[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 6A, SUBCHAPTER III, Part C, subpart 13: national institute on deafness and other communication disorders
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42 USC CHAPTER 6A, SUBCHAPTER III, Part C, subpart 13: national institute on deafness and other communication disorders
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 6A—PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICESUBCHAPTER III—NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTESPart C—Specific Provisions Respecting National Research Institutes

subpart 13—national institute on deafness and other communication disorders

§285m. Purpose of Institute

The general purpose of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (hereafter referred to in this subpart as the "Institute") is the conduct and support of research and training, the dissemination of health information, and other programs with respect to disorders of hearing and other communication processes, including diseases affecting hearing, balance, voice, speech, language, taste, and smell.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §464, as added Pub. L. 100–553, §2(4), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2769, and Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §101(4), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3049; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–553 and Pub. L. 100–607 contained identical provisions enacting this section. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 amended this section to read as if the amendments made by Pub. L. 100–607, which enacted this section, had not been enacted. See Codification note above.

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

For short title of Pub. L. 100–553 which enacted this subpart and amended sections 281 and 285j of this title as the "National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Act of 1988", see section 1 of Pub. L. 100–553, set out as a note under section 201 of this title.

Effect of Enactment of Similar Provisions

Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238, provided that:

"(1) Paragraphs (2) and (3) shall take effect immediately after the enactment of both the bill, S. 1727, of the One Hundredth Congress [Pub. L. 100–553, approved Oct. 28, 1988], and the Health Omnibus Programs Extension of 1988 [Pub. L. 100–607, approved Nov. 4, 1988].

"(2)(A) The provisions of the Public Health Service Act referred to in subparagraph (B), as similarly amended by the enactment of the bill, S. 1727, of the One Hundredth Congress, by subtitle A of title I of the Health Omnibus Programs Extension of 1988, and by subsection (a)(1) of this section, are amended to read as if the amendments made by such subtitle A and such subsection (a)(1) had not been enacted.

"(B) The provisions of the Public Health Service Act referred to in subparagraph (A) are—

"(A) sections 401(b)(1) and 457 [42 U.S.C. 281(b)(1), 285j];

"(B) part C of title IV [42 U.S.C. 285 et seq.]; and

"(C) the heading for subpart 10 of such part C [42 U.S.C. prec. 285j].

"(3) Subsection (a)(2) of this section [formerly set out below] is repealed."

Transitional and Savings Provisions

Pub. L. 100–553, §3, Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2774, provided that:

"(a) Transfer of Personnel, Assets, and Liabilities.—Personnel employed by the National Institutes of Health in connection with the functions vested under section 2 [enacting this subpart and amending sections 281 and 285j of this title] in the Director of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, and assets, property, contracts, liabilities, records, unexpended balances of appropriations, authorizations, allocations, and other funds of the National Institutes of Health, arising from or employed, held, used, available to, or to be made available, in connection with such functions shall be transferred to the Director for appropriate allocation. Unexpended funds transferred under this subsection shall be used only for the purposes for which the funds were originally authorized and appropriated.

"(b) Savings Provisions.—With respect to functions vested under section 1 [probably means section 2, enacting this subpart and amending sections 281 and 285j of this title] in the Director of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, all orders, rules, regulations, grants, contracts, certificates, licenses, privileges, and other determinations, actions, or official documents, that have been issued, made, granted, or allowed to become effective, and that are effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1988], shall continue in effect according to their terms unless changed pursuant to law."

Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(a)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238, which enacted provisions that were substantially identical to the transitional and savings provisions above, was repealed by section 2613(b)(3) of Pub. L. 100–690.

§285m–1. National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Program

(a) The Director of the Institute, with the advice of the Institute's advisory council, shall establish a National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Program (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Program"). The Director or 1 the Institute shall, with respect to the Program, prepare and transmit to the Director of NIH a plan to initiate, expand, intensify and coordinate activities of the Institute respecting disorders of hearing (including tinnitus) and other communication processes, including diseases affecting hearing, balance, voice, speech, language, taste, and smell. The plan shall include such comments and recommendations as the Director of the Institute determines appropriate. The Director of the Institute shall periodically review and revise the plan and shall transmit any revisions of the plan to the Director of NIH.

(b) Activities under the Program shall include—

(1) investigation into the etiology, pathology, detection, treatment, and prevention of all forms of disorders of hearing and other communication processes, primarily through the support of basic research in such areas as anatomy, audiology, biochemistry, bioengineering, epidemiology, genetics, immunology, microbiology, molecular biology, the neurosciences, otolaryngology, psychology, pharmacology, physiology, speech and language pathology, and any other scientific disciplines that can contribute important knowledge to the understanding and elimination of disorders of hearing and other communication processes;

(2) research into the evaluation of techniques (including surgical, medical, and behavioral approaches) and devices (including hearing aids, implanted auditory and nonauditory prosthetic devices and other communication aids) used in diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prevention of disorders of hearing and other communication processes;

(3) research into prevention, and early detection and diagnosis, of hearing loss and speech and language disturbances (including stuttering) and research into preventing the effects of such disorders on learning and learning disabilities with extension of programs for appropriate referral and rehabilitation;

(4) research into the detection, treatment, and prevention of disorders of hearing and other communication processes in the growing elderly population with extension of rehabilitative programs to ensure continued effective communication skills in such population;

(5) research to expand knowledge of the effects of environmental agents that influence hearing or other communication processes; and

(6) developing and facilitating intramural programs on clinical and fundamental aspects of disorders of hearing and all other communication processes.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §464A, as added Pub. L. 100–553, §2(4), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2769, and Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §101(4), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3049; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–553 and Pub. L. 100–607 contained identical provisions enacting this section. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 amended this section to read as if the amendments made by Pub. L. 100–607, which enacted this section, had not been enacted. See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 100–690, see section 2613(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effect of Enactment of Similar Provisions note under section 285m of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "of".

§285m–2. Data System and Information Clearinghouse

(a) The Director of the Institute shall establish a National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Data System for the collection, storage, analysis, retrieval, and dissemination of data derived from patient populations with disorders of hearing or other communication processes, including where possible, data involving general populations for the purpose of identifying individuals at risk of developing such disorders.

(b) The Director of the Institute shall establish a National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Information Clearinghouse to facilitate and enhance, through the effective dissemination of information, knowledge and understanding of disorders of hearing and other communication processes by health professionals, patients, industry, and the public.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §464B, as added Pub. L. 100–553, §2(4), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2770, and Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §101(4), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3050; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–553 and Pub. L. 100–607 contained identical provisions enacting this section. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 amended this section to read as if the amendments made by Pub. L. 100–607, which enacted this section, had not been enacted. See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 100–690, see section 2613(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effect of Enactment of Similar Provisions note under section 285m of this title.

§285m–3. Multipurpose deafness and other communication disorders center

(a) Development, modernization and operation; "modernization" defined

The Director of the Institute shall, after consultation with the advisory council for the Institute, provide for the development, modernization, and operation (including care required for research) of new and existing centers for studies of disorders of hearing and other communication processes. For purposes of this section, the term "modernization" means the alteration, remodeling, improvement, expansion, and repair of existing buildings and the provision of equipment for such buildings to the extent necessary to make them suitable for use as centers described in the preceding sentence.

(b) Use of facilities; qualifications

Each center assisted under this section shall—

(1) use the facilities of a single institution or a consortium of cooperating institutions; and

(2) meet such qualifications as may be prescribed by the Secretary.

(c) Requisite programs

Each center assisted under this section shall, at least, conduct—

(1) basic and clinical research into the cause 1 diagnosis, early detection, prevention, control and treatment of disorders of hearing and other communication processes and complications resulting from such disorders, including research into rehabilitative aids, implantable biomaterials, auditory speech processors, speech production devices, and other otolaryngologic procedures;

(2) training programs for physicians, scientists, and other health and allied health professionals;

(3) information and continuing education programs for physicians and other health and allied health professionals who will provide care for patients with disorders of hearing or other communication processes; and

(4) programs for the dissemination to the general public of information—

(A) on the importance of early detection of disorders of hearing and other communication processes, of seeking prompt treatment, rehabilitation, and of following an appropriate regimen; and

(B) on the importance of avoiding exposure to noise and other environmental toxic agents that may affect disorders of hearing or other communication processes.

(d) Stipends

A center may use funds provided under subsection (a) to provide stipends for health professionals enrolled in training programs described in subsection (c)(2).

(e) Discretionary programs

Each center assisted under this section may conduct programs—

(1) to establish the effectiveness of new and improved methods of detection, referral, and diagnosis of individuals at risk of developing disorders of hearing or other communication processes; and

(2) to disseminate the results of research, screening, and other activities, and develop means of standardizing patient data and recordkeeping.

(f) Equitable geographical distribution; needs of elderly and children

The Director of the Institute shall, to the extent practicable, provide for an equitable geographical distribution of centers assisted under this section. The Director shall give appropriate consideration to the need for centers especially suited to meeting the needs of the elderly, and of children (particularly with respect to their education and training), affected by disorders of hearing or other communication processes.

(g) Period of support; recommended extensions of peer review group

Support of a center under this section may be for a period not to exceed seven years. Such period may be extended by the Director of the Institute for one or more additional periods of not more than five years if the operations of such center have been reviewed by an appropriate technical and scientific peer review group established by the Director, with the advice of the Institute's advisory council, if such group has recommended to the Director that such period should be extended.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §464C, as added Pub. L. 100–553, §2(4), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2771, and Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §101(4), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3050; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–553 and Pub. L. 100–607 contained identical provisions enacting this section. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–690 amended this section to read as if the amendments made by Pub. L. 100–607, which enacted this section, had not been enacted. See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 100–690, see section 2613(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effect of Enactment of Similar Provisions note under section 285m of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§285m–4. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Board

(a) Establishment

The Secretary shall establish in the Institute the National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Board (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Advisory Board").

(b) Composition; qualifications; appointed and ex officio members

The Advisory Board shall be composed of eighteen appointed members and nonvoting ex officio members as follows:

(1) The Secretary shall appoint—

(A) twelve members from individuals who are scientists, physicians, and other health and rehabilitation professionals, who are not officers or employees of the United States, and who represent the specialties and disciplines relevant to deafness and other communication disorders, including not less than two persons with a communication disorder; and

(B) six members from the general public who are knowledgeable with respect to such disorders, including not less than one person with a communication disorder and not less than one person who is a parent of an individual with such a disorder.


Of the appointed members, not less than five shall by virtue of training or experience be knowledgeable in diagnoses and rehabilitation of communication disorders, education of the hearing, speech, or language impaired, public health, public information, community program development, occupational hazards to communications senses, or the aging process.

(2) The following shall be ex officio members of each Advisory Board:

(A) The Assistant Secretary for Health, the Director of NIH, the Director of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the Under Secretary for Health of the Department of Veterans Affairs, and the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Health Affairs (or the designees of such officers).

(B) Such other officers and employees of the United States as the Secretary determines necessary for the Advisory Board to carry out its functions.

(c) Compensation

Members of an Advisory Board who are officers or employees of the Federal Government shall serve as members of the Advisory Board without compensation in addition to that received in their regular public employment. Other members of the Board shall receive compensation at rates not to exceed the daily equivalent of the annual rate in effect for grade GS–18 of the General Schedule for each day (including traveltime) they are engaged in the performance of their duties as members of the Board.

(d) Term of office; vacancies

The term of office of an appointed member of the Advisory Board is four years, except that no term of office may extend beyond the expiration of the Advisory Board. Any member appointed to fill a vacancy for an unexpired term shall be appointed for the remainder of such term. A member may serve after the expiration of the member's term until a successor has taken office. If a vacancy occurs in the Advisory Board, the Secretary shall make an appointment to fill the vacancy not later than 90 days from the date the vacancy occurred.

(e) Chairman

The members of the Advisory Board shall select a chairman from among the appointed members.

(f) Personnel; executive director; professional and clerical staff members; consultants; information and administrative support services and facilities

The Secretary shall, after consultation with and consideration of the recommendations of the Advisory Board, provide the Advisory Board with an executive director and one other professional staff member. In addition, the Secretary shall, after consultation with and consideration of the recommendations of the Advisory Board, provide the Advisory Board with such additional professional staff members, such clerical staff members, such services of consultants, such information, and (through contracts or other arrangements) such administrative support services and facilities, as the Secretary determines are necessary for the Advisory Board to carry out its functions.

(g) Meetings

The Advisory Board shall meet at the call of the chairman or upon request of the Director of the Institute, but not less often than four times a year.

(h) Functions

The Advisory Board shall—

(1) review and evaluate the implementation of the plan prepared under section 285m–1(a) of this title and periodically update the plan to ensure its continuing relevance;

(2) for the purpose of assuring the most effective use and organization of resources respecting deafness and other communication disorders, advise and make recommendations to the Congress, the Secretary, the Director of NIH, the Director of the Institute, and the heads of other appropriate Federal agencies for the implementation and revision of such plan; and

(3) maintain liaison with other advisory bodies related to Federal agencies involved in the implementation of such plan and with key non-Federal entities involved in activities affecting the control of such disorders.

(i) Subcommittee activities; workshops and conferences; collection of data

In carrying out its functions, the Advisory Board may establish subcommittees, convene workshops and conferences, and collect data. Such subcommittees may be composed of Advisory Board members and nonmember consultants with expertise in the particular area addressed by such subcommittees. The subcommittees may hold such meetings as are necessary to enable them to carry out their activities.

(j) Repealed. Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(1)(J), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3693

(k) Commencement of existence

The National Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Advisory Board shall be established not later than April 1, 1989.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §464D, as added Pub. L. 100–553, §2(4), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2772, and Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4235; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238; Pub. L. 101–93, §5(b), Aug. 16, 1989, 103 Stat. 611; Pub. L. 102–405, title III, §302(e)(1), Oct. 9, 1992, 106 Stat. 1985; Pub. L. 102–531, title III, §312(d)(8), Oct. 27, 1992, 106 Stat. 3504; Pub. L. 103–43, title XX, §2008(b)(8), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(1)(J), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3693.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–553 and section 2613(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690 contained identical provisions enacting this section. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 109–482 struck out subsec. (j) which read as follows: "The Advisory Board shall prepare an annual report for the Secretary which—

"(1) describes the Advisory Board's activities in the fiscal year for which the report is made;

"(2) describes and evaluates the progress made in such fiscal year in research, treatment, education, and training with respect to the deafness and other communication disorders;

"(3) summarizes and analyzes expenditures made by the Federal Government for activities respecting such disorders in such fiscal year; and

"(4) contains the Advisory Board's recommendations (if any) for changes in the plan prepared under section 285m–1(a) of this title."

1993—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 103–43 substituted "Department of Veterans Affairs" for "Veterans' Administration".

1992—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–531 substituted "Centers for Disease Control and Prevention" for "Centers for Disease Control".

Pub. L. 102–405 substituted "Under Secretary for Health" for "Chief Medical Director".

1989—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 101–93 substituted "April 1, 1989" for "90 days after the date of the enactment of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Act".

1988Pub. L. 100–690, §2613(b)(2), amended this section to read as if the amendments made by Pub. L. 100–690, §2613(a)(1), which enacted this section, had not been enacted. See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–482 applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for fiscal year 2007 or subsequent fiscal years, see section 109 of Pub. L. 109–482, set out as a note under section 281 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by section 2613(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–690, see section 2613(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effect of Enactment of Similar Provisions note under section 285m of this title.

Termination of Advisory Boards

Advisory boards established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a board established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such board is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a board established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Pub. L. 93–641, §6, Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2275, set out as a note under section 217a of this title, provided that an advisory committee established pursuant to the Public Health Service Act shall terminate at such time as may be specifically prescribed by an Act of Congress enacted after Jan. 4, 1975.

References in Other Laws to GS–16, 17, or 18 Pay Rates

References in laws to the rates of pay for GS–16, 17, or 18, or to maximum rates of pay under the General Schedule, to be considered references to rates payable under specified sections of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees, see section 529 [title I, §101(c)(1)] of Pub. L. 101–509, set out in a note under section 5376 of Title 5.

§285m–5. Interagency Coordinating Committee

(a) Establishment

The Secretary may establish a committee to be known as the Deafness and Other Communication Disorders Interagency Coordinating Committee (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Coordinating Committee").

(b) Functions

The Coordinating Committee shall, with respect to deafness and other communication disorders—

(1) provide for the coordination of the activities of the national research institutes; and

(2) coordinate the aspects of all Federal health programs and activities relating to deafness and other communication disorders in order to assure the adequacy and technical soundness of such programs and activities and in order to provide for the full communication and exchange of information necessary to maintain adequate coordination of such programs and activities.

(c) Composition

The Coordinating Committee shall be composed of the directors of each of the national research institutes and divisions involved in research with respect to deafness and other communication disorders and representatives of all other Federal departments and agencies whose programs involve health functions or responsibilities relevant to deafness and other communication disorders.

(d) Chairman; meetings

The Coordinating Committee shall be chaired by the Director of NIH (or the designee of the Director). The Committee shall meet at the call of the chair, but not less often than four times a year.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §464E, as added Pub. L. 100–553, §2(4), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2774, and Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4237; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238; Pub. L. 103–43, title XX, §2008(b)(9), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 211; Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §104(b)(1)(K), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3693.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–553 and section 2613(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690 contained identical provisions enacting this section. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–482 struck out subsec. (e) which read as follows: "Not later than 120 days after the end of each fiscal year, the Coordinating Committee shall prepare and transmit to the Secretary, the Director of NIH, the Director of the Institute, and the advisory council for the Institute a report detailing the activities of the Committee in such fiscal year in carrying out subsection (b) of this section."

1993—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 103–43 inserted "Coordinating" before "Committee" in first sentence of subsec. (d) and before first reference to "Committee" in subsec. (e).

1988Pub. L. 100–690, §2613(b)(2), amended this section to read as if the amendments made by Pub. L. 100–690, §2613(a)(1), which enacted this section, had not been enacted. See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–482 applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for fiscal year 2007 or subsequent fiscal years, see section 109 of Pub. L. 109–482, set out as a note under section 281 of this title.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by section 2613(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–690, see section 2613(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effect of Enactment of Similar Provisions note under section 285m of this title.

§285m–6. Limitation on administrative expenses

With respect to amounts appropriated for a fiscal year for the National Institutes of Health, the limitation established in section 284c(a)(1) of this title on the expenditure of such amounts for administrative expenses shall apply to administrative expenses of the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §464F, as added Pub. L. 100–553, §2(4), Oct. 28, 1988, 102 Stat. 2774, and Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(a)(1), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238; amended Pub. L. 100–690, title II, §2613(b)(2), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4238; Pub. L. 103–43, title IV, §403(b)(2), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 158.)

Codification

Pub. L. 100–553 and section 2613(a)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690 contained identical provisions enacting this section. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Amendments

1993Pub. L. 103–43 substituted "section 284c(a)(1)" for "section 284c(b)(1)".

1988Pub. L. 100–690, §2613(b)(2), amended this section to read as if the amendments made by Pub. L. 100–690, §2613(a)(1), which enacted this section, had not been enacted. See Codification note above.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by section 2613(b)(2) of Pub. L. 100–690, see section 2613(b)(1) of Pub. L. 100–690, set out as an Effect of Enactment of Similar Provisions note under section 285m of this title.