[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 7, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part B, subpart 1: stephanie tubbs jones child welfare services program
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42 USC CHAPTER 7, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part B, subpart 1: stephanie tubbs jones child welfare services program
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 7—SOCIAL SECURITYSUBCHAPTER IV—GRANTS TO STATES FOR AID AND SERVICES TO NEEDY FAMILIES WITH CHILDREN AND FOR CHILD-WELFARE SERVICESPart B—Child and Family Services

subpart 1—stephanie tubbs jones child welfare services program

Codification

Pub. L. 110–351, title I, §102(c), Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3956, substituted "Stephanie Tubbs Jones Child Welfare Services Program" for "Child Welfare Services" in subpart heading.

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13711(a)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 649, added subpart 1 heading.

§620. Repealed. Pub. L. 109–288, §6(a), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244

Section, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §420, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 911; amended Pub. L. 92–603, title IV, §412, Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1492; Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(a), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 516; Pub. L. 98–369, div. B, title VI, §2663(c)(8), July 18, 1984, 98 Stat. 1166; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §10401(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2487, authorized appropriations for child welfare services. See section 625 of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, see section 12(a) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 621 of this title.

§621. Purpose

The purpose of this subpart is to promote State flexibility in the development and expansion of a coordinated child and family services program that utilizes community-based agencies and ensures all children are raised in safe, loving families, by—

(1) protecting and promoting the welfare of all children;

(2) preventing the neglect, abuse, or exploitation of children;

(3) supporting at-risk families through services which allow children, where appropriate, to remain safely with their families or return to their families in a timely manner;

(4) promoting the safety, permanence, and well-being of children in foster care and adoptive families; and

(5) providing training, professional development and support to ensure a well-qualified child welfare workforce.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §421, as added Pub. L. 109–288, §6(b)(3), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 621, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §421, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 912, and amended, which related to allotments to States, was renumbered section 423 of act Aug. 14, 1935, by Pub. L. 109–288, §6(b)(2), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244, and transferred to section 623 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–288, §12, Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1255, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 2006 Amendment note set out under section 1305 of this title], the amendments made by this Act shall take effect on October 1, 2006, and shall apply to payments under parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.] for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether regulations to implement the amendments are promulgated by such date.

"(b) Delay Permitted If State Legislation Required.—If the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) is required in order for a State plan developed pursuant to subpart 1 of part B [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq.], or a State plan approved under subpart 2 of part B [42 U.S.C. 629 et seq.] or part E [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.], of title IV of the Social Security Act to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by this Act, the plan shall not be regarded as failing to meet any of the additional requirements before the 1st day of the 1st calendar quarter beginning after the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 2006]. If the State has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.

"(c) Availability of Promoting Safe and Stable Families Resources for Fiscal Year 2006.—Section 3(c) [120 Stat. 1235] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 28, 2006]."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(e)(2), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 915, provided that: "Part B of title IV of the Social Security Act (as added by subsection (c) of this section) [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq.], and the amendments made by subsections (a) and (b) of this section [amending subchapter IV and enacting part A heading] shall become effective on the date this Act is enacted [Jan. 2, 1968]."

Findings

Pub. L. 109–288, §2, Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1233, provided that: "The Congress finds as follows:

"(1) For Federal fiscal year 2004, child protective services (CPS) staff nationwide reported investigating or assessing an estimated 3,000,000 allegations of child maltreatment, and determined that 872,000 children had been abused or neglected by their parents or other caregivers.

"(2) Combined, the Child Welfare Services (CWS) and Promoting Safe and Stable Families (PSSF) programs provide States about $700,000,000 per year, the largest source of targeted Federal funding in the child protection system for services to ensure that children are not abused or neglected and, whenever possible, help children remain safely with their families.

"(3) A 2003 report by the Government Accountability Office (GAO) reported that little research is available on the effectiveness of activities supported by CWS funds—evaluations of services supported by PSSF funds have generally shown little or no effect.

"(4) Further, the Department of Health and Human Services recently completed initial Child and Family Service Reviews (CFSRs) in each State. No State was in full compliance with all measures of the CFSRs. The CFSRs also revealed that States need to work to prevent repeat abuse and neglect of children, improve services provided to families to reduce the risk of future harm (including by better monitoring the participation of families in services), and strengthen upfront services provided to families to prevent unnecessary family break-up and protect children who remain at home.

"(5) Federal policy should encourage States to invest their CWS and PSSF funds in services that promote and protect the welfare of children, support strong, healthy families, and reduce the reliance on out-of-home care, which will help ensure all children are raised in safe, loving families.

"(6) CFSRs also found a strong correlation between frequent caseworker visits with children and positive outcomes for these children, such as timely achievement of permanency and other indicators of child well-being.

"(7) However, a December 2005 report by the Department of Health and Human Services Office of Inspector General found that only 20 States were able to produce reports to show whether caseworkers actually visited children in foster care on at least a monthly basis, despite the fact that nearly all States had written standards suggesting monthly visits were State policy.

"(8) A 2003 GAO report found that the average tenure for a child welfare caseworker is less than 2 years and this level of turnover negatively affects safety and permanency for children.

"(9) Targeting CWS and PSSF funds to ensure children in foster care are visited on at least a monthly basis will promote better outcomes for vulnerable children, including by preventing further abuse and neglect.

"(10) According to the Office of Applied Studies of the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, the annual number of new uses of Methamphetamine, also known as 'meth,' has increased 72 percent over the past decade. According to a study conducted by the National Association of Counties which surveyed 500 county law enforcement agencies in 45 states, 88 percent of the agencies surveyed reported increases in meth related arrests starting 5 years ago.

"(11) According to the 2004 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, nearly 12,000,000 Americans have tried methamphetamine. Meth making operations have been uncovered in all 50 states, but the most wide-spread abuse has been concentrated in the western, southwestern, and Midwestern United States.

"(12) Methamphetamine abuse is on the increase, particularly among women of child-bearing age. This is having an impact on child welfare systems in many States. According to a survey administered by the National Association of Counties ('The Impact of Meth on Children'), conducted in 300 counties in 13 states, meth is a major cause of child abuse and neglect. Forty percent of all the child welfare officials in the survey reported an increase in out-of-home placements because of meth in 2005.

"(13) It is appropriate also to target PSSF funds to address this issue because of the unique strain the meth epidemic puts on child welfare agencies. Outcomes for children affected by meth are enhanced when services provided by law enforcement, child welfare and substance abuse agencies are integrated."

§622. State plans for child welfare services

(a) Joint development

In order to be eligible for payment under this subpart, a State must have a plan for child welfare services which has been developed jointly by the Secretary and the State agency designated pursuant to subsection (b)(1), and which meets the requirements of subsection (b).

(b) Requisite features of State plans

Each plan for child welfare services under this subpart shall—

(1) provide that (A) the individual or agency that administers or supervises the administration of the State's services program under division A 1 of subchapter XX will administer or supervise the administration of the plan (except as otherwise provided in section 103(d) of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980), and (B) to the extent that child welfare services are furnished by the staff of the State agency or local agency administering the plan, a single organizational unit in such State or local agency, as the case may be, will be responsible for furnishing such child welfare services;

(2) provide for coordination between the services provided for children under the plan and the services and assistance provided under division A 1 of subchapter XX, under the State program funded under part A, under the State plan approved under subpart 2 of this part, under the State plan approved under the State plan approved 2 under part E, and under other State programs having a relationship to the program under this subpart, with a view to provision of welfare and related services which will best promote the welfare of such children and their families;

(3) include a description of the services and activities which the State will fund under the State program carried out pursuant to this subpart, and how the services and activities will achieve the purpose of this subpart;

(4) contain a description of—

(A) the steps the State will take to provide child welfare services statewide and to expand and strengthen the range of existing services and develop and implement services to improve child outcomes; and

(B) the child welfare services staff development and training plans of the State;


(5) provide, in the development of services for children, for utilization of the facilities and experience of voluntary agencies in accordance with State and local programs and arrangements, as authorized by the State;

(6) provide that the agency administering or supervising the administration of the plan will furnish such reports, containing such information, and participate in such evaluations, as the Secretary may require;

(7) provide for the diligent recruitment of potential foster and adoptive families that reflect the ethnic and racial diversity of children in the State for whom foster and adoptive homes are needed;

(8) provide assurances that the State—

(A) is operating, to the satisfaction of the Secretary—

(i) a statewide information system from which can be readily determined the status, demographic characteristics, location, and goals for the placement of every child who is (or, within the immediately preceding 12 months, has been) in foster care;

(ii) a case review system (as defined in section 675(5) of this title and in accordance with the requirements of section 675a of this title) for each child receiving foster care under the supervision of the State;

(iii) a service program designed to help children—

(I) where safe and appropriate, return to families from which they have been removed; or

(II) be placed for adoption, with a legal guardian, or, if adoption or legal guardianship is determined not to be appropriate for a child, in some other planned, permanent living arrangement, subject to the requirements of sections 675(5)(C) and 675a(a) of this title, which may include a residential educational program; and


(iv) a preplacement preventive services program designed to help children at risk of foster care placement remain safely with their families; and


(B) has in effect policies and administrative and judicial procedures for children abandoned at or shortly after birth (including policies and procedures providing for legal representation of the children) which enable permanent decisions to be made expeditiously with respect to the placement of the children;


(9) contain a description, developed after consultation with tribal organizations (as defined in section 5304 of title 25) in the State, of the specific measures taken by the State to comply with the Indian Child Welfare Act [25 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.];

(10) contain assurances that the State shall make effective use of cross-jurisdictional resources (including through contracts for the purchase of services), and shall eliminate legal barriers, to facilitate timely adoptive or permanent placements for waiting children;

(11) contain a description of the activities that the State has undertaken for children adopted from other countries, including the provision of adoption and post-adoption services;

(12) provide that the State shall collect and report information on children who are adopted from other countries and who enter into State custody as a result of the disruption of a placement for adoption or the dissolution of an adoption, including the number of children, the agencies who handled the placement or adoption, the plans for the child, and the reasons for the disruption or dissolution;

(13) demonstrate substantial, ongoing, and meaningful collaboration with State courts in the development and implementation of the State plan under this subpart, the State plan approved under subpart 2, and the State plan approved under part E, and in the development and implementation of any program improvement plan required under section 1320a–2a of this title;

(14) not later than October 1, 2007, include assurances that not more than 10 percent of the expenditures of the State with respect to activities funded from amounts provided under this subpart will be for administrative costs;

(15)(A) provides 3 that the State will develop, in coordination and collaboration with the State agency referred to in paragraph (1) and the State agency responsible for administering the State plan approved under subchapter XIX, and in consultation with pediatricians, other experts in health care, and experts in and recipients of child welfare services, a plan for the ongoing oversight and coordination of health care services for any child in a foster care placement, which shall ensure a coordinated strategy to identify and respond to the health care needs of children in foster care placements, including mental health and dental health needs, and shall include an outline of—

(i) a schedule for initial and follow-up health screenings that meet reasonable standards of medical practice;

(ii) how health needs identified through screenings will be monitored and treated, including emotional trauma associated with a child's maltreatment and removal from home;

(iii) how medical information for children in care will be updated and appropriately shared, which may include the development and implementation of an electronic health record;

(iv) steps to ensure continuity of health care services, which may include the establishment of a medical home for every child in care;

(v) the oversight of prescription medicines, including protocols for the appropriate use and monitoring of psychotropic medications;

(vi) how the State actively consults with and involves physicians or other appropriate medical or non-medical professionals in assessing the health and well-being of children in foster care and in determining appropriate medical treatment for the children;

(vii) the procedures and protocols the State has established to ensure that children in foster care placements are not inappropriately diagnosed with mental illness, other emotional or behavioral disorders, medically fragile conditions, or developmental disabilities, and placed in settings that are not foster family homes as a result of the inappropriate diagnoses; and

(viii) steps to ensure that the components of the transition plan development process required under section 675(5)(H) of this title that relate to the health care needs of children aging out of foster care, including the requirements to include options for health insurance, information about a health care power of attorney, health care proxy, or other similar document recognized under State law, and to provide the child with the option to execute such a document, are met; and


(B) subparagraph (A) shall not be construed to reduce or limit the responsibility of the State agency responsible for administering the State plan approved under subchapter XIX to administer and provide care and services for children with respect to whom services are provided under the State plan developed pursuant to this subpart;

(16) provide that, not later than 1 year after September 28, 2006, the State shall have in place procedures providing for how the State programs assisted under this subpart, subpart 2 of this part, or part E would respond to a disaster, in accordance with criteria established by the Secretary which should include how a State would—

(A) identify, locate, and continue availability of services for children under State care or supervision who are displaced or adversely affected by a disaster;

(B) respond, as appropriate, to new child welfare cases in areas adversely affected by a disaster, and provide services in those cases;

(C) remain in communication with caseworkers and other essential child welfare personnel who are displaced because of a disaster;

(D) preserve essential program records; and

(E) coordinate services and share information with other States;


(17) not later than October 1, 2007, describe the State standards for the content and frequency of caseworker visits for children who are in foster care under the responsibility of the State, which, at a minimum, ensure that the children are visited on a monthly basis and that the caseworker visits are well-planned and focused on issues pertinent to case planning and service delivery to ensure the safety, permanency, and well-being of the children;

(18) include a description of the activities that the State has undertaken to reduce the length of time children who have not attained 5 years of age are without a permanent family, and the activities the State undertakes to address the developmental needs of all vulnerable children under 5 years of age who receive benefits or services under this part or part E; and

(19) document steps taken to track and prevent child maltreatment deaths by including—

(A) a description of the steps the State is taking to compile complete and accurate information on the deaths required by Federal law to be reported by the State agency referred to in paragraph (1), including gathering relevant information on the deaths from the relevant organizations in the State including entities such as State vital statistics department, child death review teams, law enforcement agencies, offices of medical examiners, or coroners; and

(B) a description of the steps the State is taking to develop and implement a comprehensive, statewide plan to prevent the fatalities that involves and engages relevant public and private agency partners, including those in public health, law enforcement, and the courts.

(c) Definitions

In this subpart:

(1) Administrative costs

The term "administrative costs" means costs for the following, but only to the extent incurred in administering the State plan developed pursuant to this subpart: procurement, payroll management, personnel functions (other than the portion of the salaries of supervisors attributable to time spent directly supervising the provision of services by caseworkers), management, maintenance and operation of space and property, data processing and computer services, accounting, budgeting, auditing, and travel expenses (except those related to the provision of services by caseworkers or the oversight of programs funded under this subpart).

(2) Other terms

For definitions of other terms used in this part, see section 675 of this title.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §422, as added and amended Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), (d), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 912, 915; Pub. L. 93–647, §3(a)(6), (7), (h), Jan. 4, 1975, 88 Stat. 2348, 2349; Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(a), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 517; Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §10403(b)(1), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2488; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13711(b)(1), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 103–382, title V, §554, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4057; Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §§202(a), 204(a), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4453, 4456; Pub. L. 104–193, title I, §108(b), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2165; Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §5592(a)(1)(A), (2), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 644; Pub. L. 105–89, title I, §102(1), title II, §202(a), Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2117, 2125; Pub. L. 105–200, title IV, §410(b), July 16, 1998, 112 Stat. 673; Pub. L. 106–279, title II, §205, Oct. 6, 2000, 114 Stat. 837; Pub. L. 109–171, title VII, §7401(b), Feb. 8, 2006, 120 Stat. 150; Pub. L. 109–239, §13, July 3, 2006, 120 Stat. 514; Pub. L. 109–288, §§6(c), 7(a), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244, 1248; Pub. L. 110–351, title II, §205, Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3961; Pub. L. 111–148, title II, §2955(c), title VI, §6703(d)(2)(B), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 352, 803; Pub. L. 112–34, title I, §101(b), Sept. 30, 2011, 125 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 113–183, title I, §112(a)(2), (b)(2)(A)(i), Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1926, 1927; Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title VII, §§50732, 50743(a), 50772, Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 251, 260, 268.)

References in Text

Division A of subchapter XX, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), (2), was in the original a reference to subtitle 1 of title XX, which was translated as if referring to subtitle A of title XX of the Social Security Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Title XX of the Act, enacting subchapter XX of this chapter, does not contain a subtitle 1.

Section 103(d) of the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is section 103(d) of Pub. L. 96–272, which is set out as a note below.

The Indian Child Welfare Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(9), probably means the Indian Child Welfare Act of 1978, Pub. L. 95–608, Nov. 8, 1978, 92 Stat. 3069, which is classified principally to chapter 21 (§1901 et seq.) of Title 25, Indians. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1901 of Title 25 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(15)(A)(vii), (viii). Pub. L. 115–123, §50743(a), added cl. (vii) and redesignated former cl. (vii) as (viii).

Subsec. (b)(18). Pub. L. 115–123, §50772, substituted "all vulnerable children under 5 years of age" for "such children".

Subsec. (b)(19). Pub. L. 115–123, §50732, amended par. (19) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (19) read as follows: "contain a description of the sources used to compile information on child maltreatment deaths required by Federal law to be reported by the State agency referred to in paragraph (1), and to the extent that the compilation does not include information on such deaths from the State vital statistics department, child death review teams, law enforcement agencies, or offices of medical examiners or coroners, the State shall describe why the information is not so included and how the State will include the information."

2014—Subsec. (b)(8)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 113–183, §112(b)(2)(A)(i), inserted "and in accordance with the requirements of section 675a of this title" after "section 675(5) of this title".

Subsec. (b)(8)(A)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 113–183, §112(a)(2), inserted ", subject to the requirements of sections 675(5)(C) and 675a(a) of this title" after "arrangement".

2011—Subsec. (b)(15)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 112–34, §101(b)(1), inserted ", including emotional trauma associated with a child's maltreatment and removal from home" before the semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(15)(A)(v). Pub. L. 112–34, §101(b)(2), inserted ", including protocols for the appropriate use and monitoring of psychotropic medications" before the semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(18). Pub. L. 112–34, §101(b)(3), added par. (18).

Subsec. (b)(19). Pub. L. 112–34, §101(b)(4), added par. (19).

2010—Subsec. (b)(1), (2). Pub. L. 111–148, §6703(d)(2)(B), inserted "division A of" before "subchapter XX".

Subsec. (b)(15)(A)(vii). Pub. L. 111–148, §2955(c), added cl. (vii).

2008—Subsec. (b)(15). Pub. L. 110–351 amended par. (15) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (15) read as follows: "describe how the State actively consults with and involves physicians or other appropriate medical professionals in—

"(A) assessing the health and well-being of children in foster care under the responsibility of the State; and

"(B) determining appropriate medical treatment for the children;".

2006—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(A), added par. (3) and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "provide that the standards and requirements imposed with respect to child day care under subchapter XX of this chapter shall apply with respect to day care services under this subpart, except insofar as eligibility for such services is involved;".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(A), (B), added par. (4) and struck out former par. (4) which read as follows: "provide for the training and effective use of paid paraprofessional staff, with particular emphasis on the full-time or part-time employment of persons of low income, as community service aides, in the administration of the plan, and for the use of nonpaid or partially paid volunteers in providing services and in assisting any advisory committees established by the State agency;".

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(A), (C), redesignated par. (7) as (5) and struck out former par. (5) which read as follows: "contain a description of the services to be provided and specify the geographic areas where such services will be available;".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(B), (C), redesignated par. (8) as (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "contain a description of the steps which the State will take to provide child welfare services and to make progress in—

"(A) covering additional political subdivisions,

"(B) reaching additional children in need of services, and

"(C) expanding and strengthening the range of existing services and developing new types of services,

along with a description of the State's child welfare services staff development and training plans;".

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(C), redesignated par. (9) as (7). Former par. (7) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (b)(8), (9). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(G), redesignated pars. (10) and (11) as (8) and (9), respectively. Former pars. (8) and (9) redesignated (6) and (7), respectively.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(G), redesignated par. (12) as (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (8).

Subsec. (b)(10)(A). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(D)(i), (iii), redesignated subpar. (B) as (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "since June 17, 1980, has completed an inventory of all children who, before the inventory, had been in foster care under the responsibility of the State for 6 months or more, which determined—

"(i) the appropriateness of, and necessity for, the foster care placement;

"(ii) whether the child could or should be returned to the parents of the child or should be freed for adoption or other permanent placement; and

"(iii) the services necessary to facilitate the return of the child or the placement of the child for adoption or legal guardianship;".

Subsec. (b)(10)(B). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(D)(iv), added subpar. (B). Former subpar. (B) redesignated (A).

Subsec. (b)(10)(B)(iii)(II). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(D)(ii), inserted ", which may include a residential educational program" after "in some other planned, permanent living arrangement".

Subsec. (b)(10)(C). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(D)(iv), struck out subpar. (C) which read as follows:

"(i) has reviewed (or within 12 months after October 31, 1994, will review) State policies and administrative and judicial procedures in effect for children abandoned at or shortly after birth (including policies and procedures providing for legal representation of such children); and

"(ii) is implementing (or within 24 months after October 31, 1994, will implement) such policies and procedures as the State determines, on the basis of the review described in clause (i), to be necessary to enable permanent decisions to be made expeditiously with respect to the placement of such children;".

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(G), redesignated par. (13) as (11). Former par. (11) redesignated (9).

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(G), redesignated par. (14) as (12). Former par. (12) redesignated (10).

Pub. L. 109–239 substituted "make" for "develop plans for the" and inserted "(including through contracts for the purchase of services), and shall eliminate legal barriers," after "resources".

Subsec. (b)(13). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(G), redesignated par. (15) as (13). Former par. (13) redesignated (11).

Subsec. (b)(14). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(E), (F), (H), added par. (14). Former par. (14) redesignated (12).

Subsec. (b)(15). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(E), (F), (H), added par. (15). Former par. (15) redesignated (13).

Pub. L. 109–171 added par. (15).

Subsec. (b)(16). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(1)(E), (F), (H), added par. (16).

Subsec. (b)(17). Pub. L. 109–288, §7(a), added par. (17).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(c)(2), added subsec. (c).

2000—Subsec. (b)(13), (14). Pub. L. 106–279 added pars. (13) and (14).

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–200 struck out "under" before "the State plan approved under part E".

1997—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 105–33, §5592(a)(2), made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 103–432, §204(a)(2). See 1994 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 105–33, §5592(a)(1)(A)(iii), redesignated par. (9), relating to providing assurances that the State has met certain requirements to protect foster children, as (10).

Pub. L. 105–33, §5592(a)(1)(A)(i), amended par. (9) relating to diligent recruitment of potential foster and adoptive families by substituting a semicolon for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 105–33, §5592(a)(1)(A)(iii), redesignated par. (9), relating to providing assurances that the State has met certain requirements to protect foster children, as (10). Former par. (10) redesignated (11).

Subsec. (b)(10)(B). Pub. L. 105–89, §102(1), in cl. (iii)(I) inserted "safe and" after "where" and in cl. (iv) inserted "safely" after "remain".

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 105–33, §5592(a)(1)(A)(ii), redesignated par. (10) as (11).

Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 105–89, §202(a), added par. (12).

1996—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–193 substituted "program funded under part A" for "plan approved under part A of this subchapter" and "under the State plan approved under part E" for "part E of this subchapter".

1994—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 103–432, §202(a)(1), which directed amendment of par. (7) by striking out "and" at end, could not be executed because "and" did not appear at end subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 103–382, §554(1). See below.

Pub. L. 103–382, §554(1), struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 103–432, §204(a)(1), struck out "and" at end.

Pub. L. 103–432, §202(a)(2), which directed amendment of par. (8) by substituting "; and" for period at end, could not be executed because there was no period at end subsequent to amendment by Pub. L. 103–382, §554(2). See below.

Pub. L. 103–382, §554(2), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 103–432, §204(a)(2), as amended by Pub. L. 105–33, §5592(a)(2), substituted "; and" for period at end of par. (9) relating to providing assurances that the State has met certain requirements to protect foster children.

Pub. L. 103–432, §202(a)(3), added par. (9) relating to providing assurances that the State has met certain requirements to protect foster children.

Pub. L. 103–382, §554(3), added par. (9) relating to diligent recruitment of potential foster and adoptive families.

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 103–432, §204(a)(3), added par. (10).

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66, §13711(b)(1)(A), substituted "under this subpart" for "under this part".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–66, §13711(b)(1)(B), substituted "this subpart" for "this part" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–66, §13711(b)(1)(B), (C), inserted "under the State plan approved under subpart 2 of this part," after "part A of this subchapter," and substituted "under this subpart" for "under this part".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 103–66, §13711(b)(1)(B), substituted "under this subpart" for "under this part".

1989—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 101–239 substituted "the individual or agency that administers or supervises the administration of the State's services program under subchapter XX" for "the individual or agency designated pursuant to section 1397b(d)(1)(C) of this title to administer or supervise the administration of the State's services program".

1980Pub. L. 96–272 substituted provisions relating to State plans covering child welfare services for provisions relating to the payments to States and the computation of amounts.

1975—Subsec. (a)(1)(A)(i). Pub. L. 93–647, §3(a)(6), substituted "the individual or agency designated pursuant to section 1397b(d)(1)(C) of this title to administer or supervise the administration of the State's services program" for "the State agency designated pursuant to section 602(a)(3) of this title to administer or supervise the administration of the plan of the State approved under part A of this subchapter".

Subsec. (a)(i)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 93–647, §3(a)(7), substituted "a single organizational unit in such State or local agency, as the case may be," for "the organizational unit in such State or local agency established pursuant to section 602(a)(15) of this title".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 93–647, §3(h), added subsec. (c).

1968—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 90–248, §240(d), added subpar. (A) and redesignated former subpars. (A) and (B) as (B) and (C), respectively.

Effective Date of 2018 Amendment

Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title VII, §50734, Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 252, provided that:

"(a) Effective Dates.—

"(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), subject to subsection (b), the amendments made by parts I through III of this subtitle [parts I–III (§§50711–50734) of subtitle A of title VII of div. E of Pub. L. 115–123, amending this section and sections 629 to 629b, 629g, 670 to 672, 674, 675, 676, 679c, and 1308 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2018.

"(2) Exceptions.—The amendments made by sections 50711(d), 50731, and 50733 [amending sections 670, 671, and 676 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 9, 2018].

"(b) Transition Rule.—

"(1) In general.—In the case of a State plan under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.] which the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines requires State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) in order for the plan to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by parts I through III of this subtitle, the State plan shall not be regarded as failing to comply with the requirements of such part solely on the basis of the failure of the plan to meet such additional requirements before the first day of the first calendar quarter beginning after the close of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 9, 2018]. For purposes of the previous sentence, in the case of a State that has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session shall be deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.

"(2) Application to programs operated by indian tribal organizations.—In the case of an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium which the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines requires time to take action necessary to comply with the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by parts I through III of this subtitle (whether the tribe, organization, or tribal consortium has a plan under section 479B of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 679c] or a cooperative agreement or contract entered into with a State), the Secretary shall provide the tribe, organization, or tribal consortium with such additional time as the Secretary determines is necessary for the tribe, organization, or tribal consortium to take the action to comply with the additional requirements before being regarded as failing to comply with the requirements."

Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title VII, §50746, Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 261, provided that:

"(a) Effective Dates.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2) and subsections (b), (c), and (d), the amendments made by this part [part IV (§§50741—50746) of subtitle A of title VII of div. E of Pub. L. 115–123, amending this section and sections 629h, 671, 672, 674, 675a, 676, and 679b of this title] shall take effect as if enacted on January 1, 2018.

"(2) Transition rule.—In the case of a State plan under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.] which the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines requires State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) in order for the plan to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by this part, the State plan shall not be regarded as failing to comply with the requirements of part B or E of title IV of such Act solely on the basis of the failure of the plan to meet the additional requirements before the first day of the first calendar quarter beginning after the close of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 9, 2018]. For purposes of the previous sentence, in the case of a State that has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session shall be deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature.

"(b) Limitation on Federal Financial Participation for Placements That Are Not in Foster Family Homes and Related Provisions.—

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by sections 50741(a), 50741(b), 50741(d), and 50742 [amending sections 671, 672, 674, 675a of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2019.

"(2) State option to delay effective date for not more than 2 years.—If a State requests a delay in the effective date, the Secretary of Health and Human Services shall delay the effective date provided for in paragraph (1) with respect to the State for the amount of time requested by the State, not to exceed 2 years. If the effective date is so delayed for a period with respect to a State under the preceding sentence, then—

"(A) notwithstanding section 50734 [set out as a note above], the date that the amendments made by section 50711(c) [amending section 674 of this title] take effect with respect to the State shall be delayed for the period; and

"(B) in applying section 474(a)(6) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 674(a)(6)] with respect to the State, 'on or after the date this paragraph takes effect with respect to the State' is deemed to be substituted for 'after September 30, 2019' in subparagraph (A)(i)(I) of such section.

"(c) Criminal Records Checks and Checks of Child Abuse and Neglect Registries for Adults Working in Child-care Institutions and Other Group Care Settings.—Subject to subsection (a)(2), the amendments made by section 50745 [amending section 671 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2018.

"(d) Application to States With Waivers.—In the case of a State that, on the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 9, 2018], has in effect a waiver approved under section 1130 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1320a–9), the amendments made by this part shall not apply with respect to the State before the expiration (determined without regard to any extensions) of the waiver to the extent the amendments are inconsistent with the terms of the waiver."

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–183, title I, §112(a)(3), Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1926, provided that:"In the case of children in foster care under the responsibility of an Indian tribe, tribal organization, or tribal consortium (either directly or under supervision of a State), the amendments made by this subsection [amending this section and section 675 of this title] shall not apply until the date that is 3 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 2014]."

Pub. L. 113–183, title I, §112(c), Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1928, provided that:

"(1) In general.—The amendments made by this section [enacting section 675a of this title and amending this section and sections 671 and 675 of this title] shall take effect on the date that is 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 2014].

"(2) Delay permitted if state legislation required.—If the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) is required in order for a State plan developed pursuant to part E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 670 et seq.] to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by this section, the plan shall not be regarded as failing to meet any of the additional requirements before the 1st day of the 1st calendar quarter beginning after the 1st regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 29, 2014]. If the State has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature."

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–34, title I, §107, Sept. 30, 2011, 125 Stat. 378, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this title [enacting section 629m of this title, amending sections 622 to 625, 629a to 629c, 629f to 629h, 673, 675, and 679b of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 629h and 629m of this title], this title and the amendments made by this title shall take effect on October 1, 2011, and shall apply to payments under parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.] for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether regulations to implement the amendments are promulgated by such date.

"(b) Delay Permitted if State Legislation Required.—If the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) is required in order for a State plan developed pursuant to subpart 1 of part B [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq.], or a State plan approved under subpart 2 of part B [42 U.S.C. 629 et seq.] or part E, of title IV of the Social Security Act to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by this title, the plan shall not be regarded as failing to meet any of the additional requirements before the 1st day of the 1st calendar quarter beginning after the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 2011]. If the State has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature."

Effective Date of 2010 Amendment

Pub. L. 111–148, title II, §2955(d), Mar. 23, 2010, 124 Stat. 353, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 675 and 677 of this title] take effect on October 1, 2010."

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–351 effective Oct. 7, 2008, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for quarters beginning on or after such date, with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 601 of Pub. L. 110–351, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288 effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.

Pub. L. 109–239, §14, July 3, 2006, 120 Stat. 514, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section, the amendments made by this Act [enacting section 673c of this title, amending this section and sections 629h, 671, and 675 of this title, and repealing section 673c of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 2006, and shall apply to payments under parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.] for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether regulations to implement the amendments are promulgated by such date.

"(b) Delay Permitted If State Legislation Required.—If the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines that State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) is required in order for a State plan under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by a provision of this Act, the plan shall not be regarded as failing to meet any of the additional requirements before the 1st day of the 1st calendar quarter beginning after the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of the enactment of this Act [July 3, 2006]. If the State has a 2-year legislative session, each year of the session is deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature."

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–171 effective as if enacted on Oct. 1, 2005, except as otherwise provided, see section 7701 of Pub. L. 109–171, set out as a note under section 603 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–279 effective Oct. 6, 2000, with transition rule, see section 505(a)(1), (b) of Pub. L. 106–279, set out as an Effective Dates; Transition Rule note under section 14901 of this title.

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–89, title V, §501, Nov. 19, 1997, 111 Stat. 2136, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act [enacting sections 673b, 678, and 679b of this title, amending this section, sections 603, 629, 629a, 629b, 653, 671 to 673, 674, 675, 677, and 1320a–9 of this title, and sections 645 and 901 of Title 2, The Congress, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 613, 629a, 671, 673, 675, 679b, 1305, 1320a–9, 5111, and 5113 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 670 of this title], the amendments made by this Act take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 1997].

"(b) Delay Permitted if State Legislation Required.—In the case of a State plan under part B or E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.] which the Secretary of Health and Human Services determines requires State legislation (other than legislation appropriating funds) in order for the plan to meet the additional requirements imposed by the amendments made by this Act, the State plan shall not be regarded as failing to comply with the requirements of such part solely on the basis of the failure of the plan to meet such additional requirements before the first day of the first calendar quarter beginning after the close of the first regular session of the State legislature that begins after the date of enactment of this Act [Nov. 19, 1997]. For purposes of the previous sentence, in the case of a State that has a 2-year legislative session, each year of such session shall be deemed to be a separate regular session of the State legislature."

Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §5593, Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 644, provided that: "The amendments made by this chapter [chapter 5 (§§5591–5593) of subtitle F of title V of Pub. L. 105–33, amending this section and sections 624, 625, 628b, 671, and 672 of this title] shall take effect as if included in the enactment of title V of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (Public Law 104–193; 110 Stat. 2277)."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–193 effective July 1, 1997, with transition rules relating to State options to accelerate such date, rules relating to claims, actions, and proceedings commenced before such date, rules relating to closing out of accounts for terminated or substantially modified programs and continuance in office of Assistant Secretary for Family Support, and provisions relating to termination of entitlement under AFDC program, see section 116 of Pub. L. 104–193, as amended, set out as an Effective Date note under section 601 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §202(e), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4454, provided that: "The amendments and repeal made by this section [amending this section and sections 623 to 625 and 672 of this title and repealing section 627 of this title] shall be effective with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after April 1, 1996."

Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §204(b), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4456, provided that: "The amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall be effective with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1995."

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13711(c), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 655, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting sections 629 to 629e of this title and amending this section and sections 623, 628, and 671 of this title] shall be effective with respect to calendar quarters beginning on or after October 1, 1993."

Effective Date of 1989 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §10403(b)(2), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2488, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect as if such amendment had been included in section 1883(e)(1) of the Tax Reform Act of 1986 [Pub. L. 99–514, amending section 1397b of this title] on the date of the enactment of such Act [Oct. 22, 1986]."

Effective Date of 1975 Amendment

Amendment by section 3 of Pub. L. 93–647 effective with respect to payments under sections 603 and 803 of this title for quarters commencing after Sept. 30, 1975, except that amendment by section 3(a) of Pub. L. 93–647 not effective with respect to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, or Guam, see section 7(b) of Pub. L. 93–647, set out as a note under section 303 of this title.

Effective Date of 1968 Amendment; Different State Agencies for Administration of State Plans Under Parts A and B

Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(e)(3), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 916, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) of subsection (d) [amending this section] shall become effective July 1, 1969, except that (A) if on the date of enactment of this Act [Jan. 2, 1968] the agency of a State administering its plan for child-welfare services developed under part B of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq.] is different from the agency of the State designated pursuant to section 402(a)(3) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 602(a)(3)], so much of paragraph (1) of section 422(a) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 622(a)(1)] as precedes subparagraph (B) (as added by paragraph (2) of such subsection (d)) shall not apply with respect to such agencies but only so long as such agencies of the State are different, and (B) if on such date the local agency administering the plan of a State for child-welfare services developed under part B of title IV of the Social Security Act is different from the local agency in such subdivision administering the plan of such State under part A of title IV of such Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], so much of such paragraph (1) as precedes such subparagraph (B) shall not apply with respect to such local agencies but only so long as such local agencies are different."

Purpose

Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title VII, §50702, Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 232, provided that: "The purpose of this subtitle [subtitle A (§§50701—50782) of title VII of div. E of Pub. L. 115–123, amending this section and sections 625, 629 to 629b, 629f to 629h, 629m, 670 to 673, 673b, 674 to 677, 679b, 679c, and 1308 of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 629m, 671, 673, 673b, and 1305 of this title] is to enable States to use Federal funds available under parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq., 670 et seq.] to provide enhanced support to children and families and prevent foster care placements through the provision of mental health and substance abuse prevention and treatment services, in-home parent skill-based programs, and kinship navigator services."

Findings and Purpose

Pub. L. 103–382, title V, §552, Oct. 20, 1994, 108 Stat. 4056, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

"(1) nearly 500,000 children are in foster care in the United States;

"(2) tens of thousands of children in foster care are waiting for adoption;

"(3) 2 years and 8 months is the median length of time that children wait to be adopted;

"(4) child welfare agencies should work to eliminate racial, ethnic, and national origin discrimination and bias in adoption and foster care recruitment, selection, and placement procedures; and

"(5) active, creative, and diligent efforts are needed to recruit foster and adoptive parents of every race, ethnicity, and culture in order to facilitate the placement of children in foster and adoptive homes which will best meet each child's needs.

"(b) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this subpart [subpart 1 of part E of title V of Pub. L. 103–382, enacting section 5115a of this title, amending this section, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1305 of this title] to promote the best interests of children by—

"(1) decreasing the length of time that children wait to be adopted;

"(2) preventing discrimination in the placement of children on the basis of race, color, or national origin; and

"(3) facilitating the identification and recruitment of foster and adoptive families that can meet children's needs."

Guam, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and Commonwealth of Northern Mariana Islands

Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(c), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 521, provided that in the case of Guam, Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, subsec. (b)(1) of this section (as otherwise amended by section 103(a) of Pub. L. 96–272), is deemed to read as follows:

"(1) provide that (A) the State agency designated pursuant to section 602(a)(3) of this title to administer or supervise the administration of the plan of the State approved under part A of this subchapter [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] will administer or supervise the administration of such plan for child welfare services, and (B) to the extent that child welfare services are furnished by the staff of the State agency or local agency administering such plan for child welfare services, the organizational unit in such State or local agency established pursuant to section 602(a)(15) of this title will be responsible for furnishing such child welfare services;".

Administration of State Plan for Child Welfare Services by Non-Designated Agency

Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(d), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 521, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 422(b)(1) of the Social Security Act (as amended by subsection (a) of this section) [42 U.S.C. 622(b)(1)] if on December 1, 1974, the agency of a State administering its plan for child welfare services under part B of title IV of that Act [42 U.S.C. 620 et seq.] was not the agency designated pursuant to section 402(a)(3) of that Act [42 U.S.C. 602(a)(3)], such section 422(b)(1) shall not apply with respect to such agency, but only so long as such agency is not the agency designated under section 2003(d)(1)(C) of that Act [42 U.S.C. 1397b(d)(1)(C)]; and if on December 1, 1974, the local agency administering the plan of a State under part B of title IV of that Act in a subdivision of the State was not the local agency in such subdivision administering the plan of such State under part A of that title [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.], such section 422(b)(1) shall not apply with respect to such local agency, but only so long as such local agency is not the local agency administering the program of the State for the provision of services under title XX of that Act [42 U.S.C. 1397 et seq.]."

Overpayments or Underpayments

Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(f)(3), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 916, provided that in the case of any State which has a plan developed as provided in part 3 of this subchapter as in effect prior to Jan. 2, 1968, sections 721 to 728 of this title, "any overpayment or underpayment which the Secretary determines was made to the State under section 523 of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 723] and with respect to which adjustment has not then already been made under subsection (b) of such section shall, for purposes of section 422 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 622], be considered an overpayment or underpayment (as the case may be) made under section 422 of such Act."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original.

3 So in original. Probably should be "provide".

§623. Allotments to States

(a) In general

The sum appropriated pursuant to section 625 of this title for each fiscal year shall be allotted by the Secretary for use by cooperating State public welfare agencies which have plans developed jointly by the State agency and the Secretary as follows: The Secretary shall first allot $70,000 to each State, and shall then allot to each State an amount which bears the same ratio to the remainder of such sum as the product of (1) the population of the State under the age of twenty-one and (2) the allotment percentage of the State (as determined under this section) bears to the sum of the corresponding products of all the States.

(b) Determination of State allotment percentages

The "allotment percentage" for any State shall be 100 percent less the State percentage; and the State percentage shall be the percentage which bears the same ratio to 50 percent as the per capita income of such State bears to the per capita income of the United States; except that (1) the allotment percentage shall in no case be less than 30 percent or more than 70 percent, and (2) the allotment percentage shall be 70 percent in the case of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa.

(c) Promulgation of State allotment percentages

The allotment percentage for each State shall be promulgated by the Secretary between October 1 and November 30 of each even-numbered year, on the basis of the average per capita income of each State and of the United States for the three most recent calendar years for which satisfactory data are available from the Department of Commerce. Such promulgation shall be conclusive for each of the two fiscal years in the period beginning October 1 next succeeding such promulgation.

(d) United States defined

For purposes of this section, the term "United States" means the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

(e) Reallotment of funds

(1) In general

The amount of any allotment to a State for a fiscal year under the preceding provisions of this section which the State certifies to the Secretary will not be required for carrying out the State plan developed as provided in section 622 of this title shall be available for reallotment from time to time, on such dates as the Secretary may fix, to other States which the Secretary determines—

(A) need sums in excess of the amounts allotted to such other States under the preceding provisions of this section, in carrying out their State plans so developed; and

(B) will be able to so use such excess sums during the fiscal year.

(2) Considerations

The Secretary shall make the reallotments on the basis of the State plans so developed, after taking into consideration—

(A) the population under 21 years of age;

(B) the per capita income of each of such other States as compared with the population under 21 years of age; and

(C) the per capita income of all such other States with respect to which such a determination by the Secretary has been made.

(3) Amounts reallotted to a State deemed part of State allotment

Any amount so reallotted to a State is deemed part of the allotment of the State under this section.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §423, formerly §421, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 912; amended Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(a), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 516; Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9135(b)(2), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–315; renumbered §423 and amended Pub. L. 109–288, §§6(b)(2), (d), 11(a)(1), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244, 1246, 1255; Pub. L. 112–34, title I, §101(d), Sept. 30, 2011, 125 Stat. 371.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 621 of this title prior to renumbering by Pub. L. 109–288.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 623, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §423, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 913, and amended, which related to payment to States, was renumbered section 424 of act Aug. 14, 1935, by Pub. L. 109–288, §6(b)(2), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244, and transferred to section 624 of this title.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–34, which directed substitution of "percent" for "per centum" wherever appearing, was not executed due to prior amendment by Pub. L. 109–288, §11(a)(1)(A). See 2006 Amendment note below.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–288, §11(a)(1)(B), substituted "The Secretary" for "He".

Pub. L. 109–288, §6(d)(1), inserted heading and substituted "section 625" for "section 620".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–288, §11(a)(1)(A), which directed amendment of section by substituting "percent" for "per centum", was executed by making the substitution wherever appearing in subsec. (b), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 109–288, §6(d)(2), inserted heading.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(d)(3), inserted heading.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(d)(4), inserted heading and substituted "50" for "fifty".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(d)(5), added subsec. (e).

1987—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–203 substituted "Guam, and American Samoa" for "and Guam".

1980Pub. L. 96–272 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsecs. (b) to (d).

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–34 effective Oct. 1, 2011, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 107 of Pub. L. 112–34, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288 effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1987 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9135(c), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–315, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1301 and 1397b of this title] shall apply with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after October 1, 1988."

§624. Payment to States

(a) Payment schedule

From the sums appropriated therefor and the allotment under this subpart, subject to the conditions set forth in this section, the Secretary shall from time to time pay to each State that has a plan developed in accordance with section 622 of this title an amount equal to 75 percent of the total sum expended under the plan (including the cost of administration of the plan) in meeting the costs of State, district, county, or other local child welfare services.

(b) Computation and method of payment

The method of computing and making payments under this section shall be as follows:

(1) The Secretary shall, prior to the beginning of each period for which a payment is to be made, estimate the amount to be paid to the State for such period under the provisions of this section.

(2) From the allotment available therefor, the Secretary shall pay the amount so estimated, reduced or increased, as the case may be, by any sum (not previously adjusted under this section) by which he finds that his estimate of the amount to be paid the State for any prior period under this section was greater or less than the amount which should have been paid to the State for such prior period under this section.

(c) Limitation on use of Federal funds for child care, foster care maintenance payments, or adoption assistance payments

The total amount of Federal payments under this subpart for a fiscal year beginning after September 30, 2007, that may be used by a State for expenditures for child care, foster care maintenance payments, or adoption assistance payments shall not exceed the total amount of such payments for fiscal year 2005 that were so used by the State.

(d) Limitation on use by States of non-Federal funds for foster care maintenance payments to match Federal funds

For any fiscal year beginning after September 30, 2007, State expenditures of non-Federal funds for foster care maintenance payments shall not be considered to be expenditures under the State plan developed under this subpart for the fiscal year to the extent that the total of such expenditures for the fiscal year exceeds the total of such expenditures under the State plan developed under this subpart for fiscal year 2005.

(e) Limitation on reimbursement for administrative costs

A payment may not be made to a State under this section with respect to expenditures during a fiscal year for administrative costs, to the extent that the total amount of the expenditures exceeds 10 percent of the total expenditures of the State during the fiscal year for activities funded from amounts provided under this subpart.

(f) Child visitation by caseworkers

(1)(A) Each State shall take such steps as are necessary to ensure that the total number of visits made by caseworkers on a monthly basis to children in foster care under the responsibility of the State during a fiscal year is not less than 90 percent (or, in the case of fiscal year 2015 or thereafter, 95 percent) of the total number of such visits that would occur during the fiscal year if each such child were so visited once every month while in such care.

(B) If the Secretary determines that a State has failed to comply with subparagraph (A) for a fiscal year, then the percentage that would otherwise apply for purposes of subsection (a) for the fiscal year shall be reduced by—

(i) 1, if the number of full percentage points by which the State fell short of the percentage specified in subparagraph (A) is less than 10;

(ii) 3, if the number of full percentage points by which the State fell short, as described in clause (i), is not less than 10 and less than 20; or

(iii) 5, if the number of full percentage points by which the State fell short, as described in clause (i), is not less than 20.


(2)(A) Each State shall take such steps as are necessary to ensure that not less than 50 percent of the total number of visits made by caseworkers to children in foster care under the responsibility of the State during a fiscal year occur in the residence of the child involved.

(B) If the Secretary determines that a State has failed to comply with subparagraph (A) for a fiscal year, then the percentage that would otherwise apply for purposes of subsection (a) for the fiscal year shall be reduced by—

(i) 1, if the number of full percentage points by which the State fell short of the percentage specified in subparagraph (A) is less than 10;

(ii) 3, if the number of full percentage points by which the State fell short, as described in clause (i), is not less than 10 and less than 20; or

(iii) 5, if the number of full percentage points by which the State fell short, as described in clause (i), is not less than 20.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §424, formerly §423, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 913; amended Pub. L. 94–273, §22, Apr. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 379; Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(a), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 518; Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13711(b)(2), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §202(d)(1), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4454; renumbered §424 and amended Pub. L. 109–288, §§6(b)(2), (e)(1), (2)(A), 7(b), 11(a)(2), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244, 1246-1248, 1255; Pub. L. 112–34, title I, §101(c), Sept. 30, 2011, 125 Stat. 370.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 623 of this title prior to renumbering by Pub. L. 109–288.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 624, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §424, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 914; amended Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(a), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 519; Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §202(b), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4454; Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §5592(a)(1)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 644, related to reallotment, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–288, §§6(b)(1), 12(a), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244, 1255, effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date. See section 623(e) of this title.

Amendments

2011—Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 112–34 added subsec. (f) and struck out subsec. (e) relating to caseworker visitation standard.

2006—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 109–288, §11(a)(2), substituted "percent" for "per centum".

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(e)(1), added subsecs. (c) and (d) struck out former subsecs. (c) and (d) which related to prohibited payments and minimum State expenditures, respectively.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 109–288, §7(b), added subsec. (e) relating to caseworker visitation standard.

Pub. L. 109–288, §6(e)(2)(A), added subsec. (e) relating to limitation on reimbursement for administrative costs.

1994—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–432 struck out "and in section 627 of this title" after "set forth in this section".

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted "under this subpart" for "under this part".

1980Pub. L. 96–272 substituted provisions covering payments to States for provisions relating to allotment percentages and Federal share.

1976—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–273 substituted "October" for "July" wherever appearing and "November 30" for "August 31".

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–34 effective Oct. 1, 2011, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 107 of Pub. L. 112–34, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–288, §6(e)(2)(B), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1247, provided that: "The amendment made by subparagraph (A) [amending this section] shall apply to expenditures made on or after October 1, 2007."

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288 effective Oct. 1, 2006, except as otherwise provided, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–432 effective with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after Apr. 1, 1996, see section 202(e) of Pub. L. 103–432, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 effective with respect to calendar quarters beginning on or after Oct. 1, 1993, see section 13711(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

§625. Limitations on authorization of appropriations

To carry out this subpart (other than sections 626, 627, and 628b of this title), there are authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary not more than $325,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2017 through 2021.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §425, as added Pub. L. 109–288, §6(a), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244; amended Pub. L. 110–351, title I, §102(b), Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3956; Pub. L. 112–34, title I, §101(a), Sept. 30, 2011, 125 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 115–123, div. E, title VII, §50752(a), Feb. 9, 2018, 132 Stat. 263.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 625, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §425, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 914; amended Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(a), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 519; Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §202(d)(2), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4454; Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §5592(a)(1)(B), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 644, defined terms for purposes of this subchapter, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 109–288, §§6(a), 12(a), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1244, 1255, effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–123 substituted "2017 through 2021" for "2012 through 2016".

2011Pub. L. 112–34 substituted "2012 through 2016" for "2007 through 2011".

2008Pub. L. 110–351 inserted "(other than sections 626, 627, and 628b of this title)" after "this subpart".

Effective Date of 2011 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–34 effective Oct. 1, 2011, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 107 of Pub. L. 112–34, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–351 effective Oct. 7, 2008, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for quarters beginning on or after such date, with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 601 of Pub. L. 110–351, set out as a note under section 671 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as an Effective Date of 2006 Amendment note under section 621 of this title.

§626. Research, training, or demonstration projects

(a) Authorization of appropriations

There are hereby authorized to be appropriated for each fiscal year such sums as the Congress may determine—

(1) for grants by the Secretary—

(A) to public or other nonprofit institutions of higher learning, and to public or other nonprofit agencies and organizations engaged in research or child-welfare activities, for special research or demonstration projects in the field of child welfare which are of regional or national significance and for special projects for the demonstration of new methods or facilities which show promise of substantial contribution to the advancement of child welfare;

(B) to State or local public agencies responsible for administering, or supervising the administration of, the plan under this part, for projects for the demonstration of the utilization of research (including findings resulting therefrom) in the field of child welfare in order to encourage experimental and special types of welfare services; and

(C) to public or other nonprofit institutions of higher learning for special projects for training personnel for work in the field of child welfare, including traineeships described in section 628a 1 of this title with such stipends and allowances as may be permitted by the Secretary; and


(2) for contracts or jointly financed cooperative arrangements with States and public and other organizations and agencies for the conduct of research, special projects, or demonstration projects relating to such matters.

(b) Payments; advances or reimbursements; installments; conditions

Payments of grants or under contracts or cooperative arrangements under this section may be made in advance or by way of reimbursement, and in such installments, as the Secretary may determine; and shall be made on such conditions as the Secretary finds necessary to carry out the purposes of the grants, contracts, or other arrangements.

(c) Child welfare traineeships

The Secretary may approve an application for a grant to a public or nonprofit institution for higher learning to provide traineeships with stipends under subsection (a)(1)(C) only if the application—

(1) provides assurances that each individual who receives a stipend with such traineeship (in this section referred to as a "recipient") will enter into an agreement with the institution under which the recipient agrees—

(A) to participate in training at a public or private nonprofit child welfare agency on a regular basis (as determined by the Secretary) for the period of the traineeship;

(B) to be employed for a period of years equivalent to the period of the traineeship, in a public or private nonprofit child welfare agency in any State, within a period of time (determined by the Secretary in accordance with regulations) after completing the postsecondary education for which the traineeship was awarded;

(C) to furnish to the institution and the Secretary evidence of compliance with subparagraphs (A) and (B); and

(D) if the recipient fails to comply with subparagraph (A) or (B) and does not qualify for any exception to this subparagraph which the Secretary may prescribe in regulations, to repay to the Secretary all (or an appropriately prorated part) of the amount of the stipend, plus interest, and, if applicable, reasonable collection fees (in accordance with regulations promulgated by the Secretary);


(2) provides assurances that the institution will—

(A) enter into agreements with child welfare agencies for onsite training of recipients;

(B) permit an individual who is employed in the field of child welfare services to apply for a traineeship with a stipend if the traineeship furthers the progress of the individual toward the completion of degree requirements; and

(C) develop and implement a system that, for the 3-year period that begins on the date any recipient completes a child welfare services program of study, tracks the employment record of the recipient, for the purpose of determining the percentage of recipients who secure employment in the field of child welfare services and remain employed in the field.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §426, as added Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(c), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 915; amended Pub. L. 100–203, title IX, §9137, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–319; Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §205(b), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4457; Pub. L. 109–288, §§6(f)(2), 11(b), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1247, 1255.)

References in Text

Section 628a of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1)(C), was transferred and redesignated as subsec. (c) of this section by Pub. L. 109–288, §6(f)(2), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1247.

Codification

Section 628a of this title, which was transferred and redesignated as subsec. (c) of this section by Pub. L. 109–288, was based on act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §429, as added Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §205(a), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4456.

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–288, §11(b), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b) and struck out former subsec. (b) which related to appropriations for demonstration projects for development of alternate care arrangements for infants not requiring hospitalization.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 109–288, §6(f)(2), amended section as amended by Pub. L. 109–288, §11(b), by transferring section 628a of this title and redesignating it as subsec. (c) of this section. See Codification note above.

Pub. L. 109–288, §11(b), redesignated subsec. (c) as (b).

1994—Subsec. (a)(1)(C). Pub. L. 103–432 inserted "described in section 628a of this title" after "including traineeships".

1987—Subsecs. (b), (c). Pub. L. 100–203 added subsec. (b) and redesignated former subsec. (b) as (c).

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288 effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §205(c), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4457, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting section 628a of this title and amending this section] shall apply to grants awarded on or after October 1, 1995."

Appropriations or Grants

Pub. L. 90–248, title II, §240(g), Jan. 2, 1968, 81 Stat. 916, provided that any appropriations or grants made pursuant to section 726 of this title, as in effect prior to Jan. 2, 1968, were to be deemed to have been appropriated or made under this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§627. Family connection grants

(a) In general

The Secretary of Health and Human Services may make matching grants to State, local, or tribal child welfare agencies, private nonprofit organizations that have experience in working with foster children or children in kinship care arrangements, and institutions of higher education (as defined under section 1001 of title 20), for the purpose of helping children who are in, or at risk of entering, foster care reconnect with family members through the implementation of—

(1) a kinship navigator program to assist kinship caregivers in learning about, finding, and using programs and services to meet the needs of the children they are raising and their own needs, and to promote effective partnerships among public and private agencies to ensure kinship caregiver families are served, which program—

(A) shall be coordinated with other State or local agencies that promote service coordination or provide information and referral services, including the entities that provide 2–1–1 or 3–1–1 information systems where available, to avoid duplication or fragmentation of services to kinship care families;

(B) shall be planned and operated in consultation with kinship caregivers and organizations representing them, youth raised by kinship caregivers, relevant government agencies, and relevant community-based or faith-based organizations;

(C) shall establish information and referral systems that link (via toll-free access) kinship caregivers, kinship support group facilitators, and kinship service providers to—

(i) each other;

(ii) eligibility and enrollment information for Federal, State, and local benefits;

(iii) relevant training to assist kinship caregivers in caregiving and in obtaining benefits and services; and

(iv) relevant legal assistance and help in obtaining legal services;


(D) shall provide outreach to kinship care families, including by establishing, distributing, and updating a kinship care website, or other relevant guides or outreach materials;

(E) shall promote partnerships between public and private agencies, including schools, community based or faith-based organizations, and relevant government agencies, to increase their knowledge of the needs of kinship care families and other individuals who are willing and able to be foster parents for children in foster care under the responsibility of the State who are themselves parents to promote better services for those families;

(F) may establish and support a kinship care ombudsman with authority to intervene and help kinship caregivers access services; and

(G) may support any other activities designed to assist kinship caregivers in obtaining benefits and services to improve their caregiving;


(2) intensive family-finding efforts that utilize search technology to find biological family members for children in the child welfare system, and once identified, work to reestablish relationships and explore ways to find a permanent family placement for the children;

(3) family group decision-making meetings for children in the child welfare system, that—

(A) enable families to make decisions and develop plans that nurture children and protect them from abuse and neglect, and

(B) when appropriate, shall address domestic violence issues in a safe manner and facilitate connecting children exposed to domestic violence to appropriate services, including reconnection with the abused parent when appropriate; or


(4) residential family treatment programs that—

(A) enable parents and their children to live in a safe environment for a period of not less than 6 months; and

(B) provide, on-site or by referral, substance abuse treatment services, children's early intervention services, family counseling, medical, and mental health services, nursery and pre-school, and other services that are designed to provide comprehensive treatment that supports the family.

(b) Applications

An entity desiring to receive a matching grant under this section shall submit to the Secretary an application, at such time, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require, including—

(1) a description of how the grant will be used to implement 1 or more of the activities described in subsection (a);

(2) a description of the types of children and families to be served, including how the children and families will be identified and recruited, and an initial projection of the number of children and families to be served;

(3) if the entity is a private organization—

(A) documentation of support from the relevant local or State child welfare agency; or

(B) a description of how the organization plans to coordinate its services and activities with those offered by the relevant local or State child welfare agency; and


(4) an assurance that the entity will cooperate fully with any evaluation provided for by the Secretary under this section.

(c) Limitations

(1) Grant duration

The Secretary may award a grant under this section for a period of not less than 1 year and not more than 3 years.

(2) Number of new grantees per year

The Secretary may not award a grant under this section to more than 30 new grantees each fiscal year.

(d) Federal contribution

The amount of a grant payment to be made to a grantee under this section during each year in the grant period shall be the following percentage of the total expenditures proposed to be made by the grantee in the application approved by the Secretary under this section:

(1) 75 percent, if the payment is for the 1st or 2nd year of the grant period.

(2) 50 percent, if the payment is for the 3rd year of the grant period.

(e) Form of grantee contribution

A grantee under this section may provide not more than 50 percent of the amount which the grantee is required to expend to carry out the activities for which a grant is awarded under this section in kind, fairly evaluated, including plant, equipment, or services.

(f) Use of grant

A grantee under this section shall use the grant in accordance with the approved application for the grant.

(g) Reservations of funds

(1) Evaluation

The Secretary shall reserve 3 percent of the funds made available under subsection (h) for each fiscal year for the conduct of a rigorous evaluation of the activities funded with grants under this section.

(2) Technical assistance

The Secretary may reserve 2 percent of the funds made available under subsection (h) for each fiscal year to provide technical assistance to recipients of grants under this section.

(h) Appropriation

Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated to the Secretary for purposes of making grants under this section $15,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2014.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §427, as added Pub. L. 110–351, title I, §102(a), Oct. 7, 2008, 122 Stat. 3953; amended Pub. L. 113–183, title II, §221(a)–(d), Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1942, 1943.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 627, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §427, as added June 17, 1980, Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(b), 94 Stat. 519; amended Dec. 19, 1989, Pub. L. 101–239, title X, §10401(a), 103 Stat. 2487, related to foster care protection required for additional payments, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §202(c), (e), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4454, effective with respect to fiscal years beginning on or after Apr. 1, 1996.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 113–183, §221(b), struck out "and" before "private" and inserted "and institutions of higher education (as defined under section 1001 of title 20)," after "arrangements," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(1)(E). Pub. L. 113–183, §221(c), inserted "and other individuals who are willing and able to be foster parents for children in foster care under the responsibility of the State who are themselves parents" after "kinship care families".

Subsec. (g)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 113–183, §221(d), redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively, and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, text of par. (1) read as follows: "The Secretary shall reserve $5,000,000 of the funds made available under subsection (h) for each fiscal year for grants to implement kinship navigator programs described in subsection (a)(1)."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 113–183, §221(a), substituted "2014" for "2013".

Effective Date of 2014 Amendment

Pub. L. 113–183, title II, §221(e), Sept. 29, 2014, 128 Stat. 1943, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall take effect as if enacted on October 1, 2013."

Effective Date

Section effective Oct. 7, 2008, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for quarters beginning on or after such date, with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 601 of Pub. L. 110–351, set out as an Effective Date of 2008 Amendment note under section 671 of this title.

§628. Payments to Indian tribal organizations

(a) Amounts

The Secretary may, in appropriate cases (as determined by the Secretary) make payments under this subpart directly to an Indian tribal organization within any State which has a plan for child welfare services approved under this subpart. Such payments shall be made in such manner and in such amounts as the Secretary determines to be appropriate.

(b) Inclusion in State allotment

Amounts paid under subsection (a) shall be deemed to be a part of the allotment (as determined under section 623 of this title) for the State in which such Indian tribal organization is located.

(c) "Indian tribe" and "tribal organization" defined

For purposes of this section, the terms "Indian tribe" and "tribal organization" shall have the meanings given such terms by subsections (e) and (l) of section 5304 of title 25, respectively.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §428, as added Pub. L. 96–272, title I, §103(b), June 17, 1980, 94 Stat. 520; amended Pub. L. 103–66, title XIII, §13711(b)(3), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 655; Pub. L. 104–193, title III, §375(d), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2257; Pub. L. 109–288, §6(f)(1), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1247.)

Amendments

2006—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 109–288 substituted "section 623" for "section 621".

1996—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–193 amended subsec. (c) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (c) read as follows: "For purposes of this section—

"(1) the term 'tribal organization' means the recognized governing body of any Indian tribe, or any legally established organization of Indians which is controlled, sanctioned, or chartered by such governing body; and

"(2) the term 'Indian tribe' means any tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community of Indians (including any Alaska Native village or regional or village corporation as defined in or established pursuant to the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (Public Law 92–203; 85 Stat. 688)) which (A) is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians, or (B) is located on, or in proximity to, a Federal or State reservation or rancheria."

1993—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 103–66 substituted "under this subpart" for "under this part" in two places.

Effective Date of 2006 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 109–288 effective Oct. 1, 2006, and applicable to payments under this part and part E of this subchapter for calendar quarters beginning on or after such date, without regard to whether implementing regulations have been promulgated, and with delay permitted if State legislation is required to meet additional requirements, see section 12(a), (b) of Pub. L. 109–288, set out as a note under section 621 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

For effective date of amendment by Pub. L. 104–193, see section 395(a)–(c) of Pub. L. 104–193, set out as a note under section 654 of this title.

Effective Date of 1993 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–66 effective with respect to calendar quarters beginning on or after Oct. 1, 1993, see section 13711(c) of Pub. L. 103–66, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.

§628a. Transferred

Codification

Section, act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §429, as added Pub. L. 103–432, title II, §205(a), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4456, which related to child welfare traineeships, was redesignated section 426(c) of act Aug. 14, 1935, by Pub. L. 109–288, §6(f)(2), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1247, and is classified to section 626(c) of this title.

§628b. National random sample study of child welfare

(a) In general

The Secretary shall conduct (directly, or by grant, contract, or interagency agreement) a national study based on random samples of children who are at risk of child abuse or neglect, or are determined by States to have been abused or neglected.

(b) Requirements

The study required by subsection (a) shall—

(1) have a longitudinal component; and

(2) yield data reliable at the State level for as many States as the Secretary determines is feasible.

(c) Preferred contents

In conducting the study required by subsection (a), the Secretary should—

(1) carefully consider selecting the sample from cases of confirmed abuse or neglect; and

(2) follow each case for several years while obtaining information on, among other things—

(A) the type of abuse or neglect involved;

(B) the frequency of contact with State or local agencies;

(C) whether the child involved has been separated from the family, and, if so, under what circumstances;

(D) the number, type, and characteristics of out-of-home placements of the child; and

(E) the average duration of each placement.

(d) Reports

(1) In general

From time to time, the Secretary shall prepare reports summarizing the results of the study required by subsection (a).

(2) Availability

The Secretary shall make available to the public any report prepared under paragraph (1), in writing or in the form of an electronic data tape.

(3) Authority to charge fee

The Secretary may charge and collect a fee for the furnishing of reports under paragraph (2).

(e) Appropriation

Out of any money in the Treasury of the United States not otherwise appropriated, there are appropriated to the Secretary for each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002 $6,000,000 to carry out this section.

(Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, title IV, §429, formerly §429A, as added Pub. L. 104–193, title V, §503, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2277; amended Pub. L. 105–33, title V, §§5591(a), 5592(a)(1)(C), Aug. 5, 1997, 111 Stat. 643, 644; renumbered §429, Pub. L. 109–288, §6(f)(3), Sept. 28, 2006, 120 Stat. 1247.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 429 of act Aug. 14, 1935, was renumbered section 426(c) and is classified to section 626(c) of this title.

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–33, §5592(a)(1)(C), transferred section in original to end of this subpart.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–33, §5591(a), inserted "(directly, or by grant, contract, or interagency agreement)" after "conduct".

Effective Date of 1997 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 105–33 effective as if included in the enactment of title V of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, Pub. L. 104–193, see section 5593 of Pub. L. 105–33, set out as a note under section 622 of this title.