to promote the export of domestic uranium.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1014, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2949.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2296b–4. Annual uranium purchase reports

(a) In general

By January 1 of each year, the owner or operator of any civilian nuclear power reactor shall report to the Secretary, acting through the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, for activities of the previous fiscal year—

(1) the country of origin and the seller of any uranium or enriched uranium purchased or imported into the United States either directly or indirectly by such owner or operator; and

(2) the country of origin and the seller of any enrichment services purchased by such owner or operator.

(b) Congressional access

The information provided to the Secretary pursuant to this section shall be made available to the Congress by March 1 of each year.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1015, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2949.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2296b–5. Uranium inventory study

Within 1 year after October 24, 1992, the Secretary shall submit to the Congress a study and report that includes—

(1) a comprehensive inventory of all Government owned uranium or uranium equivalents, including natural uranium, depleted tailings, low-enriched uranium, and highly enriched uranium available for conversion to commercial use;

(2) a plan for the conversion of inventories of foreign and domestic highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium for commercial use;

(3) an estimation of the potential need of the United States for inventories of highly enriched uranium;

(4) an analysis and summary of technological requirements and costs associated with converting highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium, including the construction of facilities if necessary;

(5) an estimation of potential net proceeds from the conversion and sale of highly enriched uranium;

(6) recommendations for implementing a plan to convert highly enriched uranium to low-enriched uranium; and

(7) recommendations for the future use and disposition of such inventories.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1016, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2949.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

§2296b–6. Regulatory treatment of uranium purchases

(a) Encouragement

The Secretary shall encourage States and utility regulatory authorities to take into consideration the achievement of the objectives and purposes of this part, including the national need to avoid dependence on imports, when considering whether to allow the owner or operator of any electric power plant to recover in its rates and charges to customers any cost of purchase of domestic uranium, enriched uranium, or enrichment services from a non-affiliated seller greater than the cost of non-domestic uranium, enriched uranium or enrichment services.

(b) Report

Within 1 year after October 24, 1992, and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall report to the Congress on the progress of the Secretary in encouraging actions by State regulatory authorities pursuant to subsection (a). Such report shall include detailed information on programs initiated by the Secretary to encourage appropriate State regulatory action and recommendations, if any, on further action that could be taken by the Secretary, other Federal agencies, or the Congress in order to further the purposes of this part.

(c) Savings provision

This section may not be construed to authorize the Secretary to take any action in violation of the multilateral trade agreements (as defined in section 3501(4) of title 19) or the North American Free Trade Agreement.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1017, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2950; Pub. L. 106–36, title I, §1002(g)(2), June 25, 1999, 113 Stat. 133.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–36 substituted "multilateral trade agreements (as defined in section 3501(4) of title 19) or the North American Free Trade Agreement" for "General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade or the United States-Canada Free Trade Agreement".

§2296b–7. Definitions

For purposes of this part:

(1) The term "Corporation" means the United States Enrichment Corporation established under section 2297b 1 of this title or its successor.

(2) The term "country of origin" means—

(A) with respect to uranium, that country where the uranium was mined;

(B) with respect to enriched uranium, that country where the uranium was mined and enriched; or

(C) with respect to enrichment services, that country where the enrichment services were performed.


(3) The term "domestic origin" refers to any uranium that has been mined in the United States including uranium recovered from uranium deposits in the United States by underground mining, open-pit mining, strip mining, in situ recovery, leaching, and ion recovery, or recovered from phosphoric acid manufactured in the United States.

(4) The term "domestic uranium producer" means a person or entity who produces domestic uranium and who has, to the extent required by State and Federal agencies having jurisdiction, licenses and permits for the operation, decontamination, decommissioning, and reclamation of sites, structures and equipment.

(5) The term "non-affiliated" refers to a seller who does not control, and is not controlled by or under common control with, the buyer.

(6) The term "overfeed" means to use uranium in the enrichment process in excess of the amount required at the transactional tails assay.

(7) The term "utility regulatory authority" means any State agency or Federal agency that has ratemaking authority with respect to the sale of electric energy by any electric utility or independent power producer. For purposes of this paragraph, the terms "electric utility", "State agency", "Federal agency", and "ratemaking authority" have the respective meanings given such terms in section 2602 of title 16.

(Pub. L. 102–486, title X, §1018, Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2950; Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3117(b), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–350.)

References in Text

Section 2297b of this title, referred to in par. (1), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–134, title III, §3116(a)(1), Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–349.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1996—Par. (1). Pub. L. 104–134 inserted "or its successor" before period at end.

1 See References in Text note below.