[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 6A, SUBCHAPTER III, Part G: Awards and Training
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42 USC CHAPTER 6A, SUBCHAPTER III, Part G: Awards and Training
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 6A—PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICESUBCHAPTER III—NATIONAL RESEARCH INSTITUTES

Part G—Awards and Training

Codification

Pub. L. 103–43, title I, §141(a)(2), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 136, redesignated part F "Awards and Training" as G. Former part G "General Provisions" redesignated H.

§288. Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards

(a) Biomedical and behavioral research and research training; programs and institutions included; restriction; special consideration

(1) The Secretary shall—

(A) provide Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards for—

(i) biomedical and behavioral research at the National Institutes of Health in matters relating to the cause, diagnosis, prevention, and treatment of the diseases or other health problems to which the activities of the National Institutes of Health and Administration 1 are directed;

(ii) training at the National Institutes of Health and at the Administration 1 of individuals to undertake such research;

(iii) biomedical and behavioral research and health services research (including research in primary medical care) at public and nonprofit private entities; and

(iv) pre-doctoral and post-doctoral training at public and private institutions of individuals to undertake biomedical and behavioral research;


(B) make grants to public and nonprofit private institutions to enable such institutions to make Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards for research (and training to undertake biomedical and behavioral research) in the matters described in subparagraph (A)(i) to individuals selected by such institutions; and

(C) provide contracts for scholarships and loan repayments in accordance with sections 288–4 and 288–5 2 of this title, subject to providing not more than an aggregate 50 such contracts during the fiscal years 1994 through 1996.


A reference in this subsection to the National Institutes of Health shall be considered to include the institutes, agencies, divisions, and bureaus included in the National Institutes of Health or under the Administration,1 as the case may be.

(2) Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards may not be used to support residency training of physicians and other health professionals.

(3) In awarding Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards under this section, the Secretary shall take account of the Nation's overall need for biomedical research personnel by giving special consideration to physicians who agree to undertake a minimum of two years of biomedical research.

(4) The Secretary shall carry out paragraph (1) in a manner that will result in the recruitment of women, and individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds (including racial and ethnic minorities), into fields of biomedical or behavioral research and in the provision of research training to women and such individuals.

(b) Prerequisites for Award; review and approval by appropriate advisory councils; Award period; uses for Award; payments to non-Federal public or nonprofit private institutions

(1) No Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award may be made by the Secretary to any individual unless—

(A) the individual has submitted to the Secretary an application therefor and the Secretary has approved the application;

(B) the individual provides, in such form and manner as the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe, assurances satisfactory to the Secretary that the individual will meet the service requirement of subsection (c); and

(C) in the case of a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award for a purpose described in subsection (a)(1)(A)(iii), the individual has been sponsored (in such manner as the Secretary may by regulation require) by the institution at which the research or training under the award will be conducted.


An application for an award shall be in such form, submitted in such manner, and contain such information, as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe.

(2) The making of grants under subsection (a)(1)(B) for Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards shall be subject to review and approval by the appropriate advisory councils within the Department of Health and Human Services (A) whose activities relate to the research or training under the awards, or (B) for the entity at which such research or training will be conducted.

(3) No grant may be made under subsection (a)(1)(B) unless an application therefor has been submitted to and approved by the Secretary. Such application shall be in such form, submitted in such manner, and contain such information, as the Secretary may by regulation prescribe. Subject to the provisions of this section (other than paragraph (1)), Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards made under a grant under subsection (a)(1)(B) shall be made in accordance with such regulations as the Secretary shall prescribe.

(4) The period of any Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award made to any individual under subsection (a) may not exceed—

(A) five years in the aggregate for pre-doctoral training; and

(B) three years in the aggregate for post-doctoral training;


unless the Secretary for good cause shown waives the application of such limit to such individual.

(5) Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards shall provide for such stipends, tuition, fees, and allowances (including travel and subsistence expenses and dependency allowances), adjusted periodically to reflect increases in the cost of living, for the recipients of the awards as the Secretary may deem necessary. A Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award made to an individual for research or research training at a non-Federal public or nonprofit private institution shall also provide for payments to be made to the institution for the cost of support services (including the cost of faculty salaries, supplies, equipment, general research support, and related items) provided such individual by such institution. The amount of any such payments to any institution shall be determined by the Secretary and shall bear a direct relationship to the reasonable costs of the institution for establishing and maintaining the quality of its biomedical and behavioral research and training programs.

(c) Health research or teaching; service period; recovery upon noncompliance with service requirement, formula; cancellation or waiver of obligation

(1) Each individual who is awarded a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award for postdoctoral research training shall, in accordance with paragraph (3), engage in research training, research, or teaching that is health-related (or any combination thereof) for the period specified in paragraph (2). Such period shall be served in accordance with the usual patterns of scientific employment.

(2)(A) The period referred to in paragraph (1) is 12 months, or one month for each month for which the individual involved receives a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award for postdoctoral research training, whichever is less.

(B) With respect to postdoctoral research training, in any case in which an individual receives a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award for more than 12 months, the 13th month and each subsequent month of performing activities under the Award shall be considered to be activities engaged in toward satisfaction of the requirement established in paragraph (1) regarding a period of service.

(3) The requirement of paragraph (1) shall be complied with by any individual to whom it applies within such reasonable period of time, after the completion of such individual's award, as the Secretary shall by regulation prescribe. The Secretary shall by regulation prescribe the type of research and teaching in which an individual may engage to comply with such requirement and such other requirements respecting research and teaching as the Secretary considers appropriate.

(4)(A) If any individual to whom the requirement of paragraph (1) is applicable fails, within the period prescribed by paragraph (3), to comply with such requirements, the United States shall be entitled to recover from such individual an amount determined in accordance with the formula—


     t−s  

A=φ  (——)

    t  


in which "A" is the amount the United States is entitled to recover; "φ" is the sum of the total amount paid under one or more Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards to such individual; "t" is the total number of months in such individual's service obligation; and "s" is the number of months of such obligation served by such individual in accordance with paragraphs (1) and (2) of this subsection.

(B) Any amount which the United States is entitled to recover under subparagraph (A) shall, within the three-year period beginning on the date the United States becomes entitled to recover such amount, be paid to the United States. Until any amount due the United States under subparagraph (A) on account of any Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award is paid, there shall accrue to the United States interest on such amount at a rate fixed by the Secretary of the Treasury after taking into consideration private consumer rates of interest prevailing on the date the United States becomes entitled to such amount.

(5)(A) Any obligation of an individual under paragraph (1) shall be canceled upon the death of such individual.

(B) The Secretary shall by regulation provide for the waiver or suspension of any such obligation applicable to any individual whenever compliance by such individual is impossible or would involve substantial hardship to such individual or would be against equity and good conscience.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487, as added Pub. L. 99–158, §2, Nov. 20, 1985, 99 Stat. 869; amended Pub. L. 100–607, title I, §151, title VI, §635, Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3058, 3148; Pub. L. 101–93, §5(d), Aug. 16, 1989, 103 Stat. 612; Pub. L. 101–239, title VI, §6103(e)(7), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2208; Pub. L. 102–321, title I, §163(b)(4), July 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 376; Pub. L. 103–43, title XVI, §§1601, 1602, 1632, 1641, title XX, §2008(b)(14), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 181, 186, 211; Pub. L. 106–129, §2(b)(2), Dec. 6, 1999, 113 Stat. 1670; Pub. L. 107–206, title I, §804(a), (b), Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 874; Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §103(b)(47), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3688.)

References in Text

Section 288–5 of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), was repealed by Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title II, §2022(c)(3), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1054.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–482 struck out subsec. (d) which related to authorization and apportionment of appropriations.

2002Pub. L. 107–206 inserted "Ruth L. Kirschstein" before "National Research Service Award" and "National Research Service Awards" wherever appearing in section catchline and text.

1999—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 106–129 substituted "Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality" for "Agency for Health Care Policy and Research".

1993—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–43, §1632, added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–43, §1601, added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(1), (2). Pub. L. 103–43, §1602, added pars. (1) and (2) and struck out former pars. (1) and (2) which read as follows:

"(1) Each individual who is awarded a National Research Service Award (other than an individual who is a pre-baccalaureate student who is awarded a National Research Service Award for research training) shall, in accordance with paragraph (3), engage in health research or teaching or any combination thereof which is in accordance with the usual patterns of academic employment, for a period computed in accordance with paragraph (2).

"(2) For each month for which an individual receives a National Research Service Award which is made for a period in excess of twelve months, such individual shall engage in one month of health research or teaching or any combination thereof which is in accordance with the usual patterns of academic employment."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–43, §1641(1), amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: "For the purpose of making payments under National Research Service Awards and under grants for such Awards, there are authorized to be appropriated $300,000,000 for fiscal year 1989 and such sums as may be necessary for fiscal year 1990."

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 103–43, §§1641(2), 2008(b)(14), substituted "1 percent" for "one-half of one percent" in two places, "293k, 293l, or 293m" for "295g, 295g–4, or 295g–6", and "242b(a)" for "242b(a)(3)".

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–321 struck out "and the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration" before "in matters relating to" in subpar. (A)(i) and struck out "or the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration" before "shall be considered" in last sentence.

1989—Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 101–93 directed that par. (3), as similarly amended by sections 151(2) and 635 of Pub. L. 100–607, be amended to read as if the amendment made by such section 635 had not been enacted. See 1988 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (d)(3)(B). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "Agency for Health Care Policy and Research" for "National Center for Health Services Research and Health Care Technology Assessment".

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–607, §151(1), amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: "There are authorized to be appropriated to make payments under National Research Service Awards and under grants for such awards $244,000,000 for fiscal year 1986, $260,000,000 for fiscal year 1987, and $275,000,000 for fiscal year 1988."

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 100–607, §§151(2), 635, made identical amendments, inserting "to the Secretary, acting through the Administrator of the Health Resources and Services Administration," after first reference to "available".

Change of Name

Pub. L. 107–206, title I, §804(c), Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 874, provided that: "Any reference in any law (other than this Act [see Tables for classification]), regulation, document, record, map, or other paper of the United States to 'National Research Service Awards' shall be considered to be a reference to 'Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Awards'."

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–482 applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for fiscal year 2007 or subsequent fiscal years, see section 109 of Pub. L. 109–482, set out as a note under section 281 of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–321 effective Oct. 1, 1992, with provision for programs providing financial assistance, see section 801(c), (d) of Pub. L. 102–321, set out as a note under section 236 of this title.

1 So in original. Reference to Administration probably should not appear.

2 See References in Text note below.

§288–1. Intramural loan repayment program

(a) In general

The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall, as appropriate and based on workforce and scientific priorities, carry out a program through the subcategories listed in subsection (b)(1) (or modified subcategories as provided for in subsection (b)(2)) of entering into agreements with appropriately qualified health professionals under which such health professionals agree to conduct research, as employees of the National Institutes of Health, in consideration of the Federal Government agreeing to repay, for each year of such service, not more than $50,000 of the principal and interest of the educational loans of such health professionals.

(b) Subcategories of research

(1) In general

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Director of the National Institutes of Health—

(A) shall continue to focus on—

(i) general research;

(ii) research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome; and

(iii) clinical research conducted by appropriately qualified health professional 1 who are from disadvantaged backgrounds; and


(B) may focus on an area of emerging scientific or workforce need.

(2) Elimination or establishment of subcategories

The Director of the National Institutes of Health may eliminate one or more subcategories provided for in paragraph (1) due to changes in workforce or scientific needs related to biomedical research. The Director may establish other subcategory areas based on workforce and scientific priorities if the total number of subcategories does not exceed the number of subcategories listed in paragraph (1).

(c) Limitation

The Director of the National Institutes of Health may not enter into a contract with a health professional pursuant to subsection (a) unless such professional has a substantial amount of education loans relative to income (as determined pursuant to guidelines issued by the Director).

(d) Applicability of certain provisions

With respect to the National Health Service Corps Loan Repayment Program established in subpart III of part D of subchapter II, the provisions of such subpart shall, except as inconsistent with subsection (a) of this section, apply to the program established in such subsection (a) in the same manner and to the same extent as such provisions apply to the National Health Service Corps Loan Repayment Program established in such subpart.

(e) Availability of appropriations

Amounts available for carrying out this section shall remain available until the expiration of the second fiscal year beginning after the fiscal year for which such amounts are made available.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487A, as added Pub. L. 100–607, title VI, §634(a), Nov. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 3148; amended Pub. L. 103–43, title XVI, §1611(a), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 181; Pub. L. 105–392, title IV, §410(a), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3589; Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §103(b)(48), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3688; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title II, §2022(a), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1052.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(a)(1), amended section catchline generally. Prior to amendment, catchline read as follows: "Loan repayment program for research with respect to acquired immune deficiency syndrome".

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(a)(2), substituted "The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall, as appropriate and based on workforce and scientific priorities, carry out a program through the subcategories listed in subsection (b)(1) (or modified subcategories as provided for in subsection (b)(2))" for "The Secretary shall carry out a program", "conduct research" for "conduct", and "$50,000" for "$35,000", and struck out "research with respect to acquired immune deficiency syndrome" after "National Institutes of Health,".

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(a)(3), (4), added subsecs. (b) and (c) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(a)(5), added subsec. (e).

2007—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–482 struck out heading and text of subsec. (c). Text read as follows: "For the purpose of carrying out this section, there are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary for each of the fiscal years 1994 through 2001."

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–392, §410(a)(1), substituted "$35,000" for "$20,000".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–392, §410(a)(2), substituted "2001" for "1996".

1993Pub. L. 103–43 amended section generally, in subsec. (a) redesignating former par. (1) as entire subsec., striking out provisions setting a deadline for implementation of the program and former par. (2) containing a limitation that the health professional have a substantial amount of educational loans relative to income and not have been employed at the National Institutes of Health during the 1-year period preceding Nov. 4, 1988, reenacting subsec. (b) without change, and in subsec. (c) redesignating former par. (1) as entire subsec., substituting authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 1994 through 1996 for authorization of appropriations for fiscal years 1989 through 1991, and striking out former par. (2) relating to continued availability of appropriated amounts.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–482 applicable only with respect to amounts appropriated for fiscal year 2007 or subsequent fiscal years, see section 109 of Pub. L. 109–482, set out as a note under section 281 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–43, title XVI, §1611(b), June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 182, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] does not apply to any agreement entered into under section 487A of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 288–1] before the date of the enactment of this Act [June 10, 1993]. Each such agreement continues to be subject to the terms of the agreement in effect on the day before such date."

1 So in original. Probably should be "professionals".

§288–2. Extramural loan repayment program

(a) In general

The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall, as appropriate and based on workforce and scientific priorities, carry out a program through the subcategories listed in subsection (b)(1) (or modified subcategories as provided for in subsection (b)(2)), of entering into contracts with qualified health professionals under which such health professionals agree to conduct research in consideration of the Federal Government agreeing to repay, for each year of such research, not more than $50,000 of the principal and interest of the educational loans of such health professionals.

(b) Subcategories of research

(1) In general

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Director of the National Institutes of Health—

(A) shall continue to focus on—

(i) contraception or infertility research;

(ii) pediatric research, including pediatric pharmacological research;

(iii) minority health disparities research;

(iv) clinical research; and

(v) clinical research conducted by appropriately qualified health professional 1 who are from disadvantaged backgrounds; and


(B) may focus on an area of emerging scientific or workforce need.

(2) Elimination or establishment of subcategories

The Director of the National Institutes of Health may eliminate one or more subcategories provided for in paragraph (1) due to changes in workforce or scientific needs related to biomedical research. The Director may establish other subcategory areas based on workforce and scientific priorities if the total number of subcategories does not exceed the number of subcategories listed in paragraph (1).

(c) Limitation

The Director of the National Institutes of Health may not enter into a contract with a health professional pursuant to subsection (a) unless such professional has a substantial amount of education loans relative to income (as determined pursuant to guidelines issued by the Director).

(d) Applicability of certain provisions regarding obligated service

The provisions of sections 254l–1, 254m, and 254o of this title shall, except as inconsistent with subsection (a) of this section, apply to the program established in subsection (a) to the same extent and in the same manner as such provisions apply to the National Health Service Corps Loan Repayment Program established in subpart III of part D of subchapter II.

(e) Availability of appropriations

Amounts available for carrying out this section shall remain available until the expiration of the second fiscal year beginning after the fiscal year for which the amounts were made available.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487B, as added Pub. L. 103–43, title X, §1002, June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 166; amended Pub. L. 105–392, title IV, §410(b), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3589; Pub. L. 110–154, §1(b)(8), Dec. 21, 2007, 121 Stat. 1827; Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title II, §2022(b), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1053.)

Amendments

2016Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(b)(1), amended section catchline generally. Prior to amendment, catchline read as follows: "Loan repayment program for research with respect to contraception and infertility".

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(b)(2), inserted heading and, in text, substituted "The Director of the National Institutes of Health shall, as appropriate and based on workforce and scientific priorities, carry out a program through the subcategories listed in subsection (b)(1) (or modified subcategories as provided for in subsection (b)(2))," for "The Secretary, in consultation with the Director of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, shall establish a program" and "research, not more than $50,000" for "service, not more than $35,000" and struck out "(including graduate students)" after "qualified health professionals" and "with respect to contraception, or with respect to infertility," after "conduct research".

Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(b)(4), added subsecs. (b) and (c). Former subsecs. (b) and (c) redesignated (d) and (e), respectively.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 114–255, §2022(3), (5), redesignated subsec. (b) as (d) and inserted heading.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–255, §2002(3), (6), redesignated subsec. (c) as (e) and inserted heading.

2007—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 110–154, which directed substitution of "Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development" for "National Institute on Child Health and Human Development", was executed by making the substitution for "National Institute of Child Health and Human Development" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–392 substituted "$35,000" for "$20,000".

1 So in original. Probably should be "professionals".

§288–3. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title II, §2022(c)(2), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1054

Section, July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487C, as added Pub. L. 103–43, title XVI, §1621, June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 182; amended Pub. L. 105–392, title IV, §410(c), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3589, related to loan repayment program for research generally.

§288–4. Undergraduate scholarship program regarding professions needed by National Research Institutes

(a) Establishment of program

(1) In general

Subject to section 288(a)(1)(C) of this title, the Secretary, acting through the Director of NIH, may carry out a program of entering into contracts with individuals described in paragraph (2) under which—

(A) the Director of NIH agrees to provide to the individuals scholarships for pursuing, as undergraduates at accredited institutions of higher education, academic programs appropriate for careers in professions needed by the National Institutes of Health; and

(B) the individuals agree to serve as employees of the National Institutes of Health, for the period described in subsection (c), in positions that are needed by the National Institutes of Health and for which the individuals are qualified.

(2) Individuals from disadvantaged backgrounds

The individuals referred to in paragraph (1) are individuals who—

(A) are enrolled or accepted for enrollment as full-time undergraduates at accredited institutions of higher education; and

(B) are from disadvantaged backgrounds.

(b) Facilitation of interest of students in careers at National Institutes of Health

In providing employment to individuals pursuant to contracts under subsection (a)(1), the Director of NIH shall carry out activities to facilitate the interest of the individuals in pursuing careers as employees of the National Institutes of Health.

(c) Period of obligated service

(1) Duration of service

For purposes of subparagraph (B) of subsection (a)(1), the period of service for which an individual is obligated to serve as an employee of the National Institutes of Health is, subject to paragraph (2)(A), 12 months for each academic year for which the scholarship under such subsection is provided.

(2) Schedule for service

(A) Subject to subparagraph (B), the Director of NIH may not provide a scholarship under subsection (a) unless the individual applying for the scholarship agrees that—

(i) the individual will serve as an employee of the National Institutes of Health full-time for not less than 10 consecutive weeks of each year during which the individual is attending the educational institution involved and receiving such a scholarship;

(ii) the period of service as such an employee that the individual is obligated to provide under clause (i) is in addition to the period of service as such an employee that the individual is obligated to provide under subsection (a)(1)(B); and

(iii) not later than 60 days after obtaining the educational degree involved, the individual will begin serving full-time as such an employee in satisfaction of the period of service that the individual is obligated to provide under subsection (a)(1)(B).


(B) The Director of NIH may defer the obligation of an individual to provide a period of service under subsection (a)(1)(B), if the Director determines that such a deferral is appropriate.

(3) Applicability of certain provisions relating to appointment and compensation

For any period in which an individual provides service as an employee of the National Institutes of Health in satisfaction of the obligation of the individual under subsection (a)(1)(B) or paragraph (2)(A)(i), the individual may be appointed as such an employee without regard to the provisions of title 5 relating to appointment and compensation.

(d) Provisions regarding scholarship

(1) Approval of academic program

The Director of NIH may not provide a scholarship under subsection (a) for an academic year unless—

(A) the individual applying for the scholarship has submitted to the Director a proposed academic program for the year and the Director has approved the program; and

(B) the individual agrees that the program will not be altered without the approval of the Director.

(2) Academic standing

The Director of NIH may not provide a scholarship under subsection (a) for an academic year unless the individual applying for the scholarship agrees to maintain an acceptable level of academic standing, as determined by the educational institution involved in accordance with regulations issued by the Secretary.

(3) Limitation on amount

The Director of NIH may not provide a scholarship under subsection (a) for an academic year in an amount exceeding $20,000.

(4) Authorized uses

A scholarship provided under subsection (a) may be expended only for tuition expenses, other reasonable educational expenses, and reasonable living expenses incurred in attending the school involved.

(5) Contract regarding direct payments to institution

In the case of an institution of higher education with respect to which a scholarship under subsection (a) is provided, the Director of NIH may enter into a contract with the institution under which the amounts provided in the scholarship for tuition and other educational expenses are paid directly to the institution.

(e) Penalties for breach of scholarship contract

The provisions of section 254o of this title shall apply to the program established in subsection (a) to the same extent and in the same manner as such provisions apply to the National Health Service Corps Loan Repayment Program established in section 254l–1 of this title.

(f) Requirement of application

The Director of NIH may not provide a scholarship under subsection (a) unless an application for the scholarship is submitted to the Director and the application is in such form, is made in such manner, and contains such agreements, assurances, and information as the Director determines to be necessary to carry out this section.

(g) Availability of authorization of appropriations

Amounts appropriated for a fiscal year for scholarships under this section shall remain available until the expiration of the second fiscal year beginning after the fiscal year for which the amounts were appropriated.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487D, as added Pub. L. 103–43, title XVI, §1631, June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 183.)

§§288–5 to 288–6. Repealed. Pub. L. 114–255, div. A, title II, §2022(c)(3)–(5), Dec. 13, 2016, 130 Stat. 1054

Section 288–5, July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487E, as added Pub. L. 103–43, title XVI, §1631, June 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 185; amended Pub. L. 105–392, title IV, §410(d), Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3589; Pub. L. 106–554, §1(a)(1) [title II, §223], Dec. 21, 2000, 114 Stat. 2763, 2763A-30, related to loan repayment program regarding clinical researchers from disadvantaged backgrounds.

Section 288–5a, July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487F, as added Pub. L. 106–505, title II, §205, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2329; amended Pub. L. 109–482, title I, §103(b)(49), Jan. 15, 2007, 120 Stat. 3689, related to loan repayment program regarding clinical researchers. Another section 487F of act July 1, 1944, was classified to section 288–6 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–255.

Section 288–6, July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §487F, as added Pub. L. 106–310, div. A, title X, §1002(b), Oct. 17, 2000, 114 Stat. 1129; amended Pub. L. 110–85, title V, §503(b), Sept. 27, 2007, 121 Stat. 890, related to pediatric research loan repayment program. Another section 487F of act July 1, 1944, was classified to section 288–5a of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 114–255.

§288a. Visiting Scientist Awards

(a) The Secretary may make awards (hereafter in this section referred to as "Visiting Scientist Awards") to outstanding scientists who agree to serve as visiting scientists at institutions of postsecondary education which have significant enrollments of disadvantaged students. Visiting Scientist Awards shall be made by the Secretary to enable the faculty and students of such institutions to draw upon the special talents of scientists from other institutions for the purpose of receiving guidance, advice, and instruction with regard to research, teaching, and curriculum development in the biomedical and behavioral sciences and such other aspects of these sciences as the Secretary shall deem appropriate.

(b) The amount of each Visiting Scientist Award shall include such sum as shall be commensurate with the salary or remuneration which the individual receiving the award would have been entitled to receive from the institution with which the individual has, or had, a permanent or immediately prior affiliation. Eligibility for and terms of Visiting Scientist Awards shall be determined in accordance with regulations the Secretary shall prescribe.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §488, as added Pub. L. 99–158, §2, Nov. 20, 1985, 99 Stat. 872.)

§288b. Studies respecting biomedical and behavioral research personnel

(a) Scope of undertaking

The Secretary shall, in accordance with subsection (b), arrange for the conduct of a continuing study to—

(1) establish (A) the Nation's overall need for biomedical and behavioral research personnel, (B) the subject areas in which such personnel are needed and the number of such personnel needed in each such area, and (C) the kinds and extent of training which should be provided such personnel;

(2) assess (A) current training programs available for the training of biomedical and behavioral research personnel which are conducted under this chapter, at or through national research institutes under the National Institutes of Health, and (B) other current training programs available for the training of such personnel;

(3) identify the kinds of research positions available to and held by individuals completing such programs;

(4) determine, to the extent feasible, whether the programs referred to in clause (B) of paragraph (2) would be adequate to meet the needs established under paragraph (1) if the programs referred to in clause (A) of paragraph (2) were terminated; and

(5) determine what modifications in the programs referred to in paragraph (2) are required to meet the needs established under paragraph (1).

(b) Arrangement with National Academy of Sciences or other nonprofit private groups or associations

(1) The Secretary shall request the National Academy of Sciences to conduct the study required by subsection (a) under an arrangement under which the actual expenses incurred by such Academy in conducting such study will be paid by the Secretary. If the National Academy of Sciences is willing to do so, the Secretary shall enter into such an arrangement with such Academy for the conduct of such study.

(2) If the National Academy of Sciences is unwilling to conduct such study under such an arrangement, then the Secretary shall enter into a similar arrangement with other appropriate nonprofit private groups or associations under which such groups or associations will conduct such study and prepare and submit the reports thereon as provided in subsection (c).1

(3) The National Academy of Sciences or other group or association conducting the study required by subsection (a) shall conduct such study in consultation with the Director of NIH.

(July 1, 1944, ch. 373, title IV, §489, as added Pub. L. 99–158, §2, Nov. 20, 1985, 99 Stat. 872; amended Pub. L. 102–321, title I, §163(b)(5), July 10, 1992, 106 Stat. 376.)

References in Text

Subsection (c), referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was omitted from the Code. See Codification note below.

Codification

Subsec. (c) of this section, which required the Secretary to submit a report on results of the study required under subsec. (a) of this section to certain committees of Congress at least once every four years, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 96 of House Document No. 103–7.

Amendments

1992—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 102–321 struck out "and institutes under the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration" after "National Institutes of Health".

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–321 effective Oct. 1, 1992, with provision for programs providing financial assistance, see section 801(c), (d) of Pub. L. 102–321, set out as a note under section 236 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.