[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER V: SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL
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42 USC CHAPTER 23, Division A, SUBCHAPTER V: SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 23—DEVELOPMENT AND CONTROL OF ATOMIC ENERGYDivision A—Atomic Energy

SUBCHAPTER V—SPECIAL NUCLEAR MATERIAL

§2071. Determination of other material as special nuclear material; Presidential assent; effective date

The Commission may determine from time to time that other material is special nuclear material in addition to that specified in the definition as special nuclear material. Before making any such determination, the Commission must find that such material is capable of releasing substantial quantities of atomic energy and must find that the determination that such material is special nuclear material is in the interest of the common defense and security, and the President must have expressly assented in writing to the determination. The Commission's determination, together with the assent of the President, shall be submitted to the Energy Committees and a period of thirty days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such thirty days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment for more than three days) before the determination of the Commission may become effective: Provided, however, That the Energy Committees, after having received such determination, may by resolution in writing, waive the conditions of or all or any portion of such thirty-day period.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §51, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 929; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; amended Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(2), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(1) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Energy Committees" for "Joint Committee" in two places.

§2072. Repealed. Pub. L. 88–489, §4, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 603

Section, act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, §52, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 929, related to Government ownership of all special nuclear material and provided for compensation of private owners of such material.

Extinguishment of Rights, Title and Interest in Special Nuclear Material

Pub. L. 88–489, §4, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 603, provided in part that: "All rights, title, and interest in and to any special nuclear material vested in the United States solely by virtue of the provisions of the first sentence of such section 52 [this section], and not by any other transaction authorized by the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, as amended [this chapter], or other applicable law, are hereby extinguished."

§2073. Domestic distribution of special nuclear material

(a) Licenses

The Commission is authorized (i) to issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, transfer, deliver, acquire, possess, own, receive possession of or title to, import, or export under the terms of an agreement for cooperation arranged pursuant to section 2153 of this title, special nuclear material, (ii) to make special nuclear material available for the period of the license, and, (iii) to distribute special nuclear material within the United States to qualified applicants requesting such material—

(1) for the conduct of research and development activities of the types specified in section 2051 of this title;

(2) for use in the conduct of research and development activities or in medical therapy under a license issued pursuant to section 2134 of this title;

(3) for use under a license issued pursuant to section 2133 of this title;

(4) for such other uses as the Commission determines to be appropriate to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(b) Minimum criteria for licenses

The Commission shall establish, by rule, minimum criteria for the issuance of specific or general licenses for the distribution of special nuclear material depending upon the degree of importance to the common defense and security or to the health and safety of the public of—

(1) the physical characteristics of the special nuclear material to be distributed;

(2) the quantities of special nuclear material to be distributed; and

(3) the intended use of the special nuclear material to be distributed.

(c) Manner of distribution; charges for material sold; agreements; charges for material leased

(1) The Commission may distribute special nuclear material licensed under this section by sale, lease, lease with option to buy, or grant: Provided, however, That unless otherwise authorized by law, the Commission shall not after December 31, 1970, distribute special nuclear material except by sale to any person who possesses or operates a utilization facility under a license issued pursuant to section 2133 or 2134(b) of this title for use in the course of activities under such license; nor shall the Commission permit any such person after June 30, 1973, to continue leasing for use in the course of such activities special nuclear material previously leased to such person by the Commission.

(2) The Commission shall establish reasonable sales prices for the special nuclear material licensed and distributed by sale under this section. Such sales prices shall be established on a nondiscriminatory basis which, in the opinion of the Commission, will provide reasonable compensation to the Government for such special nuclear material.

(3) The Commission is authorized to enter into agreements with licensees for such period of time as the Commission may deem necessary or desirable to distribute to such licensees such quantities of special nuclear material as may be necessary for the conduct of the licensed activity. In such agreements, the Commission may agree to repurchase any special nuclear material licensed and distributed by sale which is not consumed in the course of the licensed activity, or any uranium remaining after irradiation of such special nuclear material, at a repurchase price not to exceed the Commission's sale price for comparable special nuclear material or uranium in effect at the time of delivery of such material to the Commission.

(4) The Commission may make a reasonable charge, determined pursuant to this section, for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed by lease under subsection (a)(1), (2) or (4) and shall make a reasonable charge determined pursuant to this section for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed by lease under subsection (a)(3). The Commission shall establish criteria in writing for the determination of whether special nuclear material will be distributed by grant and for the determination of whether a charge will be made for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed by lease under subsection (a)(1), (2) or (4), considering, among other things, whether the licensee is a nonprofit or eleemosynary institution and the purposes for which the special nuclear material will be used.

(d) Determination of charges

In determining the reasonable charge to be made by the Commission for the use of special nuclear material distributed by lease to licensees of utilization or production facilities licensed pursuant to section 2133 or 2134 of this title, in addition to consideration of the cost thereof, the Commission shall take into consideration—

(1) the use to be made of the special nuclear material;

(2) the extent to which the use of the special nuclear material will advance the development of the peaceful uses of atomic energy;

(3) the energy value of the special nuclear material in the particular use for which the license is issued;

(4) whether the special nuclear material is to be used in facilities licensed pursuant to section 2133 or 2134 of this title. In this respect, the Commission shall, insofar as practicable, make uniform, nondiscriminatory charges for the use of special nuclear material distributed to facilities licensed pursuant to section 2133 of this title; and

(5) with respect to special nuclear material consumed in a facility licensed pursuant to section 2133 of this title, the Commission shall make a further charge equivalent to the sale price for similar special nuclear material established by the Commission in accordance with subsection (c)(2), and the Commission may make such a charge with respect to such material consumed in a facility licensed pursuant to section 2134 of this title.

(e) License conditions

Each license issued pursuant to this section shall contain and be subject to the following conditions—

(1) Repealed. Pub. L. 88–489, §8, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 604.

(2) no right to the special nuclear material shall be conferred by the license except as defined by the license;

(3) neither the license nor any right under the license shall be assigned or otherwise transferred in violation of the provisions of this chapter;

(4) all special nuclear material shall be subject to the right of recapture or control reserved by section 2138 of this title and to all other provisions of this chapter;

(5) no special nuclear material may be used in any utilization or production facility except in accordance with the provisions of this chapter;

(6) special nuclear material shall be distributed only on terms, as may be established by rule of the Commission, such that no user will be permitted to construct an atomic weapon;

(7) special nuclear material shall be distributed only pursuant to such safety standards as may be established by rule of the Commission to protect health and to minimize danger to life or property; and

(8) except to the extent that the indemnification and limitation of liability provisions of section 2210 of this title apply, the licensee will hold the United States and the Commission harmless from any damages resulting from the use or possession of special nuclear material by the licensee.

(f) Distribution for independent research and development activities

The Commission is directed to distribute within the United States sufficient special nuclear material to permit the conduct of widespread independent research and development activities to the maximum extent practicable. In the event that applications for special nuclear material exceed the amount available for distribution, preference shall be given to those activities which are most likely, in the opinion of the Commission, to contribute to basic research, to the development of peacetime uses of atomic energy, or to the economic and military strength of the Nation.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §53, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 930; amended Pub. L. 85–256, §2, Sept. 2, 1957, 71 Stat. 576; Pub. L. 85–681, §§1, 2, Aug. 19, 1958, 72 Stat. 632; Pub. L. 88–489, §§5–8, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 603, 604; Pub. L. 90–190, §§9, 10, Dec. 14, 1967, 81 Stat. 577; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(3), (8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in subsecs. (a)(4) and (e)(3) to (5), was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(4) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 102–486, §902(a)(3), substituted "or grant" for "grant," and struck out "or through the provision of production or enrichment services" before ": Provided, however" and before "to any person".

1967—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 90–190, §10, inserted "or through the provision of production or enrichment services" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 90–190, §9, struck out reference to the limitations on the distribution of special nuclear materials set by the President in determinations made pursuant to section 2061 of this title.

1964—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 88–489, §5, substituted "(i) to issue licenses to transfer or receive in interstate commerce, transfer, deliver, acquire, possess, own, receive possession of or title to, import, or export under the terms of an agreement for cooperation arranged pursuant to section 2153 of this title, special nuclear material, (ii) to make special nuclear material available for the period of the license, and, (iii)" for "to issue licenses for the possession of, to make available for the period of the license, and".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 88–489, §6, designated existing provisions as par. (4), inserted "by lease" wherever appearing and "special nuclear material will be distributed by grant and for the determination of whether", and added pars. (1) to (3).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 88–489, §7, inserted "by lease" in introductory provisions, and in ch. (5) substituted "equivalent to the sale price for similar special nuclear material established by the Commission in accordance with subsection (c)(2), and the Commission may make such a charge with respect to such material consumed in a facility licensed pursuant to section 2134 of this title" for "based on the cost to the Commission, as estimated by the Commission, or the average fair price paid for the production of such special nuclear material as determined by section 2076 of this title, whichever is lower".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 88–489, §8, struck out par. (1) which provided that title to all special nuclear material shall at all times be in the United States.

1958—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 85–681, §1, added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 85–681, §2, substituted "subsections (a)(1), (2) or (4)" for "subsection (a)(1) or (a) (2)".

1957—Subsec. (e)(8). Pub. L. 85–256 inserted "except to the extent that the indemnification and limitation of liability provisions of section 2210 of this title apply,".

§2074. Foreign distribution of special nuclear material

(a) Compensation; distribution to International Atomic Energy Agency; procedure for distribution; repurchase of unconsumed materials; price; purchase of materials produced outside United States; price

The Commission is authorized to cooperate with any nation or group of nations by distributing special nuclear material and to distribute such special nuclear material, pursuant to the terms of an agreement for cooperation to which such nation or group of nations is a party and which is made in accordance with section 2153 of this title. Unless hereafter otherwise authorized by law the Commission shall be compensated for special nuclear material so distributed at not less than the Commission's published charges applicable to the domestic distribution of such material, except that the Commission to assist and encourage research on peaceful uses or for medical therapy may so distribute without charge during any calendar year only a quantity of such material which at the time of transfer does not exceed in value $10,000 in the case of one nation or $50,000 in the case of any group of nations. The Commission may distribute to the International Atomic Energy Agency, or to any group of nations, only such amounts of special nuclear materials and for such period of time as are authorized by Congress: Provided, however, That, (i) notwithstanding this provision, the Commission is hereby authorized, subject to the provisions of section 2153 of this title, to distribute to the Agency five thousand kilograms of contained uranium-235, five hundred grams of uranium-233, and three kilograms of plutonium, together with the amounts of special nuclear material which will match in amount the sum of all quantities of special nuclear materials made available by all other members of the Agency to June 1, 1960; and (ii) notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this subsection, the Commission may distribute to the International Atomic Energy Agency, or to any group of nations, such other amounts of special nuclear materials and for such other periods of time as are established in writing by the Commission: Provided, however, That before they are established by the Commission pursuant to this subdivision (ii), such proposed amounts and periods shall be submitted to the Congress and referred to the Energy Committees and a period of sixty days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such sixty days, there shall be excluded the days on which either House is not in session because of an adjournment of more than three days): And provided further, That any such proposed amounts and periods shall not become effective if during such sixty-day period the Congress passes a concurrent resolution stating in substance that it does not favor the proposed action: And provided further, That prior to the elapse of the first thirty days of any such sixty-day period the Energy Committees shall submit to their respective houses reports of their views and recommendations respecting the proposed amounts and periods and an accompanying proposed concurrent resolution stating in substance that the Congress favors, or does not favor, as the case may be, the proposed amounts or periods. The Commission may agree to repurchase any special nuclear material distributed under a sale arrangement pursuant to this subsection which is not consumed in the course of the activities conducted in accordance with the agreement for cooperation, or any uranium remaining after irradiation of such special nuclear material, at repurchase price not to exceed the Commission's sale price for comparable special nuclear material or uranium in effect at the time of delivery of such material to the Commission. The Commission may also agree to purchase, consistent with and within the period of the agreement for cooperation, special nuclear material produced in a nuclear reactor located outside the United States through the use of special nuclear material which was leased or sold pursuant to this subsection. Under any such agreement the Commission shall purchase only such material as is delivered to the Commission during any period when there is in effect a guaranteed purchase price for the same material produced in a nuclear reactor by a person licensed under section 2134 of this title, established by the Commission pursuant to section 2076 of this title, and the price to be paid shall be the price so established by the Commission and in effect for the same material delivered to the Commission.

(b) Distribution to persons outside United States of plutonium and other special nuclear material exempted under section 2077(d) of this title; compensation; reports

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 2153 and 2154 of this title and section 125 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, the Commission is authorized to distribute to any person outside the United States (1) plutonium containing 80 per centum or more by weight of plutonium-238, and (2) other special nuclear material when it has, in accordance with subsection 2077(d) of this title, exempted certain classes or quantities of such other special nuclear material or kinds of uses or users thereof from the requirements for a license set forth in this subchapter. Unless hereafter otherwise authorized by law, the Commission shall be compensated for special nuclear material so distributed at not less than the Commission's published charges applicable to the domestic distribution of such material. The Commission shall not distribute any plutonium containing 80 per centum or more by weight of plutonium-238 to any person under this subsection if, in its opinion, such distribution would be inimical to the common defense and security. The Commission may require such reports regarding the use of material distributed pursuant to the provisions of this subsection as it deems necessary.

(c) Licensing or granting permission to others to distribute special nuclear material; conditions

The Commission is authorized to license or otherwise permit others to distribute special nuclear material to any person outside the United States under the same conditions, except as to charges, as would be applicable if the material were distributed by the Commission.

(d) Laboratory samples; medical devices; monitoring or other instruments; emergencies

The authority to distribute special nuclear material under this section other than under an export license granted by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission shall extend only to the following small quantities of special nuclear material (in no event more than five hundred grams per year of the uranium isotope 233, the uranium isotope 235, or plutonium contained in special nuclear material to any recipient):

(1) which are contained in laboratory samples, medical devices, or monitoring or other instruments; or

(2) the distribution of which is needed to deal with an emergency situation in which time is of the essence.

(e) Arrangements for storage or disposition of irradiated fuel elements

The authority in this section to commit United States funds for any activities pursuant to any subsequent arrangement under section 2160(a)(2)(E) of this title shall be subject to the requirements of section 2160 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §54, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 931; amended Pub. L. 85–177, §7, Aug. 28, 1957, 71 Stat. 455; Pub. L. 87–206, §4, Sept. 6, 1961, 75 Stat. 476; Pub. L. 88–489, §9, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 93–377, §2, Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 473; Pub. L. 95–242, title III, §§301(a), 303(b)(1), Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 125, 131; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(3), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

References in Text

Section 125 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 125 of act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by Pub. L. 85–14, Apr. 12, 1957, 71 Stat. 11, as amended, and is set out as a note under section 2153 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Energy Committees and a period" for "Joint Committee and a period" and "Energy Committees shall submit to their respective houses reports of their views" for "Joint Committee shall submit a report to the Congress of its views".

1978—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–242, §301(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–242, §303(b)(1), added subsec. (e).

1974Pub. L. 93–377 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), designated initial proviso as cl. (i), added cl. (ii) and references to groups of nations, and substituted references to this subsection for references to this section, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1964Pub. L. 88–489 authorized repurchase of unconsumed special nuclear materials, or any uranium remaining after irradiation of such materials, at a price not exceeding Commission's sale price for comparable material in effect at time of delivery to Commission, and purchase of special nuclear material produced outside United States through use of material leased or sold under this section, during any period when there is a guaranteed purchase price for same material as produced under section 2134 of this title, for such price as established by the Commission.

1961Pub. L. 87–206 inserted "five hundred grams of uranium 233 and three kilograms of plutonium" after "five thousand kilograms of contained uranium 235".

1957Pub. L. 85–177 inserted provisions requiring compensation at domestic charges for materials distributed abroad except for peaceful or medical therapy uses, and required Commission to obtain authorization of Congress for materials to be contributed to Agency beyond amount made available by all other members of Agency to July 1, 1960.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–242 effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirement for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§2075. Acquisition of special nuclear material; payments; just compensation

The Commission is authorized, to the extent it deems necessary to effectuate the provisions of this chapter, to purchase without regard to the limitations in section 2074 of this title or any guaranteed purchase prices established pursuant to section 2076 of this title, and to take, requisition, condemn, or otherwise acquire any special nuclear material or any interest therein. Any contract of purchase made under this section may be made without regard to the provisions of section 6101 of title 41, upon certification by the Commission that such action is necessary in the interest of the common defense and security, or upon a showing by the Commission that advertising is not reasonably practicable. Partial and advance payments may be made under contracts for such purposes. Just compensation shall be made for any right, property, or interest in property taken, requisitioned, or condemned under this section: Providing, That the authority in this section to commit United States funds for any activities pursuant to any subsequent arrangement under section 2160(a)(2)(E) of this title shall be subject to the requirements of section 2160 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §55, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 931; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §10, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 604; Pub. L. 95–242, title III, §303(b)(2), Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 131; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this Act", meaning act Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, as added by act Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 919, known as the Atomic Energy Act of 1954, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2011 of this title and Tables.

Codification

In text, "section 6101 of title 41" substituted for "section 3709 of the Revised Statutes, as amended" on authority of Pub. L. 111–350, §6(c), Jan. 4, 2011, 124 Stat. 3854, which Act enacted Title 41, Public Contracts.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(5) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

1978Pub. L. 95–424 provided that the authority in this section to commit United States funds for any activities pursuant to any subsequent arrangement under section 2160(a)(2)(E) of this title shall be subject to the requirement of section 2160 of this title.

1964Pub. L. 88–489 limited the authorization to the extent necessary to effectuate the chapter, inserted "without regard to the limitations in section 2074 of this title or any guaranteed purchase prices established pursuant to section 2076 of this title, and to take, requisition, condemn," and "Any contract of purchase made under this section may be made", provided for just compensation for any right, property, or interest taken, requisitioned, or condemned under this section, and struck out "outside the United States" after "any interest therein".

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–242 effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirement for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§2076. Guaranteed purchase prices

The Commission shall establish guaranteed purchase prices for plutonium produced in a nuclear reactor by a person licensed under section 2134 of this title and delivered to the Commission before January 1, 1971. The Commission shall also establish for such periods of time as it may deem necessary, but not to exceed ten years as to any such period, guaranteed purchase prices for uranium enriched in the isotope 233 produced in a nuclear reactor by a person licensed under section 2133 or section 2134 and delivered to the Commission within the period of the guarantee. Guaranteed purchase prices established under the authority of this section shall not exceed the Commission's determination of the estimated value of plutonium or uranium enriched in the isotope 233 as fuel in nuclear reactors, and such prices shall be established on a nondiscriminatory basis: Provided, That the Commission is authorized to establish such guaranteed purchase prices only for such plutonium or uranium enriched in the isotope 233 as the Commission shall determine is produced through the use of special nuclear material which was leased or sold by the Commission pursuant to section 2073 of this title.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §56, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 931; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §11, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 91–560, §2, Dec. 19, 1970, 84 Stat. 1472; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944.)

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–560 extended the power of the Commission to establish guaranteed purchase prices for uranium produced by persons licensed under section 2133 of this title.

1964Pub. L. 88–489 substituted provisions which directed the Commission to establish guaranteed purchase prices for plutonium produced by a person licensed under section 2134 of this title and delivered to the Commission prior to Jan. 1, 1971, and for uranium enriched in the isotope 233, for such periods of time as it deems necessary, but not exceeding ten years as to any such period, if produced by a person licensed under said section 2134, and delivered within the period of the guarantee, provided that guaranteed prices established under this section shall not exceed the Commission's estimated value of enriched plutonium or uranium as fuel in reactors, and shall be on a nondiscriminatory basis, and authorized such guaranteed prices only for such enriched plutonium or uranium as is produced through use of material leased or sold pursuant to section 2073 of this title, for provisions requiring the Commission to determine the fair price of special nuclear material by considering the value of the material for its intended use by the United States, and by giving such weight to the cost of production as it found to be equitable, providing that such price was to apply to all licensed producers of the same material, and permitting the Commission to establish guaranteed fair prices for all such material delivered to the Commission for such time as it deemed necessary, but not exceeding seven years.

§2077. Unauthorized dealings in special nuclear material

(a) Handling by persons

Unless authorized by a general or specific license issued by the Commission, which the Commission is authorized to issue pursuant to section 2073 of this title, no person may transfer or receive in interstate commerce, transfer, deliver, acquire, own, possess, receive possession of or title to, or import into or export from the United States any special nuclear material.

(b) Engagement or participation in development or production

It shall be unlawful for any person to directly or indirectly engage or participate in the development or production of any special nuclear material outside of the United States except (1) as specifically authorized under an agreement for cooperation made pursuant to section 2153 of this title, including a specific authorization in a subsequent arrangement under section 2160 of this title, or (2) upon authorization by the Secretary of Energy after a determination that such activity will not be inimical to the interest of the United States: Provided, That any such determination by the Secretary of Energy shall be made only with the concurrence of the Department of State and after consultation with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, the Department of Commerce, and the Department of Defense. The Secretary of Energy shall, within ninety days after March 10, 1978, establish orderly and expeditious procedures, including provision for necessary administrative actions and inter-agency memoranda of understanding, which are mutually agreeable to the Secretaries of State, Defense, and Commerce, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for the consideration of requests for authorization under this subsection. Such procedures shall include, at a minimum, explicit direction on the handling of such requests, express deadlines for the solicitation and collection of the views of the consulted agencies (with identified officials responsible for meeting such deadlines), an interagency coordinating authority to monitor the processing of such requests, predetermined procedures for the expeditious handling of intra-agency and inter-agency disagreements and appeals to higher authorities, frequent meetings of inter-agency administrative coordinators to review the status of all pending requests, and similar administrative mechanisms. To the extent practicable, an applicant should be advised of all the information required of the applicant for the entire process for every agency's needs at the beginning of the process. Potentially controversial requests should be identified as quickly as possible so that any required policy decisions or diplomatic consultations can be initiated in a timely manner. An immediate effort should be undertaken to establish quickly any necessary standards and criteria, including the nature of any required assurances or evidentiary showings, for the decision required under this subsection. The processing of any request proposed and filed as of March 10, 1978, shall not be delayed pending the development and establishment of procedures to implement the requirements of this subsection. Any trade secrets or proprietary information submitted by any person seeking an authorization under this subsection shall be afforded the maximum degree of protection allowable by law: Provided further, That the export of component parts as defined in section 2014(v)(2) or (cc)(2) of this title shall be governed by sections 2139 and 2155 of this title: Provided further, That notwithstanding section 7172(d) of this title, the Secretary of Energy and not the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, shall have sole jurisdiction within the Department of Energy over any matter arising from any function of the Secretary of Energy in this section, section 2074(d), section 2094, or section 2141(b) of this title.

(c) Distribution by Commission

The Commission shall not—

(1) distribute any special nuclear material to any person for a use which is not under the jurisdiction of the United States except pursuant to the provisions of section 2074 of this title; or

(2) distribute any special nuclear material or issue a license pursuant to section 2073 of this title to any person within the United States if the Commission finds that the distribution of such special nuclear material or the issuance of such license would be inimical to the common defense and security or would constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public.

(d) Establishment of classes of special nuclear material; exemption of materials, kinds of uses and users from requirement of license

The Commission is authorized to establish classes of special nuclear material and to exempt certain classes or quantities of special nuclear material or kinds of uses or users from the requirements for a license set forth in this section when it makes a finding that the exemption of such classes or quantities of special nuclear material or such kinds of uses or users would not be inimical to the common defense and security and would not constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public.

(e) Transfer, etc., of special nuclear material

Special nuclear material, as defined in section 2014 of this title, produced in facilities licensed under section 2133 or 2134 of this title may not be transferred, reprocessed, used, or otherwise made available by any instrumentality of the United States or any other person for nuclear explosive purposes.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §57, as added Aug. 30, 1954, ch. 1073, §1, 68 Stat. 932; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §12, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 605; Pub. L. 93–377, §3, Aug. 17, 1974, 88 Stat. 475; Pub. L. 95–242, title III, §302, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 126; Pub. L. 97–415, §14, Jan. 4, 1983, 96 Stat. 2075; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 105–277, div. G, title XII, §1225(d)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–774; Pub. L. 108–458, title VI, §6803(a), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3768.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to this section were contained in section 1805(a)(3) of this title, prior to the general amendment and renumbering of act Aug. 1, 1946, by act Aug. 30, 1954.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–458 substituted "or participate in the development or production of any special nuclear material" for "in the production of any special nuclear material".

1998—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 105–277 struck out "the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency," after "after consultation with" in first sentence and "the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency," after "Defense, and Commerce," in second sentence.

1983—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 97–415 added subsec. (e).

1978—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–242 substituted "except (1) as specifically authorized under an agreement for cooperation made pursuant to section 2153 of this title, including a specific authorization in a subsequent arrangement under section 2160 of this title, or (2) upon authorization by the Secretary of Energy after a determination that such activity will not be inimical to the interest of the United States" for "except (1) under an agreement for cooperation made pursuant to section 2153 of this title, or (2) upon authorization by the Commission after a determination that such activity will not be inimical to the interest of the United States" in existing provisions and inserted provisos relating to determinations by the Secretary of Energy, the procedures to be followed in processing authorization requests, the export of component parts, and the jurisdiction of the Secretary of Energy.

1974—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 93–377 added subsec. (d).

1964Pub. L. 88–489 amended section generally, and among other changes, included all special nuclear materials within the section, struck out condition that such material be "the property of the United States", included delivery, acquisition, ownership and receiving possession of or title to any special nuclear material within the acts prohibited to persons, prohibited the Commission from issuing a license pursuant to section 2073 of this title if the Commission finds that the issuance would be inimical to the common defense and security or would constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public, and extended the power of the Commission to refuse to distribute any special nuclear material if it finds that the distribution would constitute an unreasonable risk to the health and safety of the public.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–277 effective on earlier of Apr. 1, 1999, or date of abolition of the United States Arms Control and Disarmament Agency pursuant to reorganization plan described in section 6601 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, see section 1201 of Pub. L. 105–277, set out as an Effective Date note under section 6511 of Title 22.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–242 effective Mar. 10, 1978, except as otherwise provided and regardless of any requirement for the promulgation of implementing regulations, see section 603(c) of Pub. L. 95–242, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Performance of Functions Pending Development of Procedures

The performance of functions under this chapter, as amended by the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–242, Mar. 10, 1978, 92 Stat. 120, not to be delayed pending development of procedures even though as many as 120 days [after Mar. 10, 1978] are allowed for establishing those procedures, see section 5(b) of Ex. Ord. No. 12058, May 11, 1978, 43 F.R. 20947, set out under section 3201 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

§2077a. Interagency review of applications for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology

(a) Report on transfers to covered foreign countries

Not less frequently than every 90 days, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

(1) a description of the authorizations under section 2077(b) of this title to transfer United States civil nuclear technology to a covered foreign country during the preceding 90 days; and

(2) a statement of whether any agency required to be consulted under that section or pursuant to regulation objected to or sought conditions on each such transfer.

(b) Determination of technologies to be protected

(1) In general

Not later than 90 days after November 25, 2015, and every five years thereafter, the Secretary of Energy shall—

(A) in consultation with the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of National Intelligence, and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, determine the critical United States civil nuclear technologies that should be protected from diversion to a military program of a covered foreign country, including with respect to a naval propulsion or weapons program; and

(B) notify the appropriate congressional committees with respect to the determination and the technologies covered by the determination.

(2) Notification

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), not later than 14 days before making an authorization under section 2077(b) of this title for the transfer of a technology covered by a determination under paragraph (1) to a covered foreign country, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

(i) a notification of the intention of the Secretary to make the authorization for the transfer of such technology; and

(ii) a statement of whether any agency required to be consulted under such section 2077(b) of this title or pursuant to regulation objected to or sought conditions on the transfer.

(B) Waiver of deadline

The Secretary may waive the requirement under subparagraph (A) to submit the report required by that subparagraph not later than 14 days before making an authorization for the transfer of a technology covered by a determination under paragraph (1) to a covered foreign country if the Secretary—

(i) determines that an imminent radiological hazard exists; and

(ii) not later than 7 days after determining that such hazard exists, submits to the appropriate congressional committees—

(I) a certification that the hazard exists;

(II) a justification for the waiver; and

(III) the notification required by clause (i) of subparagraph (A) and the statement required by clause (ii) of that subparagraph.

(c) Consultations with intelligence community

(1) In general

The Secretary of Energy shall expeditiously revise part 810 of title 10, Code of Federal Regulations, to ensure that the Director of National Intelligence—

(A) is consulted with respect to the views of the intelligence community (as defined in section 3003(4) of title 50) with respect to each authorization issued under section 2077(b) of this title for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology to a covered foreign country before the determination to approve or disapprove the request for the authorization; and

(B) is provided with an opportunity to present the views of the Director and the intelligence community on the national security risks of the transfer, if any.

(2) Submission to Congress

The Secretary of Energy, jointly with the Director of National Intelligence, shall include the results of consultations conducted under paragraph (1) in each report under subsection (a) and each notification under subsection (b)(2).

(d) Report on compliance of covered foreign countries and end-users

Not less frequently than annually, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report that includes—

(1) an assessment of whether each covered foreign country is in compliance with its obligations under any authorization for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology under section 2077(b) of this title;

(2) with respect to any covered foreign country that is not in compliance with such obligations—

(A) a description the efforts of the United States to bring the country into compliance;

(B) an evaluation of the result of such efforts; and

(C) an assessment of the options available to the Secretary as a result of the country not being in compliance;


(3) an assessment of whether each end-user to which United States civil nuclear technology is transferred pursuant to an authorization under such section 2077(b) of this title is in compliance with the obligations of the end-user under that authorization; and

(4) a description of any consequences for the end-user or the exporter of the technology if the end-user is not in compliance with such obligations.

(e) Report on transfers to all foreign countries

(1) In general

Concurrent with the submission to Congress of the budget of the President for a fiscal year under section 1105(a) of title 31, the Secretary of Energy shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report on the activities of the Department of Energy associated with the review of applications for authorization under section 2077(b) of this title to transfer United States civil nuclear technology to any foreign country.

(2) Elements

The report required by paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) the number of applications for authorization under section 2077(b) of this title to transfer United States civil nuclear technology to a foreign country submitted during the year preceding the submission of the report;

(B) the length of time each such application was under review;

(C) for each such application, an identification of any officer to which the authorization under such section 2077(b) of this title was delegated pursuant to section 2201(n) of this title;

(D) the number of such applications that were granted; and

(E) a description of efforts to streamline the review of such applications, taking into account the proliferation and diversion potential of end-users in the country to which United States civil nuclear technology would be transferred pursuant to such applications.

(f) Notifications of potential diversions

The Director of National Intelligence shall notify the Department of Energy and the appropriate congressional committees not later than 30 days after the date on which the Director determines that there is credible intelligence that United States civil nuclear technology is being or has been diverted—

(1) to a military program in a foreign country to which the transfer of the technology was authorized under section 2077(b) of this title; or

(2) to a foreign country to which the transfer of the technology was not so authorized.

(g) Guidelines

Not later than 60 days after November 25, 2015, the Secretary of Energy shall issue guidance with respect to the use of the clear and intended authority of the Secretary under section 2282 of this title to impose civil penalties, including fines and debarment, and to make referrals to the Attorney General for prosecution, for violations of the terms of authorizations for the transfer of United States civil nuclear technology issued under section 2077(b) of this title.

(h) Report on transfer of sensitive items

(1) In general

Not later than 180 days after November 25, 2015, and annually thereafter, the President shall submit to the appropriate congressional committees a report—

(A) describing the efforts of covered foreign countries to prevent the transfer of sensitive items, including efforts to improve the prevention of the transfer of such items; and

(B) assessing the adequacy of such efforts.

(2) Sensitive items defined

In this subsection, the term "sensitive items" means goods, services, and technologies described in section 2(a) of the Iran, North Korea, and Syria Nonproliferation Act (Public Law 106–178; 50 U.S.C. 1701 note).

(i) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Appropriate congressional committees

The term "appropriate congressional committees" means—

(A) the congressional defense committees;

(B) the Committee on Energy and Natural Resources, the Committee on Foreign Relations, and the Select Committee on Intelligence of the Senate; and

(C) the Committee on Energy and Commerce, the Committee on Foreign Affairs, and the Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence of the House of Representatives.

(2) Covered foreign country

The term "covered foreign country" means a foreign country that is a nuclear-weapon state, as defined by Article IX(3) of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, signed at Washington, London, and Moscow July 1, 1968, but does not include the United States, the United Kingdom, or France.

(Pub. L. 114–92, div. C, title XXXI, §3136, Nov. 25, 2015, 129 Stat. 1209; Pub. L. 115–232, div. C, title XXXI, §3116(c), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 2291.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016, and not as part of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e)(2)(C) to (E). Pub. L. 115–232 added subpar. (C) and redesignated former subpars. (C) and (D) as (D) and (E), respectively.

"Congressional Defense Committees" Defined

Congressional defense committees means the Committees on Armed Services and Appropriations of the Senate and the House of Representatives, see section 3 of Pub. L. 114–92, 129 Stat. 745. See note under section 101 of Title 10, Armed Forces.

Delegation of Authority Pursuant to Section 3136(h) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016

Memorandum of President of the United States, May 10, 2016, 81 F.R. 31161, provided:

Memorandum for the Secretary of State

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby order as follows:

I hereby delegate functions and authorities vested in the President by section 3136(h) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2016 (Public Law 114–92) (the "Act") to the Secretary of State.

Any reference in this memorandum to the Act shall be deemed to be a reference to any future act that is the same or substantially the same as such provision.

You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in the Federal Register.

Barack Obama.      

§2078. Congressional review of guaranteed purchase price, guaranteed purchase price period, and criteria for waiver of charges

Before the Commission establishes any guaranteed purchase price or guaranteed purchase price period in accordance with the provisions of section 2076 of this title, or establishes any criteria for the waiver of any charge for the use of special nuclear material licensed and distributed under section 2073 of this title, the proposed guaranteed purchase price, guaranteed purchase price period, or criteria for the waiver of such charge shall be submitted to the Energy Committees and a period of forty-five days shall elapse while Congress is in session (in computing such forty-five days there shall be excluded the days in which either House is not in session because of adjournment for more than three days): Provided, however, That the Energy Committees, after having received the proposed guaranteed purchase price, guaranteed purchase price period, or criteria for the waiver of such charge, may by resolution in writing waive the conditions of, or all or any portion of, such forty-five-day period.

(Aug. 1, 1946, ch. 724, title I, §58, as added Pub. L. 85–79, §2, July 3, 1957, 71 Stat. 275; amended Pub. L. 88–489, §13, Aug. 26, 1964, 78 Stat. 605; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 102–486, title IX, §902(a)(8), Oct. 24, 1992, 106 Stat. 2944; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(f)(4), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4592.)

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Energy Committees" for "Joint Committee" in two places.

1964Pub. L. 88–489 substituted "guaranteed purchase" and "purchase" for "fair" wherever appearing, "licensed and distributed" for "licensed or distributed", and provided that the Joint Committee resolution waiving the conditions of the forty-five-day period must be in writing.