[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 7, SUBCHAPTER XVIII, Part D, subpart 1: part d eligible individuals and prescription drug benefits
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42 USC CHAPTER 7, SUBCHAPTER XVIII, Part D, subpart 1: part d eligible individuals and prescription drug benefits
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 7—SOCIAL SECURITYSUBCHAPTER XVIII—HEALTH INSURANCE FOR AGED AND DISABLEDPart D—Voluntary Prescription Drug Benefit Program

subpart 1—part d eligible individuals and prescription drug benefits

§1395w–101. Eligibility, enrollment, and information

(a) Provision of qualified prescription drug coverage through enrollment in plans

(1) In general

Subject to the succeeding provisions of this part, each part D eligible individual (as defined in paragraph (3)(A)) is entitled to obtain qualified prescription drug coverage (described in section 1395w–102(a) of this title) as follows:

(A) Fee-for-service enrollees may receive coverage through a prescription drug plan

A part D eligible individual who is not enrolled in an MA plan may obtain qualified prescription drug coverage through enrollment in a prescription drug plan (as defined in section 1395w–151(a)(14) of this title).

(B) Medicare Advantage enrollees

(i) Enrollees in a plan providing qualified prescription drug coverage receive coverage through the plan

A part D eligible individual who is enrolled in an MA–PD plan obtains such coverage through such plan.

(ii) Limitation on enrollment of MA plan enrollees in prescription drug plans

Except as provided in clauses (iii) and (iv), a part D eligible individual who is enrolled in an MA plan may not enroll in a prescription drug plan under this part.

(iii) Private fee-for-service enrollees in MA plans not providing qualified prescription drug coverage permitted to enroll in a prescription drug plan

A part D eligible individual who is enrolled in an MA private fee-for-service plan (as defined in section 1395w–28(b)(2) of this title) that does not provide qualified prescription drug coverage may obtain qualified prescription drug coverage through enrollment in a prescription drug plan.

(iv) Enrollees in MSA plans permitted to enroll in a prescription drug plan

A part D eligible individual who is enrolled in an MSA plan (as defined in section 1395w–28(b)(3) of this title) may obtain qualified prescription drug coverage through enrollment in a prescription drug plan.

(2) Coverage first effective January 1, 2006

Coverage under prescription drug plans and MA–PD plans shall first be effective on January 1, 2006.

(3) Definitions

For purposes of this part:

(A) Part D eligible individual

The term "part D eligible individual" means an individual who is entitled to benefits under part A or enrolled under part B.

(B) MA plan

The term "MA plan" has the meaning given such term in section 1395w–28(b)(1) of this title.

(C) MA–PD plan

The term "MA–PD plan" means an MA plan that provides qualified prescription drug coverage.

(b) Enrollment process for prescription drug plans

(1) Establishment of process

(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish a process for the enrollment, disenrollment, termination, and change of enrollment of part D eligible individuals in prescription drug plans consistent with this subsection.

(B) Application of MA rules

In establishing such process, the Secretary shall use rules similar to (and coordinated with) the rules for enrollment, disenrollment, termination, and change of enrollment with an MA–PD plan under the following provisions of section 1395w–21 of this title:

(i) Residence requirements

Section 1395w–21(b)(1)(A) of this title, relating to residence requirements.

(ii) Exercise of choice

Section 1395w–21(c) of this title (other than paragraph (3)(A) and paragraph (4) of such section), relating to exercise of choice.

(iii) Coverage election periods

Subject to paragraphs (2) and (3) of this subsection, section 1395w–21(e) of this title (other than subparagraphs (B), (C), (E), and (F) of paragraph (2) and the second sentence of paragraph (4) of such section), relating to coverage election periods, including initial periods, annual coordinated election periods, special election periods, and election periods for exceptional circumstances.

(iv) Coverage periods

Section 1395w–21(f) of this title, relating to effectiveness of elections and changes of elections.

(v) Guaranteed issue and renewal

Section 1395w–21(g) of this title (other than paragraph (2) of such section and clause (i) and the second sentence of clause (ii) of paragraph (3)(C) of such section), relating to guaranteed issue and renewal.

(vi) Marketing material and application forms

Section 1395w–21(h) of this title, relating to approval of marketing material and application forms.


In applying clauses (ii), (iv), and (v) of this subparagraph, any reference to section 1395w–21(e) of this title shall be treated as a reference to such section as applied pursuant to clause (iii) of this subparagraph.

(C) Special rule

The process established under subparagraph (A) shall include, except as provided in subparagraph (D), in the case of a part D eligible individual who is a full-benefit dual eligible individual (as defined in section 1396u–5(c)(6) of this title) who has failed to enroll in a prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan, for the enrollment in a prescription drug plan that has a monthly beneficiary premium that does not exceed the premium assistance available under section 1395w–114(a)(1)(A) of this title).1 If there is more than one such plan available, the Secretary shall enroll such an individual on a random basis among all such plans in the PDP region. Nothing in the previous sentence shall prevent such an individual from declining or changing such enrollment.

(D) Special rule for plans that waive de minimis premiums

The process established under subparagraph (A) may include, in the case of a part D eligible individual who is a subsidy eligible individual (as defined in section 1395w–114(a)(3) of this title) who has failed to enroll in a prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan, for the enrollment in a prescription drug plan or MA–PD plan that has waived the monthly beneficiary premium for such subsidy eligible individual under section 1395w–114(a)(5) of this title. If there is more than one such plan available, the Secretary shall enroll such an individual under the preceding sentence on a random basis among all such plans in the PDP region. Nothing in the previous sentence shall prevent such an individual from declining or changing such enrollment.

(2) Initial enrollment period

(A) Program initiation

In the case of an individual who is a part D eligible individual as of November 15, 2005, there shall be an initial enrollment period that shall be the same as the annual, coordinated open election period described in section 1395w–21(e)(3)(B)(iii) of this title, as applied under paragraph (1)(B)(iii).

(B) Continuing periods

In the case of an individual who becomes a part D eligible individual after November 15, 2005, there shall be an initial enrollment period which is the period under section 1395w–21(e)(1) of this title, as applied under paragraph (1)(B)(iii) of this section,2 as if "entitled to benefits under part A or enrolled under part B" were substituted for "entitled to benefits under part A and enrolled under part B", but in no case shall such period end before the period described in subparagraph (A).

(3) Additional special enrollment periods

The Secretary shall establish special enrollment periods, including the following:

(A) Involuntary loss of creditable prescription drug coverage

(i) In general

In the case of a part D eligible individual who involuntarily loses creditable prescription drug coverage (as defined in section 1395w–113(b)(4) of this title).

(ii) Notice

In establishing special enrollment periods under clause (i), the Secretary shall take into account when the part D eligible individuals are provided notice of the loss of creditable prescription drug coverage.

(iii) Failure to pay premium

For purposes of clause (i), a loss of coverage shall be treated as voluntary if the coverage is terminated because of failure to pay a required beneficiary premium.

(iv) Reduction in coverage

For purposes of clause (i), a reduction in coverage so that the coverage no longer meets the requirements under section 1395w–113(b)(5) of this title (relating to actuarial equivalence) shall be treated as an involuntary loss of coverage.

(B) Errors in enrollment

In the case described in section 1395p(h) of this title (relating to errors in enrollment), in the same manner as such section applies to part B.

(C) Exceptional circumstances

In the case of part D eligible individuals who meet such exceptional conditions (in addition to those conditions applied under paragraph (1)(B)(iii)) as the Secretary may provide.

(D) Medicaid coverage

In the case of an individual (as determined by the Secretary, subject to such limits as the Secretary may establish for individuals identified pursuant to section 1395w–104(c)(5) of this title) who is a full-benefit dual eligible individual (as defined in section 1396u–5(c)(6) of this title).

(E) Discontinuance of MA–PD election during first year of eligibility

In the case of a part D eligible individual who discontinues enrollment in an MA–PD plan under the second sentence of section 1395w–21(e)(4) of this title at the time of the election of coverage under such sentence under the original medicare fee-for-service program.

(4) Information to facilitate enrollment

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law but subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary may provide to each PDP sponsor and MA organization such identifying information about part D eligible individuals as the Secretary determines to be necessary to facilitate efficient marketing of prescription drug plans and MA–PD plans to such individuals and enrollment of such individuals in such plans.

(B) Limitation

(i) Provision of information

The Secretary may provide the information under subparagraph (A) only to the extent necessary to carry out such subparagraph.

(ii) Use of information

Such information provided by the Secretary to a PDP sponsor or an MA organization may be used by such sponsor or organization only to facilitate marketing of, and enrollment of part D eligible individuals in, prescription drug plans and MA–PD plans.

(5) Reference to enrollment procedures for MA–PD plans

For rules applicable to enrollment, disenrollment, termination, and change of enrollment of part D eligible individuals in MA–PD plans, see section 1395w–21 of this title.

(6) Reference to penalties for late enrollment

Section 1395w–113(b) of this title imposes a late enrollment penalty for part D eligible individuals who—

(A) enroll in a prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan after the initial enrollment period described in paragraph (2); and

(B) fail to maintain continuous creditable prescription drug coverage during the period of non-enrollment.

(c) Providing information to beneficiaries

(1) Activities

The Secretary shall conduct activities that are designed to broadly disseminate information to part D eligible individuals (and prospective part D eligible individuals) regarding the coverage provided under this part. Such activities shall ensure that such information is first made available at least 30 days prior to the initial enrollment period described in subsection (b)(2)(A).

(2) Requirements

The activities described in paragraph (1) shall—

(A) be similar to the activities performed by the Secretary under section 1395w–21(d) of this title, including dissemination (including through the toll-free telephone number 1–800–MEDICARE) of comparative information for prescription drug plans and MA–PD plans; and

(B) be coordinated with the activities performed by the Secretary under such section and under section 1395b–2 of this title.

(3) Comparative information

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the comparative information referred to in paragraph (2)(A) shall include a comparison of the following with respect to qualified prescription drug coverage:

(i) Benefits

The benefits provided under the plan.

(ii) Monthly beneficiary premium

The monthly beneficiary premium under the plan.

(iii) Quality and performance

The quality and performance under the plan.

(iv) Beneficiary cost-sharing

The cost-sharing required of part D eligible individuals under the plan.

(v) Consumer satisfaction surveys

The results of consumer satisfaction surveys regarding the plan conducted pursuant to section 1395w–104(d) of this title.

(B) Exception for unavailability of information

The Secretary is not required to provide comparative information under clauses (iii) and (v) of subparagraph (A) with respect to a plan—

(i) for the first plan year in which it is offered; and

(ii) for the next plan year if it is impracticable or the information is otherwise unavailable.

(4) Information on late enrollment penalty

The information disseminated under paragraph (1) shall include information concerning the methodology for determining the late enrollment penalty under section 1395w–113(b) of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XVIII, §1860D–1, as added Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(a)(2), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2071; amended Pub. L. 109–432, div. B, title II, §206(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2990; Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3303(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 469; Pub. L. 114–10, title II, §209(b)(2)(B)(ii), Apr. 16, 2015, 129 Stat. 149; Pub. L. 114–198, title VII, §704(a)(3), July 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 748.)

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 114–198 inserted ", subject to such limits as the Secretary may establish for individuals identified pursuant to section 1395w–104(c)(5) of this title" after "the Secretary".

2015—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 114–10, §209(b)(2)(B)(ii)(I), inserted "and paragraph (4)" after "paragraph (3)(A)".

Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 114–10, §209(b)(2)(B)(ii)(II), substituted "(E), and (F)" for "and (E)".

2010—Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 111–148, §3303(b)(1), inserted "except as provided in subparagraph (D)," after "shall include,".

Subsec. (b)(1)(D). Pub. L. 111–148, §3303(b)(2), added subpar. (D).

2006—Subsec. (b)(1)(B)(iii). Pub. L. 109–432 substituted "subparagraphs (B), (C), and (E)" for "subparagraphs (B) and (C)".

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–198, title VII, §704(g)(1), July 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 751, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1395w–104, 1395w–152, 1395ddd, and 1395iii of this title] shall apply to prescription drug plans (and MA–PD plans) for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2019."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3303(c), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 469, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [probably should be "this section", amending this section and section 1395w–114 of this title] shall apply to premiums for months, and enrollments for plan years, beginning on or after January 1, 2011."

Regulations

Pub. L. 114–198, title VII, §704(g)(2), (3), July 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 751, 752, provided that:

"(2) Stakeholder meetings prior to effective date.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than January 1, 2017, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall convene stakeholders, including individuals entitled to benefits under part A of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq.] or enrolled under part B of such title [42 U.S.C. 1395j et seq.], advocacy groups representing such individuals, physicians, pharmacists, and other clinicians, retail pharmacies, plan sponsors, entities delegated by plan sponsors, and biopharmaceutical manufacturers for input regarding the topics described in subparagraph (B). The input described in the preceding sentence shall be provided to the Secretary in sufficient time in order for the Secretary to take such input into account in promulgating the regulations pursuant to paragraph (3).

"(B) Topics described.—The topics described in this subparagraph are the topics of—

"(i) the anticipated impact of drug management programs for at-risk beneficiaries under paragraph (5) of section 1860D–4(c) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–104(c)) on cost-sharing and ensuring accessibility to prescription drugs for enrollees in prescription drug plans of PDP sponsors, and enrollees in MA–PD plans, who are at-risk beneficiaries for prescription drug abuse (as defined in subparagraph (C) of such paragraph);

"(ii) the use of an expedited appeals process under which such an enrollee may appeal an identification of such enrollee as an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse under such paragraph (similar to the processes established under the Medicare Advantage program under part C of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–21 et seq.] that allow an automatic escalation to external review of claims submitted under such part);

"(iii) the types of enrollees that should be treated as exempted individuals, as described in subparagraph (C)(ii) of such paragraph;

"(iv) the manner in which terms and definitions in such paragraph should be applied, such as the use of clinical appropriateness in determining whether an enrollee is an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse as defined in subparagraph (C) of such paragraph;

"(v) the information to be included in the notices described in subparagraph (B) of such paragraph and the standardization of such notices;

"(vi) with respect to a PDP sponsor (or Medicare Advantage organization) that establishes a drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries under such paragraph, the responsibilities of such PDP sponsor (or organization) with respect to the implementation of such program;

"(vii) notices for plan enrollees at the point of sale that would explain why an at-risk beneficiary has been prohibited from receiving a prescription at a location outside of the designated pharmacy;

"(viii) evidence-based prescribing guidelines for opiates; and

"(ix) the sharing of claims data under parts A and B of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395c et seq., 1395j et seq.] with PDP sponsors.

"(3) Rulemaking.—Not later than one year after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 22, 2016], the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall, taking into account the input gathered pursuant to paragraph (2)(A) and after providing notice and an opportunity to comment, promulgate regulations to carry out the provisions of, and amendments made by[,] this section [amending this section and sections 1395w–104, 1395w–152, 1395ddd, and 1395iii of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note above]."

Office of the Inspector General Studies and Reports

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3313, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 477, provided that:

"(a) Study and Annual Report on Part D Formularies' Inclusion of Drugs Commonly Used by Dual Eligibles.—

"(1) Study.—The Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services shall conduct a study of the extent to which formularies used by prescription drug plans and MA–PD plans under part D [42 U.S.C. 1395w–101 et seq.] include drugs commonly used by full-benefit dual eligible individuals (as defined in section 1935(c)(6) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396u–5(c)(6))).

"(2) Annual reports.—Not later than July 1 of each year (beginning with 2011), the Inspector General shall submit to Congress a report on the study conducted under paragraph (1), together with such recommendations as the Inspector General determines appropriate.

"(b) Study and Report on Prescription Drug Prices Under Medicare Part D and Medicaid.—

"(1) Study.—

"(A) In general.—The Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services shall conduct a study on prices for covered part D drugs under the Medicare prescription drug program under part D of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–101 et seq.] and for covered outpatient drugs under title XIX [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.]. Such study shall include the following:

"(i) A comparison, with respect to the 200 most frequently dispensed covered part D drugs under such program and covered outpatient drugs under such title (as determined by the Inspector General based on volume and expenditures), of—

     "(I) the prices paid for covered part D drugs by PDP sponsors of prescription drug plans and Medicare Advantage organizations offering MA–PD plans; and

     "(II) the prices paid for covered outpatient drugs by a State plan under title XIX.

"(ii) An assessment of—

     "(I) the financial impact of any discrepancies in such prices on the Federal Government; and

     "(II) the financial impact of any such discrepancies on enrollees under part D or individuals eligible for medical assistance under a State plan under title XIX.

"(B) Price.—For purposes of subparagraph (A), the price of a covered part D drug or a covered outpatient drug shall include any rebate or discount under such program or such title, respectively, including any negotiated price concession described in section 1860D–2(d)(1)(B) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–102(d)(1)(B)) or rebate under an agreement under section 1927 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1396r–8).

"(C) Authority to collect any necessary information.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services shall be able to collect any information related to the prices of covered part D drugs under such program and covered outpatient drugs under such title XIX necessary to carry out the comparison under subparagraph (A).

"(2) Report.—

"(A) In general.—Not later than October 1, 2011, subject to subparagraph (B), the Inspector General shall submit to Congress a report containing the results of the study conducted under paragraph (1), together with recommendations for such legislation and administrative action as the Inspector General determines appropriate.

"(B) Limitation on information contained in report.—The report submitted under subparagraph (A) shall not include any information that the Inspector General determines is proprietary or is likely to negatively impact the ability of a PDP sponsor or a State plan under title XIX [42 U.S.C. 1396 et seq.] to negotiate prices for covered part D drugs or covered outpatient drugs, respectively.

"(3) Definitions.—In this section:

"(A) Covered part d drug.—The term 'covered part D drug' has the meaning given such term in section 1860D–2(e) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–102(e)).

"(B) Covered outpatient drug.—The term 'covered outpatient drug' has the meaning given such term in section 1927(k) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1396r[–8](k)).

"(C) MA–PD plan.—The term 'MA–PD plan' has the meaning given such term in section 1860D–41(a)(9) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–151(a)(9)).

"(D) Medicare advantage organization.—The term 'Medicare Advantage organization' has the meaning given such term in section 1859(a)(1) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–28)[sic](a)(1)).

"(E) PDP sponsor.—The term 'PDP sponsor' has the meaning given such term in section 1860D–41(a)(13) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–151(a)(13)).

"(F) Prescription drug plan.—The term 'prescription drug plan' has the meaning given such term in section 1860D–41(a)(14) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–151(a)(14))."

Submission of Legislative Proposal

Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(b), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2150, provided that: "Not later than 6 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 2003], the Secretary [of Health and Human Services] shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a legislative proposal providing for such technical and conforming amendments in the law as are required by the provisions of this title and title II [see Tables for classification]."

Study on Transitioning Part B Prescription Drug Coverage

Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(c), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2150, provided that: "Not later than January 1, 2005, the Secretary [of Health and Human Services] shall submit a report to Congress that makes recommendations regarding methods for providing benefits under subpart 1 of part D of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–101 et seq.] for outpatient prescription drugs for which benefits are provided under part B of such title [42 U.S.C. 1395j et seq.]."

Report on Progress in Implementation of Prescription Drug Benefit

Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(d), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2150, provided that: "Not later than March 1, 2005, the Secretary [of Health and Human Services] shall submit a report to Congress on the progress that has been made in implementing the prescription drug benefit under this title [see Tables for classification]. The Secretary shall include in the report specific steps that have been taken, and that need to be taken, to ensure a timely start of the program on January 1, 2006. The report shall include recommendations regarding an appropriate transition from the program under section 1860D–31 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–141] to prescription drug benefits under subpart 1 of part D of title XVIII of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–101 et seq.]."

State Pharmaceutical Assistance Transition Commission

Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §106, Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2168, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—

"(1) In general.—There is established, as of the first day of the third month beginning after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 2003], a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Transition Commission (in this section referred to as the 'Commission') to develop a proposal for addressing the unique transitional issues facing State pharmaceutical assistance programs, and program participants, due to the implementation of the voluntary prescription drug benefit program under part D of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–101 et seq.], as added by section 101.

"(2) Definitions.—For purposes of this section:

"(A) State pharmaceutical assistance program defined.—The term 'State pharmaceutical assistance program' means a program (other than the medicaid program) operated by a State (or under contract with a State) that provides as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 2003] financial assistance to medicare beneficiaries for the purchase of prescription drugs.

"(B) Program participant.—The term 'program participant' means a low-income medicare beneficiary who is a participant in a State pharmaceutical assistance program.

"(b) Composition.—The Commission shall include the following:

"(1) A representative of each Governor of each State that the Secretary [of Health and Human Services] identifies as operating on a statewide basis a State pharmaceutical assistance program that provides for eligibility and benefits that are comparable or more generous than the low-income assistance eligibility and benefits offered under section 1860D–14 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–114].

"(2) Representatives from other States that the Secretary identifies have in operation other State pharmaceutical assistance programs, as appointed by the Secretary.

"(3) Representatives of organizations that have an inherent interest in program participants or the program itself, as appointed by the Secretary but not to exceed the number of representatives under paragraphs (1) and (2).

"(4) Representatives of Medicare Advantage organizations, pharmaceutical benefit managers, and other private health insurance plans, as appointed by the Secretary.

"(5) The Secretary (or the Secretary's designee) and such other members as the Secretary may specify.

The Secretary shall designate a member to serve as Chair of the Commission and the Commission shall meet at the call of the Chair.

"(c) Development of Proposal.—The Commission shall develop the proposal described in subsection (a) in a manner consistent with the following principles:

"(1) Protection of the interests of program participants in a manner that is the least disruptive to such participants and that includes a single point of contact for enrollment and processing of benefits.

"(2) Protection of the financial and flexibility interests of States so that States are not financially worse off as a result of the enactment of this title [see Tables for classification].

"(3) Principles of medicare modernization under this Act [see Tables for classification].

"(d) Report.—By not later than January 1, 2005, the Commission shall submit to the President and Congress a report that contains a detailed proposal (including specific legislative or administrative recommendations, if any) and such other recommendations as the Commission deems appropriate.

"(e) Support.—The Secretary shall provide the Commission with the administrative support services necessary for the Commission to carry out its responsibilities under this section.

"(f) Termination.—The Commission shall terminate 30 days after the date of submission of the report under subsection (d)."

Conflict of Interest Study

Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §110, Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2174, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Federal Trade Commission shall conduct a study of differences in payment amounts for pharmacy services provided to enrollees in group health plans that utilize pharmacy benefit managers. Such study shall include the following:

"(1) An assessment of the differences in costs incurred by such enrollees and plans for prescription drugs dispensed by mail-order pharmacies owned by pharmaceutical benefit managers compared to mail-order pharmacies not owned by pharmaceutical benefit managers, and community pharmacies.

"(2) Whether such plans are acting in a manner that maximizes competition and results in lower prescription drug prices for enrollees.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 8, 2003], the Commission shall submit to Congress a report on the study conducted under subsection (a). Such report shall include recommendations regarding any need for legislation to ensure the fiscal integrity of the voluntary prescription drug benefit program under part D of title XVIII [42 U.S.C. 1395w–101 et seq.], as added by section 101, that may be appropriated as the result of such study.

"(c) Exemption From Paperwork Reduction Act.—Chapter 35 of title 44, United States Code, shall not apply to the collection of information under subsection (a)."

1 So in original. The closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Probably should be "of this subsection,".

§1395w–102. Prescription drug benefits

(a) Requirements

(1) In general

For purposes of this part and part C, the term "qualified prescription drug coverage" means either of the following:

(A) Standard prescription drug coverage with access to negotiated prices

Standard prescription drug coverage (as defined in subsection (b)) and access to negotiated prices under subsection (d).

(B) Alternative prescription drug coverage with at least actuarially equivalent benefits and access to negotiated prices

Coverage of covered part D drugs which meets the alternative prescription drug coverage requirements of subsection (c) and access to negotiated prices under subsection (d), but only if the benefit design of such coverage is approved by the Secretary, as provided under subsection (c).

(2) Permitting supplemental prescription drug coverage

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), qualified prescription drug coverage may include supplemental prescription drug coverage consisting of either or both of the following:

(i) Certain reductions in cost-sharing

(I) In general

A reduction in the annual deductible, a reduction in the coinsurance percentage, or an increase in the initial coverage limit with respect to covered part D drugs, or any combination thereof, insofar as such a reduction or increase increases the actuarial value of benefits above the actuarial value of basic prescription drug coverage.

(II) Construction

Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as affecting the application of subsection (c)(3).

(ii) Optional drugs

Coverage of any product that would be a covered part D drug but for the application of subsection (e)(2)(A).

(B) Requirement

A PDP sponsor may not offer a prescription drug plan that provides supplemental prescription drug coverage pursuant to subparagraph (A) in an area unless the sponsor also offers a prescription drug plan in the area that only provides basic prescription drug coverage.

(3) Basic prescription drug coverage

For purposes of this part and part C, the term "basic prescription drug coverage" means either of the following:

(A) Coverage that meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(A).

(B) Coverage that meets the requirements of paragraph (1)(B) but does not have any supplemental prescription drug coverage described in paragraph (2)(A).

(4) Application of secondary payor provisions

The provisions of section 1395w–22(a)(4) of this title shall apply under this part in the same manner as they apply under part C.

(5) Construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed as changing the computation of incurred costs under subsection (b)(4).

(b) Standard prescription drug coverage

For purposes of this part and part C, the term "standard prescription drug coverage" means coverage of covered part D drugs that meets the following requirements:

(1) Deductible

(A) In general

The coverage has an annual deductible—

(i) for 2006, that is equal to $250; or

(ii) for a subsequent year, that is equal to the amount specified under this paragraph for the previous year increased by the percentage specified in paragraph (6) for the year involved.

(B) Rounding

Any amount determined under subparagraph (A)(ii) that is not a multiple of $5 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $5.

(2) Benefit structure

(A) 25 percent coinsurance

Subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), the coverage has coinsurance (for costs above the annual deductible specified in paragraph (1) and up to the initial coverage limit under paragraph (3)) that is—

(i) equal to 25 percent; or

(ii) actuarially equivalent (using processes and methods established under section 1395w–111(c) of this title) to an average expected payment of 25 percent of such costs.

(B) Use of tiers

Nothing in this part shall be construed as preventing a PDP sponsor or an MA organization from applying tiered copayments under a plan, so long as such tiered copayments are consistent with subparagraphs (A)(ii), (C), and (D).

(C) Coverage for generic drugs in coverage gap

(i) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (4), the coverage for an applicable beneficiary (as defined in section 1395w–114a(g)(1) of this title) has coinsurance (for costs above the initial coverage limit under paragraph (3) and below the out-of-pocket threshold) for covered part D drugs that are not applicable drugs under section 1395w–114a(g)(2) of this title that is—

(I) equal to the generic-gap coinsurance percentage (specified in clause (ii)) for the year; or

(II) actuarially equivalent (using processes and methods established under section 1395w–111(c) of this title) to an average expected payment of such percentage of such costs for covered part D drugs that are not applicable drugs under section 1395w–114a(g)(2) of this title.

(ii) Generic-gap coinsurance percentage

The generic-gap coinsurance percentage specified in this clause for—

(I) 2011 is 93 percent;

(II) 2012 and each succeeding year before 2020 is the generic-gap coinsurance percentage under this clause for the previous year decreased by 7 percentage points; and

(III) 2020 and each subsequent year is 25 percent.

(D) Coverage for applicable drugs in coverage gap

(i) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (4), the coverage for an applicable beneficiary (as defined in section 1395w–114a(g)(1) of this title) has coinsurance (for costs above the initial coverage limit under paragraph (3) and below the out-of-pocket threshold) for the negotiated price (as defined in section 1395w–114a(g)(6) of this title) of covered part D drugs that are applicable drugs under section 1395w–114a(g)(2) of this title that is—

(I) equal to the difference between—

(aa) the applicable gap percentage (specified in clause (ii) for the year); and

(bb) the discount percentage specified in section 1395w–114a(g)(4)(A) of this title for such applicable drugs (or, in the case of a year after 2018, 50 percent); or


(II) actuarially equivalent (using processes and methods established under section 1395w–111(c) of this title) to an average expected payment of such percentage of such costs, for covered part D drugs that are applicable drugs under section 1395w–114a(g)(2) of this title.

(ii) Applicable gap percentage

The applicable gap percentage specified in this clause for—

(I) 2013 and 2014 is 97.5 percent;

(II) 2015 and 2016 is 95 percent;

(III) 2017 is 90 percent;

(IV) 2018 is 85 percent; and

(V) 2019 and each subsequent year is 75 percent.

(3) Initial coverage limit

(A) In general

Except as provided in paragraphs (2)(C), (2)(D), and (4), the coverage has an initial coverage limit on the maximum costs that may be recognized for payment purposes (including the annual deductible)—

(i) for 2006, that is equal to $2,250; or

(ii) for a subsequent year, that is equal to the amount specified in this paragraph for the previous year, increased by the annual percentage increase described in paragraph (6) for the year involved.

(B) Rounding

Any amount determined under subparagraph (A)(ii) that is not a multiple of $10 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $10.

(4) Protection against high out-of-pocket expenditures

(A) In general

(i) In general

The coverage provides benefits, after the part D eligible individual has incurred costs (as described in subparagraph (C)) for covered part D drugs in a year equal to the annual out-of-pocket threshold specified in subparagraph (B), with cost-sharing that is equal to the greater of—

(I) a copayment of $2 for a generic drug or a preferred drug that is a multiple source drug (as defined in section 1396r–8(k)(7)(A)(i) of this title) and $5 for any other drug; or

(II) coinsurance that is equal to 5 percent.

(ii) Adjustment of amount

For a year after 2006, the dollar amounts specified in clause (i)(I) shall be equal to the dollar amounts specified in this subparagraph for the previous year, increased by the annual percentage increase described in paragraph (6) for the year involved. Any amount established under this clause that is not a multiple of a 5 cents shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of 5 cents.

(B) Annual out-of-pocket threshold

(i) In general

For purposes of this part, the "annual out-of-pocket threshold" specified in this subparagraph—

(I) for 2006, is equal to $3,600;

(II) for each of years 2007 through 2013, is equal to the amount specified in this subparagraph for the previous year, increased by the annual percentage increase described in paragraph (6) for the year involved;

(III) for 2014 and 2015, is equal to the amount specified in this subparagraph for the previous year, increased by the annual percentage increase described in paragraph (6) for the year involved, minus 0.25 percentage point;

(IV) for each of years 2016 through 2019, is equal to the amount specified in this subparagraph for the previous year, increased by the lesser of—

(aa) the annual percentage increase described in paragraph (7) for the year involved, plus 2 percentage points; or

(bb) the annual percentage increase described in paragraph (6) for the year;


(V) for 2020, is equal to the amount that would have been applied under this subparagraph for 2020 if the amendments made by section 1101(d)(1) of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010 had not been enacted; or

(VI) for a subsequent year, is equal to the amount specified in this subparagraph for the previous year, increased by the annual percentage increase described in paragraph (6) for the year involved.

(ii) Rounding

Any amount determined under clause (i)(II) that is not a multiple of $50 shall be rounded to the nearest multiple of $50.

(C) Application

Except as provided in subparagraph (E), in applying subparagraph (A)—

(i) incurred costs shall only include costs incurred with respect to covered part D drugs for the annual deductible described in paragraph (1), for cost-sharing described in paragraph (2), and for amounts for which benefits are not provided because of the application of the initial coverage limit described in paragraph (3), but does not include any costs incurred for covered part D drugs which are not included (or treated as being included) in the plan's formulary;

(ii) subject to clause (iii), such costs shall be treated as incurred only if they are paid by the part D eligible individual (or by another person, such as a family member, on behalf of the individual) and the part D eligible individual (or other person) is not reimbursed through insurance or otherwise, a group health plan, or other third-party payment arrangement (other than under such section or such a Program) for such costs; and

(iii) such costs shall be treated as incurred and shall not be considered to be reimbursed under clause (ii) if such costs are borne or paid—

(I) under section 1395w–114 of this title;

(II) under a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Program;

(III) by the Indian Health Service, an Indian tribe or tribal organization, or an urban Indian organization (as defined in section 1603 of title 25); or

(IV) under an AIDS Drug Assistance Program under part B of title XXVI of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 300ff–21 et seq.].

(D) Information regarding third-party reimbursement

(i) Procedures for exchanging information

In order to accurately apply the requirements of subparagraph (C)(ii), the Secretary is authorized to establish procedures, in coordination with the Secretary of the Treasury and the Secretary of Labor—

(I) for determining whether costs for part D eligible individuals are being reimbursed through insurance or otherwise, a group health plan, or other third-party payment arrangement; and

(II) for alerting the PDP sponsors and MA organizations that offer the prescription drug plans and MA–PD plans in which such individuals are enrolled about such reimbursement arrangements.

(ii) Authority to request information from enrollees

A PDP sponsor or an MA organization may periodically ask part D eligible individuals enrolled in a prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan offered by the sponsor or organization whether such individuals have or expect to receive such third-party reimbursement. A material misrepresentation of the information described in the preceding sentence by an individual (as defined in standards set by the Secretary and determined through a process established by the Secretary) shall constitute grounds for termination of enrollment in any plan under section 1395w–21(g)(3)(B) of this title (and as applied under this part under section 1395w–101(b)(1)(B)(v) of this title) for a period specified by the Secretary.

(E) Inclusion of costs of applicable drugs under medicare coverage gap discount program

In applying subparagraph (A), incurred costs shall include the negotiated price (as defined in paragraph (6) of section 1395w–114a(g) of this title) of an applicable drug (as defined in paragraph (2) of such section) of a manufacturer that is furnished to an applicable beneficiary (as defined in paragraph (1) of such section) under the Medicare coverage gap discount program under section 1395w–114a of this title, regardless of whether part of such costs were paid by a manufacturer under such program, except that incurred costs shall not include the portion of the negotiated price that represents the reduction in coinsurance resulting from the application of paragraph (2)(D).

(5) Construction

Nothing in this part shall be construed as preventing a PDP sponsor or an MA organization offering an MA–PD plan from reducing to zero the cost-sharing otherwise applicable to preferred or generic drugs.

(6) Annual percentage increase

The annual percentage increase specified in this paragraph for a year is equal to the annual percentage increase in average per capita aggregate expenditures for covered part D drugs in the United States for part D eligible individuals, as determined by the Secretary for the 12-month period ending in July of the previous year using such methods as the Secretary shall specify.

(7) Additional annual percentage increase

The annual percentage increase specified in this paragraph for a year is equal to the annual percentage increase in the consumer price index for all urban consumers (United States city average) for the 12-month period ending in July of the previous year.

(c) Alternative prescription drug coverage requirements

A prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan may provide a different prescription drug benefit design from standard prescription drug coverage so long as the Secretary determines (consistent with section 1395w–111(c) of this title) that the following requirements are met and the plan applies for, and receives, the approval of the Secretary for such benefit design:

(1) Assuring at least actuarially equivalent coverage

(A) Assuring equivalent value of total coverage

The actuarial value of the total coverage is at least equal to the actuarial value of standard prescription drug coverage.

(B) Assuring equivalent unsubsidized value of coverage

The unsubsidized value of the coverage is at least equal to the unsubsidized value of standard prescription drug coverage. For purposes of this subparagraph, the unsubsidized value of coverage is the amount by which the actuarial value of the coverage exceeds the actuarial value of the subsidy payments under section 1395w–115 of this title with respect to such coverage.

(C) Assuring standard payment for costs at initial coverage limit

The coverage is designed, based upon an actuarially representative pattern of utilization, to provide for the payment, with respect to costs incurred that are equal to the initial coverage limit under subsection (b)(3) for the year, of an amount equal to at least the product of—

(i) the amount by which the initial coverage limit described in subsection (b)(3) for the year exceeds the deductible described in subsection (b)(1) for the year; and

(ii) 100 percent minus the coinsurance percentage specified in subsection (b)(2)(A)(i).

(2) Maximum required deductible

The deductible under the coverage shall not exceed the deductible amount specified under subsection (b)(1) for the year.

(3) Same protection against high out-of-pocket expenditures

The coverage provides the coverage required under subsection (b)(4).

(d) Access to negotiated prices

(1) Access

(A) In general

Under qualified prescription drug coverage offered by a PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan or an MA organization offering an MA–PD plan, the sponsor or organization shall provide enrollees with access to negotiated prices used for payment for covered part D drugs, regardless of the fact that no benefits may be payable under the coverage with respect to such drugs because of the application of a deductible or other cost-sharing or an initial coverage limit (described in subsection (b)(3)).

(B) Negotiated prices

For purposes of this part, negotiated prices shall take into account negotiated price concessions, such as discounts, direct or indirect subsidies, rebates, and direct or indirect remunerations, for covered part D drugs, and include any dispensing fees for such drugs.

(C) Medicaid-related provisions

The prices negotiated by a prescription drug plan, by an MA–PD plan with respect to covered part D drugs, or by a qualified retiree prescription drug plan (as defined in section 1395w–132(a)(2) of this title) with respect to such drugs on behalf of part D eligible individuals, shall (notwithstanding any other provision of law) not be taken into account for the purposes of establishing the best price under section 1396r–8(c)(1)(C) of this title.

(2) Disclosure

A PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan or an MA organization offering an MA–PD plan shall disclose to the Secretary (in a manner specified by the Secretary) the aggregate negotiated price concessions described in paragraph (1)(B) made available to the sponsor or organization by a manufacturer which are passed through in the form of lower subsidies, lower monthly beneficiary prescription drug premiums, and lower prices through pharmacies and other dispensers. The provisions of section 1396r–8(b)(3)(D) of this title apply to information disclosed to the Secretary under this paragraph.

(3) Audits

To protect against fraud and abuse and to ensure proper disclosures and accounting under this part and in accordance with section 1395w–27(d)(2)(B) of this title (as applied under section 1395w–112(b)(3)(C) of this title), the Secretary may conduct periodic audits, directly or through contracts, of the financial statements and records of PDP sponsors with respect to prescription drug plans and MA organizations with respect to MA–PD plans.

(e) Covered part D drug defined

(1) In general

Except as provided in this subsection, for purposes of this part, the term "covered part D drug" means—

(A) a drug that may be dispensed only upon a prescription and that is described in subparagraph (A)(i), (A)(ii), or (A)(iii) of section 1396r–8(k)(2) of this title; or

(B) a biological product described in clauses (i) through (iii) of subparagraph (B) of such section or insulin described in subparagraph (C) of such section and medical supplies associated with the injection of insulin (as defined in regulations of the Secretary),


and such term includes a vaccine licensed under section 262 of this title (and, for vaccines administered on or after January 1, 2008, its administration) and any use of a covered part D drug for a medically accepted indication (as defined in paragraph (4)).

(2) Exclusions

(A) In general

Such term does not include drugs or classes of drugs, or their medical uses, which may be excluded from coverage or otherwise restricted under section 1396r–8(d)(2) of this title, other than subparagraph (E) of such section (relating to smoking cessation agents), other than subparagraph (I) of such section (relating to barbiturates) if the barbiturate is used in the treatment of epilepsy, cancer, or a chronic mental health disorder, and other than subparagraph (J) of such section (relating to benzodiazepines), or under section 1396r–8(d)(3) of this title, as such sections were in effect on December 8, 2003. Such term also does not include a drug when used for the treatment of sexual or erectile dysfunction, unless such drug were used to treat a condition, other than sexual or erectile dysfunction, for which the drug has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration.

(B) Medicare covered drugs

A drug prescribed for a part D eligible individual that would otherwise be a covered part D drug under this part shall not be so considered if payment for such drug as so prescribed and dispensed or administered with respect to that individual is available (or would be available but for the application of a deductible) under part A or B for that individual.

(3) Application of general exclusion provisions

A prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan may exclude from qualified prescription drug coverage any covered part D drug—

(A) for which payment would not be made if section 1395y(a) of this title applied to this part; or

(B) which is not prescribed in accordance with the plan or this part.


Such exclusions are determinations subject to reconsideration and appeal pursuant to subsections (g) and (h), respectively, of section 1395w–104 of this title.

(4) Medically accepted indication defined

(A) In general

For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "medically accepted indication" has the meaning given that term—

(i) in the case of a covered part D drug used in an anticancer chemotherapeutic regimen, in section 1395x(t)(2)(B) of this title, except that in applying such section—

(I) "prescription drug plan or MA–PD plan" shall be substituted for "carrier" each place it appears; and

(II) subject to subparagraph (B), the compendia described in section 1396r–8(g)(1)(B)(i)(III) of this title shall be included in the list of compendia described in clause (ii)(I) section 1395x(t)(2)(B) of this title; and


(ii) in the case of any other covered part D drug, in section 1396r–8(k)(6) of this title.

(B) Conflict of interest

On and after January 1, 2010, subparagraph (A)(i)(II) shall not apply unless the compendia described in section 1396r–8(g)(1)(B)(i)(III) of this title meets 1 the requirement in the third sentence of section 1395x(t)(2)(B) of this title.

(C) Update

For purposes of applying subparagraph (A)(ii), the Secretary shall revise the list of compendia described in section 1396r–8(g)(1)(B)(i) of this title as is appropriate for identifying medically accepted indications for drugs. Any such revision shall be done in a manner consistent with the process for revising compendia under section 1395x(t)(2)(B) of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XVIII, §1860D–2, as added Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(a)(2), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2075; amended Pub. L. 109–91, title I, §103(a), Oct. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 2092; Pub. L. 109–432, div. B, title II, §202(b), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2986; Pub. L. 110–275, title I, §§175(a), 182(a)(1), July 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 2581, 2583; Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §§3301(c)(1), 3314(a), 3315, Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 467, 478, 479; Pub. L. 111–152, title I, §1101(a)(2), (b)(3), (d), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1037–1039; Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title XII, §53116(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 306.)

References in Text

Section 1101(d)(1) of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(B)(i)(V), is section 1101(d)(1) of Pub. L. 111–152, which amended this section.

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(4)(C)(iii)(IV), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682. Part B of title XXVI of the Act is classified generally to part B (§300ff–21 et seq.) of subchapter XXIV of chapter 6A of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(i)(I). Pub. L. 115–123, §53116(a)(1), amended subcl. (I) generally. Prior to amendment, subcl. (I) read as follows: "equal to the difference between the applicable gap percentage (specified in clause (ii) for the year) and the discount percentage specified in section 1395w–114a(g)(4)(A) of this title for such applicable drugs; or".

Subsec. (b)(2)(D)(ii)(V), (VI). Pub. L. 115–123, §53116(a)(2), substituted "2019" for "2020" in subcl. (VI), redesignated subcl. (VI) as (V), and struck out former subcl. (V) which read as follows: "2019 is 80 percent; and".

2010—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(b)(3)(A), substituted "Subject to subparagraphs (C) and (D), the coverage" for "The coverage".

Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(b)(3)(B), substituted "subparagraphs (A)(ii), (C), and (D)" for "subparagraph (A)(ii)".

Subsec. (b)(2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(b)(3)(C), added subpars. (C) and (D).

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(b)(3)(D), substituted "paragraphs (2)(C), (2)(D), and (4)" for "paragraph (4)".

Pub. L. 111–148, §3315(1), which directed substitution of "paragraphs (4) and (7)" for "paragraph (4)" in introductory provisions, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(a)(2). See Construction of 2010 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(i)(II) to (VI). Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(d)(1), added subcls. (II) to (V) and redesignated former subcl. (II) as (VI).

Subsec. (b)(4)(C). Pub. L. 111–148, §3314(a), in cl. (ii), substituted "subject to clause (iii), such costs shall be treated as incurred only if" for "such costs shall be treated as incurred only if" and struck out ", under section 1395w–114 of this title, or under a State Pharmaceutical Assistance Program" after "on behalf of the individual),", and added cl. (iii).

Pub. L. 111–148, §3301(c)(1)(A), substituted "Except as provided in subparagraph (E), in applying" for "In applying" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(4)(E). Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(b)(3)(E), inserted before period at end ", except that incurred costs shall not include the portion of the negotiated price that represents the reduction in coinsurance resulting from the application of paragraph (2)(D)".

Pub. L. 111–148, §3301(c)(1)(B), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(d)(2), added par. (7).

Pub. L. 111–148, §3315(2), which directed addition of par. (7), was repealed by Pub. L. 111–152, §1101(a)(2). As enacted, text read as follows:

"(A) In general.—For the plan year beginning on January 1, 2010, the initial coverage limit described in paragraph (3)(B) otherwise applicable shall be increased by $500.

"(B) Application.—In applying subparagraph (A)—

"(i) except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph, there shall be no change in the premiums, bids, or any other parameters under this part or part C;

"(ii) costs that would be treated as incurred costs for purposes of applying paragraph (4) but for the application of subparagraph (A) shall continue to be treated as incurred costs;

"(iii) the Secretary shall establish procedures, which may include a reconciliation process, to fully reimburse PDP sponsors with respect to prescription drug plans and MA organizations with respect to MA–PD plans for the reduction in beneficiary cost sharing associated with the application of subparagraph (A);

"(iv) the Secretary shall develop an estimate of the additional increased costs attributable to the application of this paragraph for increased drug utilization and financing and administrative costs and shall use such estimate to adjust payments to PDP sponsors with respect to prescription drug plans under this part and MA organizations with respect to MA–PD plans under part C; and

"(v) the Secretary shall establish procedures for retroactive reimbursement of part D eligible individuals who are covered under such a plan for costs which are incurred before the date of initial implementation of subparagraph (A) and which would be reimbursed under such a plan if such implementation occurred as of January 1, 2010.

"(C) No effect on subsequent years.—The increase under subparagraph (A) shall only apply with respect to the plan year beginning on January 1, 2010, and the initial coverage limit for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2011, shall be determined as if subparagraph (A) had never applied."

See Construction of 2010 Amendment note below.

2008—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 110–275, §182(a)(1)(A), substituted "(as defined in paragraph (4))" for "(as defined in section 1396r–8(k)(6) of this title)" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 110–275, §175(a), inserted "other than subparagraph (I) of such section (relating to barbiturates) if the barbiturate is used in the treatment of epilepsy, cancer, or a chronic mental health disorder, and other than subparagraph (J) of such section (relating to benzodiazepines)," after "agents),".

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 110–275, §182(a)(1)(B), which directed amendment of subsec. (e)(1) in the matter following subpar. (B) by adding par. (4) at the end, was executed by adding par. (4) at end of subsec. (e), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

2006—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 109–432 inserted "(and, for vaccines administered on or after January 1, 2008, its administration)" after "section 262 of this title" in concluding provisions.

2005—Subsec. (e)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–91, §103(a)(2), inserted at end "Such term also does not include a drug when used for the treatment of sexual or erectile dysfunction, unless such drug were used to treat a condition, other than sexual or erectile dysfunction, for which the drug has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration."

Pub. L. 109–91, §103(a)(1), inserted before period at end ", as such sections were in effect on December 8, 2003".

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3301(c)(2), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 468, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to costs incurred on or after July 1, 2010."

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3314(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 479, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to costs incurred on or after January 1, 2011."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–275, title I, §175(b), July 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 2581, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to prescriptions dispensed on or after January 1, 2013."

Pub. L. 110–275, title I, §182(a)(2), July 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 2583, provided that: "The amendments made by this subsection [amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2009."

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–91, title I, §103(c), Oct. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 2092, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a)(1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement, and Modernization Act of 2003 (Public Law 108–173) and the amendment made by subsection (a)(2) [amending this section] shall apply to coverage for drugs dispensed on or after January 1, 2007."

Construction of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–152, title I, §1101(a)(2), Mar. 30, 2010, 124 Stat. 1037, provided that: "Section 3315 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act [section 3315 of Pub. L. 111–148, amending this section] (including the amendments made by such section) is repealed, and any provision of law amended or repealed by such sections [sic] is hereby restored or revived as if such section had not been enacted into law."

Construction

Pub. L. 109–91, title I, §103(b), Oct. 20, 2005, 119 Stat. 2092, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall be construed as preventing a prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan from providing coverage of drugs for the treatment of sexual or erectile dysfunction as supplemental prescription drug coverage under section 1860D–2(a)(2)(A)(ii) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–102(a)(2)(A)(ii))."

Payment for Administration of Part D Vaccines in 2007

Pub. L. 109–432, div. B, title II, §202(a), Dec. 20, 2006, 120 Stat. 2986, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the case of a vaccine that is a covered part D drug under section 1860D–2(e) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–102(e)) and that is administered during 2007, the administration of such vaccine shall be paid under part B of title XVIII of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1395j et seq.] as if it were the administration of a vaccine described in section 1861(s)(10)(B) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w(s)(10)(B) [probably should be 1395x(s)(10)(B)])."

1 So in original. Probably should be "meet".

§1395w–103. Access to a choice of qualified prescription drug coverage

(a) Assuring access to a choice of coverage

(1) Choice of at least two plans in each area

The Secretary shall ensure that each part D eligible individual has available, consistent with paragraph (2), a choice of enrollment in at least 2 qualifying plans (as defined in paragraph (3)) in the area in which the individual resides, at least one of which is a prescription drug plan. In any such case in which such plans are not available, the part D eligible individual shall be given the opportunity to enroll in a fallback prescription drug plan.

(2) Requirement for different plan sponsors

The requirement in paragraph (1) is not satisfied with respect to an area if only one entity offers all the qualifying plans in the area.

(3) Qualifying plan defined

For purposes of this section, the term "qualifying plan" means—

(A) a prescription drug plan; or

(B) an MA–PD plan described in section 1395w–21(a)(2)(A)(i) of this title that provides—

(i) basic prescription drug coverage; or

(ii) qualified prescription drug coverage that provides supplemental prescription drug coverage so long as there is no MA monthly supplemental beneficiary premium applied under the plan, due to the application of a credit against such premium of a rebate under section 1395w–24(b)(1)(C) of this title.

(b) Flexibility in risk assumed and application of fallback plan

In order to ensure access pursuant to subsection (a) in an area—

(1) the Secretary may approve limited risk plans under section 1395w–111(f) of this title for the area; and

(2) only if such access is still not provided in the area after applying paragraph (1), the Secretary shall provide for the offering of a fallback prescription drug plan for that area under section 1395w–111(g) of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XVIII, §1860D–3, as added Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(a)(2), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2081.)

§1395w–104. Beneficiary protections for qualified prescription drug coverage

(a) Dissemination of information

(1) General information

(A) Application of MA information

A PDP sponsor shall disclose, in a clear, accurate, and standardized form to each enrollee with a prescription drug plan offered by the sponsor under this part at the time of enrollment and at least annually thereafter, the information described in section 1395w–22(c)(1) of this title relating to such plan, insofar as the Secretary determines appropriate with respect to benefits provided under this part, and, subject to subparagraph (C), including the information described in subparagraph (B).

(B) Drug specific information

The information described in this subparagraph is information concerning the following:

(i) Access to specific covered part D drugs, including access through pharmacy networks.

(ii) How any formulary (including any tiered formulary structure) used by the sponsor functions, including a description of how a part D eligible individual may obtain information on the formulary consistent with paragraph (3).

(iii) Beneficiary cost-sharing requirements and how a part D eligible individual may obtain information on such requirements, including tiered or other copayment level applicable to each drug (or class of drugs), consistent with paragraph (3).

(iv) The medication therapy management program required under subsection (c).

(v) The drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries under subsection (c)(5).

(vi) For plan year 2021 and each subsequent plan year, subject to subparagraph (C), with respect to the treatment of pain—

(I) the risks associated with prolonged opioid use; and

(II) coverage of nonpharmacological therapies, devices, and nonopioid medications—

(aa) in the case of an MA–PD plan under part C, under such plan; and

(bb) in the case of a prescription drug plan, under such plan and under parts A and B.

(C) Targeted provision of information

A PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan may, in lieu of disclosing the information described in subparagraph (B)(vi) to each enrollee under the plan, disclose such information through mail or electronic communications to a subset of enrollees under the plan, such as enrollees who have been prescribed an opioid in the previous 2-year period.

(2) Disclosure upon request of general coverage, utilization, and grievance information

Upon request of a part D eligible individual who is eligible to enroll in a prescription drug plan, the PDP sponsor offering such plan shall provide information similar (as determined by the Secretary) to the information described in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of section 1395w–22(c)(2) of this title to such individual.

(3) Provision of specific information

(A) Response to beneficiary questions

Each PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan shall have a mechanism for providing specific information on a timely basis to enrollees upon request. Such mechanism shall include access to information through the use of a toll-free telephone number and, upon request, the provision of such information in writing.

(B) Availability of information on changes in formulary through the Internet

A PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan shall make available on a timely basis through an Internet website information on specific changes in the formulary under the plan (including changes to tiered or preferred status of covered part D drugs).

(4) Claims information

A PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan must furnish to each enrollee in a form easily understandable to such enrollees—

(A) an explanation of benefits (in accordance with section 1395b–7(a) of this title or in a comparable manner); and

(B) when prescription drug benefits are provided under this part, a notice of the benefits in relation to—

(i) the initial coverage limit for the current year; and

(ii) the annual out-of-pocket threshold for the current year.


Notices under subparagraph (B) need not be provided more often than as specified by the Secretary and notices under subparagraph (B)(ii) shall take into account the application of section 1395w–102(b)(4)(C) of this title to the extent practicable, as specified by the Secretary.

(b) Access to covered part D drugs

(1) Assuring pharmacy access

(A) Participation of any willing pharmacy

A prescription drug plan shall permit the participation of any pharmacy that meets the terms and conditions under the plan.

(B) Discounts allowed for network pharmacies

For covered part D drugs dispensed through in-network pharmacies, a prescription drug plan may, notwithstanding subparagraph (A), reduce coinsurance or copayments for part D eligible individuals enrolled in the plan below the level otherwise required. In no case shall such a reduction result in an increase in payments made by the Secretary under section 1395w–115 of this title to a plan.

(C) Convenient access for network pharmacies

(i) In general

The PDP sponsor of the prescription drug plan shall secure the participation in its network of a sufficient number of pharmacies that dispense (other than by mail order) drugs directly to patients to ensure convenient access (consistent with rules established by the Secretary).

(ii) Application of TRICARE standards

The Secretary shall establish rules for convenient access to in-network pharmacies under this subparagraph that are no less favorable to enrollees than the rules for convenient access to pharmacies included in the statement of work of solicitation (#MDA906–03–R–0002) of the Department of Defense under the TRICARE Retail Pharmacy (TRRx) as of March 13, 2003.

(iii) Adequate emergency access

Such rules shall include adequate emergency access for enrollees.

(iv) Convenient access in long-term care facilities

Such rules may include standards with respect to access for enrollees who are residing in long-term care facilities and for pharmacies operated by the Indian Health Service, Indian tribes and tribal organizations, and urban Indian organizations (as defined in section 1603 of title 25).

(D) Level playing field

Such a sponsor shall permit enrollees to receive benefits (which may include a 90-day supply of drugs or biologicals) through a pharmacy (other than a mail order pharmacy), with any differential in charge paid by such enrollees.

(E) Not required to accept insurance risk

The terms and conditions under subparagraph (A) may not require participating pharmacies to accept insurance risk as a condition of participation.

(2) Use of standardized technology

(A) In general

The PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan shall issue (and reissue, as appropriate) such a card (or other technology) that may be used by an enrollee to assure access to negotiated prices under section 1395w–102(d) of this title.

(B) Standards

(i) In general

The Secretary shall provide for the development, adoption, or recognition of standards relating to a standardized format for the card or other technology required under subparagraph (A). Such standards shall be compatible with part C of subchapter XI and may be based on standards developed by an appropriate standard setting organization.

(ii) Consultation

In developing the standards under clause (i), the Secretary shall consult with the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs and other standard setting organizations determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(iii) Implementation

The Secretary shall develop, adopt, or recognize the standards under clause (i) by such date as the Secretary determines shall be sufficient to ensure that PDP sponsors utilize such standards beginning January 1, 2006.

(3) Requirements on development and application of formularies

If a PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan uses a formulary (including the use of tiered cost-sharing), the following requirements must be met:

(A) Development and revision by a pharmacy and therapeutic (P&T) committee

(i) In general

The formulary must be developed and reviewed by a pharmacy and therapeutic committee. A majority of the members of such committee shall consist of individuals who are practicing physicians or practicing pharmacists (or both).

(ii) Inclusion of independent experts

Such committee shall include at least one practicing physician and at least one practicing pharmacist, each of whom—

(I) is independent and free of conflict with respect to the sponsor and plan; and

(II) has expertise in the care of elderly or disabled persons.

(B) Formulary development

In developing and reviewing the formulary, the committee shall—

(i) base clinical decisions on the strength of scientific evidence and standards of practice, including assessing peer-reviewed medical literature, such as randomized clinical trials, pharmacoeconomic studies, outcomes research data, and on such other information as the committee determines to be appropriate; and

(ii) take into account whether including in the formulary (or in a tier in such formulary) particular covered part D drugs has therapeutic advantages in terms of safety and efficacy.

(C) Inclusion of drugs in all therapeutic categories and classes

(i) In general

Subject to subparagraph (G), the formulary must include drugs within each therapeutic category and class of covered part D drugs, although not necessarily all drugs within such categories and classes.

(ii) Model guidelines

The Secretary shall request the United States Pharmacopeia to develop, in consultation with pharmaceutical benefit managers and other interested parties, a list of categories and classes that may be used by prescription drug plans under this paragraph and to revise such classification from time to time to reflect changes in therapeutic uses of covered part D drugs and the additions of new covered part D drugs.

(iii) Limitation on changes in therapeutic classification

The PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan may not change the therapeutic categories and classes in a formulary other than at the beginning of each plan year except as the Secretary may permit to take into account new therapeutic uses and newly approved covered part D drugs.

(D) Provider and patient education

The PDP sponsor shall establish policies and procedures to educate and inform health care providers and enrollees concerning the formulary.

(E) Notice before removing drug from formulary or changing preferred or tier status of drug

Any removal of a covered part D drug from a formulary and any change in the preferred or tiered cost-sharing status of such a drug shall take effect only after appropriate notice is made available (such as under subsection (a)(3)) to the Secretary, affected enrollees, physicians, pharmacies, and pharmacists.

(F) Periodic evaluation of protocols

In connection with the formulary, the sponsor of a prescription drug plan shall provide for the periodic evaluation and analysis of treatment protocols and procedures.

(G) Required inclusion of drugs in certain categories and classes

(i) Formulary requirements

(I) In general

Subject to subclause (II), a PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan shall be required to include all covered part D drugs in the categories and classes identified by the Secretary under clause (ii)(I).

(II) Exceptions

The Secretary may establish exceptions that permit a PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan to exclude from its formulary a particular covered part D drug in a category or class that is otherwise required to be included in the formulary under subclause (I) (or to otherwise limit access to such a drug, including through prior authorization or utilization management).

(ii) Identification of drugs in certain categories and classes

(I) In general

Subject to clause (iv), the Secretary shall identify, as appropriate, categories and classes of drugs for which the Secretary determines are of clinical concern.

(II) Criteria

The Secretary shall use criteria established by the Secretary in making any determination under subclause (I).

(iii) Implementation

The Secretary shall establish the criteria under clause (ii)(II) and any exceptions under clause (i)(II) through the promulgation of a regulation which includes a public notice and comment period.

(iv) Requirement for certain categories and classes until criteria established

Until such time as the Secretary establishes the criteria under clause (ii)(II) the following categories and classes of drugs shall be identified under clause (ii)(I):

(I) Anticonvulsants.

(II) Antidepressants.

(III) Antineoplastics.

(IV) Antipsychotics.

(V) Antiretrovirals.

(VI) Immunosuppressants for the treatment of transplant rejection.

(H) Use of single, uniform exceptions and appeals process

Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, each PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan shall—

(i) use a single, uniform exceptions and appeals process (including, to the extent the Secretary determines feasible, a single, uniform model form for use under such process) with respect to the determination of prescription drug coverage for an enrollee under the plan; and

(ii) provide instant access to such process by enrollees through a toll-free telephone number and an Internet website.

(4) Ensuring access during COVID–19 public health emergency period

(A) In general

During the emergency period described in section 1320b–5(g)(1)(B) of this title, subject to subparagraph (B), a prescription drug plan or MA–PD plan shall, notwithstanding any cost and utilization management, medication therapy management, or other such programs under this part, permit a part D eligible individual enrolled in such plan to obtain in a single fill or refill, at the option of such individual, the total day supply (not to exceed a 90-day supply) prescribed for such individual for a covered part D drug.

(B) Safety edit exception

A prescription drug plan or MA–PD plan may not permit a part D eligible individual to obtain a single fill or refill inconsistent with an applicable safety edit.

(c) Cost and utilization management; quality assurance; medication therapy management program

(1) In general

The PDP sponsor shall have in place, directly or through appropriate arrangements, with respect to covered part D drugs, the following:

(A) A cost-effective drug utilization management program, including incentives to reduce costs when medically appropriate, such as through the use of multiple source drugs (as defined in section 1396r–8(k)(7)(A)(i) of this title).

(B) Quality assurance measures and systems to reduce medication errors and adverse drug interactions and improve medication use.

(C) A medication therapy management program described in paragraph (2).

(D) A program to control fraud, abuse, and waste.

(E) A utilization management tool to prevent drug abuse (as described in paragraph (6)(A)).1

(F) With respect to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2022, a drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries described in paragraph (5).


Nothing in this section shall be construed as impairing a PDP sponsor from utilizing cost management tools (including differential payments) under all methods of operation.

(2) Medication therapy management program

(A) Description

(i) In general

A medication therapy management program described in this paragraph is a program of drug therapy management that may be furnished by a pharmacist and that is designed to assure, with respect to targeted beneficiaries described in clause (ii), that covered part D drugs under the prescription drug plan are appropriately used to optimize therapeutic outcomes through improved medication use, and to reduce the risk of adverse events, including adverse drug interactions. Such a program may distinguish between services in ambulatory and institutional settings.

(ii) Targeted beneficiaries described

Targeted beneficiaries described in this clause are the following:

(I) Part D eligible individuals who—

(aa) have multiple chronic diseases (such as diabetes, asthma, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and congestive heart failure);

(bb) are taking multiple covered part D drugs; and

(cc) are identified as likely to incur annual costs for covered part D drugs that exceed a level specified by the Secretary.


(II) Beginning January 1, 2021, at-risk beneficiaries for prescription drug abuse (as defined in paragraph (5)(C)).

(B) Elements

Such program—

(i) may include elements that promote—

(I) enhanced enrollee understanding to promote the appropriate use of medications by enrollees and to reduce the risk of potential adverse events associated with medications, through beneficiary education, counseling, and other appropriate means;

(II) increased enrollee adherence with prescription medication regimens through medication refill reminders, special packaging, and other compliance programs and other appropriate means; and

(III) detection of adverse drug events and patterns of overuse and underuse of prescription drugs; and


(ii) with respect to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2021, shall provide for—

(I) the provision of information to the enrollee on the safe disposal of prescription drugs that are controlled substances that meets the criteria established under section 1395w–22(n)(2) of this title, including information on drug takeback programs that meet such requirements determined appropriate by the Secretary and information on in-home disposal; and

(II) cost-effective means by which an enrollee may so safely dispose of such drugs.

(C) Required interventions

For plan years beginning on or after the date that is 2 years after March 23, 2010, prescription drug plan sponsors shall offer medication therapy management services to targeted beneficiaries described in subparagraph (A)(ii) that include, at a minimum, the following to increase adherence to prescription medications or other goals deemed necessary by the Secretary:

(i) An annual comprehensive medication review furnished person-to-person or using telehealth technologies (as defined by the Secretary) by a licensed pharmacist or other qualified provider. The comprehensive medication review—

(I) shall include a review of the individual's medications and may result in the creation of a recommended medication action plan or other actions in consultation with the individual and with input from the prescriber to the extent necessary and practicable; and

(II) shall include providing the individual with a written or printed summary of the results of the review.


 The Secretary, in consultation with relevant stakeholders, shall develop a standardized format for the action plan under subclause (I) and the summary under subclause (II).

(ii) Follow-up interventions as warranted based on the findings of the annual medication review or the targeted medication enrollment and which may be provided person-to-person or using telehealth technologies (as defined by the Secretary).

(D) Assessment

The prescription drug plan sponsor shall have in place a process to assess, at least on a quarterly basis, the medication use of individuals who are at risk but not enrolled in the medication therapy management program, including individuals who have experienced a transition in care, if the prescription drug plan sponsor has access to that information.

(E) 2 Automatic enrollment with ability to opt-out

The prescription drug plan sponsor shall have in place a process to—

(i) subject to clause (ii), automatically enroll targeted beneficiaries described in subparagraph (A)(ii), including beneficiaries identified under subparagraph (D), in the medication therapy management program required under this subsection; and

(ii) permit such beneficiaries to opt-out of enrollment in such program.

(E) 2 Development of program in cooperation with licensed pharmacists

Such program shall be developed in cooperation with licensed and practicing pharmacists and physicians.

(F) Coordination with care management plans

The Secretary shall establish guidelines for the coordination of any medication therapy management program under this paragraph with respect to a targeted beneficiary with any care management plan established with respect to such beneficiary under a chronic care improvement program under section 1395b–8 of this title.

(G) Considerations in pharmacy fees

The PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan shall take into account, in establishing fees for pharmacists and others providing services under such plan, the resources used, and time required to, implement the medication therapy management program under this paragraph. Each such sponsor shall disclose to the Secretary upon request the amount of any such management or dispensing fees. The provisions of section 1396r–8(b)(3)(D) of this title apply to information disclosed under this subparagraph.

(3) Reducing wasteful dispensing of outpatient prescription drugs in long-term care facilities

The Secretary shall require PDP sponsors of prescription drug plans to utilize specific, uniform dispensing techniques, as determined by the Secretary, in consultation with relevant stakeholders (including representatives of nursing facilities, residents of nursing facilities, pharmacists, the pharmacy industry (including retail and long-term care pharmacy), prescription drug plans, MA–PD plans, and any other stakeholders the Secretary determines appropriate), such as weekly, daily, or automated dose dispensing, when dispensing covered part D drugs to enrollees who reside in a long-term care facility in order to reduce waste associated with 30-day fills.

(4) Requiring valid prescriber National Provider Identifiers on pharmacy claims

(A) In general

For plan year 2016 and subsequent plan years, the Secretary shall require a claim for a covered part D drug for a part D eligible individual enrolled in a prescription drug plan under this part or an MA–PD plan under part C to include a prescriber National Provider Identifier that is determined to be valid under the procedures established under subparagraph (B)(i).

(B) Procedures

(i) Validity of prescriber National Provider Identifiers

The Secretary, in consultation with appropriate stakeholders, shall establish procedures for determining the validity of prescriber National Provider Identifiers under subparagraph (A).

(ii) Informing beneficiaries of reason for denial

The Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that, in the case that a claim for a covered part D drug of an individual described in subparagraph (A) is denied because the claim does not meet the requirements of this paragraph, the individual is properly informed at the point of service of the reason for the denial.

(C) Report

Not later than January 1, 2018, the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services shall submit to Congress a report on the effectiveness of the procedures established under subparagraph (B)(i).

(D) Notification and additional requirements with respect to outlier prescribers of opioids

(i) Notification

Not later than January 1, 2021, the Secretary shall, in the case of a prescriber identified by the Secretary under clause (ii) to be an outlier prescriber of opioids, provide, subject to clause (iv), an annual notification to such prescriber that such prescriber has been so identified and that includes resources on proper prescribing methods and other information as specified in accordance with clause (iii).

(ii) Identification of outlier prescribers of opioids

(I) In general

The Secretary shall, subject to subclause (III), using the valid prescriber National Provider Identifiers included pursuant to subparagraph (A) on claims for covered part D drugs for part D eligible individuals enrolled in prescription drug plans under this part or MA–PD plans under part C and based on the thresholds established under subclause (II), identify prescribers that are outlier opioids prescribers for a period of time specified by the Secretary.

(II) Establishment of thresholds

For purposes of subclause (I) and subject to subclause (III), the Secretary shall, after consultation with stakeholders, establish thresholds, based on prescriber specialty and geographic area, for identifying whether a prescriber in a specialty and geographic area is an outlier prescriber of opioids as compared to other prescribers of opioids within such specialty and area.

(III) Exclusions

The following shall not be included in the analysis for identifying outlier prescribers of opioids under this clause:

(aa) Claims for covered part D drugs for part D eligible individuals who are receiving hospice care under this subchapter.

(bb) Claims for covered part D drugs for part D eligible individuals who are receiving oncology services under this subchapter.

(cc) Prescribers who are the subject of an investigation by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services or the Inspector General of the Department of Health and Human Services.

(iii) Contents of notification

The Secretary shall include the following information in the notifications provided under clause (i):

(I) Information on how such prescriber compares to other prescribers within the same specialty and geographic area.

(II) Information on opioid prescribing guidelines, based on input from stakeholders, that may include the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention guidelines for prescribing opioids for chronic pain and guidelines developed by physician organizations.

(III) Other information determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(iv) Modifications and expansions

(I) Frequency

Beginning 5 years after October 24, 2018, the Secretary may change the frequency of the notifications described in clause (i) based on stakeholder input and changes in opioid prescribing utilization and trends.

(II) Expansion to other prescriptions

The Secretary may expand notifications under this subparagraph to include identifications and notifications with respect to concurrent prescriptions of covered Part D drugs used in combination with opioids that are considered to have adverse side effects when so used in such combination, as determined by the Secretary.

(v) Additional requirements for persistent outlier prescribers

In the case of a prescriber who the Secretary determines is persistently identified under clause (ii) as an outlier prescriber of opioids, the following shall apply:

(I) Such prescriber may be required to enroll in the program under this subchapter under section 1395cc(j) of this title if such prescriber is not otherwise required to enroll, but only after other appropriate remedies have been provided, such as the provision of education funded through section 6052 of the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, for a period determined by the Secretary as sufficient to correct the prescribing patterns that lead to identification of such prescriber as a persistent outlier prescriber of opioids. The Secretary shall determine the length of the period for which such prescriber is required to maintain such enrollment, which shall be the minimum period necessary to correct such prescribing patterns.

(II) Not less frequently than annually (and in a form and manner determined appropriate by the Secretary), the Secretary, consistent with clause(iv)(I), shall communicate information on such prescribers to sponsors of a prescription drug plan and Medicare Advantage organizations offering an MA–PD plan.

(vi) Public availability of information

The Secretary shall make aggregate information under this subparagraph available on the internet website of the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services. Such information shall be in a form and manner determined appropriate by the Secretary and shall not identify any specific prescriber. In carrying out this clause, the Secretary shall consult with interested stakeholders.

(vii) Opioids defined

For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "opioids" has such meaning as specified by the Secretary.

(viii) Other activities

Nothing in this subparagraph shall preclude the Secretary from conducting activities that provide prescribers with information as to how they compare to other prescribers that are in addition to the activities under this subparagraph, including activities that were being conducted as October 24, 2018.

(5) Drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries

(A) Authority to establish

A PDP sponsor may (and for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2022, a PDP sponsor shall) establish a drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries under which, subject to subparagraph (B), the PDP sponsor may, in the case of an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse who is an enrollee in a prescription drug plan of such PDP sponsor, limit such beneficiary's access to coverage for frequently abused drugs under such plan to frequently abused drugs that are prescribed for such beneficiary by one or more prescribers selected under subparagraph (D), and dispensed for such beneficiary by one or more pharmacies selected under such subparagraph.

(B) Requirement for notices

(i) In general

A PDP sponsor may not limit the access of an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse to coverage for frequently abused drugs under a prescription drug plan until such sponsor—

(I) provides to the beneficiary an initial notice described in clause (ii) and a second notice described in clause (iii); and

(II) verifies with the providers of the beneficiary that the beneficiary is an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse.

(ii) Initial notice

An initial notice described in this clause is a notice that provides to the beneficiary—

(I) notice that the PDP sponsor has identified the beneficiary as potentially being an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse;

(II) information describing all State and Federal public health resources that are designed to address prescription drug abuse to which the beneficiary has access, including mental health services and other counseling services;

(III) notice of, and information about, the right of the beneficiary to appeal such identification under subsection (h), including notice that if on reconsideration a PDP sponsor affirms its denial, in whole or in part, the case shall be automatically forwarded to the independent, outside entity contracted with the Secretary for review and resolution;

(IV) a request for the beneficiary to submit to the PDP sponsor preferences for which prescribers and pharmacies the beneficiary would prefer the PDP sponsor to select under subparagraph (D) in the case that the beneficiary is identified as an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse as described in clause (iii)(I);

(V) an explanation of the meaning and consequences of the identification of the beneficiary as potentially being an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse, including an explanation of the drug management program established by the PDP sponsor pursuant to subparagraph (A);

(VI) clear instructions that explain how the beneficiary can contact the PDP sponsor in order to submit to the PDP sponsor the preferences described in subclause (IV) and any other communications relating to the drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries established by the PDP sponsor; and

(VII) contact information for other organizations that can provide the beneficiary with assistance regarding such drug management program (similar to the information provided by the Secretary in other standardized notices provided to part D eligible individuals enrolled in prescription drug plans under this part).

(iii) Second notice

A second notice described in this clause is a notice that provides to the beneficiary notice—

(I) that the PDP sponsor has identified the beneficiary as an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse;

(II) that such beneficiary is subject to the requirements of the drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries established by such PDP sponsor for such plan;

(III) of the prescriber (or prescribers) and pharmacy (or pharmacies) selected for such individual under subparagraph (D);

(IV) of, and information about, the beneficiary's right to appeal such identification under subsection (h), including notice that if on reconsideration a PDP sponsor affirms its denial, in whole or in part, the case shall be automatically forwarded to the independent, outside entity contracted with the Secretary for review and resolution;

(V) that the beneficiary can, in the case that the beneficiary has not previously submitted to the PDP sponsor preferences for which prescribers and pharmacies the beneficiary would prefer the PDP sponsor select under subparagraph (D), submit such preferences to the PDP sponsor; and

(VI) that includes clear instructions that explain how the beneficiary can contact the PDP sponsor.

(iv) Timing of notices

(I) In general

Subject to subclause (II), a second notice described in clause (iii) shall be provided to the beneficiary on a date that is not less than 30 days after an initial notice described in clause (ii) is provided to the beneficiary.

(II) Exception

In the case that the PDP sponsor, in conjunction with the Secretary, determines that concerns identified through rulemaking by the Secretary regarding the health or safety of the beneficiary or regarding significant drug diversion activities require the PDP sponsor to provide a second notice described in clause (iii) to the beneficiary on a date that is earlier than the date described in subclause (I), the PDP sponsor may provide such second notice on such earlier date.

(C) At-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse

(i) In general

Except as provided in clause (v), for purposes of this paragraph, the term "at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse" means a part D eligible individual who is not an exempted individual described in clause (ii) and—

(I) who is identified as such an at-risk beneficiary through the use of clinical guidelines that indicate misuse or abuse of prescription drugs described in subparagraph (G) and that are developed by the Secretary in consultation with PDP sponsors and other stakeholders, including individuals entitled to benefits under part A or enrolled under part B, advocacy groups representing such individuals, physicians, pharmacists, and other clinicians, retail pharmacies, plan sponsors, entities delegated by plan sponsors, and biopharmaceutical manufacturers; or

(II) with respect to whom the PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan, upon enrolling such individual in such plan, received notice from the Secretary that such individual was identified under this paragraph to be an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse under the prescription drug plan in which such individual was most recently previously enrolled and such identification has not been terminated under subparagraph (F).

(ii) Exempted individual described

An exempted individual described in this clause is an individual who—

(I) receives hospice care under this subchapter;

(II) is a resident of a long-term care facility, of a facility described in section 1396d(d) of this title, or of another facility for which frequently abused drugs are dispensed for residents through a contract with a single pharmacy; or

(III) the Secretary elects to treat as an exempted individual for purposes of clause (i).

(iii) Program size

The Secretary shall establish policies, including the guidelines developed under clause (i)(I) and the exemptions under clause (ii)(III), to ensure that the population of enrollees in a drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries operated by a prescription drug plan can be effectively managed by such plans.

(iv) Clinical contact

With respect to each at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse enrolled in a prescription drug plan offered by a PDP sponsor, the PDP sponsor shall contact the beneficiary's providers who have prescribed frequently abused drugs regarding whether prescribed medications are appropriate for such beneficiary's medical conditions.

(v) Treatment of enrollees with a history of opioid-related overdose

(I) In general

For plan years beginning not later than January 1, 2021, a part D eligible individual who is not an exempted individual described in clause (ii) and who is identified under this clause as a part D eligible individual with a history of opioid-related overdose (as defined by the Secretary) shall be included as a potentially at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse under the drug management program under this paragraph.

(II) Identification and notice

For purposes of this clause, the Secretary shall—

(aa) identify part D eligible individuals with a history of opioid-related overdose (as so defined); and

(bb) notify the PDP sponsor of the prescription drug plan in which such an individual is enrolled of such identification.

(D) Selection of prescribers and pharmacies

(i) In general

With respect to each at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse enrolled in a prescription drug plan offered by such sponsor, a PDP sponsor shall, based on the preferences submitted to the PDP sponsor by the beneficiary pursuant to clauses (ii)(IV) and (iii)(V) of subparagraph (B) (except as otherwise provided in this subparagraph) select—

(I) one, or, if the PDP sponsor reasonably determines it necessary to provide the beneficiary with reasonable access under clause (ii), more than one, individual who is authorized to prescribe frequently abused drugs (referred to in this paragraph as a "prescriber") who may write prescriptions for such drugs for such beneficiary; and

(II) one, or, if the PDP sponsor reasonably determines it necessary to provide the beneficiary with reasonable access under clause (ii), more than one, pharmacy that may dispense such drugs to such beneficiary.


 For purposes of subclause (II), in the case of a pharmacy that has multiple locations that share real-time electronic data, all such locations of the pharmacy shall collectively be treated as one pharmacy.

(ii) Reasonable access

In making the selections under this subparagraph—

(I) a PDP sponsor shall ensure that the beneficiary continues to have reasonable access to frequently abused drugs (as defined in subparagraph (G)), taking into account geographic location, beneficiary preference, impact on costsharing, and reasonable travel time; and

(II) a PDP sponsor shall ensure such access (including access to prescribers and pharmacies with respect to frequently abused drugs) in the case of individuals with multiple residences, in the case of natural disasters and similar situations, and in the case of the provision of emergency services.

(iii) Beneficiary preferences

If an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse submits preferences for which in-network prescribers and pharmacies the beneficiary would prefer the PDP sponsor select in response to a notice under subparagraph (B), the PDP sponsor shall—

(I) review such preferences;

(II) select or change the selection of prescribers and pharmacies for the beneficiary based on such preferences; and

(III) inform the beneficiary of such selection or change of selection.

(iv) Exception regarding beneficiary preferences

In the case that the PDP sponsor determines that a change to the selection of prescriber or pharmacy under clause (iii)(II) by the PDP sponsor is contributing or would contribute to prescription drug abuse or drug diversion by the beneficiary, the PDP sponsor may change the selection of prescriber or pharmacy for the beneficiary without regard to the preferences of the beneficiary described in clause (iii). If the PDP sponsor changes the selection pursuant to the preceding sentence, the PDP sponsor shall provide the beneficiary with—

(I) at least 30 days written notice of the change of selection; and

(II) a rationale for the change.

(v) Confirmation

Before selecting a prescriber or pharmacy under this subparagraph, a PDP sponsor must notify the prescriber and pharmacy that the beneficiary involved has been identified for inclusion in the drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries and that the prescriber and pharmacy has been selected as the beneficiary's designated prescriber and pharmacy.

(E) Terminations and appeals

The identification of an individual as an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse under this paragraph, a coverage determination made under a drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries, the selection of prescriber or pharmacy under subparagraph (D), and information to be shared under subparagraph (I), with respect to such individual, shall be subject to reconsideration and appeal under subsection (h) and if on reconsideration a PDP sponsor affirms its denial, in whole or in part, the case shall be automatically forwarded to the independent, outside entity contracted with the Secretary for review and resolution.

(F) Termination of identification

(i) In general

The Secretary shall develop standards for the termination of identification of an individual as an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse under this paragraph. Under such standards such identification shall terminate as of the earlier of—

(I) the date the individual demonstrates that the individual is no longer likely, in the absence of the restrictions under this paragraph, to be an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse described in subparagraph (C)(i); and

(II) the end of such maximum period of identification as the Secretary may specify.

(ii) Rule of construction

Nothing in clause (i) shall be construed as preventing a plan from identifying an individual as an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse under subparagraph (C)(i) after such termination on the basis of additional information on drug use occurring after the date of notice of such termination.

(G) Frequently abused drug

For purposes of this subsection, the term "frequently abused drug" means a drug that is a controlled substance that the Secretary determines to be frequently abused or diverted.

(H) Data disclosure

(i) Data on decision to impose limitation

In the case of an at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse (or an individual who is a potentially at-risk beneficiary for prescription drug abuse) whose access to coverage for frequently abused drugs under a prescription drug plan has been limited by a PDP sponsor under this paragraph, the Secretary shall establish rules and procedures to require the PDP sponsor to disclose data, including any necessary individually identifiable health information, in a form and manner specified by the Secretary, about the decision to impose such limitations and the limitations imposed by the sponsor under this part.

(ii) Data to reduce fraud, abuse, and waste

The Secretary shall establish rules and procedures to require PDP sponsors operating a drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries under this paragraph to provide the Secretary with such data as the Secretary determines appropriate for purposes of identifying patterns of prescription drug utilization for plan enrollees that are outside normal patterns and that may indicate fraudulent, medically unnecessary, or unsafe use.

(I) Sharing of information for subsequent plan enrollments

The Secretary shall establish procedures under which PDP sponsors who offer prescription drug plans shall share information with respect to individuals who are at-risk beneficiaries for prescription drug abuse (or individuals who are potentially at-risk beneficiaries for prescription drug abuse) and enrolled in a prescription drug plan and who subsequently disenroll from such plan and enroll in another prescription drug plan offered by another PDP sponsor.

(J) Privacy issues

Prior to the implementation of the rules and procedures under this paragraph, the Secretary shall clarify privacy requirements, including requirements under the regulations promulgated pursuant to section 264(c) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (42 U.S.C. 1320d–2 note), related to the sharing of data under subparagraphs (H) and (I) by PDP sponsors. Such clarification shall provide that the sharing of such data shall be considered to be protected health information in accordance with the requirements of the regulations promulgated pursuant to such section 264(c).

(K) Education

The Secretary shall provide education to enrollees in prescription drug plans of PDP sponsors and providers regarding the drug management program for at-risk beneficiaries described in this paragraph, including education—

(i) provided by Medicare administrative contractors through the improper payment outreach and education program described in section 1395kk–1(h) of this title; and

(ii) through current education efforts (such as State health insurance assistance programs described in subsection (a)(1)(A) of section 119 of the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008 (42 U.S.C. 1395b–3 note)) and materials directed toward such enrollees.

(L) Application under MA–PD plans

Pursuant to section 1395w–131(c)(1) of this title, the provisions of this paragraph apply under part D to MA organizations offering MA–PD plans to MA eligible individuals in the same manner as such provisions apply under this part to a PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan to a part D eligible individual.

(M) CMS compliance review

The Secretary shall ensure that existing plan sponsor compliance reviews and audit processes include the drug management programs for at-risk beneficiaries under this paragraph, including appeals processes under such programs.

(6) 3 Utilization management tool to prevent drug abuse

(A) In general

A tool described in this paragraph is any of the following:

(i) A utilization tool designed to prevent the abuse of frequently abused drugs by individuals and to prevent the diversion of such drugs at pharmacies.

(ii) Retrospective utilization review to identify—

(I) individuals that receive frequently abused drugs at a frequency or in amounts that are not clinically appropriate; and

(II) providers of services or suppliers that may facilitate the abuse or diversion of frequently abused drugs by beneficiaries.


(iii) Consultation with the contractor described in subparagraph (B) to verify if an individual enrolling in a prescription drug plan offered by a PDP sponsor has been previously identified by another PDP sponsor as an individual described in clause (ii)(I).

(B) Reporting

A PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan (and an MA organization offering an MA–PD plan) in a State shall submit to the Secretary and the Medicare drug integrity contractor with which the Secretary has entered into a contract under section 1395ddd of this title with respect to such State a report, on a monthly basis, containing information on—

(i) any provider of services or supplier described in subparagraph (A)(ii)(II) that is identified by such plan sponsor (or organization) during the 30-day period before such report is submitted; and

(ii) the name and prescription records of individuals described in paragraph (5)(C).

(C) CMS compliance review

The Secretary shall ensure that plan sponsor compliance reviews and program audits biennially include a certification that utilization management tools under this paragraph are in compliance with the requirements for such tools.

(6) 3 Providing prescription drug plans with parts A and B claims data to promote the appropriate use of medications and improve health outcomes

(A) Process

Subject to subparagraph (B), the Secretary shall establish a process under which a PDP sponsor of a prescription drug plan may submit a request for the Secretary to provide the sponsor, on a periodic basis and in an electronic format, beginning in plan year 2020, data described in subparagraph (D) with respect to enrollees in such plan. Such data shall be provided without regard to whether such enrollees are described in clause (ii) of paragraph (2)(A).

(B) Purposes

A PDP sponsor may use the data provided to the sponsor pursuant to subparagraph (A) for any of the following purposes:

(i) To optimize therapeutic outcomes through improved medication use, as such phrase is used in clause (i) of paragraph (2)(A).

(ii) To improving care coordination so as to prevent adverse health outcomes, such as preventable emergency department visits and hospital readmissions.

(iii) For any other purpose determined appropriate by the Secretary.

(C) Limitations on data use

A PDP sponsor shall not use data provided to the sponsor pursuant to subparagraph (A) for any of the following purposes:

(i) To inform coverage determinations under this part.

(ii) To conduct retroactive reviews of medically accepted indications determinations.

(iii) To facilitate enrollment changes to a different prescription drug plan or an MA–PD plan offered by the same parent organization.

(iv) To inform marketing of benefits.

(v) For any other purpose that the Secretary determines is necessary to include in order to protect the identity of individuals entitled to, or enrolled for, benefits under this subchapter and to protect the security of personal health information.

(D) Data described

The data described in this clause are standardized extracts (as determined by the Secretary) of claims data under parts A and B for items and services furnished under such parts for time periods specified by the Secretary. Such data shall include data as current as practicable.

(d) Consumer satisfaction surveys

In order to provide for comparative information under section 1395w–101(c)(3)(A)(v) of this title, the Secretary shall conduct consumer satisfaction surveys with respect to PDP sponsors and prescription drug plans in a manner similar to the manner such surveys are conducted for MA organizations and MA plans under part C.

(e) Electronic prescription program

(1) Application of standards

As of such date as the Secretary may specify, but not later than 1 year after the date of promulgation of final standards under paragraph (4)(D), prescriptions and other information described in paragraph (2)(A) for covered part D drugs prescribed for part D eligible individuals that are transmitted electronically shall be transmitted only in accordance with such standards under an electronic prescription drug program that meets the requirements of paragraph (2).

(2) Program requirements

Consistent with uniform standards established under paragraph (3)—

(A) Provision of information to prescribing health care professional and dispensing pharmacies and pharmacists

An electronic prescription drug program shall provide for the electronic transmittal to the prescribing health care professional and to the dispensing pharmacy and pharmacist of the prescription and information on eligibility and benefits (including the drugs included in the applicable formulary, any tiered formulary structure, and any requirements for prior authorization) and of the following information with respect to the prescribing and dispensing of a covered part D drug:

(i) Information on the drug being prescribed or dispensed and other drugs listed on the medication history, including information on drug-drug interactions, warnings or cautions, and, when indicated, dosage adjustments.

(ii) Information on the availability of lower cost, therapeutically appropriate alternatives (if any) for the drug prescribed.

(B) Application to medical history information

Effective on and after such date as the Secretary specifies and after the establishment of appropriate standards to carry out this subparagraph, the program shall provide for the electronic transmittal in a manner similar to the manner under subparagraph (A) of information that relates to the medical history concerning the individual and related to a covered part D drug being prescribed or dispensed, upon request of the professional or pharmacist involved.

(C) Limitations

Information shall only be disclosed under subparagraph (A) or (B) if the disclosure of such information is permitted under the Federal regulations (concerning the privacy of individually identifiable health information) promulgated under section 264(c) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996.

(D) Timing

To the extent feasible, the information exchanged under this paragraph shall be on an interactive, real-time basis.

(E) Electronic prior authorization

(i) In general

Not later than January 1, 2021, the program shall provide for the secure electronic transmission of—

(I) a prior authorization request from the prescribing health care professional for coverage of a covered part D drug for a part D eligible individual enrolled in a part D plan (as defined in section 1395w–133(a)(5) of this title) to the PDP sponsor or Medicare Advantage organization offering such plan; and

(II) a response, in accordance with this subparagraph, from such PDP sponsor or Medicare Advantage organization, respectively, to such professional.

(ii) Electronic transmission

(I) Exclusions

For purposes of this subparagraph, a facsimile, a proprietary payer portal that does not meet standards specified by the Secretary, or an electronic form shall not be treated as an electronic transmission described in clause (i).

(II) Standards

In order to be treated, for purposes of this subparagraph, as an electronic transmission described in clause (i), such transmission shall comply with technical standards adopted by the Secretary in consultation with the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs, other standard setting organizations determined appropriate by the Secretary, and stakeholders including PDP sponsors, Medicare Advantage organizations, health care professionals, and health information technology software vendors.

(III) Application

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, for purposes of this subparagraph, the Secretary may require the use of such standards adopted under subclause (II) in lieu of any other applicable standards for an electronic transmission described in clause (i) for a covered part D drug for a part D eligible individual.

(3) Standards

(A) In general

The Secretary shall provide consistent with this subsection for the promulgation of uniform standards relating to the requirements for electronic prescription drug programs under paragraph (2).

(B) Objectives

Such standards shall be consistent with the objectives of improving—

(i) patient safety;

(ii) the quality of care provided to patients; and

(iii) efficiencies, including cost savings, in the delivery of care.

(C) Design criteria

Such standards shall—

(i) be designed so that, to the extent practicable, the standards do not impose an undue administrative burden on prescribing health care professionals and dispensing pharmacies and pharmacists;

(ii) be compatible with standards established under part C of subchapter XI, standards established under subsection (b)(2)(B)(i), and with general health information technology standards; and

(iii) be designed so that they permit electronic exchange of drug labeling and drug listing information maintained by the Food and Drug Administration and the National Library of Medicine.

(D) Permitting use of appropriate messaging

Such standards shall allow for the messaging of information only if it relates to the appropriate prescribing of drugs, including quality assurance measures and systems referred to in subsection (c)(1)(B).

(E) Permitting patient designation of dispensing pharmacy

(i) In general

Consistent with clause (ii), such standards shall permit a part D eligible individual to designate a particular pharmacy to dispense a prescribed drug.

(ii) No change in benefits

Clause (i) shall not be construed as affecting—

(I) the access required to be provided to pharmacies by a prescription drug plan; or

(II) the application of any differences in benefits or payments under such a plan based on the pharmacy dispensing a covered part D drug.

(4) Development, promulgation, and modification of standards

(A) Initial standards

Not later than September 1, 2005, the Secretary shall develop, adopt, recognize, or modify initial uniform standards relating to the requirements for electronic prescription drug programs described in paragraph (2) taking into consideration the recommendations (if any) from the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (as established under section 242k(k) of this title) under subparagraph (B).

(B) Role of NCVHS

The National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics shall develop recommendations for uniform standards relating to such requirements in consultation with the following:

(i) Standard setting organizations (as defined in section 1320d(8) of this title4

(ii) Practicing physicians.

(iii) Hospitals.

(iv) Pharmacies.

(v) Practicing pharmacists.

(vi) Pharmacy benefit managers.

(vii) State boards of pharmacy.

(viii) State boards of medicine.

(ix) Experts on electronic prescribing.

(x) Other appropriate Federal agencies.

(C) Pilot project to test initial standards

(i) In general

During the 1-year period that begins on January 1, 2006, the Secretary shall conduct a pilot project to test the initial standards developed under subparagraph (A) prior to the promulgation of the final uniform standards under subparagraph (D) in order to provide for the efficient implementation of the requirements described in paragraph (2).

(ii) Exception

Pilot testing of standards is not required under clause (i) where there already is adequate industry experience with such standards, as determined by the Secretary after consultation with effected standard setting organizations and industry users.

(iii) Voluntary participation of physicians and pharmacies

In order to conduct the pilot project under clause (i), the Secretary shall enter into agreements with physicians, physician groups, pharmacies, hospitals, PDP sponsors, MA organizations, and other appropriate entities under which health care professionals electronically transmit prescriptions to dispensing pharmacies and pharmacists in accordance with such standards.

(iv) Evaluation and report

(I) Evaluation

The Secretary shall conduct an evaluation of the pilot project conducted under clause (i).

(II) Report to Congress

Not later than April 1, 2007, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report on the evaluation conducted under subclause (I).

(D) Final standards

Based upon the evaluation of the pilot project under subparagraph (C)(iv)(I) and not later than April 1, 2008, the Secretary shall promulgate uniform standards relating to the requirements described in paragraph (2).

(5) Relation to State laws

The standards promulgated under this subsection shall supersede any State law or regulation that—

(A) is contrary to the standards or restricts the ability to carry out this part; and

(B) pertains to the electronic transmission of medication history and of information on eligibility, benefits, and prescriptions with respect to covered part D drugs under this part.

(6) Establishment of safe harbor

The Secretary, in consultation with the Attorney General, shall promulgate regulations that provide for a safe harbor from sanctions under paragraphs (1) and (2) of section 1320a–7b(b) of this title and an exception to the prohibition under subsection (a)(1) of section 1395nn of this title with respect to the provision of nonmonetary remuneration (in the form of hardware, software, or information technology and training services) necessary and used solely to receive and transmit electronic prescription information in accordance with the standards promulgated under this subsection—

(A) in the case of a hospital, by the hospital to members of its medical staff;

(B) in the case of a group practice (as defined in section 1395nn(h)(4) of this title), by the practice to prescribing health care professionals who are members of such practice; and

(C) in the case of a PDP sponsor or MA organization, by the sponsor or organization to pharmacists and pharmacies participating in the network of such sponsor or organization, and to prescribing health care professionals.

(7) Requirement of e-prescribing for controlled substances

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), a prescription for a covered part D drug under a prescription drug plan (or under an MA–PD plan) for a schedule II, III, IV, or V controlled substance shall be transmitted by a health care practitioner electronically in accordance with an electronic prescription drug program that meets the requirements of paragraph (2).

(B) Exception for certain circumstances

The Secretary shall, through rulemaking, specify circumstances and processes by which the Secretary may waive the requirement under subparagraph (A), with respect to a covered part D drug, including in the case of—

(i) a prescription issued when the practitioner and dispensing pharmacy are the same entity;

(ii) a prescription issued that cannot be transmitted electronically under the most recently implemented version of the National Council for Prescription Drug Programs SCRIPT Standard;

(iii) a prescription issued by a practitioner who received a waiver or a renewal thereof for a period of time as determined by the Secretary, not to exceed one year, from the requirement to use electronic prescribing due to demonstrated economic hardship, technological limitations that are not reasonably within the control of the practitioner, or other exceptional circumstance demonstrated by the practitioner;

(iv) a prescription issued by a practitioner under circumstances in which, notwithstanding the practitioner's ability to submit a prescription electronically as required by this subsection, such practitioner reasonably determines that it would be impractical for the individual involved to obtain substances prescribed by electronic prescription in a timely manner, and such delay would adversely impact the individual's medical condition involved;

(v) a prescription issued by a practitioner prescribing a drug under a research protocol;

(vi) a prescription issued by a practitioner for a drug for which the Food and Drug Administration requires a prescription to contain elements that are not able to be included in electronic prescribing, such as a drug with risk evaluation and mitigation strategies that include elements to assure safe use;

(vii) a prescription issued by a practitioner—

(I) for an individual who receives hospice care under this subchapter; and

(II) that is not covered under the hospice benefit under this subchapter; and


(viii) a prescription issued by a practitioner for an individual who is—

(I) a resident of a nursing facility (as defined in section 1396r(a) of this title); and

(II) dually eligible for benefits under this subchapter and subchapter XIX.

(C) Dispensing

(i) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as requiring a sponsor of a prescription drug plan under this part, MA organization offering an MA–PD plan under part C, or a pharmacist to verify that a practitioner, with respect to a prescription for a covered part D drug, has a waiver (or is otherwise exempt) under subparagraph (B) from the requirement under subparagraph (A).

(ii) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as affecting the ability of the plan to cover or the pharmacists' ability to continue to dispense covered part D drugs from otherwise valid written, oral, or fax prescriptions that are consistent with laws and regulations.

(iii) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed as affecting the ability of an individual who is being prescribed a covered part D drug to designate a particular pharmacy to dispense the covered part D drug to the extent consistent with the requirements under subsection (b)(1) and under this paragraph.

(D) Enforcement

The Secretary shall, through rulemaking, have authority to enforce and specify appropriate penalties for non-compliance with the requirement under subparagraph (A).

(f) Grievance mechanism

Each PDP sponsor shall provide meaningful procedures for hearing and resolving grievances between the sponsor (including any entity or individual through which the sponsor provides covered benefits) and enrollees with prescription drug plans of the sponsor under this part in accordance with section 1395w–22(f) of this title.

(g) Coverage determinations and reconsiderations

(1) Application of coverage determination and reconsideration provisions

A PDP sponsor shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (1) through (3) of section 1395w–22(g) of this title with respect to covered benefits under the prescription drug plan it offers under this part in the same manner as such requirements apply to an MA organization with respect to benefits it offers under an MA plan under part C.

(2) Request for a determination for the treatment of tiered formulary drug

In the case of a prescription drug plan offered by a PDP sponsor that provides for tiered cost-sharing for drugs included within a formulary and provides lower cost-sharing for preferred drugs included within the formulary, a part D eligible individual who is enrolled in the plan may request an exception to the tiered cost-sharing structure. Under such an exception, a nonpreferred drug could be covered under the terms applicable for preferred drugs if the prescribing physician determines that the preferred drug for treatment of the same condition either would not be as effective for the individual or would have adverse effects for the individual or both. A PDP sponsor shall have an exceptions process under this paragraph consistent with guidelines established by the Secretary for making a determination with respect to such a request. Denial of such an exception shall be treated as a coverage denial for purposes of applying subsection (h).

(h) Appeals

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), a PDP sponsor shall meet the requirements of paragraphs (4) and (5) of section 1395w–22(g) of this title with respect to benefits (including a determination related to the application of tiered cost-sharing described in subsection (g)(2)) in a manner similar (as determined by the Secretary) to the manner such requirements apply to an MA organization with respect to benefits under the original medicare fee-for-service program option it offers under an MA plan under part C. In applying this paragraph only the part D eligible individual shall be entitled to bring such an appeal.

(2) Limitation in cases on nonformulary determinations

A part D eligible individual who is enrolled in a prescription drug plan offered by a PDP sponsor may appeal under paragraph (1) a determination not to provide for coverage of a covered part D drug that is not on the formulary under the plan only if the prescribing physician determines that all covered part D drugs on any tier of the formulary for treatment of the same condition would not be as effective for the individual as the nonformulary drug, would have adverse effects for the individual, or both.

(3) Treatment of nonformulary determinations

If a PDP sponsor determines that a plan provides coverage for a covered part D drug that is not on the formulary of the plan, the drug shall be treated as being included on the formulary for purposes of section 1395w–102(b)(4)(C)(i) of this title.

(i) Privacy, confidentiality, and accuracy of enrollee records

The provisions of section 1395w–22(h) of this title shall apply to a PDP sponsor and prescription drug plan in the same manner as it applies to an MA organization and an MA plan.

(j) Treatment of accreditation

Subparagraph (A) of section 1395w–22(e)(4) of this title (relating to treatment of accreditation) shall apply to a PDP sponsor under this part with respect to the following requirements, in the same manner as it applies to an MA organization with respect to the requirements in subparagraph (B) (other than clause (vii) thereof) of such section:

(1) Subsection (b) of this section (relating to access to covered part D drugs).

(2) Subsection (c) of this section (including quality assurance and medication therapy management).

(3) Subsection (i) of this section (relating to confidentiality and accuracy of enrollee records).

(k) Public disclosure of pharmaceutical prices for equivalent drugs

(1) In general

A PDP sponsor offering a prescription drug plan shall provide that each pharmacy that dispenses a covered part D drug shall inform an enrollee of any differential between the price of the drug to the enrollee and the price of the lowest priced generic covered part D drug under the plan that is therapeutically equivalent and bioequivalent and available at such pharmacy.

(2) Timing of notice

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraph (B), the information under paragraph (1) shall be provided at the time of purchase of the drug involved, or, in the case of dispensing by mail order, at the time of delivery of such drug.

(B) Waiver

The Secretary may waive subparagraph (A) in such circumstances as the Secretary may specify.

(l) Requirements with respect to sales and marketing activities

The following provisions shall apply to a PDP sponsor (and the agents, brokers, and other third parties representing such sponsor) in the same manner as such provisions apply to a Medicare Advantage organization (and the agents, brokers, and other third parties representing such organization):

(1) The prohibition under section 1395w–21(h)(4)(C) of this title on conducting activities described in section 1395w–21(j)(1) of this title.

(2) The requirement under section 1395w–21(h)(4)(D) of this title to conduct activities described in section 1395w–21(j)(2) of this title in accordance with the limitations established under such subsection.

(3) The inclusion of the plan type in the plan name under section 1395w–21(h)(6) of this title.

(4) The requirements regarding the appointment of agents and brokers and compliance with State information requests under subparagraphs (A) and (B), respectively, of section 1395w–21(h)(7) of this title.

(m) 5 Prohibition on limiting certain information on drug prices

A PDP sponsor and a Medicare Advantage organization shall ensure that each prescription drug plan or MA–PD plan offered by the sponsor or organization does not restrict a pharmacy that dispenses a prescription drug or biological from informing, nor penalize such pharmacy for informing, an enrollee in such plan of any differential between the negotiated price of, or copayment or coinsurance for, the drug or biological to the enrollee under the plan and a lower price the individual would pay for the drug or biological if the enrollee obtained the drug without using any health insurance coverage.

(m) 5 Program integrity transparency measures

For program integrity transparency measures applied with respect to prescription drug plan and MA plans, see section 1395w–28(i) of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title XVIII, §1860D–4, as added Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §101(a)(2), Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2082; amended Pub. L. 110–275, title I, §§103(a)(2), (b)(2), (c)(2), (d)(2), 176, July 15, 2008, 122 Stat. 2499–2501, 2581; Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §§3307(a), 3310(a), 3312(a), title X, §10328(a), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 471, 475, 476, 964; Pub. L. 114–10, title V, §507, Apr. 16, 2015, 129 Stat. 168; Pub. L. 114–198, title VII, §704(a)(1), (2), (b), July 22, 2016, 130 Stat. 742–748; Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title III, §50354, Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 213; Pub. L. 115–262, §2(a), Oct. 10, 2018, 132 Stat. 3670; Pub. L. 115–271, title II, §§2003(a), 2004, 2006, 2007(a), title VI, §§6062, 6063(c)–6065, 6102, 6103(b), Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3926, 3928, 3930, 3986, 3989, 4004, 4005; Pub. L. 116–136, div. A, title III, §3714(a), Mar. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 424.)

Applicability of Amendments

Amendment of section by section 2003(a) of Pub. L. 115–271 applicable to coverage of drugs prescribed on or after Jan. 1, 2021. See 2018 Amendment note below.

Amendment of section by section 2007(a) of Pub. L. 115–271 applicable beginning not later than Jan. 1, 2021. See 2018 Amendment note below.

References in Text

Section 6052 of the SUPPORT for Patients and Communities Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(D)(v)(I), is section 6052 of title VI of Pub. L. 115–271, which is set out as a note under this section.

Section 264(c) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, referred to in subsecs. (c)(5)(J) and (e)(2)(C), is section 264(c) of Pub. L. 104–191, which is set out as a note under section 1320d–2 of this title.

Section 119 of the Medicare Improvements for Patients and Providers Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (c)(5)(K)(ii), is section 119 of Pub. L. 110–275, which is set out as a note under section 1395b–3 of this title.

Amendments

2020—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 116–136 added par. (4).

2018—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–271, §6102(1), inserted ", subject to subparagraph (C)," before "including".

Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(vi). Pub. L. 115–271, §6102(2), added cl. (vi).

Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–271, §6102(3), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (c)(1)(F). Pub. L. 115–271, §2004(1), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (c)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 115–271, §6064, substituted "are the following:" for "are part D eligible individuals who—" in introductory provisions, added subcls. (I) and (II), redesignated former subcls. (I) to (III) as items (aa) to (cc), respectively, of subcl. (I), and realigned margins.

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 115–271, §6103(b), struck out "may include elements that promote" after "program" in introductory provisions, added cls. (i) and (ii), redesignated former cls. (i) to (iii) as subcls. (I) to (III), respectively, of cl. (i), and realigned margins.

Subsec. (c)(4)(D). Pub. L. 115–271, §6065, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (c)(5)(A). Pub. L. 115–271, §2004(2), inserted "(and for plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2022, a PDP sponsor shall)" after "A PDP sponsor may".

Subsec. (c)(5)(B)(ii)(III), (iii)(IV). Pub. L. 115–271, §2007(a)(1), substituted ", including notice that if on reconsideration a PDP sponsor affirms its denial, in whole or in part, the case shall be automatically forwarded to the independent, outside entity contracted with the Secretary for review and resolution" for "and the option of an automatic escalation to external review".

Subsec. (c)(5)(C)(i). Pub. L. 115–271, §2006(1), substituted "Except as provided in clause (v), for purposes" for "For purposes".

Subsec. (c)(5)(C)(v). Pub. L. 115–271, §2006(2), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (c)(5)(E). Pub. L. 115–271, §2007(a)(2), substituted "and if on reconsideration a PDP sponsor affirms its denial, in whole or in part, the case shall be automatically forwarded to the independent, outside entity contracted with the Secretary for review and resolution." for "and the option of an automatic escalation to external review to the extent provided by the Secretary."

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 115–123 added par. (6) relating to providing prescription drug plans with parts A and B claims data to promote the appropriate use of medications and improve health outcomes.

Subsec. (e)(2)(E). Pub. L. 115–271, §6062, added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (e)(7). Pub. L. 115–271, §2003(a), added par. (7).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 115–271, §6063(c), added subsec. (m) relating to program integrity transparency measures.

Pub. L. 115–262 added subsec. (m) relating to prohibition on limiting certain information on drug prices.

2016—Subsec. (a)(1)(B)(v). Pub. L. 114–198, §704(a)(2), added cl. (v).

Subsec. (c)(1)(E). Pub. L. 114–198, §704(b)(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 114–198, §704(a)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 114–198, §704(b)(2), added par. (6).

2015—Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 114–10 added par. (4).

2010—Subsec. (b)(3)(G). Pub. L. 111–148, §3307(a), amended subpar. (G) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (G) related to required inclusion of drugs in certain categories and classes.

Subsec. (b)(3)(H). Pub. L. 111–148, §3312(a), added subpar. (H).

Subsec. (c)(2)(C) to (G). Pub. L. 111–148, §10328(a), added subpars. (C) to (E) and redesignated former subpars. (C) to(E) as (E) to (G), respectively.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 111–148, §3310(a), added par. (3).

2008—Subsec. (b)(3)(C)(i). Pub. L. 110–275, §176(1), substituted "Subject to subparagraph (G), the formulary" for "The formulary".

Subsec. (b)(3)(G). Pub. L. 110–275, §176(2), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 110–275, §103(a)(2), added subsec. (l).

Subsec. (l)(2). Pub. L. 110–275, §103(b)(2), added par. (2).

Subsec. (l)(3). Pub. L. 110–275, §103(c)(2), added par. (3).

Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 110–275, §103(d)(2), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–271, title II, §2003(b), Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3928, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to coverage of drugs prescribed on or after January 1, 2021."

Pub. L. 115–271, title II, §2007(b), Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3931, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply beginning not later [than] January 1, 2021."

Pub. L. 115–262, §2(b), Oct. 10, 2018, 132 Stat. 3671, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2020."

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–198 applicable to prescription drug plans (and MA–PD plans) for plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2019, see section 704(g)(1) of Pub. L. 114–198, set out as a note under section 1395w–101 of this title.

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3307(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 472, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to plan year 2011 and subsequent plan years."

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3310(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 475, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to plan years beginning on or after January 1, 2012."

Pub. L. 111–148, title III, §3312(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 476, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply to exceptions and appeals on or after January 1, 2012."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by section 103(a)(2) of Pub. L. 110–275 applicable to plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2009, see section 103(a)(3) of Pub. L. 110–275, set out as a note under section 1395w–21 of this title.

Amendment by section 103(b)(2) of Pub. L. 110–275 effective on a date specified by the Secretary (but in no case later than Nov. 15, 2008), see section 103(b)(3) of Pub. L. 110–275, set out as a note under section 1395w–21 of this title.

Amendment by section 103(d)(2) of Pub. L. 110–275 applicable to plan years beginning on or after Jan. 1, 2009, see section 103(d)(3) of Pub. L. 110–275, set out as a note under section 1395w–21 of this title.

Rule of Construction

Pub. L. 111–148, title X, §10328(b), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 965, provided that: "Nothing in this section [amending this section] shall limit the authority of the Secretary of Health and Human Services to modify or broaden requirements for a medication therapy management program under part D of title XVIII of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–101 et seq.] or to study new models for medication therapy management through the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation under section 1115A of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1315a], as added by section 3021 [of Pub. L. 111–148]."

Implementation of 2020 Amendment

Pub. L. 116–136, div. A, title III, §3714(b), Mar. 27, 2020, 134 Stat. 424, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Health and Human Services may implement the amendment made by this section [amending this section] by program instruction or otherwise."

Update of Biometric Component of Multifactor Authentication

Pub. L. 115–271, title II, §2003(c), Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3928, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 24, 2018], the Attorney General shall update the requirements for the biometric component of multifactor authentication with respect to electronic prescriptions of controlled substances."

Grants To Provide Technical Assistance to Outlier Prescribers of Opioids

Pub. L. 115–271, title VI, §6052, Oct. 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 3985, provided that:

"(a) Grants Authorized.—The Secretary of Health and Human Services (in this section referred to as the 'Secretary') shall, through the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services, award grants, contracts, or cooperative agreements to eligible entities for the purposes described in subsection (b).

"(b) Use of Funds.—Grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements awarded under subsection (a) shall be used to support eligible entities through technical assistance—

"(1) to educate and provide outreach to outlier prescribers of opioids about best practices for prescribing opioids;

"(2) to educate and provide outreach to outlier prescribers of opioids about non-opioid pain management therapies; and

"(3) to reduce the amount of opioid prescriptions prescribed by outlier prescribers of opioids.

"(c) Application.—Each eligible entity seeking to receive a grant, contract, or cooperative agreement under subsection (a) shall submit to the Secretary an application, at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

"(d) Geographic Distribution.—In awarding grants, contracts, and cooperative agreements under this section, the Secretary shall prioritize establishing technical assistance resources in each State.

"(e) Definitions.—In this section:

"(1) Eligible entity.—The term 'eligible entity' means—

"(A) an organization—

"(i) that has demonstrated experience providing technical assistance to health care professionals on a State or regional basis; and

"(ii) that has at least—

     "(I) one individual who is a representative of consumers on its governing body; and

     "(II) one individual who is a representative of health care providers on its governing body; or

"(B) an entity that is a quality improvement entity with a contract under part B of title XI of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320c et seq.).

"(2) Outlier prescriber of opioids.—The term 'outlier prescriber of opioids' means, with respect to a period, a prescriber identified by the Secretary under subparagraph (D)(ii) of section 1860D–4(c)(4) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395w–104(c)(4)), as added by section 6065 of this Act, to be an outlier prescriber of opioids for such period.

"(3) Prescribers.—The term 'prescriber' means any health care professional, including a nurse practitioner or physician assistant, who is licensed to prescribe opioids by the State or territory in which such professional practices.

"(f) Funding.—For purposes of implementing this section, $75,000,000 shall be available from the Federal Supplementary Medical Insurance Trust Fund under section 1841 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1395t), to remain available until expended."

Grants to Physicians To Implement Electronic Prescription Drug Programs

Pub. L. 108–173, title I, §108, Dec. 8, 2003, 117 Stat. 2172, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary [of Health and Human Services] is authorized to make grants to physicians for the purpose of assisting such physicians to implement electronic prescription drug programs that comply with the standards promulgated or modified under section 1860D–4(e) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1395w–104(e)], as inserted by section 101(a).

"(b) Awarding of Grants.—

"(1) Application.—No grant may be made under this section except pursuant to a grant application that is submitted and approved in a time, manner, and form specified by the Secretary.

"(2) Considerations and preferences.—In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall—

"(A) give special consideration to physicians who serve a disproportionate number of medicare patients; and

"(B) give preference to physicians who serve a rural or underserved area.

"(3) Limitation on grants.—Only 1 grant may be awarded under this section with respect to any physician or group practice of physicians.

"(c) Terms and Conditions.—

"(1) In general.—Grants under this section shall be made under such terms and conditions as the Secretary specifies consistent with this section.

"(2) Use of grant funds.—Funds provided under grants under this section may be used for any of the following:

"(A) For purchasing, leasing, and installing computer software and hardware, including handheld computer technologies.

"(B) Making upgrades and other improvements to existing computer software and hardware to enable e-prescribing.

"(C) Providing education and training to eligible physician staff on the use of technology to implement the electronic transmission of prescription and patient information.

"(3) Provision of information.—As a condition for the awarding of a grant under this section, an applicant shall provide to the Secretary such information as the Secretary may require in order to—

"(A) evaluate the project for which the grant is made; and

"(B) ensure that funding provided under the grant is expended only for the purposes for which it is made.

"(4) Audit.—The Secretary shall conduct appropriate audits of grants under this section.

"(5) Matching requirement.—The applicant for a grant under this section shall agree, with respect to the costs to be incurred by the applicant in implementing an electronic prescription drug program, to make available (directly or through donations from public or private entities) non-Federal contributions toward such costs in an amount that is not less than 50 percent of such costs. Non-Federal contributions under the previous sentence may be in cash or in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, or services. Amounts provided by the Federal Government, or services assisted or subsidized to any significant extent by the Federal Government, may not be included in determining the amount of such contributions.

"(d) Authorization of Appropriations.—There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $50,000,000 for fiscal year 2007 and such sums as may be necessary for each of fiscal years 2008 and 2009."

1 So in original. Probably means first par. (6).

2 So in original. Two subpars. (E) have been enacted.

3 So in original. Two pars. (6) have been enacted.

4 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

5 So in original. Two subsecs. (m) have been enacted.