[USC02] 42 USC Ch. 8: LOW-INCOME HOUSING
Result 1 of 1
   
 
42 USC Ch. 8: LOW-INCOME HOUSING
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE

CHAPTER 8—LOW-INCOME HOUSING

Sec.
1401 to 1404.
Omitted.
1404a.
Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; right to sue; expenses.
1405, 1406.
Omitted.
1406a.
Expenses of management and operation of transferred projects as nonadministrative; payment.
1406b.
Expenses of uncompensated advisers serving United States Housing Authority away from home.
1406c to 1433.
Omitted or Repealed.
1434.
Records; contents; examination and audit.
1435.
Access to books, documents, etc., for purpose of audit.
1436.
Repealed.
1436a.
Restriction on use of assisted housing by non-resident aliens.
1436b.
Financial assistance in impacted areas.
1436c.
Insurance for public housing agencies and Indian housing authorities.
1436d.
Consultation with affected areas in settlement of litigation.

        

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROGRAM OF ASSISTED HOUSING

1437.
Declaration of policy and public housing agency organization.
1437a.
Rental payments.
1437a–1.
Repealed.
1437b.
Loans and commitments to make loans for low-income housing projects.
1437c.
Contributions for low-income housing projects.
1437c–1.
Public housing agency plans.
1437d.
Contract provisions and requirements; loans and annual contributions.
1437e.
Designated housing for elderly and disabled families.
1437f.
Low-income housing assistance.
1437f–1.
Repealed.
1437g.
Public housing Capital and Operating Funds.
1437h.
Implementation of provisions by Secretary.
1437i.
Obligations of public housing agencies; contestability; full faith and credit of United States pledged as security; tax exemption.
1437j.
Labor standards and community service requirement.
1437j–1.
Repealed.
1437k.
Consortia, joint ventures, affiliates, and subsidiaries of public housing agencies.
1437l.
Repealed.
1437m.
Payment of non-Federal share.
1437n.
Eligibility for assisted housing.
1437o.
Repealed.
1437p.
Demolition and disposition of public housing.
1437q.
Financing limitations.
1437r.
Public housing resident management.
1437s.
Public housing homeownership and management opportunities.
1437t.
Authority to convert public housing to vouchers.
1437u.
Family Self-Sufficiency program.
1437v.
Demolition, site revitalization, replacement housing, and tenant-based assistance grants for projects.
1437w.
Transfer of management of certain housing to independent manager at request of residents.
1437x.
Environmental reviews.
1437y.
Provision of information to law enforcement and other agencies.
1437z.
Exchange of information with law enforcement agencies.
1437z–1.
Civil money penalties against section 1437f owners.
1437z–2.
Public housing mortgages and security interests.
1437z–3.
Pet ownership in public housing.
1437z–4.
Resident homeownership programs.
1437z–5.
Required conversion of distressed public housing to tenant-based assistance.
1437z–6.
Services for public and Indian housing residents.
1437z–7.
Mixed-finance public housing.
1437z–8.
Collection of information on tenants in tax credit projects.
1437z–9.
Data exchange standards for improved interoperability.
1437z–10.
Small public housing agencies.

        

SUBCHAPTER II—ASSISTED HOUSING FOR INDIANS AND ALASKA NATIVES

1437aa to 1437ee. Repealed.
1437ff.
Transferred.

        

SUBCHAPTER II–A—HOPE FOR PUBLIC HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP

1437aaa.
Program authority.
1437aaa–1.
Planning grants.
1437aaa–2.
Implementation grants.
1437aaa–3.
Homeownership program requirements.
1437aaa–4.
Other program requirements.
1437aaa–5.
Definitions.
1437aaa–6.
Relationship to other homeownership opportunities.
1437aaa–7.
Limitation on selection criteria.
1437aaa–8.
Annual report.

        

SUBCHAPTER II–B—HOME RULE FLEXIBLE GRANT DEMONSTRATION

1437bbb.
Purpose.
1437bbb–1.
Flexible grant program.
1437bbb–2.
Program allocation and covered housing assistance.
1437bbb–3.
Applicability of requirements under programs for covered housing assistance.
1437bbb–4.
Program requirements.
1437bbb–5.
Application.
1437bbb–6.
Training.
1437bbb–7.
Accountability.
1437bbb–8.
Definitions.
1437bbb–9.
Termination and evaluation.

        

SUBCHAPTER III—MISCELLANEOUS PROVISIONS

1438.
Repealed.
1439.
Local housing assistance plan.
1440.
State housing finance and development agencies.

        

§§1401 to 1404. Omitted

Codification

Sections 1401 to 1404 were omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1401, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §1, 50 Stat. 888; July 15, 1949, 338, title III, §307(a), 63 Stat. 429; Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §501, 73 Stat. 679; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §206(a), 82 Stat. 504; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §211, 84 Stat. 1779, set out declaration of policy. See section 1437 of this title.

Section 1402, acts, Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §2, 50 Stat. 888; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §§302(b), 304(c), (i), 306, 307(b), 63 Stat. 424, 425, 429; Oct. 26, 1951, ch. 577, §1, 65 Stat. 647; June 30, 1953, 170, §24(c), 67 Stat. 128; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §404(a), 70 Stat. 1104; July 12, 1957, Pub. L. 85–104, title III, §307, title IV, §401(a), 71 Stat. 301; Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §§502, 503(a), 504, 73 Stat. 680; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §202, 75 Stat. 163; Sept. 2, 1964, Pub. L. 88–560, title II, §203(d), title IV, §401(a), 78 Stat. 784, 794; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title I, §§103(b), 104, 79 Stat. 457; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §209(a), 82 Stat. 505; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §213(a), title IV, §403(a), 83 Stat. 389, 395; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §208(a), title IX, §903(c), 84 Stat. 1778, 1808; Dec. 22, 1971, Pub. L. 92–213, §9, 85 Stat. 776, defined applicable terms. See section 1437a of this title.

Section 1403, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §3, 50 Stat. 889; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(b), 81 Stat. 20; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(a), 82 Stat. 610, created the United States Housing Authority in the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

Section 1404, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §4, 50 Stat. 889; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), (c), 81 Stat. 19, 20, provided for assistance of officers, etc., of other agencies and transfer of property to the Authority.

Effective Date of 1969 Amendment; Applicability

Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §213(b), Dec. 24, 1969, 83 Stat. 389, provided that the rents fixed by public housing agencies not exceed one-fourth of a low-rent housing tenant's income be effective not later than ninety days after Dec. 24, 1969, and that the requirements not apply in any case in which the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determined that limiting the rent of any tenant or class of tenants would have resulted in a deduction in the amount of welfare assistance which would otherwise have been provided to the tenant or class of tenants by a public agency.

§1404a. Secretary of Housing and Urban Development; right to sue; expenses

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may sue and be sued only with respect to its functions under the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], and title II of Public Law 671, Seventy-sixth Congress, approved June 28, 1940, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1501 et seq.]. Funds made available for carrying out the functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (including appropriations therefor, which are authorized) shall be available, in such amounts as may from year to year be authorized by the Congress, for the administrative expenses of the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development. Notwithstanding any other provisions of law except provisions of law enacted after August 10, 1948 expressly in limitation hereof, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or any State or local public agency administering a low-rent housing project assisted pursuant to the United States Housing Act of 1937 or title II of Public Law 671, Seventy-sixth Congress, approved June 28, 1940, shall continue to have the right to maintain an action or proceeding to recover possession of any housing accommodations operated by it where such action is authorized by the statute or regulations under which such housing accommodations are administered, and, in determining net income for the purposes of tenant eligibility with respect to low-rent housing projects assisted pursuant to said Acts, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is authorized, where it finds such action equitable and in the public interest, to exclude amounts or portions thereof paid by the United States Government for disability or death occurring in connection with military service.

(Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832, title V, §502(b), 62 Stat. 1284; Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, title XI, §1106(a), 63 Stat. 972; Pub. L. 90–19, §5(d)(4)–(7), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 21; Pub. L. 100–242, title V, §570(a)(2), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1949.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in text, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, and amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

Public Law 671, Seventy-sixth Congress, approved June 28, 1940, referred to in text, is act June 28, 1940, ch. 440, 54 Stat. 676, as amended. Title II of that Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§1501 et seq.) of chapter 9 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing Act of 1948, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Section consists of section 502(b) of act Aug. 10, 1948. Section 502 of act Aug. 10, 1948, is classified generally to section 1701c of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendments

1988Pub. L. 100–242 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "United States Housing Authority" in three places and for "Authority" in two places.

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "United States Housing Authority" for "Public Housing Administration" wherever appearing in first and fourth sentences, "Authority" for "Administration" wherever appearing in third sentence, and "may sue" for "shall sue" in first sentence, and struck out former second sentence authorizing the Public Housing Commissioner to appoint necessary officers and employees subject to the civil-service and classification laws, to delegate his functions and powers, and to make rules and regulations, respectively.

1949—Act Oct. 28, 1949, substituted "Classification Act of 1949" for "Classification Act of 1923".

Repeals

Act Oct. 28, 1949, ch. 782, cited as a credit to this section, was repealed (subject to a savings clause) by Pub. L. 89–554, Sept. 6, 1966, §8, 80 Stat. 632, 655.

§§1405, 1406. Omitted

Section 1405, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §5, 50 Stat. 890; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(d), (e), 81 Stat. 20, which enumerated miscellaneous powers and functions of the Authority, was omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1406, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §6, 50 Stat. 890; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(c), 63 Stat. 429; Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §1(112), 65 Stat. 705; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), 81 Stat. 19, which enumerated financial provisions applicable to the Authority, was omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. Subsec. (b) of this section, which provided that section 5 of former title 41 not apply to contracts for services or to purchases of supplies except when the aggregate amount involved was less than $300, was repealed by act Oct. 31, 1951, ch. 654, §1(112), 65 Stat. 705.

§1406a. Expenses of management and operation of transferred projects as nonadministrative; payment

On and after May 10, 1939 all necessary expenses in connection with the management and operation of projects transferred to the Authority by Executive Order Numbered 7732 of October 27, 1937, as modified by Executive Order Numbered 7839 of March 12, 1938, may be considered as nonadministrative expenses, notwithstanding the provisions of section 712a of title 15, and be paid from the rents received from each transferred project.

(May 10, 1939, ch. 119, §1, 53 Stat. 690.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act June 25, 1938, ch. 681, title I, 52 Stat. 1129.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of United States Housing Authority to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, see note set out under section 1404a of this title.

Executive Order No. 7732, Oct. 27, 1937, 2 FR 2324, 44 CFR 201.11, effective Nov. 1, 1937, transferred to the United States Housing Authority all right, interest, and title held by the Federal Emergency Administration of Public Works in any housing or slum-clearance projects constructed or in the process of construction on Sept. 1, 1937.

§1406b. Expenses of uncompensated advisers serving United States Housing Authority away from home

On and after May 10, 1939, the funds made available for administrative expenses of the United States Housing Authority shall be available for the payment, when specifically authorized by the Administrator, of actual transportation expenses and not to exceed $10 per diem in lieu of subsistence and other expenses to persons serving, while away from their homes, without other compensation from the United States, in an advisory capacity to the Authority.

(May 10, 1939, ch. 119, §1, 53 Stat. 690.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in act June 25, 1938, ch. 681, title I, 52 Stat. 1128.

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of functions of United States Housing Authority and Administrator to Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, see note set out under section 1404a of this title.

§§1406c to 1411a. Omitted

Codification

Section 1406c, act June 27, 1942, ch. 450, §1, 56 Stat. 410, which related to expenses for construction advisers on non-Federal projects, was from the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1943, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Prior similar provisions were contained in acts Apr. 5, 1941, ch. 40, §1, 55 Stat. 111; Apr. 18, 1940, ch. 107, §1, 54 Stat. 130.

Section 1407, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §7, 50 Stat. 891; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §802(d), 68 Stat. 643; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(f), 81 Stat. 20, provided for publication of information and submission of annual report by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1408, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §8, 50 Stat. 891, authorized promulgation of rules and regulations by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1409, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §9, 50 Stat. 891; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §304(c), (d), 63 Stat. 425; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §211, 83 Stat. 388, authorized loans for low-rent-housing and slum clearance projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437b of this title.

Section 1410, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §10, 50 Stat. 891; June 21, 1938, ch. 554, title VI, §601, 52 Stat. 820; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §§302(a), 304(a), (c), (e), (f), 305, 307(d), 63 Stat. 423 to 427, 430; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title IV, §§401(1), (2), 402, 403, 405, 406, 68 Stat. 630; June 30, 1955, ch. 251, §3, 69 Stat. 225; Aug. 11, 1955, ch. 783, title I, §108(b), 69 Stat. 638; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §§401(a), 404(b), 70 Stat. 1103, 1104; Sept. 23, 1959, Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §§505(a), 507, 73 Stat. 680, 681; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §§203, 204(a), (b), 205, 206(b), (c), 75 Stat. 163 to 165; Sept. 2, 1964, Pub. L. 88–560, title IV, §§401(b), 402 to 404, 78 Stat. 794, 795; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title V, §§501 to 504, 507(b)(1), (2); 79 Stat. 486 to 488; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), 81 Stat. 19; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §§203(a), 206(b), 209(b), 82 Stat. 503, 505; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §§212, 214, 217(b), 83 Stat. 388–390; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §§202, 203, 204(a)(2), 210, 84 Stat. 1776 to 1778; Oct. 18, 1972, Pub. L. 92–503, §3 (1) to (3), 86 Stat. 906; Oct. 2, 1973, Pub. L. 93–117, §2, 87 Stat. 422, authorized annual contributions in assistance of low rentals for housing projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437c of this title. Subsec. (j) of this section, which related to self-liquidation of projects, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §206(c), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 164.

Section 1411, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §11, 50 Stat. 893; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(d), 63 Stat. 430, authorized capital grants to public housing agencies in assistance of low rentals, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1411a, act July 31, 1953, ch. 302, title I, §101, 67 Stat. 306, which related to prohibition of projects in localities where rejected by public vote or governing body, was from the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1954, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts.

Retroactive Effect of Repeal of Rights of United States Relating to Self-Liquidation of Projects

Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §206(c), June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 165, as amended by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §205, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 668, provided in part that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development is authorized to agree with a public housing agency to the amendment of any annual contributions contract containing the provision prescribed in section 10(j) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [subsec. (j) of section 1410 of this title] (as in effect prior to the enactment of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974) so as to delete such provision and waive any rights of the United States that are accrued or may accrue under such provision."

§1411b. Repealed. Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §401(b), 70 Stat. 1103

Section, acts July 5, 1952, ch. 578, title I, §101, 66 Stat. 403; July 31, 1953 ch. 302 title I, §101, 67 Stat. 307, limited number of housing units to be constructed during fiscal year.

§1411c. Omitted

Codification

Section, act July 31, 1953, ch. 302, title I, §101, 67 Stat. 307, which barred subversives from occupancy of housing units and which provided for enforcement of such prohibition and affect of such prohibition on loans and contributions by the Public Housing Administration, was from the Independent Offices Appropriation Act, 1954, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts.

§1411d. Repealed. Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §204, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 668

Section, act Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §815, 68 Stat. 647, required submission of specifications by applicants prior to award of any contract for construction of a project and submission of data with respect to acquisition of land prior to authorization to purchase such land.

§§1412 to 1416. Omitted

Section 1412, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §12, 50 Stat. 894; Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title II, §205(b), 64 Stat. 73; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §405, 70 Stat. 1104; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title V, §505, 79 Stat. 487, authorized disposal of low-rent-housing projects transferred to or acquired by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1413, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §13, 50 Stat. 894; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(e), 63 Stat. 430; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(g), 81 Stat. 20, enumerated powers of the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1413a, acts July 31, 1947, ch. 418, §2, 61 Stat. 705; Feb. 27, 1948, ch. 77, §3, 62 Stat. 37; Mar. 30, 1948, ch. 161, title III, §304, 62 Stat. 100, postponed until April 1, 1949, the institution of any eviction actions or proceedings in connection with publicly operated housing accommodations.

Section 1414, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §14, 50 Stat. 895; July 15, 1949, 338, title III, §304(g), 63 Stat. 426; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §213(c), 83 Stat. 389, authorized modification, amendment, or supersedure of contracts by the Authority, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437c of this title.

Section 1415, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §15, 50 Stat. 895; July 31, 1947, ch. 418, §1, 61 Stat. 704; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §§301, 303, 304(j), 63 Stat. 422, 424, 427; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title IV, §401(3), (4), 68 Stat. 631; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §404(c), 70 Stat. 1104; July 12, 1957, Pub. L. 85–104, title IV, §401(b), (c), 71 Stat. 302; Sept. 23, 1959. Pub. L. 86–372, title V, §§503(b), 506, 507, 73 Stat. 680, 681; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §§204(b), 205(b), 206(a), 75 Stat. 164; Sept. 2, 1964, Pub. L. 88–560, title IV, §§401(c), 405(a), 406, 78 Stat. 794, 795; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title IV, §404(c)(2), title V, §§506, 507(a), (b)(3), 79 Stat. 486–488; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(a), 81 Stat. 19; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §§204, 205, 207, 82 Stat. 503, 504; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §§215, 216, 83 Stat. 389, 390; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §§207, 209(a), title IX, §903(d), 84 Stat. 1777, 1778, 1809; Jan. 2, 1971, Pub. L. 91–646, title II, §220(a)(6), 84 Stat. 1903, set forth provisions relating to preservation of low rents in housing projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See sections 1437c, 1437d, and 1437f of this title.

Section 1416, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §16, 50 Stat. 896; July 15, 1949, 338, title III, §307(f) 63 Stat. 430; Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title IV, §404, 68 Stat. 633; Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–754, title X, §1003, 80 Stat. 1284; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(h), (i), 81 Stat. 20, provided for application of labor standards to contracts, etc., involving Federal projects, prior to the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653. See section 1437 of this title.

Application for Preliminary Loans Approved Prior to September 2, 1964

Pub. L. 88–560, title IV, §405(b), Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 795, provided that the amendments made by subsection (a) to subsec. (b)(7) of section 1415 of this title were not to be applicable to any project for which an application for a preliminary loan had been approved by the local governing body prior to Sept. 2, 1964.

Transferred Funds; Availability for Expenditure

Act Apr. 20, 1950, ch. 94, title II, §205(c), 64 Stat. 73, provided that all unexpended receipts, notwithstanding any limitations contained in the second proviso of act May 26, 1947, ch. 82, title I, 61 Stat. 109, derived from the sale of labor supply centers, labor homes, labor camps, and facilities, and all other unexpended balances of funds available for the maintenance, operation, and liquidation of the properties transferred and for the administrative expenses of transfer were transferred to the Public Housing Administration, to be available until expended, in accordance with the provisions of this chapter.

§1417. Repealed. Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(b), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 610

Section, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §17, 50 Stat. 897, related to capital stock of the Authority.

Retirement of Capital Stock

Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(b), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 610, provided in part that the capital stock referred to in this section be retired and the sum of $1,000,000 represented by such stock returned to the Treasury of the United States.

§§1417a to 1422. Omitted

Codification

Sections 1417a to 1422 were omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1417a, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §17, as added Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1719(c), 82 Stat. 610, set forth additional functions, powers, and duties of the Secretary. See section 1437h of this title.

Section 1418, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §18, 50 Stat. 897, authorized all assets and receipts of the Authority to remain available until expended. See section 1437h of this title.

Section 1419, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §19, 50 Stat. 897, authorized the allocation of funds available for similar purposes to the Authority.

Section 1420, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §20, 50 Stat. 898; June 21, 1938, ch. 554, title VI, §602, 52 Stat. 820; Oct. 30, 1941, ch. 467, 55 Stat. 759; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §304(h), 63 Stat. 427; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §203(b), 82 Stat. 503, authorized the Authority to issue obligations for purchase and sale by the Secretary of the Treasury. See section 1437b of this title.

Section 1421, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §21, 50 Stat. 898; July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(g), 63 Stat. 431; Aug. 7, 1956, ch. 1029, title IV, §403, 70 Stat. 1103; June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §204(c), 75 Stat. 164, set forth depository and other banking requirements applicable to the Authority. See section 1437h of this title.

Section 1421a, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §22, as added July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §304(b), 63 Stat. 424; amended June 30, 1961, Pub. L. 87–70, title III, §302(b), 75 Stat. 166; Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title V, §507(b)(4), 79 Stat. 489; May 25, 1967, Pub. L. 90–19, §2(j), 81 Stat. 20, set forth provisions for private financing of low-rent-housing projects. See sections 1437d and 1437i of this title.

Section 1421b, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §23, as added Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 89–117, title I, §103(a), 79 Stat. 455; amended Nov. 3, 1966, Pub. L. 89–754, title X, §1002, 80 Stat. 1284; Aug. 1, 1968, Pub. L. 90–448, title II, §§208, 210, 82 Stat. 504, 505; Dec. 24, 1969, Pub. L. 91–152, title II, §217(c), 83 Stat. 390; Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–609, title II, §204(a)(1), (b), 84 Stat. 1777, set forth provisions authorizing low-rent housing in private accommodations. See section 1437f of this title.

Section 1422, acts Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §24, formerly §22, 50 Stat. 899; renumbered, §23, July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431; renumbered §24, Aug. 10, 1965, Pub. L. 87–117, title I, §103(a), 79 Stat. 455, provided for applicability of all general penal statutes relating to larceny etc., of moneys and properties of the Authority.

Retroactive Application of Policies or Procedures Established by Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to Rights of Owners of Leased Housing, Including Right of Renewal

Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §208, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 669, as amended by Pub. L. 95–128, title II, §201(h), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1129, provided that: "Nothing in this title [see Tables for classification] or any other provision of law authorizes the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to apply any policy or procedure established by him with respect to the rights of an owner under a lease entered into under section 23 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [section 1421b of this title], including the right to renewal of such lease to the maximum term permitted by law, if such lease was entered into prior to the effective date of such policy or procedure."

§§1423 to 1426. Repealed. June 25, 1948, ch. 645, §21, 62 Stat. 862

Section 1423, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §24, formerly §23, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for false entries and reports.

Section 1424, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §25, formerly §24, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for defrauding or hindering the Authority.

Section 1425, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §26, formerly §25, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for concealment of interest in property.

Section 1426, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §27, formerly §26, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 388, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, related to penalties for unlawful use of the name "United States Housing Authority".

Sections 1423 to 1426 of this title are covered by section 1012 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective Sept. 1, 1948, see section 20 of act June 25, 1948, set out as an Effective Date note preceding section 1 of Title 18, Crimes and Criminal Procedure.

§§1427 to 1431. Omitted

Codification

Sections 1427 to 1431 were omitted in the general revision of the United States Housing Act of 1937 by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

Section 1427, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §28, formerly §27, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, provided for application of provisions when conflicting with other laws relating to housing or slum clearance.

Section 1428, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §29, formerly §28, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, made available funds for the District of Columbia.

Section 1429, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §30, formerly §29, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, provided for separability of provisions.

Section 1430, act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, §31, formerly §30, 50 Stat. 899, renumbered July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title III, §307(h), 63 Stat. 431, set forth short title of provisions as "United States Housing Act of 1937". See section 1 of act Sept. 1, 1937, as added by section 201(a) of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a Short Title note under section 1437 of this title.

Section 1431, Pub. L. 91–556, title IV, Dec. 17, 1970, 84 Stat. 1463, which provided that the necessary expenses of providing representatives at sites of non-Federal projects in connection with construction of these projects by public housing agencies with aid under this chapter, be compensated by these agencies by payments of fixed fees, was from the Independent Offices and Department of Housing and Urban Development Appropriations Act, 1971, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Nov. 26, 1969, Pub. L. 91–126, title III, 83 Stat. 242.

Oct. 4, 1968, Pub. L. 90–550, title III, 82 Stat. 956.

Nov. 3, 1967, Pub. L. 90–121, title II, 81 Stat. 360.

Sept. 6, 1966, Pub. L. 89–555, title II, 80 Stat. 688.

Aug. 16, 1965, Pub. L. 89–128, title II, 79 Stat. 542.

Aug. 30, 1964, Pub. L. 88–507, title II, 78 Stat. 665.

Dec. 19, 1963, Pub. L. 88–215, title II, 77 Stat. 447.

Oct. 3, 1962, Pub. L. 87–741, title II, 76 Stat. 739.

Aug. 17, 1961, Pub. L. 87–141, title II, 75 Stat. 363.

July 12, 1960, Pub. L. 86–626, title II, 74 Stat. 444.

Sept. 14, 1959, Pub. L. 86–255, title II, 73 Stat. 517.

Aug. 28, 1958, Pub. L. 85–844, title II, 72 Stat. 1081.

June 29, 1957, Pub. L. 85–69, title II, 71 Stat. 241.

June 27, 1956, ch. 452, title II, 70 Stat. 355.

June 30, 1955, ch. 244, title II, 69 Stat. 215.

June 24, 1954, ch. 359, title II, 68 Stat. 297.

July 31, 1953, ch. 302, title II, 67 Stat. 315.

July 5, 1952, ch. 578, title III, 66 Stat. 417.

Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 376, title IV, 65 Stat. 299.

Sept. 6, 1950, ch. 896, Ch. VIII, title II, 64 Stat. 723.

Aug. 24, 1949, ch. 506, title II, 63 Stat. 659.

June 30, 1948, ch. 773, title II, 62 Stat. 1190.

July 30, 1947, ch. 358, title II, 61 Stat. 579.

July 20, 1946, ch. 589, title II, 60 Stat. 592.

May 3, 1945, ch. 106, title I, 59 Stat. 124.

§1432. Repealed. July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §606, 63 Stat. 441

Section, act Aug. 10, 1948, ch. 832, title V, §503, 62 Stat. 1285, related to State low-rent or veterans' housing projects.

§1433. Omitted

Codification

Section, act July 15, 1949, ch. 338, title VI, §606, 63 Stat. 440, provided for conversion of State and local low-rent or veterans' housing projects to Federal projects if the contract for State financial assistance for such project was entered into on or after Jan. 1, 1948, and prior to Jan. 1, 1950.

§1434. Records; contents; examination and audit

Every contract between the Department of Housing and Urban Development and any person or local body (including any corporation or public or private agency or body) for a loan, advance, grant, or contribution under the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], the Housing Act of 1949, as amended [42 U.S.C. 1441 et seq.], or any other Act shall provide that such person or local body shall keep such records as the Department of Housing and Urban Development shall from time to time prescribe, including records which permit a speedy and effective audit and will fully disclose the amount and the disposition by such person or local body of the proceeds of the loan, advance, grant, or contribution, or any supplement thereto, the capital cost of any construction project for which any such loan, advance, grant, or contribution is made, and the amount of any private or other non-Federal funds used or grants-in-aid made for or in connection with any such project. No mortgage covering new or rehabilitated multifamily housing (as defined in section 1715r of title 12) shall be insured unless the mortgagor certifies that he will keep such records as are prescribed by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development at the time of the certification and that they will be kept in such form as to permit a speedy and effective audit. The Department of Housing and Urban Development and the Comptroller General of the United States shall have access to and the right to examine and audit such records. This section shall become effective on the first day after the first full calendar month following the date of approval of the Housing Act of 1961.

(Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §814, 68 Stat. 647; Pub. L. 87–70, title IX, §908, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 191; Pub. L. 90–19, §10(h), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 23.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, referred to in text, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

The Housing Act of 1949, as amended, referred to in text, is act July 15, 1949, ch. 338, 63 Stat. 413, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 8A (§1441 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title and Tables.

The first day after the first full calendar month following the date of approval of the Housing Act of 1961, referred to in text, probably means Aug. 1, 1961, which is the first day after the first full calendar month following approval of Pub. L. 87–70, which was approved on June 30, 1961.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Section was formerly classified to sections 1446 of this title and 1715s of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Federal Housing Commissioner" in second sentence and "Department of Housing and Urban Development" for "Housing and Home Finance Agency (or any official or constituent thereof)" and "Housing and Home Finance Agency (or such official or constituent thereof)" in first sentence and for "Housing and Home Finance Agency or any official or constituent agency thereof" in third sentence, respectively.

1961Pub. L. 87–70 required record keeping provisions in contracts under the Housing Act of 1949 and in contracts under any other act, prohibited insurance of mortgages covering new or rehabilitated multifamily housing unless the mortgagor certifies that he will keep records, and empowered the Comptroller General to examine and audit records, and substituted "Housing Act of 1961" for "Housing Act of 1954".

Effective Date

The fourth sentence of section 814 of act Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, 68 Stat. 647 (prior to the amendment by section 908 of Pub. L. 87–70), provided that this section is effective on first day after first calendar month following the date of approval of the act (Aug. 2, 1954).

§1435. Access to books, documents, etc., for purpose of audit

Every contract for loans or annual contributions under this chapter shall provide that the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall, for the purpose of audit and examination, have access to any books, documents, papers, and records of the public housing agency entering into such contract that are pertinent to its operations with respect to financial assistance under this chapter.

(Aug. 2, 1954, ch. 649, title VIII, §816, 68 Stat. 647; Pub. L. 90–19, §10(i), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 23.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–19 substituted "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" for "Public Housing Commissioner".

§1436. Repealed. Pub. L. 91–609, title V, §503(4), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1786

Section, Pub. L. 87–70, title II, §207, June 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 165; Pub. L. 88–560, title II, §203(e), title IV, §407, Sept. 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 784, 796; Pub. L. 89–117, title XI, §1105, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 503; Pub. L. 90–19, §18(a), May 25, 1967, 81 Stat. 25; Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1714(a), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 607, provided for low-rent housing demonstration programs and development grants. See section 1701z–1 et seq. of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of Repeal: Savings Provision

Pub. L. 91–609, title V, §503, Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1785, provided in part for repeal of sections 1701d–3, 1701e, 1701e note, and 1701f of Title 12, Banks and Banking, this section, note below, section 1452a, section 1456 note, and sections 3372, 3373 of this title, effective July 1, 1971, except that the repeal shall not affect contracts, commitments, reservations, or other obligations entered pursuant to such provisions prior to July 1, 1971.

Report of Self-Help Studies and Demonstrations

Pub. L. 90–448, title XVII, §1714(b), Aug. 1, 1968, 82 Stat. 607, providing for report to Congress within one year after Aug. 1, 1968, respecting self-help studies and demonstrations, was repealed by Pub. L. 91–609, title V, §503(7), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1786.

§1436a. Restriction on use of assisted housing by non-resident aliens

(a) Conditions for assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the applicable Secretary may not make financial assistance available for the benefit of any alien unless that alien is a resident of the United States and is—

(1) an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence as an immigrant as defined by section 1101(a)(15) and (20) of title 8, excluding, among others, alien visitors, tourists, diplomats, and students who enter the United States temporarily with no intention of abandoning their residence in a foreign country;

(2) an alien who entered the United States prior to June 30, 1948, or such subsequent date as is enacted by law, has continuously maintained his or her residence in the United States since then, and is not ineligible for citizenship, but who is deemed to be lawfully admitted for permanent residence as a result of an exercise of discretion by the Attorney General pursuant to section 1259 of title 8;

(3) an alien who is lawfully present in the United States pursuant to an admission under section 1157 of title 8 or pursuant to the granting of asylum (which has not been terminated) under section 1158 of title 8;

(4) an alien who is lawfully present in the United States as a result of an exercise of discretion by the Attorney General for emergent reasons or reasons deemed strictly in the public interest pursuant to section 1182(d)(5) of title 8;

(5) an alien who is lawfully present in the United States as a result of the Attorney General's withholding deportation pursuant to section 1231(b)(3) of title 8;

(6) an alien lawfully admitted for temporary or permanent residence under section 1255a of title 8; or

(7) an alien who is lawfully resident in the United States and its territories and possessions under section 141 of the Compacts of Free Association between the Government of the United States and the Governments of the Marshall Islands, the Federated States of Micronesia (48 U.S.C. 1901 note) and Palau (48 U.S.C. 1931 note) while the applicable section is in effect: Provided, That, within Guam any any 1 citizen or national of the United States shall be entitled to a preference or priority in receiving financial assistance before any such alien who is otherwise eligible for assistance.

(b) "Financial assistance" defined

(1) For purposes of this section the term "financial assistance" means financial assistance made available pursuant to the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], section 1715z or 1715z–1 of title 12, the direct loan program under section 1472 of this title or section 1472(c)(5)(D), 1474, 1490a(a)(2)(A), or 1490r of this title, subtitle A of title III of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12851 et seq.], or section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s].

(2) If the eligibility for financial assistance of at least one member of a family has been affirmatively established under the program of financial assistance and under this section, and the ineligibility of one or more family members has not been affirmatively established under this section, any financial assistance made available to that family by the applicable Secretary shall be prorated, based on the number of individuals in the family for whom eligibility has been affirmatively established under the program of financial assistance and under this section, as compared with the total number of individuals who are members of the family.

(c) Preservation of families; students

(1) If, following completion of the applicable hearing process, financial assistance for any individual receiving such assistance on February 5, 1988, is to be terminated, the public housing agency or other local governmental entity involved (in the case of public housing or assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f]) or the applicable Secretary (in the case of any other financial assistance) shall take one of the following actions:

(A) Permit the continued provision of financial assistance, if necessary to avoid the division of a family in which the head of household or spouse is a citizen of the United States, a national of the United States, or an alien resident of the United States described in any of paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (a). For purposes of this paragraph, the term "family" means a head of household, any spouse, any parents of the head of household, any parents of the spouse, and any children of the head of household or spouse. Financial assistance continued under this subparagraph for a family may be provided only on a prorated basis, under which the amount of financial assistance is based on the percentage of the total number of members of the family that are eligible for that assistance under the program of financial assistance and under this section.

(B)(i) Defer the termination of financial assistance, if necessary to permit the orderly transition of the individual and any family members involved to other affordable housing.

(ii) Except as provided in clause (iii), any deferral under this subparagraph shall be for a 6-month period and may be renewed by the public housing agency or other entity involved for an aggregate period of 18-months. At the beginning of each deferral period, the public housing agency or other entity involved shall inform the individual and family members of their ineligibility for financial assistance and offer them other assistance in finding other affordable housing.

(iii) The time period described in clause (ii) shall not apply in the case of a refugee under section 1157 of title 8 or an individual seeking asylum under section 1158 of title 8.


(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the applicable Secretary may not make financial assistance available for the benefit of—

(A) any alien who—

(i) has a residence in a foreign country that such alien has no intention of abandoning;

(ii) is a bona fide student qualified to pursue a full course of study; and

(iii) is admitted to the United States temporarily and solely for purposes of pursuing such a course of study at an established institution of learning or other recognized place of study in the United States, particularly designated by such alien and approved by the Attorney General after consultation with the Department of Education of the United States, which institution or place of study shall have agreed to report to the Attorney General the termination of attendance of each nonimmigrant student (and if any such institution of learning or place of study fails to make such reports promptly the approval shall be withdrawn); and


(B) the alien spouse and minor children of any alien described in subparagraph (A), if accompanying such alien or following to join such alien.

(d) Conditions for provision of financial assistance for individuals

The following conditions apply with respect to financial assistance being or to be provided for the benefit of an individual:

(1)(A) There must be a declaration in writing by the individual (or, in the case of an individual who is a child, by another on the individual's behalf), under penalty of perjury, stating whether or not the individual is a citizen or national of the United States, and, if that individual is not a citizen or national of the United States, that the individual is in a satisfactory immigration status. If the declaration states that the individual is not a citizen or national of the United States and that the individual is younger than 62 years of age, the declaration shall be verified by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. If the declaration states that the individual is a citizen or national of the United States, the applicable Secretary, or the agency administering assistance covered by this section, may request verification of the declaration by requiring presentation of documentation that the applicable Secretary considers appropriate, including a United States passport, resident alien card, alien registration card, social security card, or other documentation.

(B) In this subsection, the term "satisfactory immigration status" means an immigration status which does not make the individual ineligible for financial assistance.

(2) If such an individual is not a citizen or national of the United States, is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, there must be presented either—

(A) alien registration documentation or other proof of immigration registration from the Immigration and Naturalization Service that contains the individual's alien admission number or alien file number (or numbers if the individual has more than one number), or

(B) such other documents as the applicable Secretary determines constitutes reasonable evidence indicating a satisfactory immigration status.


In the case of an individual applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, the applicable Secretary may not provide any such assistance for the benefit of that individual before documentation is presented and verified under paragraph (3) or (4).

(3) If the documentation described in paragraph (2)(A) is presented, the applicable Secretary shall utilize the individual's alien file or alien admission number to verify with the Immigration and Naturalization Service the individual's immigration status through an automated or other system (designated by the Service for use with States) that—

(A) utilizes the individual's name, file number, admission number, or other means permitting efficient verification, and

(B) protects the individual's privacy to the maximum degree possible.


(4) In the case of such an individual who is not a citizen or national of the United States, is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, if, at the time of application or recertification for financial assistance, the statement described in paragraph (1) is submitted but the documentation required under paragraph (2) is not presented or if the documentation required under paragraph (2)(A) is presented but such documentation is not verified under paragraph (3)—

(A) the applicable Secretary—

(i) shall provide a reasonable opportunity, not to exceed 30 days, to submit to the applicable Secretary evidence indicating a satisfactory immigration status, or to appeal to the Immigration and Naturalization Service the verification determination of the Immigration and Naturalization Service under paragraph (3),

(ii) in the case of any individual receiving assistance on September 30, 1996, may not delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the eligibility of that individual for financial assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual until the expiration of that 30-day period; and

(iii) in the case of any individual applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, may not deny the application for such assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual until the expiration of that 30-day period; and


(B) if any documents or additional information are submitted as evidence under subparagraph (A), or if appeal is made to the Immigration and Naturalization Service with respect to the verification determination of the Service under paragraph (3)—

(i) the applicable Secretary shall transmit to the Immigration and Naturalization Service photostatic or other similar copies of such documents or additional information for official verification,

(ii) pending such verification or appeal, the applicable Secretary may not—

(I) in the case of any individual receiving assistance on September 30, 1996, delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the eligibility of that individual for financial assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual; and

(II) in the case of any individual applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996, deny the application for such assistance on the basis of the immigration status of that individual; and


(iii) the applicable Secretary shall not be liable for the consequences of any action, delay, or failure of the Service to conduct such verification.


(5) If the applicable Secretary determines, after complying with the requirements of paragraph (4), that such an individual is not in a satisfactory immigration status, the applicable Secretary shall—

(A) deny the application of that individual for financial assistance or terminate the eligibility of that individual for financial assistance, as applicable;

(B) provide that the individual may request a fair hearing during the 30-day period beginning upon receipt of the notice under subparagraph (C); and

(C) provide to the individual written notice of the determination under this paragraph, the right to a fair hearing process, and the time limitation for requesting a hearing under subparagraph (C).


(6) The applicable Secretary shall terminate the eligibility for financial assistance of an individual and the members of the household of the individual, for a period of not less than 24 months, upon determining that such individual has knowingly permitted another individual who is not eligible for such assistance to reside in the public or assisted housing unit of the individual. This provision shall not apply to a family if the ineligibility of the ineligible individual at issue was considered in calculating any proration of assistance provided for the family.


For purposes of this subsection, the term "applicable Secretary" means the applicable Secretary, a public housing agency, or another entity that determines the eligibility of an individual for financial assistance.

(e) Regulatory actions against entities for erroneous determinations regarding eligibility based upon citizenship or immigration status

The applicable Secretary shall not take any compliance, disallowance, penalty, or other regulatory action against an entity with respect to any error in the entity's determination to make an individual eligible for financial assistance based on citizenship or immigration status—

(1) if the entity has provided such eligibility based on a verification of satisfactory immigration status by the Immigration and Naturalization Service,

(2) because the entity, under subsection (d)(4)(A)(ii) (or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603)), was required to provide a reasonable opportunity to submit documentation, or

(3) because the entity, under subsection (d)(4)(B)(ii) (or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603)), was required to wait for the response of the Immigration and Naturalization Service to the entity's request for official verification of the immigration status of the individual, or the response from the Immigration and Naturalization Service to the appeal of that individual.

(f) Verification system; liability of State or local government agencies or officials; prior consent agreements, court decrees or court orders unaffected

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no agency or official of a State or local government shall have any liability for the design or implementation of the Federal verification system described in subsection (d) if the implementation by the State or local agency or official is in accordance with Federal rules and regulations.

(2) The verification system of the Department of Housing and Urban Development shall not supersede or affect any consent agreement entered into or court decree or court order entered prior to February 5, 1988.

(g) Reimbursement for costs of implementation

The applicable Secretary is authorized to pay to each public housing agency or other entity an amount equal to 100 percent of the costs incurred by the public housing agency or other entity in implementing and operating an immigration status verification system under subsection (d) (or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603)).

(h) "Applicable Secretary" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "applicable Secretary" means—

(1) the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, with respect to financial assistance administered by such Secretary and financial assistance under subtitle A of title III of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12851 et seq.]; and

(2) the Secretary of Agriculture, with respect to financial assistance administered by such Secretary.

(i) Verification of eligibility

(1) In general

No individual or family applying for financial assistance may receive such financial assistance prior to the affirmative establishment and verification of eligibility of at least the individual or one family member under subsection (d) by the applicable Secretary or other appropriate entity.

(2) Rules applicable to public housing agencies

A public housing agency (as that term is defined in section 3 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a])—

(A) may, notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, elect not to affirmatively establish and verify eligibility before providing financial assistance 2

(B) in carrying out subsection (d)—

(i) may initiate procedures to affirmatively establish or verify the eligibility of an individual or family under this section at any time at which the public housing agency determines that such eligibility is in question, regardless of whether or not that individual or family is at or near the top of the waiting list of the public housing agency;

(ii) may affirmatively establish or verify the eligibility of an individual or family under this section in accordance with the procedures set forth in section 1324a(b)(1) of title 8; and

(iii) shall have access to any relevant information contained in the SAVE system (or any successor thereto) that relates to any individual or family applying for financial assistance.

(3) Eligibility of families

For purposes of this subsection, with respect to a family, the term "eligibility" means the eligibility of each family member.

(Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §214, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1637; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §329(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 408; Pub. L. 99–603, title I, §121(a)(2), Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3386; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §164(a)–(f)(1), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1860–1863; Pub. L. 104–193, title IV, §441(a), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2276; Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title III, §308(g)(7)(D)(ii), title V, §§572–576, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–624, 3009-684, 3009-685, 3009-687; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §592(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2653; Pub. L. 106–504, §3(b), Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2312; Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §113, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 804.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, and amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(1) and (h)(1), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079, as amended. Subtitle A of title III of the Act, known as the National Homeownership Trust Act, is classified generally to subchapter III (§12851 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title and Tables.

Section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 101 of Pub. L. 89–117, title I, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 451, which enacted section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and amended sections 1451 and 1465 of this title.

The Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986, referred to in subsecs. (e)(2), (3) and (g), is Pub. L. 99–603, Nov. 6, 1986, 100 Stat. 3359. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1986 Amendments note set out under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality, and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 114–201 substituted "any citizen or national of the United States shall be entitled to a preference or priority in receiving financial assistance before any such alien who is otherwise eligible for assistance." for "such alien shall not be entitled to a preference in receiving assistance under this Act over any United States citizen or national resident therein who is otherwise eligible for such assistance."

2000—Subsec. (a)(7). Pub. L. 106–504 added par. (7).

1998—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development".

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(2), aligned cls. (ii) and (iii) with cl. (i).

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(A), in last sentence, substituted "applicable Secretary, or" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or" and "applicable Secretary considers" for "Secretary considers".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(B), aligned concluding provisions with par. (2) and inserted "applicable" before "Secretary" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(C), inserted "applicable" before "Secretary" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(D), substituted "the applicable Secretary shall" for "the Secretary shall" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(3)(E), inserted "applicable" before "Secretary".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (h), relating to verification of eligibility, as (i).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(4)(A), substituted "No" for "Except in the case of an election under paragraph (2)(A), no" and "subsection (d)" for "this section" and inserted "applicable" before "Secretary".

Subsec. (h)(2)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(4)(B)(i), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "may elect not to comply with this section; and".

Subsec. (h)(2)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(4)(B)(ii), substituted "in carrying out subsection (d)" for "in complying with this section" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–276, §592(a)(5), redesignated subsec. (h), relating to verification of eligibility, as (i).

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 104–208, §308(g)(7)(D)(ii), substituted "section 1231(b)(3)" for "section 1253(h)".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–208, §572, designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(2), inserted "the direct loan program under section 1472 of this title or section 1472(c)(5)(D), 1474, 1490a(a)(2)(A), or 1490r of this title, subtitle A of title III of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act," after "1715z–1 of title 12,".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in two places.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–208, §573(1), substituted "shall" for "may, in its discretion," in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–208, §573(2), inserted at end "Financial assistance continued under this subparagraph for a family may be provided only on a prorated basis, under which the amount of financial assistance is based on the percentage of the total number of members of the family that are eligible for that assistance under the program of financial assistance and under this section."

Subsec. (c)(1)(B). Pub. L. 104–208, §573(3), designated first sentence of existing provisions as cl. (i), designated second and third sentences of existing provisions as cl. (ii) and substituted "Except as provided in clause (iii), any deferral" for "Any deferral" and "18-months" for "3 years", and added cl. (iii).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(1), inserted "or to be" after "being" in introductory provisions.

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(3), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary" wherever appearing in pars. (2) to (6).

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), (4), substituted "the term 'applicable Secretary' " for "the term 'Secretary' " and "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in closing provisions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(A). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(2), inserted at end "If the declaration states that the individual is not a citizen or national of the United States and that the individual is younger than 62 years of age, the declaration shall be verified by the Immigration and Naturalization Service. If the declaration states that the individual is a citizen or national of the United States, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, or the agency administering assistance covered by this section, may request verification of the declaration by requiring presentation of documentation that the Secretary considers appropriate, including a United States passport, resident alien card, alien registration card, social security card, or other documentation."

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(3), substituted "on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996" for "on February 5, 1988" in introductory provisions and added concluding provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(A), substituted "on September 30, 1996, or applying for financial assistance on or after September 30, 1996" for "on February 5, 1988" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(B)(i)(I), inserted ", not to exceed 30 days," after "reasonable opportunity".

Subsec. (d)(4)(A)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(B)(i)(II), (ii), added cls. (ii) and (iii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "may not delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the individual's eligibility for financial assistance on the basis of the individual's immigration status until such a reasonable opportunity has been provided; and".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(4)(C), added cl. (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "pending such verification or appeal, the applicable Secretary may not delay, deny, reduce, or terminate the individual's eligibility for financial assistance on the basis of the individual's immigration status, and".

Subsec. (d)(5). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(5), inserted ", the Secretary shall" after "status" in introductory provisions, added subpars. (A) to (C), and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which read as follows:

"(A) the applicable Secretary shall deny or terminate the individual's eligibility for financial assistance, and

"(B) the applicable fair hearing process shall be made available with respect to the individual."

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 104–208, §574(6), added par. (6) and struck out former par. (6) which read as follows: "For purposes of paragraph (5)(B), the applicable fair hearing process made available with respect to any individual shall include not less than the following procedural protections:

"(A) The applicable Secretary shall provide the individual with written notice of the determination described in paragraph (5) and of the opportunity for a hearing with respect to the determination.

"(B) Upon timely request by the individual, the applicable Secretary shall provide a hearing before an impartial hearing officer designated by the applicable Secretary, at which hearing the individual may produce evidence of a satisfactory immigration status.

"(C) The applicable Secretary shall notify the individual in writing of the decision of the hearing officer on the appeal of the determination in a timely manner.

"(D) Financial assistance may not be denied or terminated until the completion of the hearing process."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 104–208, §575(2), inserted at end "the response from the Immigration and Naturalization Service to the appeal of that individual."

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 104–208, §575(1), (3), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "because of a fair hearing process described in subsection (d)(5)(B) of this section (or provided for under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603))."

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(1), substituted "applicable Secretary" for "Secretary of Housing and Urban Development".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–208, §576, added subsec. (h) relating to verification of eligibility.

Pub. L. 104–193, §441(a)(5), added subsec. (h) defining "applicable Secretary".

1988—Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(a), added par. (6).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(b), added subsec. (c).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(8), amended last sentence generally. Prior to amendment, last sentence read as follows: "In this subsection and subsection (e) of this section, the term 'Secretary' refers to the Secretary and to a public housing authority or other entity which makes financial assistance available."

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(1), inserted ", is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on February 5, 1988" after "States".

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(2), in introductory provisions, inserted ", is not 62 years of age or older, and is receiving financial assistance on February 5, 1988" after "States", and "or recertification" after "application".

Subsec. (d)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(3), inserted after comma "or to appeal to the Immigration and Naturalization Service the verification determination of the Immigration and Naturalization Service under paragraph (3),".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(4), amended introductory provisions generally. Prior to amendment, introductory provisions read as follows: "if there are submitted documents which the Secretary determines constitutes reasonable evidence indicating such status—".

Subsec. (d)(4)(B)(i), (ii). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(5), (6), inserted "or additional information" after "documents" in cl. (i), and "or appeal" after "verification" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (d)(6). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(c)(7), added par. (6).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(d)(1), in introductory provisions, inserted "of Housing and Urban Development" after "Secretary".

Subsec. (e)(2), (3). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(d)(2), (3), inserted "(or under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603))".

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(d)(4), inserted "(or provided for under any alternative system for verifying immigration status with the Immigration and Naturalization Service authorized in the Immigration Reform and Control Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–603))".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(e), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–242, §164(f)(1), added subsec. (g).

1986—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 99–603 added subsecs. (d) and (e).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35 substituted provisions relating to restrictions on use of assisted housing by resident aliens meeting further conditions for provisions relating to prohibition on financial assistance to nonimmigrant student-aliens.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–35 struck out "(1)" after "(b)" and par. (2) which defined "nonimmigrant student-alien".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §592(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2654, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by section 308(g)(7)(D)(ii) of Pub. L. 104–208 effective, with certain transitional provisions, on the first day of the first month beginning more than 180 days after Sept. 30, 1996, see section 309 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Amendment by sections 572–576 of Pub. L. 104–208 effective Sept. 30, 1996, see section 591 of Pub. L. 104–208, set out as a note under section 1101 of Title 8.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §164(h), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1863, provided that:

"(1) The provisions of, and amendments made by, subsections (a), (b), (e), (f), and (g) [amending this section, repealing section 1437r of this title, and enacting provisions set out below] shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Feb. 5, 1988].

"(2) The amendments made by subsections (c) and (d) [amending this section] shall take effect on October 1, 1988."

Effective Date of 1986 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–603 effective on Oct. 1, 1988, with certain exceptions and qualifications, see section 121(c)(3), (4) of Pub. L. 99–603, set out as a note under section 1320b–7 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Short Title of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title V, §571, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–684, provided that: "This subtitle [subtitle E (§§571–577) of title V of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208, amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note below] may be cited as the 'Use of Assisted Housing by Aliens Act of 1996'."

Regulations

Pub. L. 104–208, div. C, title V, §577, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 3009–688, provided that:

"(a) Issuance.—Not later than the 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Sept. 30, 1996], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue any regulations necessary to implement the amendments made by this part [probably means this subtitle, subtitle E (§§571–577) of title V of div. C of Pub. L. 104–208, see Short Title of 1996 Amendment note above]. Such regulations shall be issued in the form of an interim final rule, which shall take effect upon issuance and shall not be subject to the provisions of section 533 of title 5, United States Code, regarding notice or opportunity for comment.

"(b) Failure To Issue.—If the Secretary fails to issue the regulations required under subsection (a) before the date specified in that subsection, the regulations relating to restrictions on assistance to noncitizens, contained in the final rule issued by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in RIN–2501–AA63 (Docket No. R–95–1409; FR–2383–F–050), published in the Federal Register on March 20, 1995 (Vol. 60, No. 53; pp. 14824–14861), shall not apply after that date."

Abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service and Transfer of Functions

For abolition of Immigration and Naturalization Service, transfer of functions, and treatment of related references, see note set out under section 1551 of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality.

Transitional Certification and Documentation Provisions

Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §164(g), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1863, provided that: "In carrying out section 214 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980 [this section] during fiscal year 1988, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall require, as a condition of providing financial assistance for the benefit of any individual, that such individual—

"(1) declare in writing, under penalty of perjury, whether or not such individual is a citizen or national of the United States; and

"(2) if not a citizen or national—

"(A) declare in writing, under penalty of perjury, the immigration status of such individual, if such individual is not less than 62 years of age 'and is receiving financial assistance on the date of the enactment of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1987' [Feb. 5, 1988]; or

"(B) provide such documentation regarding the immigration status of such individual as the Secretary may require by regulation."

Delayed Implementation of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title IV, §474(e)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1239, provided in part that: "The Secretary may not implement the amendment to section 214 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980 [this section], made by section 329(a) of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981 [Pub. L. 97–35], before the expiration of the one-year period following the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 30, 1983]."

Aliens Granted Conditional Entry Eligible for Assisted Housing

Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §329(b), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 408, provided that: "An alien who is lawfully present in the United States as a result of being granted conditional entry pursuant to section 203(a)(7) of the Immigration and Nationality Act (8 U.S.C. 1153(a)(7)) before April 1, 1980, because of persecution or fear of persecution on account of race, religion, or political opinion or because of being uprooted by catastrophic natural calamity shall be deemed, for purposes of section 214 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980 [this section], to be an alien described in section 214(a)(3) of such Act [subsec. (a)(3) of this section]."

1 So in original.

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "; and".

§1436b. Financial assistance in impacted areas

The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall not exclude from consideration for financial assistance under federally assisted housing programs proposals for housing projects solely because the site proposed is located within an impacted area. For the purposes of this section, the term "federally assisted housing programs" means any program authorized by the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], sections 1715z and 1715z–1 of title 12, section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s], or section 1701q of title 12.

(Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §216, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1638.)

References in Text

The United States Housing Act of 1937, referred to in text, is act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, as revised generally by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653, and amended, which is classified generally to this chapter (§1437 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1437 of this title and Tables.

Section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965, referred to in text, is section 101 of Pub. L. 89–117, title I, Aug. 10, 1965, 79 Stat. 451, as amended, which enacted section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and amended sections 1451 and 1465 of this title.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1980, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

§1436c. Insurance for public housing agencies and Indian housing authorities

On and after October 28, 1991, notwithstanding any other provision of State or Federal law, regulation or other requirement, any public housing agency or Indian housing authority that purchases any line of insurance from a nonprofit insurance entity, owned and controlled by public housing agencies or Indian housing authorities, and approved by the Secretary, may purchase such insurance without regard to competitive procurement.

On and after October 28, 1991, the Secretary shall establish standards as set forth herein, by regulation, adopted after notice and comment rulemaking pursuant to subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, which will become effective not later than one year from October 28, 1991.

On and after October 28, 1991, in establishing standards for approval of such nonprofit insurance entities, the Secretary shall be assured that such entities have sufficient surplus capital to meet reasonably expected losses, reliable accounting systems, sound actuarial projections, and employees experienced in the insurance industry. The Secretary shall not place restrictions on the investment of funds of any such entity that is regulated by the insurance department of any State that describes the types of investments insurance companies licensed in such State may make. With regard to such entities that are not so regulated, the Secretary shall establish investment guidelines that are comparable to State law regulating the investments of insurance companies.

On and after October 28, 1991, the Secretary shall not approve additional nonprofit insurance entities until such standards have become final, nor shall the Secretary revoke the approval of any nonprofit insurance entity previously approved by the Department unless for cause and after a due process hearing.

On and after October 28, 1991, until the Department of Housing and Urban Development has adopted regulations specifying the nature and quality of insurance covering the potential personal injury liability exposure of public housing authorities and Indian housing authorities (and their contractors, including architectural and engineering services) as a result of testing and abatement of lead-based paint in federally subsidized public and Indian housing units, said authorities shall be permitted to purchase insurance for such risk, as an allowable expense against amounts available for capital improvements (modernization): Provided, That such insurance is competitively selected and that coverage provided under such policies, as certified by the authority, provides reasonable coverage for the risk of liability exposure, taking into consideration the potential liability concerns inherent in the testing and abatement of lead-based paint, and the managerial and quality assurance responsibilities associated with the conduct of such activities.

(Pub. L. 102–139, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 758.)

References in Text

Herein, referred to in text, probably means Pub. L. 102–139, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 736, known as the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Tables.

Codification

In the second undesignated par., "subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5" was substituted for "the Administrative Procedures Act" on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section was enacted as part of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

§1436d. Consultation with affected areas in settlement of litigation

In negotiating any settlement of, or consent decree for, significant litigation regarding public housing or section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] tenant-based assistance that involves the Secretary and any public housing agency or any unit of general local government, the Secretary shall seek the views of any units of general local government and public housing agencies having jurisdictions that are adjacent to the jurisdiction of the public housing agency involved, if the resolution of such litigation would involve the acquisition or development of public housing dwelling units or the use of vouchers under section 1437f of this title in jurisdictions that are adjacent to the jurisdiction of the public housing agency involved in the litigation.

(Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §599H(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2668.)

References in Text

Secretary, referred to in text, means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, and not as part of the United States Housing Act of 1937 which comprises this chapter.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §599H(m), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2670, provided that: "This section [enacting this section and amending section 1490 of this title] shall take effect on, and the amendments made by this section are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROGRAM OF ASSISTED HOUSING

Codification

Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681, added subchapter heading.

§1437. Declaration of policy and public housing agency organization

(a) Declaration of policy

It is the policy of the United States—

(1) to promote the general welfare of the Nation by employing the funds and credit of the Nation, as provided in this chapter—

(A) to assist States and political subdivisions of States to remedy the unsafe housing conditions and the acute shortage of decent and safe dwellings for low-income families;

(B) to assist States and political subdivisions of States to address the shortage of housing affordable to low-income families; and

(C) consistent with the objectives of this subchapter, to vest in public housing agencies that perform well, the maximum amount of responsibility and flexibility in program administration, with appropriate accountability to public housing residents, localities, and the general public;


(2) that the Federal Government cannot through its direct action alone provide for the housing of every American citizen, or even a majority of its citizens, but it is the responsibility of the Government to promote and protect the independent and collective actions of private citizens to develop housing and strengthen their own neighborhoods;

(3) that the Federal Government should act where there is a serious need that private citizens or groups cannot or are not addressing responsibly; and

(4) that our Nation should promote the goal of providing decent and affordable housing for all citizens through the efforts and encouragement of Federal, State, and local governments, and by the independent and collective actions of private citizens, organizations, and the private sector.

(b) Public housing agency organization

(1) Required membership

Except as provided in paragraphs (2) and (3), the membership of the board of directors or similar governing body of each public housing agency shall contain not less than 1 member—

(A) who is directly assisted by the public housing agency; and

(B) who may, if provided for in the public housing agency plan, be elected by the residents directly assisted by the public housing agency.

(2) Exception

Paragraph (1) shall not apply to any public housing agency—

(A) that is located in a State that requires the members of the board of directors or similar governing body of a public housing agency to be salaried and to serve on a full-time basis; or

(B) with less than 300 public housing units, if—

(i) the agency has provided reasonable notice to the resident advisory board of the opportunity of not less than 1 resident described in paragraph (1) to serve on the board of directors or similar governing body of the public housing agency pursuant to such paragraph; and

(ii) within a reasonable time after receipt by the resident advisory board established by the agency pursuant to section 1437c–1(e) of this title of notice under clause (i), the public housing agency has not been notified of the intention of any resident to participate on the board of directors.

(3) Exception for certain jurisdictions

(A) Exception

A covered agency (as such term is defined in subparagraph (C) of this paragraph) shall not be required to include on the board of directors or a similar governing board of such agency a member described in paragraph (1).

(B) Advisory board requirement

Each covered agency that administers Federal housing assistance under section 1437f of this title that chooses not to include a member described in paragraph (1) on the board of directors or a similar governing board of the agency shall establish an advisory board of not less than 6 residents of public housing or recipients of assistance under section 1437f of this title to provide advice and comment to the agency or other administering entity on issues related to public housing and section 1437f of this title. Such advisory board shall meet not less than quarterly.

(C) Covered agency or entity

For purposes of this paragraph, the term "covered agency" means a public housing agency or such other entity that administers Federal housing assistance for—

(I) 1 the Housing Authority of the county of Los Angeles, California; or

(ii) any of the States of Alaska, Iowa, and Mississippi.

(4) Nondiscrimination

No person shall be prohibited from serving on the board of directors or similar governing body of a public housing agency because of the residence of that person in a public housing project or status as assisted under section 1437f of this title.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §2, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §572(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4236; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §505, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2522; Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §114, July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 804.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 2 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 888, related to definitions and was classified to section 1402 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Prior similar provisions were contained in section 1 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 888, which was classified to section 1401 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 114–201, §114(1), substituted "paragraphs (2) and (3)" for "paragraph (2)" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 114–201, §114(2), (3), added par. (3) and redesignated former par. (3) as (4).

1998Pub. L. 105–276 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "It is the policy of the United States to promote the general welfare of the Nation by employing its funds and credit, as provided in this chapter, to assist the several States and their political subdivisions to remedy the unsafe and unsanitary housing conditions and the acute shortage of decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings for families of lower income and, consistent with the objectives of this chapter, to vest in local public housing agencies the maximum amount of responsibility in the administration of their housing programs. No person should be barred from serving on the board of directors or similar governing body of a local public housing agency because of his tenancy in a low-income housing project."

1990Pub. L. 101–625 substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing".

1981Pub. L. 97–35 substituted reference to lower income for reference to low income in two places.

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §503, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2521, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The amendments under this title [see Tables for classification] are made on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], but this title shall take effect, and the amendments made by this title shall apply beginning upon, October 1, 1999, except—

"(1) as otherwise specifically provided in this title; or

"(2) as otherwise specifically provided in any amendment made by this title.

The Secretary may, by notice, implement any provision of this title or any amendment made by this title before such date, except to the extent that such provision or amendment specifically provides otherwise.

"(b) Savings Provision.—Notwithstanding any amendment under this title that is made (in accordance with subsection (a)) on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998] but applies beginning on October 1, 1999, the provisions of law amended by such amendment, as such provisions were in effect immediately before the making of such amendment, shall continue to apply during the period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act and ending upon October 1, 1999, unless otherwise specifically provided by this title.

"(c) Technical Recommendations.—Not later than 9 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], the Secretary shall submit to the Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs of the Senate and the Committee on Banking and Financial Services [now Committee on Financial Services] of the House of Representatives, recommended technical and conforming legislative changes necessary to carry out this title and the amendments made by this title.

"(d) List of Obsolete Documents.—Not later than October 1, 1999, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall cause to be published in the Federal Register a list of all rules, regulations, and orders (including all handbooks, notices, and related requirements) pertaining to public housing or section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] tenant-based programs issued or promulgated under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998] that are or will be obsolete because of the enactment of this Act or are otherwise obsolete.

"(e) Protection of Certain Regulations.—No provision of this title may be construed to repeal the regulations of the Secretary regarding tenant participation and tenant opportunities in public housing (24 C.F.R. 964).

"(g)[(f)] Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(b), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 667, provided that: "The provisions of subsection (a) of this section [enacting sections 1437 to 1437j of this title] shall be effective on such date or dates as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall prescribe, but not later than eighteen months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 22, 1974]; except that (1) all of the provisions of section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended by subsection (a) of this section [section 1437a(1) of this title], shall become effective on the same date, (2) all of the provisions of sections 5 and 9(c) of such Act as so amended [sections 1437c and 1437g(c) of this title] shall become effective on the same date, and (3) section 8 of such Act [section 1437f of this title] as so amended shall be effective not later than January 1, 1975."

Section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended, effective Sept. 26, 1975, see Effective Date note set out under section 1437a of this title.

Short Title of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–201, §1(a), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 782, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1437z–9, 3536a, and 11386f of this title, amending this section, sections 1436a, 1437a, 1437f, 1437g, 1437n, 1472, 3533, 11373, 11387, 11388, 12902, and 12903 of this title, and section 1709 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1437a, 1437f, 1437z–9, 3533, 3544, and 11313 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 12805 of this title] may be cited as the 'Housing Opportunity Through Modernization Act of 2016'."

Short Title of 2008 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title VII, §2701, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2863, provided that: "This title [amending section 1437c–1 of this title] may be cited as the 'Small Public Housing Authorities Paperwork Reduction Act'."

Short Title of 2003 Amendment

Pub. L. 108–186, title IV, §401, Dec. 16, 2003, 117 Stat. 2693, provided that: "This title [amending section 1437v of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437v of this title] may be cited as the 'HOPE VI Program Reauthorization and Small Community Mainstreet Rejuvenation and Housing Act of 2003'."

Short Title of 2002 Amendment

Pub. L. 107–116, title VI, §601(a), Jan. 10, 2002, 115 Stat. 2220, provided that: "This title [amending sections 1437f and 5305 of this title and section 1715n of Title 12, Banks and Banking, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1437f and 11301 of this title and sections 1701q and 1715n of Title 12, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1437f and 11301 of this title and section 1701q of Title 12] may be cited as the 'Mark-to-Market Extension Act of 2001'."

Short Title of 1998 Amendment

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §501(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2518, provided that: "This title [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–358, §1, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 676, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1437aa to 1437ee of this title, amending sections 1437a and 1437c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437a of this title] may be cited as the 'Indian Housing Act of 1988'."

Short Title

Act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §1, as added by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653; renumbered title I by Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681, provided that: "This Act [enacting this chapter] may be cited as the 'United States Housing Act of 1937'."

Applicability of 1996 Amendments; Indian Housing

Pub. L. 104–204, title II, §201(d), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2893, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending provisions set out as notes under sections 1437a, 1437c, and 1437l of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §201(a)(3)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-278; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendment made by this subsection [amending section 1437l of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §201(b)(3)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-278; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by this subsection [amending section 1437p of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 1437c of this title] and by sections 1002(a), (b), and (c) of Public Law 104–19 [amending sections 1437c, 1437p, and 1437aaa–3 of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(e), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 43, which provided that amendments made by section 402(a) to (d) and (f) of Pub. L. 104–99 were also to apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to contract between Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §595(e)(16), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2659.

Applicability of 1990 Amendments; Indian Housing

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §103(b), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3684, provided that:

"(1) In general.—In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 ([former] 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)), the provisions of sections 572, 573, and 574 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Pub. L. 101–625, amending this section and sections 1437a, 1437b to 1437d, 1437f, 1437g, 1437i, 1437j, 1437l, 1437n, 1437p, 1437r, 1437s, and 1437aa to 1437dd of this title, repealing section 1437o of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1437a of this title] shall apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian Housing Authority.

"(2) Effective date.—Paragraph (1) shall take effect as if such provision were enacted upon the date of the enactment of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Nov. 28, 1990]."

Pub. L. 101–625, title IV, §419, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4161, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle A (§§411–419) of title IV of Pub. L. 101–625, enacting subchapter II–A of this chapter and amending sections 1437c, 1437f, 1437l, 1437p, 1437r, and 1437s of this title] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority, except that nothing in this title [see Short Title note set out under section 1437aaa of this title] affects the program under section 202 of such Act [former 42 U.S.C. 1437bb]."

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §527, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4216, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 ([former] 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)), the provisions of this subtitle [subtitle A (§§501–527) of title V of Pub. L. 101–625, see Tables for classification] that modify the public housing program under title I of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority, except that sections 502 and 510 [amending sections 1437d and 1437l of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1437d of this title] shall not apply."

Applicability of 1989 Amendments; Indian Housing

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §101(d), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 1990, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendments made by subsections (a), (b), and (c) of this section [amending section 1439 of this title] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Pub. L. 101–235, title I, §104(c), Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 1998, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former 42 U.S.C. 1437aa(b)(2)], the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending section 1439 of this title] and the provisions of subsection (b) of this section [set out as an Effective Date of 1989 Amendment note under section 1439 of this title] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Reports on Number and Cost of Federally Assisted Units

Pub. L. 110–161, div. K, title II, §211, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2433, which directed the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to submit an annual report to the House and Senate Committees on Appropriations regarding the number of Federally assisted units under lease and the per unit cost of such units, was repealed by Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title II, §238, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 789.

Funding of Certain Public Housing

Pub. L. 105–276, title II, §226, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2490, which provided that no funds in this Act or any other Act may hereafter be used by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to determine allocations or provide assistance for operating subsidies or modernization for certain State and city funded and locally developed public housing units unless such unit was so assisted before Oct. 1, 1998, was repealed by Pub. L. 108–7, div. K, title II, §212(b), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 504.

[Pub. L. 108–7, div. K, title II, §212(d), Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 504, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (b) [repealing section 226 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out above] shall be deemed to have taken effect on October 21, 1998."]

Congressional Statement of Findings and Purposes

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §502, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2520, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—

"(1) there exists throughout the Nation a need for decent, safe, and affordable housing;

"(2) the inventory of public housing units owned, assisted, or operated by public housing agencies, an asset in which the Federal Government has invested over $90,000,000,000, has traditionally provided rental housing that is affordable to low-income persons;

"(3) despite serving this critical function, the public housing system is plagued by a series of problems, including the concentration of very poor people in very poor neighborhoods and disincentives for economic self-sufficiency;

"(4) the Federal method of overseeing every aspect of public housing by detailed and complex statutes and regulations has aggravated the problem and has placed excessive administrative burdens on public housing agencies; and

"(5) the interests of low-income persons, and the public interest, will best be served by a reformed public housing program that—

"(A) consolidates many public housing programs into programs for the operation and capital needs of public housing;

"(B) streamlines program requirements;

"(C) vests in public housing agencies that perform well the maximum feasible authority, discretion, and control with appropriate accountability to public housing residents, localities, and the general public; and

"(D) rewards employment and economic self-sufficiency of public housing residents.

"(b) Purposes.—The purpose of this title [see Tables for classification] is to promote homes that are affordable to low-income families in safe and healthy environments, and thereby contribute to the supply of affordable housing, by—

"(1) deregulating and decontrolling public housing agencies, thereby enabling them to perform as property and asset managers;

"(2) providing for more flexible use of Federal assistance to public housing agencies, allowing the authorities to leverage and combine assistance amounts with amounts obtained from other sources;

"(3) facilitating mixed income communities and decreasing concentrations of poverty in public housing;

"(4) increasing accountability and rewarding effective management of public housing agencies;

"(5) creating incentives and economic opportunities for residents of dwelling units assisted by public housing agencies to work, become self-sufficient, and transition out of public housing and federally assisted dwelling units;

"(6) consolidating the voucher and certificate programs for rental assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] into a single market-driven program that will assist in making tenant-based rental assistance under such section more successful at helping low-income families obtain affordable housing and will increase housing choice for low-income families; and

"(7) remedying the problems of troubled public housing agencies and replacing or revitalizing severely distressed public housing projects."

Mental Health Action Plan

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §517, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2550, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, in consultation with the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Secretary of Labor, and appropriate State and local officials and representatives, shall—

"(1) develop an action plan and list of recommendations for the improvement of means of providing severe mental illness treatment to families and individuals receiving housing assistance under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], including public housing residents, residents of multifamily housing assisted with project-based assistance under section 8 of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f], and recipients of tenant-based assistance under such section; and

"(2) develop and disseminate a list of current practices among public housing agencies and owners of assisted housing that serve to benefit persons in need of mental health care."

Annual Report

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §581, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], and annually thereafter, the Secretary shall submit a report to the Congress on—

"(1) the impact of the amendments made by this Act [Pub. L. 105–276, see Tables for classification] on—

"(A) the demographics of public housing residents and families receiving tenant-based assistance under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.]; and

"(B) the economic viability of public housing agencies; and

"(2) the effectiveness of the rent policies established by this Act and the amendments made by this Act on the employment status and earned income of public housing residents.

"(b) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Use of American Products

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §584, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2645, provided that:

"(a) Purchase of American-Made Equipment and Products.—It is the sense of the Congress that, to the greatest extent practicable, all equipment and products purchased with funds made available in this Act [Pub. L. 105–276, see Tables for classification] should be American made.

"(b) Notice Requirement.—In providing financial assistance to, or entering into any contract with, any entity using funds made available in this Act, the head of each Federal agency, to the greatest extent practicable, shall provide to such entity a notice describing the statement made in subsection (a) by the Congress.

"(c) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

GAO Study on Housing Assistance Program Costs

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §585, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2645, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study that provides an objective and independent accounting and analysis of the full cost to the Federal Government, public housing agencies, State and local governments, and other entities, per assisted household, of the Federal assisted housing programs, taking into account the qualitative differences among Federal assisted housing programs in accordance with applicable standards of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

"(b) Contents.—The study under this section shall—

"(1) analyze the full cost to the Federal Government, public housing agencies, State and local governments, and other parties, per assisted household, of the Federal assisted housing programs, in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles, and shall conduct the analysis on a nationwide and regional basis and in a manner such that accurate per unit cost comparisons may be made between Federal assisted housing programs, including grants, direct subsidies, tax concessions, Federal mortgage insurance liability, periodic renovation and rehabilitation, and modernization costs, demolition costs, and other ancillary costs such as security; and

"(2) measure and evaluate qualitative differences among Federal assisted housing programs in accordance with applicable standards of the Department of Housing and Urban Development.

"(c) Prohibition of Recommendations.—In conducting the study under this section and reporting under subsection (e), the Comptroller General may not make any recommendations regarding Federal housing policy.

"(d) Federal Assisted Housing Programs.—For purposes of this section, the term 'Federal assisted housing programs' means—

"(1) the public housing program under the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], except that the study under this section shall differentiate between and compare the development and construction of new public housing and the assistance of existing public housing structures;

"(2) the certificate program for rental assistance under section 8(b)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(1)];

"(3) the voucher program for rental assistance under section 8(o) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(o)];

"(4) the programs for project-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f];

"(5) the rental assistance payments program under section 521(a)(2)(A) of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1490a(a)(2)(A)];

"(6) the program for housing for the elderly under section 202 of the Housing Act of 1959 [12 U.S.C. 1701q];

"(7) the program for housing for persons with disabilities under section 811 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 8013];

"(8) the program for financing housing by a loan or mortgage insured under section 221(d)(3) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715l(d)(3)] that bears interest at a rate determined under the proviso of section 221(d)(5) of such Act [12 U.S.C. 1715l(d)(5)];

"(9) the program under section 236 of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715z–1];

"(10) the program for construction or substantial rehabilitation under section 8(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f(b)(2)], as in effect before October 1, 1983; and

"(11) any other program for housing assistance administered by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture, under which occupancy in the housing assisted or housing assistance provided is based on income, as the Comptroller General may determine.

"(e) Report.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], the Comptroller General shall submit to the Congress a final report which shall contain the results of the study under this section, including the analysis and estimates required under subsection (b).

"(f) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Limitation on Withholding or Conditioning of Assistance

Assistance provided for in Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.], National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], Housing Act of 1949 [see Short Title note set out under section 1441 of this title], Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act of 1966 [see Short Title note set out under section 3331 of this title], and Housing and Urban Development Acts of 1965, 1968, 1969, and 1970 not to be withheld or made subject to conditions by reason of tax-exempt status of obligations issued or to be issued for financing of assistance, except as otherwise provided by law, see section 817 of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a note under section 5301 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "(i)".

§1437a. Rental payments

(a) Families included; rent options; minimum amount; occupancy by police officers and over-income families

(1) Dwelling units assisted under this chapter shall be rented only to families who are low-income families at the time of their initial occupancy of such units. Reviews of family income shall be made at least annually; except that, in the case of any family with a fixed income, as defined by the Secretary, after the initial review of the family's income, the public housing agency or owner shall not be required to conduct a review of the family's income for any year for which such family certifies, in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall establish, which shall include policies to adjust for inflation-based income changes, that 90 percent or more of the income of the family consists of fixed income, and that the sources of such income have not changed since the previous year, except that the public housing agency or owner shall conduct a review of each such family's income not less than once every 3 years. Except as provided in paragraph (2) and subject to the requirement under paragraph (3), a family shall pay as rent for a dwelling unit assisted under this chapter (other than a family assisted under section 1437f(o) or (y) of this title or paying rent under section 1437f(c)(3)(B) 1 of this title) the highest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:

(A) 30 per centum of the family's monthly adjusted income;

(B) 10 per centum of the family's monthly income; or

(C) if the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency and a part of such payments, adjusted in accordance with the family's actual housing costs, is specifically designated by such agency to meet the family's housing costs, the portion of such payments which is so designated.


(2) Rental payments for public housing families.—

(A) Authority for family to select.—

(i) In general.—A family residing in a public housing dwelling shall pay as monthly rent for the unit the amount determined under clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B), subject to the requirement under paragraph (3) (relating to minimum rents). Each public housing agency shall provide for each family residing in a public housing dwelling unit owned, assisted, or operated by the agency to elect annually whether the rent paid by such family shall be determined under clause (i) or (ii) of subparagraph (B). A public housing agency may not at any time fail to provide both such rent options for any public housing dwelling unit owned, assisted, or operated by the agency.

(ii) Authority to retain flat and ceiling rents.—Notwithstanding clause (i) or any other provision of law, any public housing agency that is administering flat rents or ceiling rents pursuant to any authority referred to in section 519(d) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998 before the effective day of such Act may continue to charge rent in accordance with such rent provisions after such effective date, except that the agency shall provide for families residing in public housing dwelling units owned or operated by the agency to elect annually whether to pay rent under such provisions or in accordance with one of the rent options referred to in subparagraph (A).


(B) Allowable rent structures.—

(i) Flat rents.—Each public housing agency shall establish, for each dwelling unit in public housing owned or operated by the agency, a flat rental amount for the dwelling unit, which—

(I) shall not be lower than 80 percent of—

(aa) the applicable fair market rental established under section 1437f(c) of this title; or

(bb) at the discretion of the Secretary, such other applicable fair market rental established by the Secretary that the Secretary determines more accurately reflects local market conditions and is based on an applicable market area that is geographically smaller than the applicable market area used for purposes of the applicable fair market rental under section 1437f(c) of this title;


 except that a public housing agency may apply to the Secretary for exception allowing for a flat rental amount for a property that is lower than the amount otherwise determined pursuant to item (aa) or (bb) and the Secretary may grant such exception if the Secretary determines that the fair market rental for the applicable market area pursuant to item (aa) or (bb) does not reflect the market value of the property and the proposed lower flat rental amount is based on a market analysis of the applicable market and complies with subclause (II) and

(II) shall be designed in accordance with subparagraph (D) so that the rent structures do not create a disincentive for continued residency in public housing by families who are attempting to become economically self-sufficient through employment or who have attained a level of self-sufficiency through their own efforts.


If a new flat rental amount for a dwelling unit will increase a family's existing rental payment by more than 35 percent, the new flat rental amount shall be phased in as necessary to ensure that the family's existing rental payment does not increase by more than 35 percent annually. The preceding sentence shall not be construed to require establishment of rental amounts equal to 80 percent of the fair market rental in years when the fair market rental falls from the prior year.

(ii) Income-based rents.—

(I) In general.—The monthly rental amount determined under this clause for a family shall be an amount, determined by the public housing agency, that does not exceed the greatest of the amounts (rounded to the nearest dollar) determined under subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) of paragraph (1). This clause may not be construed to require a public housing agency to charge a monthly rent in the maximum amount permitted under this clause.

(II) Discretion.—Subject to the limitation on monthly rental amount under subclause (I), a public housing agency may, in its discretion, implement a rent structure under this clause requiring that a portion of the rent be deposited to an escrow or savings account, imposing ceiling rents, or adopting income exclusions (such as those set forth in subsection (b)(5)(B)), or may establish another reasonable rent structure or amount.


(C) Switching rent determination methods because of hardship circumstances.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), in the case of a family that has elected to pay rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i), a public housing agency shall immediately provide for the family to pay rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(ii) during the period for which such election was made upon a determination that the family is unable to pay the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i) because of financial hardship, including—

(i) situations in which the income of the family has decreased because of changed circumstances, loss of 2 reduction of employment, death in the family, and reduction in or loss of income or other assistance;

(ii) an increase, because of changed circumstances, in the family's expenses for medical costs, child care, transportation, education, or similar items; and

(iii) such other situations as may be determined by the agency.


(D) Encouragement of self-sufficiency.—The rental policy developed by each public housing agency shall encourage and reward employment and economic self-sufficiency.

(E) Income reviews.—Notwithstanding the second sentence of paragraph (1), in the case of families that are paying rent in the amount determined under subparagraph (B)(i), the agency shall review the income of such family not less than once every 3 years.


(3) Minimum rental amount.—

(A) Requirement.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1) of this subsection, the method for rent determination elected pursuant to paragraph (2)(A) of this subsection by a family residing in public housing, section 1437f(o)(2) of this title, or section 206(d) of the Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act of 1983 (including paragraph (5) of such section), the following entities shall require the following families to pay a minimum monthly rental amount (which amount shall include any amount allowed for utilities) of not more than $50 per month, as follows:

(i) Each public housing agency shall require the payment of such minimum monthly rental amount, which amount shall be determined by the agency, by—

(I) each family residing in a dwelling unit in public housing by the agency;

(II) each family who is assisted under the certificate or moderate rehabilitation program under section 1437f of this title; and

(III) each family who is assisted under the voucher program under section 1437f of this title, and the agency shall reduce the monthly assistance payment on behalf of such family as may be necessary to ensure payment of such minimum monthly rental amount.


(ii) The Secretary shall require each family who is assisted under any other program for rental assistance under section 1437f of this title to pay such minimum monthly rental amount, which amount shall be determined by the Secretary.


(B) Exception for hardship circumstances.—

(i) In general.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a public housing agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)) shall immediately grant an exemption from application of the minimum monthly rental under such subparagraph to any family unable to pay such amount because of financial hardship, which shall include situations in which (I) the family has lost eligibility for or is awaiting an eligibility determination for a Federal, State, or local assistance program, including a family that includes a member who is an alien lawfully admitted for permanent residence under the Immigration and Nationality Act [8 U.S.C. 1101 et seq.] who would be entitled to public benefits but for title IV of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 [8 U.S.C. 1601 et seq.]; (II) the family would be evicted as a result of the imposition of the minimum rent requirement under subparagraph (A); (III) the income of the family has decreased because of changed circumstance, including loss of employment; (IV) a death in the family has occurred; and (V) other situations as may be determined by the agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)).

(ii) Waiting period.—If a resident requests a hardship exemption under this subparagraph and the public housing agency (or the Secretary, in the case of a family described in subparagraph (A)(ii)) reasonably determines the hardship to be of a temporary nature, an exemption shall not be granted during the 90-day period beginning upon the making of a request for the exemption. A resident may not be evicted during such 90-day period for nonpayment of rent. In such a case, if the resident thereafter demonstrates that the financial hardship is of a long-term basis, the agency (or the Secretary) shall retroactively exempt the resident from the applicability of the minimum rent requirement for such 90-day period.


(4) Occupancy by police officers.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B) and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency may, in accordance with the public housing agency plan for the agency, allow a police officer who is not otherwise eligible for residence in public housing to reside in a public housing dwelling unit. The number and location of units occupied by police officers under this paragraph and the terms and conditions of their tenancies shall be determined by the public housing agency.

(B) Increased security.—A public housing agency may take the actions authorized in subparagraph (A) only for the purpose of increasing security for the residents of a public housing project.

(C) Definition.—In this paragraph, the term "police officer" means any person determined by a public housing agency to be, during the period of residence of that person in public housing, employed on a full-time basis as a duly licensed professional police officer by a Federal, State, or local government or by any agency thereof (including a public housing agency having an accredited police force).


(5) Occupancy by over-income families in certain public housing.—

(A) Authority.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency that owns or operates less than 250 units may, on a month-to-month basis, lease a dwelling unit in a public housing project to an over-income family in accordance with this paragraph, but only if there are no eligible families applying for housing assistance from the public housing agency for that month and the agency provides not less than 30-day public notice of the availability of such assistance.

(B) Terms and conditions.—The number and location of dwelling units of a public housing agency occupied under this paragraph by over-income families, and the terms and conditions of those tenancies, shall be determined by the public housing agency, except that—

(i) notwithstanding paragraph (2), rent for a unit shall be in an amount that is not less than the costs to operate the unit;

(ii) if an eligible family applies for residence after an over-income family moves in to the last available unit, the over-income family shall vacate the unit in accordance with notice of termination of tenancy provided by the agency, which shall be provided not less than 30 days before such termination; and

(iii) if a unit is vacant and there is no one on the waiting list, the public housing agency may allow an over-income family to gain immediate occupancy in the unit, while simultaneously providing reasonable public notice and outreach with regard to availability of the unit.


(C) Definition.—For purposes of this paragraph, the term "over-income family" means an individual or family that is not a low-income family at the time of initial occupancy.

(b) Definition of terms under this chapter

When used in this chapter:

(1) The term "low-income housing" means decent, safe, and sanitary dwellings assisted under this chapter. The term "public housing" means low-income housing, and all necessary appurtenances thereto, assisted under this chapter other than under section 1437f of this title. The term "public housing" includes dwelling units in a mixed finance project that are assisted by a public housing agency with capital or operating assistance. When used in reference to public housing, the term "low-income housing project" or "project" means (A) housing developed, acquired, or assisted by a public housing agency under this chapter, and (B) the improvement of any such housing.

(2)(A) The term "low-income families" means those families whose incomes do not exceed 80 per centum of the median income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 80 per centum of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary's findings that such variations are necessary because of prevailing levels of construction costs or unusually high or low family incomes.

(B) The term "very low-income families" means low-income families whose incomes do not exceed 50 per centum of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary with adjustments for smaller and larger families, except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 50 per centum of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary's findings that such variations are necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes.

(C) The term extremely low-income families 3 means very low-income families whose incomes do not exceed the higher of—

(i) the poverty guidelines updated periodically by the Department of Health and Human Services under the authority of section 9902(2) of this title applicable to a family of the size involved (except that this clause shall not apply in the case of public housing agencies or projects located in Puerto Rico or any other territory or possession of the United States); or

(ii) 30 percent of the median family income for the area, as determined by the Secretary, with adjustments for smaller and larger families (except that the Secretary may establish income ceilings higher or lower than 30 percent of the median for the area on the basis of the Secretary's findings that such variations are necessary because of unusually high or low family incomes).


(D) Such ceilings shall be established in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture for any rural area, as defined in section 1490 of this title, taking into account the subsidy characteristics and types of programs to which such ceilings apply. In determining median incomes (of persons, families, or households) for an area or establishing any ceilings or limits based on income under this chapter, the Secretary shall determine or establish area median incomes and income ceilings and limits for Westchester and Rockland Counties, in the State of New York, as if each such county were an area not contained within the metropolitan statistical area in which it is located. In determining such area median incomes or establishing such income ceilings or limits for the portion of such metropolitan statistical area that does not include Westchester or Rockland Counties, the Secretary shall determine or establish area median incomes and income ceilings and limits as if such portion included Westchester and Rockland Counties. In determining areas that are designated as difficult development areas for purposes of the low-income housing tax credit, the Secretary shall include Westchester and Rockland Counties, New York, in the New York City metropolitan area.

(3) Persons and families.—

(A) Single persons.—The term "families" includes families consisting of a single person in the case of (i) an elderly person, (ii) a disabled person, (iii) a displaced person, (iv) the remaining member of a tenant family, and (v) any other single persons. In no event may any single person under clause (v) of the first sentence be provided a housing unit assisted under this chapter of 2 or more bedrooms.

(B) Families.—The term "families" includes families with children and, in the cases of elderly families, near-elderly families, and disabled families, means families whose heads (or their spouses), or whose sole members, are elderly, near-elderly, or persons with disabilities, respectively. The term includes, in the cases of elderly families, near-elderly families, and disabled families, 2 or more elderly persons, near-elderly persons, or persons with disabilities living together, and 1 or more such persons living with 1 or more persons determined under the public housing agency plan to be essential to their care or well-being.

(C) Absence of children.—The temporary absence of a child from the home due to placement in foster care shall not be considered in determining family composition and family size.

(D) Elderly person.—The term "elderly person" means a person who is at least 62 years of age.

(E) Person with disabilities.—The term "person with disabilities" means a person who—

(i) has a disability as defined in section 423 of this title,

(ii) is determined, pursuant to regulations issued by the Secretary, to have a physical, mental, or emotional impairment which (I) is expected to be of long-continued and indefinite duration, (II) substantially impedes his or her ability to live independently, and (III) is of such a nature that such ability could be improved by more suitable housing conditions, or

(iii) has a developmental disability as defined in section 15002 of this title.


Such term shall not exclude persons who have the disease of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or any conditions arising from the etiologic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no individual shall be considered a person with disabilities, for purposes of eligibility for low-income housing under this subchapter, solely on the basis of any drug or alcohol dependence. The Secretary shall consult with other appropriate Federal agencies to implement the preceding sentence.

(F) Displaced person.—The term "displaced person" means a person displaced by governmental action, or a person whose dwelling has been extensively damaged or destroyed as a result of a disaster declared or otherwise formally recognized pursuant to Federal disaster relief laws.

(G) Near-elderly person.—The term "near-elderly person" means a person who is at least 50 years of age but below the age of 62.


(4) The term "income" means income from all sources of each member of the household, as determined in accordance with criteria prescribed by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, except that any amounts not actually received by the family and any amounts which would be eligible for exclusion under section 1382b(a)(7) of this title or any deferred Department of Veterans Affairs disability benefits that are received in a lump sum amount or in prospective monthly amounts may not be considered as income under this paragraph.

(5) Adjusted income.—The term "adjusted income" means, with respect to a family, the amount (as determined by the public housing agency) of the income of the members of the family residing in a dwelling unit or the persons on a lease, after any income exclusions as follows:

(A) Mandatory exclusions.—In determining adjusted income, a public housing agency shall exclude from the annual income of a family the following amounts:

(i) Elderly and disabled families.—$400 for any elderly or disabled family.

(ii) Medical expenses.—The amount by which 3 percent of the annual family income is exceeded by the sum of—

(I) unreimbursed medical expenses of any elderly family or disabled family;

(II) unreimbursed medical expenses of any family that is not covered under subclause (I), except that this subclause shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriation Acts; and

(III) unreimbursed reasonable attendant care and auxiliary apparatus expenses for each handicapped member of the family, to the extent necessary to enable any member of such family (including such handicapped member) to be employed.


(iii) Child care expenses.—Any reasonable child care expenses necessary to enable a member of the family to be employed or to further his or her education.

(iv) Minors, students, and persons with disabilities.—$480 for each member of the family residing in the household (other than the head of the household or his or her spouse) who is less than 18 years of age or is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis, or who is 18 years of age or older and is a person with disabilities.

(v) Child support payments.—Any payment made by a member of the family for the support and maintenance of any child who does not reside in the household, except that the amount excluded under this clause may not exceed $480 for each child for whom such payment is made; except that this clause shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriations Acts.

(vi) Spousal support expenses.—Any payment made by a member of the family for the support and maintenance of any spouse or former spouse who does not reside in the household, except that the amount excluded under this clause shall not exceed the lesser of (I) the amount that such family member has a legal obligation to pay, or (II) $550 for each individual for whom such payment is made; except that this clause shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriations Acts.

(vii) Earned income of minors.—The amount of any earned income of a member of the family who is not—

(I) 18 years of age or older; and

(II) the head of the household (or the spouse of the head of the household).


(B) Permissive exclusions for public housing.—In determining adjusted income, a public housing agency may, in the discretion of the agency, establish exclusions from the annual income of a family residing in a public housing dwelling unit. Such exclusions may include the following amounts:

(i) Excessive travel expenses.—Excessive travel expenses in an amount not to exceed $25 per family per week, for employment- or education-related travel.

(ii) Earned income.—An amount of any earned income of the family, established at the discretion of the public housing agency, which may be based on—

(I) all earned income of the family,4

(II) the amount earned by particular members of the family;

(III) the amount earned by families having certain characteristics; or

(IV) the amount earned by families or members during certain periods or from certain sources.


(iii) Others.—Such other amounts for other purposes, as the public housing agency may establish.


(6) Public housing agency.—

(A) In general.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), the term "public housing agency" means any State, county, municipality, or other governmental entity or public body (or agency or instrumentality thereof) which is authorized to engage in or assist in the development or operation of public housing, or a consortium of such entities or bodies as approved by the Secretary.

(B) Section 1437f program.—For purposes of the program for tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title, such term includes—

(i) a consortia of public housing agencies that the Secretary determines has the capacity and capability to administer a program for assistance under such section in an efficient manner;

(ii) any other public or private nonprofit entity that, upon the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, was administering any program for tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title (as in effect before the effective date of such Act), pursuant to a contract with the Secretary or a public housing agency; and

(iii) with respect to any area in which no public housing agency has been organized or where the Secretary determines that a public housing agency is unwilling or unable to implement a program for tenant-based assistance 5 section 1437f of this title, or is not performing effectively—

(I) the Secretary or another public or private nonprofit entity that by contract agrees to receive assistance amounts under section 1437f of this title and enter into housing assistance payments contracts with owners and perform the other functions of public housing agency under section 1437f of this title; or

(II) notwithstanding any provision of State or local law, a public housing agency for another area that contracts with the Secretary to administer a program for housing assistance under section 1437f of this title, without regard to any otherwise applicable limitations on its area of operation.


(7) The term "State" includes the several States, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the territories and possessions of the United States, and the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands.

(8) The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development.

(9) Drug-related criminal activity.—The term "drug-related criminal activity" means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as such term is defined in section 802 of title 21).

(10) Mixed-finance project.—The term "mixed-finance project" means a public housing project that meets the requirements of section 1437z–7 of this title.

(11) Public housing agency plan.—The term "public housing agency plan" means the plan of a public housing agency prepared in accordance with section 1437c–1 of this title.

(12) Capital fund.—The term "Capital Fund" means the fund established under section 1437g(d) of this title.

(13) Operating fund.—The term "Operating Fund" means the fund established under section 1437g(e) of this title.

(c) Definition of terms used in reference to public housing

When used in reference to public housing:

(1) The term "development" means any or all undertakings necessary for planning, land acquisition, demolition, construction, or equipment, in connection with a low-income housing project. The term "development cost" comprises the costs incurred by a public housing agency in such undertakings and their necessary financing (including the payment of carrying charges), and in otherwise carrying out the development of such project, but does not include the costs associated with the demolition of or remediation of environmental hazards associated with public housing units that will not be replaced on the project site, or other extraordinary site costs as determined by the Secretary. Construction activity in connection with a low-income housing project may be confined to the reconstruction, remodeling, or repair of existing buildings.

(2) The term "operation" means any or all undertakings appropriate for management, operation, services, maintenance, security (including the cost of security personnel), or financing in connection with a low-income housing project. The term also means the financing of tenant programs and services for families residing in low-income housing projects, particularly where there is maximum feasible participation of the tenants in the development and operation of such tenant programs and services. As used in this paragraph, the term "tenant programs and services" includes the development and maintenance of tenant organizations which participate in the management of low-income housing projects; the training of tenants to manage and operate such projects and the utilization of their services in project management and operation; counseling on household management, housekeeping, budgeting, money management, child care, and similar matters; advice as to resources for job training and placement, education, welfare, health, and other community services; services which are directly related to meeting tenant needs and providing a wholesome living environment; and referral to appropriate agencies in the community when necessary for the provision of such services. To the maximum extent available and appropriate, existing public and private agencies in the community shall be used for the provision of such services.

(3) The term "acquisition cost" means the amount prudently required to be expended by a public housing agency in acquiring property for a low-income housing project.

(4) The term "congregate housing" means low-rent housing with which there is connected a central dining facility where wholesome and economical meals can be served to occupants. Expenditures incurred by a public housing agency in the operation of a central dining facility in connection with congregate housing (other than the cost of providing food and service) shall be considered a cost of operation of the project.

(5) The terms "group home" and "independent living facility" have the meanings given such terms in section 8013(k) of this title.

(d) Disallowance of earned income from rent determinations

(1) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the rent payable under subsection (a) by a family described in paragraph (3) of this subsection may not be increased as a result of the increased income due to such employment during the 12-month period beginning on the date on which the employment is commenced.

(2) Phase-in of rent increases

Upon the expiration of the 12-month period referred to in paragraph (1), the rent payable by a family described in paragraph (3) may be increased due to the continued employment of the family member described in paragraph (3)(B), except that during the 12-month period beginning upon such expiration the amount of the increase may not be greater than 50 percent of the amount of the total rent increase that would be applicable but for this paragraph.

(3) Eligible families

A family described in this paragraph is a family—

(A) that—

(i) occupies a dwelling unit in a public housing project; or

(ii) receives assistance under section 1437f of this title; and


(B)(i) whose income increases as a result of employment of a member of the family who was previously unemployed for 1 or more years;

(ii) whose earned income increases during the participation of a family member in any family self-sufficiency or other job training program; or

(iii) who is or was, within 6 months, assisted under any State program for temporary assistance for needy families funded under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 601 et seq.] and whose earned income increases.

(4) Applicability

This subsection and subsection (e) shall apply beginning upon October 1, 1999, except that this subsection and subsection (e) shall apply with respect to any family described in paragraph 3(A)(ii) 6 only to the extent provided in advance in appropriations Acts.

(e) Individual savings accounts

(1) In general

In lieu of a disallowance of earned income under subsection (d), upon the request of a family that qualifies under subsection (d), a public housing agency may establish an individual savings account in accordance with this subsection for that family.

(2) Deposits to account

The public housing agency shall deposit in any savings account established under this subsection an amount equal to the total amount that otherwise would be applied to the family's rent payment under subsection (a) as a result of employment.

(3) Withdrawal from account

Amounts deposited in a savings account established under this subsection may only be withdrawn by the family for the purpose of—

(A) purchasing a home;

(B) paying education costs of family members;

(C) moving out of public or assisted housing; or

(D) paying any other expense authorized by the public housing agency for the purpose of promoting the economic self-sufficiency of residents of public and assisted housing.

(f) Availability of income matching information

(1) Disclosure to PHA

A public housing agency, or the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits, shall require any family described in paragraph (2) who receives information regarding income, earnings, wages, or unemployment compensation from the Department of Housing and Urban Development pursuant to income verification procedures of the Department to disclose such information, upon receipt of the information, to the public housing agency that owns or operates the public housing dwelling unit in which such family resides or that provides the housing assistance under this chapter on behalf of such family, as applicable, or to the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits.

(2) Families covered

A family described in this paragraph is a family that resides in a dwelling unit—

(A) that is a public housing dwelling unit;

(B) for which tenant-based assistance is provided under section 1437f of this title,7 or

(C) for which project-based assistance is provided under section 1437f of this title, section 1437bb 8 of this title, or section 811.8

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §3, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 654; amended Pub. L. 94–375, §2(f), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1068; Pub. L. 95–557, title II, §206(c), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §202(a), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1106; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(a), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 400; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §§202, 206(a)–(c)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1178, 1179; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, §102(b)(1)–(3), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2221; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§102(a), 111, 170(c), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1821, 1823, 1867; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 100–358, §§4, 5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 680, 681; Pub. L. 101–235, title III, §302, Dec. 15, 1989, 103 Stat. 2043; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §§515(b), 572, 573(a)–(d), 574, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4199, 4236-4238; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§102–103(a)(2), 185(c)(4), title VI, §§621, 622(c), 625(a)(1), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3683, 3748, 3812, 3817, 3820; Pub. L. 103–233, title III, §301, Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 369; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(b)(1), (c), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 40, 41; Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(b)(1), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4041; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§506, 507(a), (c), 508(a), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d)(1), 520(a), 523, 524(a), 546, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2523–2529, 2562, 2565-2567, 2604; Pub. L. 106–74, title II, §214(a), Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1074; Pub. L. 106–402, title IV, §401(b)(7), Oct. 30, 2000, 114 Stat. 1738; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title VI, §2608, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2862; Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title II, §§210, 212, 238(a), Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 625, 626, 635; Pub. L. 113–235, div. K, title II, §238, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2758; Pub. L. 114–94, div. G, title LXXVIII, §78001(a), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1791; Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(a), (c), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 786, 788.)

Amendment of Section

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(a), (c), (h), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 786, 788, 791, provided that, effective upon the issuance of notice or regulations implementing section 102 of Pub. L. 114–201, except that such section 102 may only take effect upon the commencement of a calendar year, this section is amended as follows:

(1) in subsection (a)—

(A) in the second sentence of paragraph (1), by striking "at least annually" and inserting "pursuant to paragraph (6)"; and

(B) by adding at the end the following new paragraphs:

"(6) Reviews of family income.—

"(A) Frequency.—Reviews of family income for purposes of this section shall be made—

"(i) in the case of all families, upon the initial provision of housing assistance for the family;

"(ii) annually thereafter, except as provided in paragraph (1) with respect to fixed-income families;

"(iii) upon the request of the family, at any time the income or deductions (under subsection (b)(5)) of the family change by an amount that is estimated to result in a decrease of 10 percent (or such lower amount as the Secretary may, by notice, establish, or permit the public housing agency or owner to establish) or more in annual adjusted income; and

"(iv) at any time the income or deductions (under subsection (b)(5)) of the family change by an amount that is estimated to result in an increase of 10 percent or more in annual adjusted income, or such other amount as the Secretary may by notice establish, except that any increase in the earned income of a family shall not be considered for purposes of this clause (except that earned income may be considered if the increase corresponds to previous decreases under clause (iii)), except that a public housing agency or owner may elect not to conduct such review in the last three months of a certification period.


"(B) In general.—Reviews of family income for purposes of this section shall be subject to the provisions of section 3544 of this title.


"(7) Calculation of income.—

"(A) Use of current year income.—In determining family income for initial occupancy or provision of housing assistance pursuant to clause (i) of paragraph (6)(A) or pursuant to reviews pursuant to clause (iii) or (iv) of such paragraph, a public housing agency or owner shall use the income of the family as estimated by the agency or owner for the upcoming year.

"(B) Use of prior year income.—In determining family income for annual reviews pursuant to paragraph (6)(A)(ii), a public housing agency or owner shall, except as otherwise provided in this paragraph and paragraph (1), use the income of the family as determined by the agency or owner for the preceding year, taking into consideration any redetermination of income during such prior year pursuant to clause (iii) or (iv) of paragraph (6)(A).

"(C) Other income.—In determining the income for any family based on the prior year's income, with respect to prior year calculations of income not subject to subparagraph (B), a public housing agency or owner may make other adjustments as it considers appropriate to reflect current income.

"(D) Safe harbor.—A public housing agency or owner may, to the extent such information is available to the public housing agency or owner, determine the family's income prior to the application of any deductions based on timely income determinations made for purposes of other means-tested Federal public assistance programs (including the program for block grants to States for temporary assistance for needy families under part A of title IV of the Social Security Act, a program for Medicaid assistance under a State plan approved under title XIX of the Social Security Act, and the supplemental nutrition assistance program (as such term is defined in section 2012 of title 7)). The Secretary shall, in consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, develop electronic procedures to enable public housing agencies and owners to have access to such benefit determinations made by other means-tested Federal programs that the Secretary determines to have comparable reliability. Exchanges of such information shall be subject to the same limitations and tenant protections provided under section 3544 of this title with respect to information obtained under the requirements of section 303(i) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 503(i)).

"(E) Electronic income verification.—The Secretary shall develop a mechanism for disclosing information to a public housing agency for the purpose of verifying the employment and income of individuals and families in accordance with section 453(j)(7)(E) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 653(j)(7)(E)), and shall ensure public housing agencies have access to information contained in the 'Do Not Pay' system established by section 5 of the Improper Payments Elimination and Recovery Improvement Act of 2012 (Public Law 112–248; 126 Stat. 2392).

"(F) PHA and owner compliance.—A public housing agency or owner may not be considered to fail to comply with this paragraph or paragraph (6) due solely to any de minimis errors made by the agency or owner in calculating family incomes.";


(2) in subsection (b), by striking paragraphs (4) and (5) and inserting the following new paragraphs:

"(4) Income.—The term 'income' means, with respect to a family, income received from all sources by each member of the household who is 18 years of age or older or is the head of household or spouse of the head of the household, plus unearned income by or on behalf of each dependent who is less than 18 years of age, as determined in accordance with criteria prescribed by the Secretary, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture, subject to the following requirements:

"(A) Included amounts.—Such term includes recurring gifts and receipts, actual income from assets, and profit or loss from a business.

"(B) Excluded amounts.—Such term does not include—

"(i) any imputed return on assets, except to the extent that net family assets exceed $50,000, except that such amount (as it may have been previously adjusted) shall be adjusted for inflation annually by the Secretary in accordance with an inflationary index selected by the Secretary;

"(ii) any amounts that would be eligible for exclusion under section 1613(a)(7) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1382b(a)(7));

"(iii) deferred disability benefits from the Department of Veterans Affairs that are received in a lump sum amount or in prospective monthly amounts;

"(iv) any expenses related to aid and attendance under section 1521 of title 38 to veterans who are in need of regular aid and attendance; and

"(v) exclusions from income as established by the Secretary by regulation or notice, or any amount required by Federal law to be excluded from consideration as income.


"(C) Earned income of students.—Such term does not include—

"(i) earned income, up to an amount as the Secretary may by regulation establish, of any dependent earned during any period that such dependent is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis; or

"(ii) any grant-in-aid or scholarship amounts related to such attendance used—

"(I) for the cost of tuition or books; or

"(II) in such amounts as the Secretary may allow, for the cost of room and board.


"(D) Educational savings accounts.—Income shall be determined without regard to any amounts in or from, or any benefits from, any Coverdell education savings account under section 530 of title 26 or any qualified tuition program under section 529 of such title.

"(E) Recordkeeping.—The Secretary may not require a public housing agency or owner to maintain records of any amounts excluded from income pursuant to this subparagraph.


"(5) Adjusted income.—The term 'adjusted income' means, with respect to a family, the amount (as determined by the public housing agency or owner) of the income of the members of the family residing in a dwelling unit or the persons on a lease, after any deductions from income as follows:

"(A) Elderly and disabled families.—$525 in the case of any family that is an elderly family or a disabled family.

"(B) Minors, students, and persons with disabilities.—$480 for each member of the family residing in the household (other than the head of the household or his or her spouse) who is less than 18 years of age or is attending school or vocational training on a full-time basis, or who is 18 years of age or older and is a person with disabilities.

"(C) Child care.—Any reasonable child care expenses necessary to enable a member of the family to be employed or to further his or her education.

"(D) Health and medical expenses.—The amount, if any, by which 10 percent of annual family income is exceeded by the sum of—

"(i) in the case of any elderly or disabled family, any unreimbursed health and medical care expenses; and

"(ii) any unreimbursed reasonable attendant care and auxiliary apparatus expenses for each handicapped member of the family, if determined necessary by the public housing agency or owner to enable any member of such family to be employed.


The Secretary shall, by regulation, provide hardship exemptions to the requirements of this subparagraph and subparagraph (C) for impacted families who demonstrate an inability to pay calculated rents because of financial hardship. Such regulations shall include a requirement to notify tenants regarding any changes to the determination of adjusted income pursuant to such subparagraphs based on the determination of the family's claim of financial hardship exemptions required by the preceding sentence. Such regulations shall be promulgated in consultation with tenant organizations, industry participants, and the Secretary of Health and Human Services, with an adequate comment period provided for interested parties.


"(E) Permissive deductions.—Such additional deductions as a public housing agency may, at its discretion, establish, except that the Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that such deductions do not materially increase Federal expenditures.


The Secretary shall annually calculate the amounts of the deductions under subparagraphs (A) and (B), as such amounts may have been previously calculated, by applying an inflationary factor as the Secretary shall, by regulation, establish, except that the actual deduction determined for each year shall be established by rounding such amount to the next lowest multiple of $25.";


(3) by striking subsections (d) and (e); and

(4) by redesignating subsection (f) as subsection (d).

See 2016 Amendment notes below.

References in Text

Section 1437f(c)(3)(B) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §550(a)(3)(A)(ii), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609.

Section 519(d) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (a)(2)(A)(ii), is section 519(d) of Pub. L. 105–276 which is set out as a note below.

The effective day of such Act and the effective date of such Act, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2)(A)(ii) and (b)(6)(B)(ii), probably means the general effective date for the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, Pub. L. 105–276, title V, included in section 503 of the Act which is set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

Section 206(d) of the Housing and Urban-Rural Recovery Act of 1983, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(A), is section 206(d) of Pub. L. 98–181, which is set out as a note below.

The Immigration and Nationality Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(I), is act June 27, 1952, ch. 477, 66 Stat. 163, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 12 (§1101 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1101 of Title 8 and Tables.

The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B)(i)(I), is Pub. L. 104–193, Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2105. Title IV of the Act is classified principally to chapter 14 (§1601 et seq.) of Title 8, Aliens and Nationality. For complete classification of title IV to the Code, see Tables.

Section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, referred to in subsec. (b)(6)(B)(ii), is section 503(a) of Pub. L. 105–276 which is set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

The Social Security Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(3)(B)(iii), is act Aug. 14, 1935, ch. 531, 49 Stat. 620, as amended. Part A of title IV of the Act is classified generally to part A (§601 et seq.) of subchapter IV of chapter 7 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1305 of this title and Tables.

Section 1437bb of this title, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(C), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(a), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4041.

Section 811, referred to in subsec. (f)(2)(C), means section 811 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, but that Act does not contain a section 811.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 3 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 889, as amended, established the United States Housing Authority and was classified to section 1403 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Prior similar provisions were contained in section 2 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 888, which was classified to section 1402 of this title prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

2016—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(a)(1)(A), substituted "pursuant to paragraph (6)" for "at least annually" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (a)(6), (7). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(a)(1)(B), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (b)(4), (5). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(c), added pars. (4) and (5) and struck out former pars. (4) and (5) which defined the terms "income" and "adjusted income", respectively.

Subsecs. (d) to (f). Pub. L. 114–201, §102(a)(2), (3), redesignated subsec. (f) as (d) and struck out former subsecs. (d) and (e) which related to disallowance of earned income from rent determinations and individual savings accounts, respectively.

2015—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94 inserted before period at end of second sentence "; except that, in the case of any family with a fixed income, as defined by the Secretary, after the initial review of the family's income, the public housing agency or owner shall not be required to conduct a review of the family's income for any year for which such family certifies, in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary shall establish, which shall include policies to adjust for inflation-based income changes, that 90 percent or more of the income of the family consists of fixed income, and that the sources of such income have not changed since the previous year, except that the public housing agency or owner shall conduct a review of each such family's income not less than once every 3 years".

2014—Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–235, §238(3), substituted "If" for "Public housing agencies must comply by June 1, 2014, with the requirement of this clause, except that if" in concluding provisions.

Pub. L. 113–235, §238(1), substituted "which—" for "which shall not be lower than 80 percent of the applicable fair market rental established under section 1437f(c) of this title and which shall—" in introductory provisions, added subcl. (I), and struck out former subcl. (I) which read as follows: "be based on the rental value of the unit, as determined by the public housing agency; and".

Pub. L. 113–76, §210(2), inserted concluding provisions and struck out former concluding provisions, which read as follows: "The rental amount for a dwelling unit shall be considered to comply with the requirements of this clause if such amount does not exceed the actual monthly costs to the public housing agency attributable to providing and operating the dwelling unit. The preceding sentence may not be construed to require establishment of rental amounts equal to or based on operating costs or to prevent public housing agencies from developing flat rents required under this clause in any other manner that may comply with this clause."

Pub. L. 113–76, §210(1), in introductory provisions, substituted "Each" for "Except as otherwise provided under this clause, each" and inserted "not be lower than 80 percent of the applicable fair market rental established under section 1437f(c) of this title and which shall" after "which shall".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B)(i)(II). Pub. L. 113–235, §238(2), inserted "shall" before "be designed".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–76, §238(a), designated first sentence as subpar. (A), second sentence as subpar. (B), and remaining sentences as subpar. (D), and added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(6)(A). Pub. L. 113–76, §212, inserted ", or a consortium of such entities or bodies as approved by the Secretary" before period at end.

2008—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 110–289 inserted "or any deferred Department of Veterans Affairs disability benefits that are received in a lump sum amount or in prospective monthly amounts" before "may not be considered".

2000—Subsec. (b)(3)(E)(iii). Pub. L. 106–402 substituted "section 15002 of this title" for "section 6001 of this title".

1999—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 106–74, §214(a)(1), inserted ", or the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits," after "A public housing agency" and ", or to the owner responsible for determining the participant's eligibility or level of benefits" before period at end.

Subsec. (f)(2)(C). Pub. L. 106–74, §214(a)(2), added subpar. (C).

1998—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §507(c), inserted "and subject to the requirement under paragraph (3)" after "paragraph (2)" in third sentence.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §523, amended par. (2) generally. For prior text, see 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 105–276, §507(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (a)(4), (5). Pub. L. 105–276, §524(a), added pars. (4) and (5).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(1), inserted after second sentence "The term 'public housing' includes dwelling units in a mixed finance project that are assisted by a public housing agency with capital or operating assistance."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(c)(1), substituted "limits for Westchester and Rockland Counties" for "limits for Westchester County", inserted "each" before "such county", substituted "include Westchester or Rockland Counties" for "include Westchester County" and "included Westchester and Rockland Counties" for "included Westchester County", and inserted at end "In determining areas that are designated as difficult development areas for purposes of the low-income housing tax credit, the Secretary shall include Westchester and Rockland Counties, New York, in the New York City metropolitan area."

Subsec. (b)(3)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(2)(A), struck out at end "In determining priority for admission to housing under this chapter, the Secretary shall give preference to single persons who are elderly, disabled, or displaced persons before single persons who are eligible under clause (v) of the first sentence."

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(2)(B), substituted "public housing agency plan" for "regulations of the Secretary" in second sentence.

Subsec. (b)(3)(E). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(3), inserted at end "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, no individual shall be considered a person with disabilities, for purposes of eligibility for low-income housing under this subchapter, solely on the basis of any drug or alcohol dependence. The Secretary shall consult with other appropriate Federal agencies to implement the preceding sentence."

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(a), amended par. (5) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which had defined "adjusted income" as income which remained after excluding $550 for each member of family in household under 18 years of age, disabled, or a student, $400 for any elderly or disabled family, the amount by which medical and related expenses exceeded 3 percent of income, child care expenses, 10 percent of earned income, and any payment made for support and maintenance of nonresident child, spouse, or former spouse.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 105–276, §546, amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "The term 'public housing agency' means any State, county, municipality, or other governmental entity or public body (or agency or instrumentality thereof) which is authorized to engage in or assist in the development or operation of low-income housing."

Subsec. (b)(9) to (13). Pub. L. 105–276, §506(4), added pars. (9) to (13).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(b)(1)(A), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by striking out the undesignated par. after par. (3), was executed by striking out concluding provisions after par. (5), to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Concluding provisions read as follows: "The earnings of and benefits to any public housing resident resulting from participation in a program providing employment training and supportive services in accordance with the Family Support Act of 1988, section 1437t of this title, or any comparable Federal, State, or local law shall not be considered as income for the purposes of determining a limitation on the amount of rent paid by the resident during—

"(1) the period that the resident participates in such program; and

"(2) the period that—

"(A) begins with the commencement of employment of the resident in the first job acquired by the person after completion of such program that is not funded by assistance under this chapter; and

"(B) ends on the earlier of—

"(i) the date the resident ceases to continue employment without good cause as the Secretary shall determine; or

"(ii) the expiration of the 18-month period beginning on the date referred to in subparagraph (A)."

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 105–276, §520(a), inserted before period at end of second sentence ", but does not include the costs associated with the demolition of or remediation of environmental hazards associated with public housing units that will not be replaced on the project site, or other extraordinary site costs as determined by the Secretary".

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(b)(1)(B), added subsecs. (d) and (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–276, §508(d)(1), added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–99, §402(b)(1), (f), temporarily amended par. (2) generally, substituting

"(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), a public housing agency may—

"(A) adopt ceiling rents that reflect the reasonable market value of the housing, but that are not less than the monthly costs—

"(i) to operate the housing of the agency; and

"(ii) to make a deposit to a replacement reserve (in the sole discretion of the public housing agency); and

"(B) allow families to pay ceiling rents referred to in subparagraph (A), unless, with respect to any family, the ceiling rent established under this paragraph would exceed the amount payable as rent by that family under paragraph (1)." for

"(2)(A) Any public housing agency may provide that each family residing in a public housing project owned and operated by such agency (or in low-income housing assisted under section 1437f of this title that contains more than 2,000 dwelling units) shall pay as monthly rent an amount determined by such agency to be appropriate that does not exceed a maximum amount that—

"(i) is established by such agency and approved by the Secretary;

"(ii) is not more than the amount payable as rent by such family under paragraph (1); and

"(iii) is not less than the average monthly amount of debt service and operating expenses attributable to dwelling units of similar size in public housing projects owned and operated by such agency.

"(B) The terms of all ceiling rents established prior to December 15, 1989, shall be extended without time limitation." See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (b)(5)(F). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(A)(i), inserted "and" after semicolon.

Subsec. (b)(5)(G). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(A)(ii), (iii), redesignated subpar. (H) as (G) and struck out former subpar. (G) which read as follows: "excessive travel expenses, not to exceed $25 per family per week, for employment- or education-related travel, except that this subparagraph shall apply only to families assisted by Indian housing authorities; and".

Subsec. (b)(5)(H). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(A)(iii), redesignated subpar. (H) as (G).

Pub. L. 104–99, §402(c), (f), temporarily added subpar. (H) which read "for public housing, any other adjustments to earned income established by the public housing agency. If a public housing agency adopts other adjustments to income pursuant to subparagraph (H), the Secretary shall not take into account any reduction of or increase in the public housing agency's per unit dwelling rental income resulting from those adjustments when calculating the contributions under section 1437g of this title for the public housing agency for the operation of the public housing." See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(B), struck out at end "The term includes any Indian housing authority."

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(C), inserted "and" before "the Trust" and struck out ", and Indian tribes" after "Pacific Islands".

Subsec. (b)(9) to (12). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(1)(D), struck out pars. (9) to (12) which read as follows:

"(9) The term 'Indian' means any person recognized as being an Indian or Alaska Native by an Indian tribe, the Federal Government, or any State.

"(10) The term 'Indian area' means the area within which an Indian housing authority is authorized to provide low-income housing.

"(11) The term 'Indian housing authority' means any entity that—

"(A) is authorized to engage in or assist in the development or operation of low-income housing for Indians; and

"(B) is established—

"(i) by exercise of the power of self-government of an Indian tribe independent of State law; or

"(ii) by operation of State law providing specifically for housing authorities for Indians, including regional housing authorities in the State of Alaska.

"(12) The term 'Indian tribe' means any tribe, band, pueblo, group, community, or nation of Indians or Alaska Natives."

1994—Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 103–233 substituted "includes families with children and" for "means families with children".

1992—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 102–550, §185(c)(4), substituted "section 1437f(o) or (y) of this title or paying rent under section 1437f(c)(3)(B) of this title" for "section 1437f(o) of this title".

Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 102–550, §102(a), struck out "for not more than a 5-year period" after "monthly rent".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, §102(b), struck out first sentence which read as follows: "The 5-year limitation established in subparagraph (A) shall not apply to any family residing in a public housing project administered by an Indian public housing agency." and substituted "without time limitation" for "for the 5-year period beginning on December 15, 1989".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 102–550, §621, amended par. (3) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to families consisting of single persons, elderly families, handicapped persons, displaced persons, and families with household heads 50 years old or older and the priorities for admission of such families and persons to housing under this chapter.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 102–550, §103(a)(1), inserted "and any amounts which would be eligible for exclusion under section 1382b(a)(7) of this title" after "family".

Subsec. (b)(5)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, §625(a)(1), inserted "or disabled" after "elderly".

Subsec. (b)(5)(D). Pub. L. 102–550, §103(a)(2)(A), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "(i) child care expenses to the extent necessary to enable another member of the family to be employed or to further his or her education; or (ii) excessive travel expenses, not to exceed $25 per family per week, for employment or education related travel, except that this clause shall apply only to families assisted by Indian housing authorities;".

Subsec. (b)(5)(G). Pub. L. 102–550, §103(a)(2)(B)–(D), added subpar. (G).

Subsec. (c)(4), (5). Pub. L. 102–550, §622(c), which directed the amendment of subsec. (c) by inserting pars. (4) and (5) after "project.", was executed by making the insertion after "project." at the end of par. (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1990Pub. L. 101–625, §515(b), added concluding undesignated par. directing that earnings and benefits to public housing residents resulting from participation in programs providing employment training and supportive services not be considered as income.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(1), substituted "low-income families" for "lower income families" in introductory provisions.

Subsecs. (a)(2)(A), (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(d), inserted sentences at end relating to determination or establishment of median incomes and income ceilings and limits for Westchester County and for metropolitan statistical areas outside Westchester County.

Pub. L. 101–625, §572(1), substituted "low-income families" for "lower income families" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–625, §574, inserted sentence at end relating to effect of temporary absence of child from the home due to placement in foster care on considerations of family composition and size.

Pub. L. 101–625, §573(a), substituted "(D) and any other single persons. In no event may any single person under clause (D) be provided a housing unit assisted under this chapter of 2 bedrooms or more." for "(D) other single persons in circumstances described in regulations of the Secretary." in first sentence, struck out after first sentence "In no event shall more than 15 per centum of the units under the jurisdiction of any public housing agency be occupied by single persons under clause (D).", and struck out third from last sentence which was executed (to reflect the probable intent of Congress) by striking out third sentence from end which read as follows: "The Secretary may increase the limitation described in the second sentence of this paragraph to not more than 30 per centum if, following consultation with the public housing agency involved, the Secretary determines that the dwelling units involved are neither being occupied, nor are likely to be occupied within the next 12 months, by families or persons described in clauses (A), (B), and (C), due to the condition or location of such dwelling units, and that such dwelling units may be occupied if made available to single persons described in clause (D)."

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(b), inserted before period at end ", except that any amounts not actually received by the family may not be considered as income under this paragraph".

Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(c)(1), substituted "$550" for "$480".

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(c)(2), struck out "elderly" before "family" in cl. (i) and struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (b)(5)(E), (F). Pub. L. 101–625, §573(c)(3), added subpars. (E) and (F).

Subsecs. (b)(6), (10), (11)(A), (c). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

1989—Subsec. (a)(2)(A). Pub. L. 101–235, §302(1), substituted "5-year period" for "3-year period".

Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 101–235, §302(2), substituted "5-year limitation" for "3-year limitation" and inserted at end "The terms of all ceiling rents established prior to December 15, 1989, shall be extended for the 5-year period beginning on December 15, 1989."

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–242, §102(a), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Except as provided in paragraph (2), a" for "A", redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 100–242, §170(c), in cl. (A), substituted "sixty-two years of age," for "sixty-two years of age or", and ", has a developmental disability as defined in section 6001(7) of this title" for "or in section 102 of the Developmental Disabilities Services and Facilities Construction Amendments of 1970".

Pub. L. 100–242, §111, inserted provisions relating to determination of priority admission to public housing projects designed for elderly families.

Subsec. (b)(5)(D). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(a), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(b), inserted at end "The term includes any Indian housing authority."

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(c), struck out ", bands, groups, and Nations, including Alaska Indians, Aleuts, and Eskimos, of the United States" after "and Indian tribes".

Subsec. (b)(9) to (12). Pub. L. 100–358, §4(d)–(g), added pars. (9) to (12).

1984—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(1), inserted provision at end that such ceilings shall be established in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture for any rural area, as defined in section 1490 of this title, taking into account the subsidy characteristics and types of programs to which such ceilings apply.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(2), inserted ", in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture" at end.

Subsec. (b)(5)(C). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(3), designated existing provision as cl. (i), added cl. (ii), and inserted "the amount by which the aggregate of the following expenses of the family" in provisions preceding cl. (i).

1983—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–181, §206(a), in provisions preceding par. (1), inserted provision requiring annual review of family income, and inserted "(other than a family assisted under section 1437f(o) of this title)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, §206(b), qualified the term "very low-income families" in authorizing the Secretary to establish, where necessary, variations in income ceilings higher or lower than 50 per centum of the median for the area.

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 98–181, §202, inserted provision at end of par. (3) authorizing increase from 15 to 30 per centum in the single person occupancy limitation for nonoccupancy of the involved dwelling units.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 98–181, §206(c), amended par. (5) generally, substituting provisions designating cls. (A) to (D) for prior exclusion from "adjusted income" of such amounts or types of income as the Secretary might prescribe, taking into account the number of minor children and other appropriate factors.

1981Pub. L. 97–35 added subsecs. (a) and (c) and designated provisions constituting former section as subsec. (b), and in subsec. (b) as so designated, substituted provisions defining "lower income housing", "lower income families", "families", "income", "adjusted income", "public housing agency", "State", and "Secretary" for provisions defining "low-income housing", "low-income families", "development", "operation", "acquisition cost", "public housing agency", "State", "Secretary", and "low-income housing project".

1979—Par. (1). Pub. L. 96–153 substituted provisions that the rental for a dwelling shall not exceed certain portion of the resident family's income to be established by the Secretary, and that in the case of a very low income family 25 per centum and in other cases 30 per centum of family income for provisions that such rental shall not exceed one-fourth of the family's income as defined by the Secretary.

1978—Par. (2)(D). Pub. L. 95–557 substituted "15 per cent" for "10 per cent".

1976—Par. (2). Pub. L. 94–375 struck out "and" before cl. (C), added cl. (D), and two provisos relating to the percentage of units to be occupied by single persons and the priority to be given to single persons who are elderly, handicapped, or displaced, following cl. (D).

Effective Date of 2016 Amendment

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(h), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 791, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue notice or regulations to implement this section [amending this section and section 1437f of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note below] and this section shall take effect after such issuance, except that this section may only take effect upon the commencement of a calendar year."

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by title V of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 1, 1999, except as otherwise provided, with provision that Secretary may implement amendment before such date, except to extent that such amendment provides otherwise, and with savings provision, see section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §507(d), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2526, provided that: "The amendments under this section [amending this section] are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §508(c)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2529, provided that: "The amendments made by this paragraph [probably means this subsection, amending this section] are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §524(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2568, provided that: "The amendment made by this paragraph [probably means this section, amending this section] is made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §514(f), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2548, provided that: "Section 402 of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99, see note below], and the amendments made by such section shall cease to be effective on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]. Notwithstanding the inclusion in this Act [see Tables for classification] of any provision extending the effectiveness of such section or such amendments, such provision included in this Act shall not take effect."

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–330 effective Oct. 1, 1997, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 107 of Pub. L. 104–330, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4101 of Title 25, Indians.

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(f), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 43, as amended by Pub. L. 104–204, title II, §201(c)(2), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2893; Pub. L. 105–65, title II, §201(d)(2), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1364, provided that: "This section [amending this section, sections 1437d to 1437f, 1437n, 1437v, and 13615 of this title, and section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1437 and 1437d of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under section 1437f of this title] shall be effective upon the enactment of this Act [Jan. 26, 1996] and only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §103(a)(3), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3684, provided that: "To the extent that the amendments made by paragraphs (1) and (2) [amending this section] result in additional costs under this title [see Tables for classification], such amendments shall be effective only to the extent that amounts to cover such additional costs are provided in advance in appropriation Acts."

Amendment by subtitles B through F of title VI [§§621–685] of Pub. L. 102–550 applicable upon expiration of 6-month period beginning Oct. 28, 1992, except as otherwise provided, see section 13642 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §573(f), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4237, provided that: "The Secretary shall issue regulations implementing subsections (a) and (d) [sic] the amendments made by this section [amending this section] not later than the expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990]. The regulations may not take effect until after September 30, 1991."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–358, §6, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may carry out programs to provide lower income housing on Indian reservations and other Indian areas only in accordance with the amendments made by this Act [enacting sections 1437aa to 1437ee of this title, amending this section and section 1437c of this title, and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437 of this title], commencing on whichever of the following occurs earlier:

"(1) Effective date of regulations.—The effective date of regulations issued under section 205 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former section 1437ee of this title].

"(2) 90 days.—The expiration of the 90-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [June 29, 1988]."

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §202(c), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1106, which provided that amendment by section 202(a) of Pub. L. 96–153 (amending this section and section 1437f of this title) shall become effective on Jan. 1, 1980, except that the amount of the tenant contribution required of families whose occupancy of housing units assisted under this chapter commenced prior to that date shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of this chapter in effect on Dec. 31, 1979, so long as such occupancy was continuous thereafter, was repealed by Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(h)(1), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 404.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–557 effective Oct. 1, 1978, see section 206(h) of Pub. L. 95–557, set out as a note under section 1437c of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective on such date or dates as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall prescribe, but not later than eighteen months after Aug. 22, 1974, except that all of the provisions of par. (1) shall become effective on the same date, see section 201(b) of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

The Department of Housing and Urban Development adopted an interim rule, 24 CFR 860.409, Sept. 26, 1975, 40 F.R. 44326, which provided: "The effective date of section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended [par. (1) of this section], shall be the date that these regulations [sections 860.401 to 860.409 of Title 24, CFR] are published in the Federal Register (September 26, 1975)."

Regulations

Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title II, §240, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 789, provided that: "The Secretary shall establish by notice such requirements as may be necessary to implement section 78001 of title LXXVIII of the Fixing America's Surface Transportation Act (Public Law 114–94) [amending this section and section 1437f of this title], and the notice shall take effect upon issuance: Provided, That the Secretary shall commence rulemaking based on the initial notice no later than the expiration of the 6-month period following issuance of the notice and the rulemaking shall allow for the opportunity for public comment."

Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title II, §243, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 637, provided that: "The Secretary shall establish by notice such requirements as may be necessary to implement sections 210, 212, 220, 238, and 242 [amending this section and sections 1437f and 1437n of this title and enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1437f of this title] under this title and the notice shall take effect upon issuance: Provided, That the Secretary shall commence rulemaking based on the initial notice no later than the expiration of the 6-month period following issuance of the notice and the rulemaking shall allow for the opportunity for public comment."

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(b)(2), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 41, provided that:

"(A) In general.—The Secretary shall, by regulation, after notice and an opportunity for public comment, establish such requirements as may be necessary to carry out section 3(a)(2)(A) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437a(a)(2)(A)], as amended by paragraph (1).

"(B) Transition rule.—Prior to the issuance of final regulations under paragraph (1), a public housing agency may implement ceiling rents, which shall be not less than the monthly costs to operate the housing of the agency and—

"(i) determined in accordance with section 3(a)(2)(A) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as that section existed on the day before enactment of this Act [Jan. 26, 1996];

"(ii) equal to the 95th percentile of the rent paid for a unit of comparable size by tenants in the same public housing project or a group of comparable projects totaling 50 units or more; or

"(iii) equal to the fair market rent for the area in which the unit is located."

[Section 402(b)(2) of Pub. L. 104–99, set out above, effective Jan. 26, 1996, and only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, and to cease to be effective Oct. 21, 1998, see Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments notes above.]

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §191, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3750, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue any final regulations necessary to implement the provisions of this title [see Tables for classification] and the amendments made by this title not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], except as expressly provided otherwise in this title and the amendments made by this title. Such regulations shall be issued after notice and opportunity for public comment pursuant to the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code (notwithstanding subsections (a)(2), (b)(B), and (d)(3) of such section)."

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §508(b)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2528, provided that: "Notwithstanding the amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section], the provisions of the undesignated paragraph at the end of section 3(c)(3) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [see 1998 and 1992 Amendment notes above], as such section was in effect immediately before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], shall continue to apply until the effective date under section 503 of this Act [set out as a note under section 1437 of this title]. Notwithstanding the amendment made by subsection (a) of this section [amending this section], nor the applicability under section 402(f) of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99] (42 U.S.C. 1437a note) of the amendments made by such section 402 [see Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note set out above], nor any repeal of such section 402(f), the provisions of section 3(b)(5)(G) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(b)(5)(G)), as such section was in effect immediately before the date of the enactment of this Act, shall continue to apply until the effective date under section 503 of this Act."

Termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands

For termination of Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, see note set out preceding section 1681 of Title 48, Territories and Insular Possessions.

Adjustments to Operating Formula Due to Impact on Public Housing Revenues

Pub. L. 114–201, title I, §102(g)(1), July 29, 2016, 130 Stat. 791, provided that: "If the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development determines that the application of subsections (a) through (e) of this section [amending this section and section 1437f of this title] results in a material and disproportionate reduction in the rental income of certain public housing agencies during the first year in which such subsections are implemented, the Secretary may make appropriate adjustments in the formula income for such year of those agencies experiencing such a reduction."

Transitional Ceiling Rents

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §519(d), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2561, provided that: "Notwithstanding section 3(a)(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a[(a)](1)), during the period ending upon the later of the implementation of the formulas established pursuant to subsections (d)(2) and (e)(2) of [section 9 of] such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437g(d)(2), (e)(2)] (as amended by this section) and October 1, 1999, a public housing agency may take any of the following actions with respect to public housing:

"(1) New provisions.—An agency may—

"(A) adopt and apply ceiling rents that reflect the reasonable market value of the housing, but that are not less than—

"(i) for housing other than housing predominantly for elderly or disabled families (or both), 75 percent of the monthly cost to operate the housing of the agency;

"(ii) for housing predominantly for elderly or disabled families (or both), 100 percent of the monthly cost to operate the housing of the agency; and

"(iii) the monthly cost to make a deposit to a replacement reserve (in the sole discretion of the public housing agency); and

"(B) allow families to pay ceiling rents referred to in subparagraph (A), unless, with respect to any family, the ceiling rent established under this paragraph would exceed the amount payable as rent by that family under paragraph (1).

"(2) Ceiling rents from balanced budget act, I.—An agency may utilize the authority under section 3(a)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437a(a)(2)), as in effect immediately before the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], notwithstanding any amendment to such section made by this Act.

"(3) Transitional ceiling rents for balanced budget act, I.—An agency may utilize the authority with respect to ceiling rents under section 402(b)(2) of The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I [Pub. L. 104–99] (42 U.S.C. 1437a note), notwithstanding any other provision of law (including the expiration of the applicability of such section or the repeal of such section)."

Certain Payments Made to Victims of Nazi Persecution Disregarded in Determining Eligibility for and Amount of Need-Based Benefits and Services

Pub. L. 103–286, §1, Aug. 1, 1994, 108 Stat. 1450, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Payments made to individuals because of their status as victims of Nazi persecution shall be disregarded in determining eligibility for and the amount of benefits or services to be provided under any Federal or federally assisted program which provides benefits or services based, in whole or in part, on need.

"(b) Applicability.—Subsection (a) shall apply to determinations made on or after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1994] with respect to payments referred to in subsection (a) made before, on, or after such date.

"(c) Prohibition Against Recovery of Value of Excessive Benefits or Services Provided Due to Failure to Take Account of Certain Payments Made to Victims of Nazi Persecution.—No officer, agency, or instrumentality of any government may attempt to recover the value of excessive benefits or services provided before the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1994] under any program referred to in subsection (a) by reason of any failure to take account of payments referred to in subsection (a).

"(d) Notice to Individuals Who May Have Been Denied Eligibility for Benefits or Services Due to the Failure to Disregard Certain Payments Made to Victims of Nazi Persecution.—Any agency of government that has not disregarded payments referred to in subsection (a) in determining eligibility for a program referred to in subsection (a) shall make a good faith effort to notify any individual who may have been denied eligibility for benefits or services under the program of the potential eligibility of the individual for such benefits or services.

"(e) Repayment of Additional Rent Paid Under HUD Housing Programs Because of Failure to Disregard Reparation Payments.—

"(1) Authority.—To the extent that amounts are provided in appropriation Acts for payments under this subsection, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall make payments to qualified individuals in the amount determined under paragraph (3).

"(2) Qualified individuals.—For purposes of this subsection, the term 'qualified individual' means an individual who—

"(A) has received any payment because of the individual's status as a victim of Nazi persecution;

"(B) at any time during the period beginning on February 1, 1993 and ending on April 30, 1993, resided in a dwelling unit in housing assisted under any program for housing assistance of the Department of Housing and Urban Development under which rent payments for the unit were determined based on or taking into consideration the income of the occupant of the unit;

"(C) paid rent for such dwelling unit for any portion of the period referred to in subparagraph (B) in an amount determined in a manner that did not disregard the payment referred to in subparagraph (A); and

"(D) has submitted a claim for payment under this subsection as required under paragraph (4).

The term does not include the successors, heirs, or estate of an individual meeting the requirements of the preceding sentence.

"(3) Amount of payment.—The amount of a payment under this subsection for a qualified individual shall be equal to the difference between—

"(A) the sum of the amount of rent paid by the individual for rental of the dwelling unit of the individual assisted under a program for housing assistance of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, for the period referred to in paragraph (2)(B), and

"(B) the sum of the amount of rent that would have been payable by the individual for rental of such dwelling unit for such period if the payments referred to in paragraph (2)(A) were disregarded in determining the amount of rent payable by the individual for such period.

"(4) Submission of claims.—A payment under this subsection for an individual may be made only pursuant to a written claim for such payment by such individual submitted to the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development in the form and manner required by the Secretary before—

"(A) in the case of any individual notified by the Department of Housing and Urban Development orally or in writing that such specific individual is eligible for a payment under this subsection, the expiration of the 6-month period beginning on the date of receipt of such notice; and

"(B) in the case of any other individual, the expiration of the 12-month period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 1, 1994]."

Inapplicability of Certain 1992 Amendments to Indian Public Housing

Pub. L. 102–550, title VI, §626, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3820, provided that: "The amendments made by this subtitle [subtitle B (§§621–626) of title VI of Pub. L. 102–550, amending this section and sections 1437c to 1437f, 1437l, 1437o, 1438, and 8013 of this title] shall not apply with respect to lower income housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Budget Compliance

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §573(e), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4237, provided that: "The amendments made by subsections (b) and (c) [amending this section] shall apply only to the extent approved in appropriations Acts."

Median Area Income

Pub. L. 100–242, title V, §567, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1948, provided that: "For purposes of calculating the median income for any area that is not within a metropolitan statistical area (as established by the Office of Management and Budget) for programs under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.], the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1701 et seq.], or title V of the Housing Act of 1949 [42 U.S.C. 1471 et seq.], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development or the Secretary of Agriculture (as appropriate) shall use whichever of the following is higher:

"(1) the median income of the county in which the area is located; or

"(2) the median income of the entire nonmetropolitan area of the State."

Determination of Rent Payable by Tenants Occupying Assisted Housing; Delayed Application or Staged Implementation of Amended Provisions

Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §206(d)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1180, provided that:

"(1) The following provisions of this paragraph apply to determinations of the rent to be paid by or the contribution required of a tenant occupying housing assisted under the authorities amended by this section [amending this section] or subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981 [amending sections 1437 to 1437d, 1437f, 1437g, 1437i, 1437j, and 1437l of this title and sections 1701s and 1715z–1 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1701s of Title 12] (hereinafter referred to as 'assisted housing') on or before the effective date of regulations implementing this section:

"(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of this section or subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development (hereinafter referred to as the 'Secretary') may provide for delayed applicability, or for staged implementation, of the procedures for determining rents or contributions, as appropriate, required by such provisions if the Secretary determines that immediate application of such procedures would be impracticable, would violate the terms of existing leases, or would result in extraordinary hardship for any class of tenants.

"(B) The Secretary shall provide that the rent or contribution, as appropriate, required to be paid by a tenant shall not increase as a result of the amendments made by this section and subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981, and as a result of any other provision of Federal law or regulation, by more than 10 per centum during any twelve-month period, unless the increase above 10 per centum is attributable to increases in income which are unrelated to such amendments, law, or regulation.

"(2) Tenants of assisted housing other than those referred to in paragraph (1) shall be subject to immediate rent payment or contribution determinations in accordance with applicable law and without regard to the provisions of paragraph (1), but the Secretary shall provide that the rent or contribution payable by any such tenant who is occupying assisted housing on the effective date of any provision of Federal law or regulation shall not increase, as a result of any such provision of Federal law or regulation, by more than 10 per centum during any twelve-month period, unless the increase above 10 per centum is attributable to increases in income which are unrelated to such law or regulation.

"(3) In the case of tenants receiving rental assistance under section 521(a)(1) of the Housing Act of 1949 [section 1490a(a)(1) of this title] on the effective date of this section [Nov. 30, 1983] whose assistance is converted to assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [section 1437f of this title] on or after such date, the Secretary shall provide that the rent or contribution payable by any such tenant shall not increase, as a result of such conversion, by more than 10 per centum during any twelve-month period, unless the increase above 10 per centum is attributable to increases in income which are unrelated to such conversion or to any provision of Federal law or regulation.

"(4)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in the case of the conversion of any assistance under section 101 of the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965 [12 U.S.C. 1701s], section 236(f)(2) of the National Housing Act [12 U.S.C. 1715z–1(f)(2)], or section 23 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [section 1421b of this title] (as in effect before the date of the enactment of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [Aug. 22, 1974]) to assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, any increase in rent payments or contributions resulting from such conversion, and from the amendments made by this section of any tenant benefiting from such assistance who is sixty-two years of age or older may not exceed 10 per centum per annum.

"(B) In the case of any such conversion of assistance occurring on or after October 1, 1981, and before the date of the enactment of this section [Nov. 30, 1983], the rental payments due after such date of enactment by any tenant benefiting from such assistance who was sixty-two years of age or older on the date of such conversion shall be computed as if the tenant's rental payment or contribution had, on the date of conversion, been the lesser of the actual rental payment or contribution required, or 25 per centum of the tenant's income.

"(5) The limitations on increases in rent contained in paragraphs (1)(B), (2), (3), and (4) shall remain in effect and may not be changed or superseded except by another provision of law which amends this subsection.

"(6) As used in this subsection, the term 'contribution' means an amount representing 30 per centum of a tenant's monthly adjusted income, 10 per centum of the tenant's monthly income, or the designated amount of welfare assistance, whichever amount is used to determine the monthly assistance payment for the tenant under section 3(a) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [subsec. (a) of this section].

"(7) The provisions of subsections (a) through (h) of section 322 of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1981 shall be implemented and fully applicable to all affected tenants no later than five years following the date of enactment of such amendments [Aug. 13, 1981], except that the Secretary may extend the time for implementation if the Secretary determines that full implementation would result in extraordinary hardship for any class of tenants."

Prior provisions for determining rent payable by tenants occupying assisted housing under and authorizing delayed application or staged implementation of provisions amended by section 322 of Pub. L. 97–35 were contained in Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(i), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 404, which was repealed by Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §206(e)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1181.

Establishment of Increased Monthly Rental Charge for Family Occupying Low-Income Housing Unit; Adjustment Factors

Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §202, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 667, provided that: "To the extent that section 3(1) of the United States Housing Act of 1937, as amended by section 201(a) of this Act [par. (1) of this section], would require the establishment of an increased monthly rental charge for any family which occupies a low-income housing unit as of the effective date of such section 3(1) (other than by reason of the provisions relating to welfare assistance payments) [see Effective Date note set out above], the required adjustment shall be made, in accordance with regulations of the Secretary, as follows: (A) the first adjustment shall not exceed $5 and shall become effective as of the month following the month of the first review of the family's income pursuant to section 6(c)(2) of such Act [section 1437d(c)(2) of this title] which occurs at least six months after the effective date of such section 3(1), and (B) subsequent adjustments, each of which shall not exceed $5, shall be made at six-month intervals over whatever period is necessary to effect the full required increase in the family's rental charge."

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "or".

3 So in original. Probably should be " 'extremely low-income families' ".

4 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.

5 So in original. Probably should be "assistance under".

6 So in original. Probably should be paragraph "(3)(A)(ii)".

7 So in original. The comma probably should be a semicolon.

8 See References in Text notes below.

§1437a–1. Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §582(a)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2643

Section, Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §519, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4202, authorized public housing rent waiver for police officers. See section 1437a(a)(4) of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 1, 1999, except as otherwise provided, with provision that Secretary may implement the repeal before such date, and with savings provision, see section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title.

§1437b. Loans and commitments to make loans for low-income housing projects

(a) Authority of Secretary; interest rates; repayment date; use as security for obligations of public housing agency

The Secretary may make loans or commitments to make loans to public housing agencies to help finance or refinance the development, acquisition, or operation of low-income housing projects by such agencies. Any contract for such loans and any amendment to a contract for such loans shall provide that such loans shall bear interest at a rate specified by the Secretary which shall not be less than a rate determined by the Secretary of the Treasury taking into consideration the current average market yield on outstanding marketable obligations of the United States with remaining periods to maturity comparable to the average maturities of such loans, plus one-eighth of 1 per centum. Such loans shall be secured in such manner and shall be repaid within such period not exceeding forty years, or not exceeding forty years from the date of the bonds evidencing the loan, as the Secretary may determine. The Secretary may require loans or commitments to make loans under this section to be pledged as security for obligations issued by a public housing agency in connection with a low-income housing project.

(b) Issuance of obligations by Secretary; limitation on amounts; forms and denominations; terms and conditions; purchase, establishment of maturities and rates of interest, and sale by Secretary of the Treasury

The Secretary may issue and have outstanding at any one time notes and other obligations for purchase by the Secretary of the Treasury in an amount which will not, unless authorized by the President, exceed $1,500,000,000. For the purpose of determining obligations incurred to make loans pursuant to this chapter against any limitation otherwise applicable with respect to such loans, the Secretary shall estimate the maximum amount to be loaned at any one time pursuant to loan agreements then outstanding with public housing agencies. Such notes or other obligations shall be in such forms and denominations and shall be subject to such terms and conditions as may be prescribed by the Secretary with the approval of the Secretary of the Treasury. The notes or other obligations issued under this subsection shall have such maturities and bear such rate or rates of interest as shall be determined by the Secretary of the Treasury. The Secretary of the Treasury is authorized and directed to purchase any notes or other obligations of the Secretary issued hereunder and for such purpose is authorized to use as a public debt transaction the proceeds from the sale of any securities issued under chapter 31 of title 31, and the purposes for which securities may be issued under such chapter are extended to include any purchases of such obligations. The Secretary of the Treasury may at any time sell any of the notes or other obligations acquired by him under this section. All redemptions, purchases, and sales by the Secretary of the Treasury of such notes or other obligations shall be treated as public debt transactions of the United States.

(c) Public and Indian housing financing reforms

(1) At such times as the Secretary may determine, and in accordance with such accounting and other procedures as the Secretary may prescribe, each loan made by the Secretary under subsection (a) that has any principal amount outstanding or any interest amount outstanding or accrued shall be forgiven; and the terms and conditions of any contract, or any amendment to a contract, for such loan with respect to any promise to repay such principal and interest shall be canceled. Such cancellation shall not affect any other terms and conditions of such contract, which shall remain in effect as if the cancellation had not occurred. This paragraph shall not apply to any loan the repayment of which was not to be made using annual contributions, or to any loan all or part of the proceeds of which are due a public housing agency from contractors or others.

(2)(A) On April 7, 1986, each note or other obligation issued by the Secretary to the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subsection (b), together with any promise to repay the principal and unpaid interest that has accrued on each note or obligation, shall be forgiven; and any other term or condition specified by each such obligation shall be canceled.

(B) On September 30, 1986, and on any subsequent September 30, each such note or other obligation issued by the Secretary to the Secretary of the Treasury pursuant to subsection (b) during the fiscal year ending on such date, together with any promise to repay the principal and unpaid interest that has accrued on each note or obligation, shall be forgiven; and any other term or condition specified by each such obligation shall be canceled.

(3) Any amount of budget authority (and contract authority) that becomes available during any fiscal year as a result of the forgiveness of any loan, note, or obligation under this subsection shall be rescinded.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §4, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 656; amended Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 98–479, title II, §203(b)(1), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2229; Pub. L. 99–272, title III, §3004, Apr. 7, 1986, 100 Stat. 102; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §572(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4236.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 4 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 889, as amended, provided for assistance of officers, etc., of other agencies and transfer of property to the Authority and was classified to section 1404 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–625 substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

1986—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–272 added subsec. (c).

1984—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 98–479 substituted "chapter 31 of title 31" for "the Second Liberty Bond Act, as amended" and "such chapter" for "such Act".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35 substituted reference to lower income for reference to low-income in two places.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Carryover of Amounts of Budget Authority; Availability as Appropriation of Funds for Grants

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(g) [H.R. 5313, title I], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–242, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(g) [H.R. 5313, title I], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–242; Pub. L. 100–202, §106, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–433, provided in part: "That the budget authority obligated under contracts for annual contributions shall be increased above amounts heretofore provided in appropriations Acts by $7,805,668,000: Provided further, That any part of the amount of the increase in budget authority provided for in the immediately foregoing proviso that is available under this Act for public housing development and acquisition costs or which is to be used for amendments for such costs, shall be available as an appropriation of funds, to remain available until expended, for grants, which are hereby authorized in lieu of loans under section 4(a) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437b), and which the Secretary may make on substantially the same terms (except for repayment unless repayment is a properly imposed sanction) as those heretofore set forth in annual contributions contracts for loans and annual contributions: Provided further, That during 1987 and thereafter, any amounts of budget authority which are carried over from a prior year, or which are otherwise available for obligation, and which are available for public housing development and acquisition costs, together with any amounts of budget authority which are to be used for amendments for such costs, in accordance with any Act, shall also be made available as an appropriation of funds for grants, under the same terms as those applying under the immediately preceding proviso".

§1437c. Contributions for low-income housing projects

(a) Contract authorization; amounts; use as security for obligations of public housing agency; use of existing structures

(1) The Secretary may make annual contributions to public housing agencies to assist in achieving and maintaining the lower income character of their projects. The Secretary shall embody the provisions for such annual contributions in a contract guaranteeing their payment. The contribution payable annually under this section shall in no case exceed a sum equal to the annual amount of principal and interest payable on obligations issued by the public housing agency to finance the development or acquisition cost of the lower income project involved. Annual contributions payable under this section shall be pledged, if the Secretary so requires, as security for obligations issued by a public housing agency to assist the development or acquisition of the project to which annual contributions relate and shall be paid over a period not to exceed 40 years.

(2) The Secretary may make contributions (in the form of grants) to public housing agencies to cover the development cost of public housing projects. The contract under which such contributions shall be made shall specify the amount of capital contributions required for each project to which the contract pertains, and that the terms and conditions of such contract shall remain in effect for a 40-year period.

(3) The amount of contributions that would be established for a newly constructed project by a public housing agency designed to accommodate a number of families of a given size and kind may be established under this section for a project by such public housing agency that would provide housing for the comparable number, sizes, and kinds of families through the acquisition and rehabilitation, or use under lease, of structures that are suitable for low-income housing use and obtained in the local market.

(b) Maximum amount of contributions; regulations; criteria for rates of contribution

The Secretary may prescribe regulations fixing the maximum contributions available under different circumstances, giving consideration to cost, location, size, rent-paying ability of prospective tenants, or other factors bearing upon the amounts and periods of assistance needed to achieve and maintain low rentals. Such regulations may provide for rates of contribution based upon development, acquisition, or operation costs, number of dwelling units, number of persons housed, interest charges, or other appropriate factors.

(c) Limitation on aggregate contractual contributions; contracts for preliminary loans; payments of annual contributions; limitations on specific authorities

(1) The Secretary may enter into contracts for annual contributions aggregating not more than $7,875,049,000 per annum, which amount shall be increased by $1,494,400,000 on October 1, 1980, and by $906,985,000 on October 1, 1981. The additional authority to enter into such contracts provided on or after October 1, 1980, shall be effective only in such amounts as may be approved in appropriation Acts. In addition, the aggregate amount which may be obligated over the duration of the contracts may not exceed $31,200,000,000 with respect to the additional authority provided on October 1, 1980, and $18,087,370,000 with respect to the additional authority provided on October 1, 1981.

(2) The Secretary shall enter into only such new contracts for preliminary loans as are consistent with the number of dwelling units for which contracts for annual contributions may be entered into.

(3) The full faith and credit of the United States is solemnly pledged to the payment of all annual contributions contracted for pursuant to this section, and there are hereby authorized to be appropriated in each fiscal year, out of any money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, the amounts necessary to provide for such payments.

(4) All payments of annual contributions pursuant to this section shall be made out of any funds available for purposes of this chapter when such payments are due, except that funds obtained through the issuance of obligations pursuant to section 1437b(b) of this title (including repayments or other realizations of the principal of loans made out of such funds) shall not be available for the payment of such annual contributions.

(5) During such period as the Secretary may prescribe for starting construction, the Secretary may approve the conversion of public housing development authority for use under section 1437g of this title or for use for the acquisition and rehabilitation of property to be used in public housing, if the public housing agency, after consultation with the unit of local government, certifies that such assistance would be more effectively used for such purpose, and if the total number of units assisted will not be less than 90 per centum of the units covered by the original reservation.

(6) The aggregate amount of budget authority which may be obligated for contracts for annual contributions and for grants under section 1437o of this title is increased by $9,912,928,000 on October 1, 1983, and by such sums as may be approved in appropriation Acts on October 1, 1984. The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for contracts for annual contributions for assistance under section 1437f of this title, for contracts referred to in paragraphs (7)(A)(iv) and (7)(B)(iv), for grants for public housing, for comprehensive improvement assistance, and for amendments to existing contracts, is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $7,167,000,000 on October 1, 1987, and by $7,300,945,000 on October 1, 1988. The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for assistance referred to in paragraph (7) is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $16,194,000,000 on October 1, 1990, and by $14,709,400,000 on October 1, 1991. The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for assistance referred to in paragraph (7) is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $14,710,990,520 on October 1, 1992, and by $15,328,852,122 on October 1993.

(7)(A) Using the additional budget authority provided under paragraph (6) and the balances of budget authority that become available during fiscal year 1993, the Secretary shall, to the extent approved in appropriation Acts, reserve authority to enter into obligations aggregating—

(i) for public housing grants under subsection (a)(2), not more than $830,900,800, of which amount not more than $257,320,000 shall be available for Indian housing;

(ii) for assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $1,977,662,720, of which $20,000,000 shall be available for 15-year contracts for project-based assistance to be used for a multicultural tenant empowerment and homeownership project located in the District of Columbia, except that assistance provided for such project shall not be considered for purposes of the percentage limitations under section 1437f(i)(2) of this title; except that not more than 49 percent of any amounts appropriated under this clause may be used for vouchers under section 1437f(o) of this title;

(iii) for comprehensive improvement assistance grants under section 1437l(k) of this title, not more than $3,100,000,000;

(iv) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for property disposition, not more than $93,032,000;

(v) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for loan management, not more than $202,000,000;

(vi) for extensions of contracts expiring under section 1437f of this title, not more than $6,746,135,000, which shall be for 5-year contracts for assistance under section 1437f of this title and for loan management assistance under such section;

(vii) for amendments to contracts under section 1437f of this title, not more than $1,350,000,000;

(viii) for public housing lease adjustments and amendments, not more than $83,055,000;

(ix) for conversions from leased housing contracts under section 1421b of this title (as in effect immediately before August 22, 1974) to assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $12,767,000; and

(x) for grants under section 1437v of this title for revitalization of severely distressed public housing, not more than $300,000,000.


(B) Using the additional budget authority provided under paragraph (6) and the balances of budget authority that become available during fiscal year 1994, the Secretary shall, to the extent approved in appropriation Acts, reserve authority to enter into obligations aggregating—

(i) for public housing grants under subsection (a)(2), not more than $865,798,634, of which amount not more than $268,127,440 shall be available for Indian housing;

(ii) for assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $2,060,724,554, of which $20,000,000 shall be available for 15-year contracts for project-based assistance to be used for a multicultural tenant empowerment and homeownership project located in the District of Columbia, except that assistance provided for such project shall not be considered for purposes of the percentage limitations under section 1437f(i)(2) of this title; except that not more than 49 percent of any amounts appropriated under this clause may be used for vouchers under section 1437f(o) of this title;

(iii) for comprehensive improvement assistance grants under section 1437l(k) of this title, not more than $3,230,200,000;

(iv) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for property disposition, not more than $96,939,344;

(v) for assistance under section 1437f of this title for loan management, not more than $210,484,000;

(vi) for extensions of contracts expiring under section 1437f of this title, not more than $7,029,472,670, which shall be for 5-year contracts for assistance under section 1437f of this title and for loan management assistance under such section;

(vii) for amendments to contracts under section 1437f of this title, not more than $1,406,700,000;

(viii) for public housing lease adjustments and amendments, not more than $86,543,310;

(ix) for conversions from leased housing contracts under section 1421b of this title (as in effect immediately before August 22, 1974) to assistance under section 1437f of this title, not more than $13,303,214; and

(x) for grants under section 1437v of this title for revitalization of severely distressed public housing, not more than $312,600,000.


(C)(i) Any amount available for the conversion of a project to assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title, if not required for such purpose, shall be used for assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title.

(ii) Any amount available for assistance under section 1437f of this title for property disposition, if not required for such purpose, shall be used for assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title.

(8) Any amount available for Indian housing under subsection (a) that is recaptured shall be used only for such housing.

(d) Scope of contracts for loans or annual contributions

Any contract for loans or annual contributions, or both, entered into by the Secretary with a public housing agency, may cover one or more than one low-income housing project owned by such public housing agency; in the event the contract covers two or more projects, such projects may, for any of the purposes of this chapter and of such contract (including, but not limited to, the determination of the amount of the loan, annual contributions, or payments in lieu of taxes, specified in such contract), be treated collectively as one project.

(e) Local determination of need as prerequisite for contracts for preliminary loans, and contracts for loans or annual contributions; notice

In recognition that there should be local determination of the need for low-income housing to meet needs not being adequately met by private enterprise—

(1) the Secretary shall not make any contract with a public housing agency for preliminary loans (all of which shall be repaid out of any moneys which become available to such agency for the development of the projects involved) for surveys and planning in respect to any low-income housing projects (i) unless the governing body of the locality involved has by resolution approved the application of the public housing agency for such preliminary loan; and (ii) unless the public housing agency has demonstrated to the satisfaction of the Secretary that there is need for such low-income housing which is not being met by private enterprise; and

(2) the Secretary shall not make any contract for loans (other than preliminary loans) or for contributions pursuant to this chapter unless the governing body of the locality involved has entered into an agreement with the public housing agency providing for the local cooperation required by the Secretary pursuant to this chapter; the Secretary shall require that each such agreement shall provide that, notwithstanding any order, judgment, or decree of any court (including any settlement order), before making any amounts that are provided pursuant to any contract for contributions under this subchapter available for use for the development of any housing or other property not previously used as public housing, the public housing agency shall (A) notify the chief executive officer (or other appropriate official) of the unit of general local government in which the public housing for which such amounts are to be so used is located (or to be located) of such use, and (B) pursuant to the request of such unit of general local government, provide such information as may reasonably be requested by such unit of general local government regarding the public housing to be so assisted (except to the extent otherwise prohibited by law).

(f) Modification by Secretary of terms of contracts, etc.; limitations; amendment or supersedure of contracts for annual contributions or loans

Subject to the specific limitations or standards in this chapter governing the terms of sales, rentals, leases, loans, contracts for annual contributions, or other agreements, the Secretary may, whenever he deems it necessary or desirable in the fulfillment of the purposes of this chapter, consent to the modification, with respect to rate of interest, time of payment of any installment of principal or interest, security, amount of annual contribution, or any other term, of any contract or agreement of any kind to which the Secretary is a party. When the Secretary finds that it would promote economy or be in the financial interest of the Federal Government or is necessary to assure or maintain the lower income character of the project or projects involved, any contract heretofore or hereafter made for annual contributions, loans, or both, may be amended or superseded by a contract entered into by mutual agreement between the public housing agency and the Secretary. Contracts may not be amended or superseded in a manner which would impair the rights of the holders of any outstanding obligations of the public housing agency involved for which annual contributions have been pledged. Any rule of law contrary to this provision shall be deemed inapplicable.

(g) Pledge of annual contributions as guarantee of payment of obligations issued by public housing agency; exception

In addition to the authority of the Secretary under subsection (a) to pledge annual contributions as security for obligations issued by a public housing agency, the Secretary is authorized to pledge annual contributions as a guarantee of payment by a public housing agency of all principal and interest on obligations issued by it to assist the development or acquisition of the project to which the annual contributions relate, except that no obligation shall be guaranteed under this subsection if the income thereon is exempt from Federal taxation.

(h) Audits

(1) By Secretary and Comptroller General

Each contract for contributions for any assistance under this chapter to a public housing agency shall provide that the Secretary, the Inspector General of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall, for the purpose of audit and examination, have access to any books, documents, papers, and records of the public housing agency that are pertinent to this chapter and to its operations with respect to financial assistance under the this 1 chapter.

(2) Withholding of amounts for audits under Single Audit Act

The Secretary may, in the sole discretion of the Secretary, arrange for and pay the costs of an audit required under chapter 75 of title 31. In such circumstances, the Secretary may withhold, from assistance otherwise payable to the agency under this chapter, amounts sufficient to pay for the reasonable costs of conducting an acceptable audit, including, when appropriate, the reasonable costs of accounting services necessary to place the agency's books and records in auditable condition. As agreed to by the Secretary and the Inspector General, the Inspector General may arrange for an audit under this paragraph.

(i) Prohibition on use of funds

None of the funds made available to the Department of Housing and Urban Development to carry out this chapter, which are obligated to State or local governments, public housing agencies, housing finance agencies, or other public or quasi-public housing agencies, shall be used to indemnify contractors or subcontractors of the government or agency against costs associated with judgments of infringement of intellectual property rights.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §5, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 656; amended Pub. L. 94–375, §2(a), (b), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1067; Pub. L. 95–24, title I, §101(a), Apr. 30, 1977, 91 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 95–128, title II, §201(a), (b), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1128; Pub. L. 95–557, title II, §206(a), (b), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2091; Pub. L. 95–619, title II, §251(a), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3235; Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §201(a), (b), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1105; Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §§201(a), 210, Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1624, 1636; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §§321(a)–(c), 322(c), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 398, 402; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §201(b)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§101, 112(a), (b)(1), 113–115, Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1820, 1823-1825; renumbered title I and amended Pub. L. 100–358, §§3, 5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 680, 681; Pub. L. 101–625, title IV, §417(a), title V, §§571, 572(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4161, 4235, 4236; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§101, 111(a), title VI, §624, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3681, 3687, 3819; Pub. L. 104–19, title I, §1002(c), July 27, 1995, 109 Stat. 236; Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(b)(2), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4042; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§510, 518(a)(1), (b), 522(b)(1), 566, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2531, 2551, 2564, 2632.)

References in Text

Section 1437o of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(6), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–625, title II, §289(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128.

Section 1437l of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(A)(iii), (B)(iii), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §522(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2564.

Section 1421b of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(7)(A)(ix), (B)(ix), was omitted in the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 653.

The Single Audit Act, referred to in subsec. (h)(2) heading, probably means the Single Audit Act of 1984, Pub. L. 98–502, Oct. 19, 1984, 98 Stat. 2327, which enacted chapter 75 (§7501 et seq.) of Title 31, Money and Finance, and provisions set out as notes under section 7501 of Title 31. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1984 Amendment note set out under section 7501 of Title 31 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 5 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 890, as amended, enumerated miscellaneous powers and functions of the Authority and was classified to section 1405 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (c)(5). Pub. L. 105–276, §522(b)(1), substituted "for use under section 1437g of this title" for "for use under section 1437l of this title".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 105–276, §518(b), inserted before period at end "; the Secretary shall require that each such agreement shall provide that, notwithstanding any order, judgment, or decree of any court (including any settlement order), before making any amounts that are provided pursuant to any contract for contributions under this subchapter available for use for the development of any housing or other property not previously used as public housing, the public housing agency shall (A) notify the chief executive officer (or other appropriate official) of the unit of general local government in which the public housing for which such amounts are to be so used is located (or to be located) of such use, and (B) pursuant to the request of such unit of general local government, provide such information as may reasonably be requested by such unit of general local government regarding the public housing to be so assisted (except to the extent otherwise prohibited by law)".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–276, §566, added subsec. (h).

Pub. L. 105–276, §518(a)(1)(A), struck out subsec. (h) which read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency may sell a low-income housing project to its lower income tenants, on such terms and conditions as the agency may determine, without affecting the Secretary's commitment to pay annual contributions with respect to that project, but such contributions shall not exceed the maximum contributions authorized under subsection (a) of this section."

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–276, §518(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (l) as (i) and struck out former subsec. (i) which read as follows: "In entering into contracts for assistance with respect to newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated projects under this section (other than for projects assisted pursuant to section 1437f of this title), the Secretary shall require the installation of a passive or active solar energy system in any such project where the Secretary determines that such installation would be cost effective over the estimated life of the system."

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 105–276, §518(a)(1)(A), struck out subsecs. (j) and (k), which had: in subsec. (j), placed conditions upon reservation of funds for development of public housing after Sept. 30, 1987, and placed limitations on amounts used for redesign, reconstruction, redevelopment, or operational improvement of existing projects, but directed that not less than 5 percent of certain amounts appropriated in fiscal years 1993 and 1994 be reserved for public housing projects designated for elderly or disabled families; and in subsec. (k), prohibited recapture of amounts of public housing development funds reserved to a public housing agency for failure to begin construction or rehabilitation, or to complete acquisition, during 30-month period following date of reservation.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 105–276, §518(a)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (l) as (i).

Pub. L. 105–276, §510, added subsec. (l).

1996—Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(2)(A), struck out "(other than for Indian families)" after "for public housing" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(2)(B), struck out subsec. (l) which read as follows: "The Secretary may not use as a criterion for distributing assistance under this section the progress made by an Indian public housing agency in collecting rents owed by tenants unless—

"(1) such criterion is used as 1 of several criteria that are weighted proportionally and is established by regulations issued after public notice and opportunity to comment in accordance with section 553 of title 5; or

"(2) the Secretary determines that the Indian public housing agency has demonstrated a pattern of substantial noncompliance with requirements governing the collection of rents."

1995—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 104–19 struck out at end "Any such sale shall be subject to the restrictions contained in section 1437aaa–3(g) of this title."

1992—Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 102–550, §101(a), inserted at end "The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for assistance referred to in paragraph (7) is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $14,710,990,520 on October 1, 1992, and by $15,328,852,122 on October 1993."

Subsec. (c)(7)(A), (B). Pub. L. 102–550, §101(b), added subpars. (A) and (B) and struck out former subpars. (A) and (B) which directed Secretary to reserve authority to enter into certain obligations aggregating specified amounts using par. (6) budget authority and balances of such authority available in fiscal years 1991 and 1992.

Subsec. (j)(1)(D). Pub. L. 102–550, §624(c)(1), which directed the striking of "and" at end, was executed by striking "or" at end to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (j)(1)(E). Pub. L. 102–550, §624(c)(3), which directed amendment of subsec. (j)(1) by adding at the end a new subpar. (E), was executed by adding subsec. (E) after subpar. (D) to reflect the probable intent of Congress. Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (j)(1)(F). Pub. L. 102–550, §624(c)(2), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F).

Subsec. (j)(2). Pub. L. 102–550, §624(a), added subpar. (G).

Pub. L. 102–550, §111(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law, not more than 20 percent of the funds appropriated for development of public housing also may be committed by the Secretary for the substantial redesign, reconstruction, or redevelopment of existing public housing projects or units, which work shall be carried out pursuant to the rules and regulations applicable to the development of public housing."

Subsec. (j)(3). Pub. L. 102–550, §624(b), added par. (3).

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing".

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 101–625, §571(a), inserted at end "The aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for assistance referred to in paragraph (7) is increased (to the extent approved in appropriation Acts) by $16,194,000,000 on October 1, 1990, and by $14,709,400,000 on October 1, 1991."

Subsec. (c)(7)(A), (B). Pub. L. 101–625, §571(b), amended subpars. (A) and (B) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions directing Secretary to reserve authority to enter into certain obligations aggregating specified amounts using par. (6) budget authority and balances of such authority available in fiscal years 1988 and 1989.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing".

Pub. L. 101–625, §417(a), inserted at end "Any such sale shall be subject to the restrictions contained in section 1437aaa–3(g) of this title."

1988Pub. L. 100–242, §112(b)(1)(A), substituted "Contributions" for "Annual contributions" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–242, §112(a), amended subsec. (a) generally, revising and restating as pars. (1) to (3) provisions formerly contained in a single unnumbered par.

Subsec. (c)(6). Pub. L. 100–242, §101(a), inserted sentence at end providing for increases on Oct. 1, 1987, and Oct. 1, 1988, of aggregate amount of budget authority that may be obligated for specified purposes.

Subsec. (c)(7). Pub. L. 100–242, §101(b), amended par. (7) generally, substituting provisions relating to Secretary's authority to enter into obligations under this section for fiscal years 1988 and 1989, for provisions relating to Secretary's authority for fiscal years 1984 and 1985 and substituting provisions whereby amounts available for conversion of project to assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title and amounts available for assistance under section 1437f for property disposition, if not required for such purpose, shall be used for assistance under section 1437f(b)(1) of this title, for provisions wherein specific authorities under this paragraph would be subject to adjustments under par. (5) of this subsection.

Subsec. (c)(8). Pub. L. 100–358, §3, added par. (8).

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 100–242, §112(b)(1)(B), struck out "annual" before "contributions".

Subsecs. (j) to (l). Pub. L. 100–242, §§113–115, added subsecs. (j) to (l).

1983—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 98–181, §201(b)(1), struck out concluding provision requiring the Secretary, in utilizing the additional authority to enter into contracts on and after Oct. 1, 1980, to administer the authorized programs to provide assistance, to the maximum extent practicable, consistent with section 1439(d) of this title.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 98–181, §201(b)(2), redesignated par. (4) as (2), and struck out former par. (2) which from funds made available on Oct. 1, 1980, had required at least $100,000,000 be available for section 1437l projects, and from remaining difference limited use of funds to 37.5 and 62.5 per centum for existing section 1437f projects and for newly constructed and substantially rehabilitated units.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 98–181, §201(b)(2), redesignated par. (5) as (3), and struck out former par. (3) which from funds made available on Oct. 1, 1981, had required at least $75,000,000 be available for section 1437l projects, from remaining difference allocated sums as provided in section 1439(d) for different community and area uses, and from remaining difference required the accommodation of preferences of units of local government based on stated factors.

Subsec. (c)(4). Pub. L. 98–181, §201(b)(2), redesignated par. (6) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (2).

Subsec. (c)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 98–181, §201(b)(3), added pars. (5) to (7). Former pars. (5) and (6) redesignated (3) and (4), respectively.

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §322(c), substituted references to lower income for references to low-income wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35, §321(a)–(c), in par. (1) inserted provisions relating to increases on Oct. 1, 1981, and amount respecting additional authority as of Oct. 1, 1981, added par. (3), and redesignated former pars. (3) to (5) as (4) to (6), respectively.

Subsecs. (d) to (f), (h). Pub. L. 97–35, §322(c), substituted references to lower income for references to low-income wherever appearing.

1980—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–399, §201(a), redesignated existing provisions as par. (1), among other changes, substituted provisions relating to the discretionary power of the Secretary to enter into contracts for annual contributions for provisions authorizing the Secretary to enter into such contracts, deleted references to contributions for assistance to Indian tribes, and added pars. (2) to (5).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 96–399, §210, added subsec. (i).

1979—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 96–153 authorized increase in aggregate contractual contributions by $1,140,661,000 on Oct. 1, 1979, and inserted requirements that out of such additional authority not more than $195,053,000 be authorized to be approved in appropriation acts for units assisted under this chapter other than under section 1437f of this title and that not less than $50,000,000 of the later amount be authorized to be approved for modernization of the units.

1978—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–619 authorized the Secretary to enter into annual contribution contracts aggregating not more than $10,000,000 per annum for financing the purchase and installation of energy conserving improvement in existing low-income housing projects which the Secretary determined had the greatest need for such improvements.

Pub. L. 95–557 inserted "and by $1,195,043,000 on October 1, 1978" after "October 1, 1977", "and on and after October 1, 1978" after "October 1, 1976" and "Of the additional authority to enter into contracts for annual contributions provided on October 1, 1978, and approved in appropriation Acts, the Secretary shall make available not less than $50,000,000 for modernization of low-income housing projects" after "pursuant to section 5304(a)(4) of this title", and struck out provisions after "only such amounts as may be approved in appropriations Acts" mandating that of the additional authority to enter into contracts provided on October 1, 1976, at least $60,000,000 be made available for modernization of low-income housing projects and at least $140,000,000 to assist in financing low-income housing projects for ownership by public housing agencies other than under section 1437f, of which not less than $100,000,000 shall be available only for the purpose of financing the construction or rehabilitation of low-income housing projects, and provision after "plans prepared pursuant to section 5304(a)(4) of this title" mandating that of the additional authority to enter into contracts for annual contributions provided on Oct. 1, 1977, not less than $42,500,000 shall be made available for low-income housing projects, not less than $197,139,200 for low-income housing projects permanently financed by loans from State housing finance or State development agencies, and not less than $120,000,000 for low-income housing projects permanently financed by loans pursuant to section 1701q of title 12.

1977—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–128 authorized increase in aggregate contractual contributions by $1,159,995,000 on Oct. 1, 1977, and required the Secretary to make available therefrom minimum amounts of $42,500,000 for modernization of low-income housing projects, $197,139,200 for such projects financed by loans from State housing finance or State development agencies, and $120,000,000 for such projects financed by loans pursuant to section 1701q of title 12.

Pub. L. 95–24 substituted "and by $1,228,050,000 on October 1, 1976" for "and by $850,000,000 on October 1, 1976".

1976—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 94–375 substituted "$1,524,000,000 per annum, which limit shall be increased by $965,000,000 on July 1, 1974, by $662,300,000 on July 1, 1975, and by $850,000,000 on October 1, 1976, except that the additional authority to enter into contracts for annual contributions provided on or after July 1, 1975, shall be effective only in such amounts as may be approved in appropriation Acts" for "$1,199,250,000 per annum, which limit shall be increased by $225,000,000 on July 1, 1971, by $150,000,000 on July 1, 1972, by $400,000,000 on July 1, 1973, and by $965,000,000 on July 1, 1974", provision requiring the Secretary make available a total of at least $200,000,000 for modernization and financing of low-income housing projects under the additional authority to enter into contracts for annual contributions provided on Oct. 1, 1976, for provision which required the Secretary to enter into contracts for annual contributions of at least $150,000,000 to assist in financing the development or acquisition cost of low-income housing projects, inserted "and by not less than $17,000,000 per annum on October 1, 1976," after "not less than $15,000,000 per annum, on July 1, 1975", and struck out "to the amounts of contracts for annual contributions required to be entered into by the Secretary under the second sentence of this subsection" after "In addition".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by title V of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 1, 1999, except as otherwise provided, with provision that Secretary may implement amendment before such date, except to extent that such amendment provides otherwise, and with savings provision, see section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–330 effective Oct. 1, 1997, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 107 of Pub. L. 104–330, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4101 of Title 25, Indians.

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–19, title I, §1002(d), July 27, 1995, 109 Stat. 236, as amended by Pub. L. 104–134, title I, §101(e) [title II, §201(b)(1)], Apr. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 1321–257, 1321-278; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 104–140, §1(a), May 2, 1996, 110 Stat. 1327; Pub. L. 104–204, title II, §201(b), Sept. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 2892; Pub. L. 105–65, title II, §201(a), Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1364, provided that: Subsections (a), (b), and (c) [amending this section and sections 1437p and 1437aaa–3 of this title] shall be effective for applications for the demolition, disposition, or conversion to homeownership of public housing approved by the Secretary, and other consolidation and relocation activities of public housing agencies undertaken, on, before, or after September 30, 1995 and on or before September 30, 1998."

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by subtitles B through F of title VI [§§621–685] of Pub. L. 102–550 applicable upon expiration of 6-month period beginning Oct. 28, 1992, except as otherwise provided, see section 13642 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–625, title IV, §417(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4161, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall not apply to applications submitted under section 5(h) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [subsec. (h) of this section] prior to October 1, 1990."

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

For date on which Secretary of Housing and Urban Development may carry out programs to provide lower income housing on Indian reservations and other Indian areas only in accordance with amendment by Pub. L. 100–358, see section 6 of Pub. L. 100–358, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Effective Date of 1978 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–557, title II, §206(h), Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2093, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1437a, 1437f, and 1437g of this title], except the amendment made by subsection (d) [amending section 1437f of this title], shall become effective on October 1, 1978."

Effective Date of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–375, §2(b)(1), (2), Aug. 3, 1976, 90 Stat. 1067, provided that the amendment of subsec. (c), which required the Secretary to make available a total of $200,000,000 for modernization and financing of low-income housing and which struck out reference to the amount of contracts the Secretary was required to enter into under the second sentence of this subsection, is effective Oct. 1, 1976.

Effective Date

Section effective on such date or dates as the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall prescribe, but not later than eighteen months after Aug. 22, 1974, except that all of the provisions of this section shall become effective on the same date, see section 201(b) of Pub. L. 93–383, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §111(c), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3689, provided that: "The Secretary shall issue regulations necessary to carry out the amendments made by this section [amending this section and sections 1437l and 1437p of this title] as provided under section 191 of this Act [42 U.S.C. 1437a note]."

Inapplicability of Certain 1992 Amendments to Indian Public Housing

Amendment by section 624 of Pub. L. 102–550 not applicable with respect to lower income housing developed or operated pursuant to contract between Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and Indian housing authority, see section 626 of Pub. L. 102–550, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

Increase in Budget Authority for Certificate and Voucher Programs for Disaster Relief

Pub. L. 101–625, title IX, §931, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4403, as amended by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §550(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609, provided that: "The budget authority available under section 5(c) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437c(c)) for tenant-based assistance under section 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] is authorized to be increased in any fiscal year in which a major disaster is declared by the President under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.] in such amounts as may be necessary to provide assistance under such programs for individuals and families whose housing has been damaged or destroyed as a result of such disaster, except that in implementing this section, the Secretary shall evaluate the natural hazards to which any permanent replacement housing is exposed and shall take appropriate action to mitigate such hazards."

Increase in Budget Authority for Moderate Rehabilitation Program for Disaster Relief

Pub. L. 101–625, title IX, §932, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4403, provided that: "The budget authority available under section 5(c) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437c(c)) for assistance under the moderate rehabilitation program under section 8(e)(2) of such Act [42 U.S.C. 1437f(e)(2)] is authorized to be increased in any fiscal year in which a major disaster is declared by the President under the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.] in such amount as may be necessary to provide assistance under such program for individuals and families whose housing has been damaged or destroyed as a result of such disaster, except that in implementing this section, the Secretary shall evaluate the natural hazards to which any permanent replacement housing is exposed and shall take appropriate action to mitigate such hazards."

1 So in original.

§1437c–1. Public housing agency plans

(a) 5-year plan

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (3), not less than once every 5 fiscal years, each public housing agency shall submit to the Secretary a plan that includes, with respect to the 5 fiscal years immediately following the date on which the plan is submitted—

(A) a statement of the mission of the public housing agency for serving the needs of low-income and very low-income families in the jurisdiction of the public housing agency during such fiscal years; and

(B) a statement of the goals and objectives of the public housing agency that will enable the public housing agency to serve the needs identified pursuant to subparagraph (A) during those fiscal years.

(2) Statement of goals

The 5-year plan shall include a statement by any public housing agency of the goals, objectives, policies, or programs that will enable the housing authority to serve the needs of child and adult victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking.

(3) Initial plan

The initial 5-year plan submitted by a public housing agency under this subsection shall be submitted for the 5-year period beginning on October 1, 1999, or the first fiscal year thereafter for which the public housing agency initially receives assistance under this chapter.

(b) Annual plan

(1) In general

Effective beginning upon October 1, 1999, each public housing agency shall submit to the Secretary an annual public housing agency plan under this subsection for each fiscal year for which the public housing agency receives assistance under section 1437f(o) or 1437g of this title.

(2) Updates

For each fiscal year after the initial submission of an annual plan under this subsection by a public housing agency, the public housing agency may comply with requirements for submission of a plan under this subsection by submitting an update of the plan for the fiscal year.

(3) Exemption of certain PHAs from filing requirement

(A) In general

Notwithstanding paragraph (1) or any other provision of this chapter—

(i) the requirement under paragraph (1) shall not apply to any qualified public housing agency; and

(ii) except as provided in subsection (e)(4)(B), any reference in this section or any other provision of law to a "public housing agency" shall not be considered to refer to any qualified public housing agency, to the extent such reference applies to the requirement to submit an annual public housing agency plan under this subsection.

(B) Civil rights certification

Notwithstanding that qualified public housing agencies are exempt under subparagraph (A) from the requirement under this section to prepare and submit an annual public housing plan, each qualified public housing agency shall, on an annual basis, make the certification described in paragraph (16) of subsection (d), except that for purposes of such qualified public housing agencies, such paragraph shall be applied by substituting "the public housing program of the agency" for "the public housing agency plan".

(C) Definition

For purposes of this section, the term "qualified public housing agency" means a public housing agency that meets the following requirements:

(i) The sum of (I) the number of public housing dwelling units administered by the agency, and (II) the number of vouchers under section 1437f(o) of this title administered by the agency, is 550 or fewer.

(ii) The agency is not designated under section 1437d(j)(2) of this title as a troubled public housing agency, and does not have a failing score under the section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] Management Assessment Program during the prior 12 months.

(c) Procedures

(1) In general

The Secretary shall establish requirements and procedures for submission and review of plans, including requirements for timing and form of submission, and for the contents of such plans.

(2) Contents

The procedures established under paragraph (1) shall provide that a public housing agency shall—

(A) in developing the plan consult with the resident advisory board established under subsection (e); and

(B) ensure that the plan under this section is consistent with the applicable comprehensive housing affordability strategy (or any consolidated plan incorporating such strategy) for the jurisdiction in which the public housing agency is located, in accordance with title I of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12701 et seq.], and contains a certification by the appropriate State or local official that the plan meets the requirements of this paragraph and a description of the manner in which the applicable contents of the public housing agency plan are consistent with the comprehensive housing affordability strategy.

(d) Contents

An annual public housing agency plan under subsection (b) for a public housing agency shall contain the following information relating to the upcoming fiscal year for which the assistance under this chapter is to be made available:

(1) Needs

A statement of the housing needs of low-income and very low-income families residing in the jurisdiction served by the public housing agency, and of other low-income and very low-income families on the waiting list of the agency (including housing needs of elderly families and disabled families), and the means by which the public housing agency intends, to the maximum extent practicable, to address those needs.

(2) Financial resources

A statement of financial resources available to the agency and the planned uses of those resources.

(3) Eligibility, selection, and admissions policies

A statement of the policies governing eligibility, selection, admissions (including any preferences), assignment, and occupancy of families with respect to public housing dwelling units and housing assistance under section 1437f(o) of this title, including—

(A) the procedures for maintaining waiting lists for admissions to public housing projects of the agency, which may include a system of site-based waiting lists under section 1437d(r) of this title; and

(B) the admissions policy under section 1437n(a)(3)(B) of this title for deconcentration of lower-income families.

(4) Rent determination

A statement of the policies of the public housing agency governing rents charged for public housing dwelling units and rental contributions of families assisted under section 1437f(o) of this title.

(5) Operation and management

A statement of the rules, standards, and policies of the public housing agency governing maintenance and management of housing owned, assisted, or operated by the public housing agency (which shall include measures necessary for the prevention or eradication of pest infestation, including by cockroaches), and management of the public housing agency and programs of the public housing agency.

(6) Grievance procedure

A statement of the grievance procedures of the public housing agency.

(7) Capital improvements

With respect to public housing projects owned, assisted, or operated by the public housing agency, a plan describing the capital improvements necessary to ensure long-term physical and social viability of the projects.

(8) Demolition and disposition

With respect to public housing projects owned by the public housing agency—

(A) a description of any housing for which the PHA will apply for demolition or disposition under section 1437p of this title; and

(B) a timetable for the demolition or disposition.

(9) Designation of housing for elderly and disabled families

With respect to public housing projects owned, assisted, or operated by the public housing agency, a description of any projects (or portions thereof) that the public housing agency has designated or will apply for designation for occupancy by elderly and disabled families in accordance with section 1437e of this title.

(10) Conversion of public housing

With respect to public housing owned by a public housing agency—

(A) a description of any building or buildings that the public housing agency is required to convert to tenant-based assistance under section 1437z–5 of this title or that the public housing agency plans to voluntarily convert under section 1437t of this title;

(B) an analysis of the projects or buildings required to be converted under section 1437z–5 of this title; and

(C) a statement of the amount of assistance received under this chapter to be used for rental assistance or other housing assistance in connection with such conversion.

(11) Homeownership

A description of any homeownership programs of the agency under section 1437f(y) of this title or for which the public housing agency has applied or will apply for approval under section 1437z–4 of this title.

(12) Community service and self-sufficiency

A description of—

(A) any programs relating to services and amenities provided or offered to assisted families;

(B) any policies or programs of the public housing agency for the enhancement of the economic and social self-sufficiency of assisted families;

(C) how the public housing agency will comply with the requirements of subsections (c) and (d) of section 1437j of this title (relating to community service and treatment of income changes resulting from welfare program requirements).

(13) Domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking programs

A description of—

(A) any activities, services, or programs provided or offered by an agency, either directly or in partnership with other service providers, to child or adult victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking;

(B) any activities, services, or programs provided or offered by a public housing agency that helps child and adult victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, or stalking, to obtain or maintain housing; and

(C) any activities, services, or programs provided or offered by a public housing agency to prevent domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking, or to enhance victim safety in assisted families.

(14) Safety and crime prevention

A plan established by the public housing agency, which shall be subject to the following requirements:

(A) Safety measures

The plan shall provide, on a project-by-project or jurisdiction-wide basis, for measures to ensure the safety of public housing residents.

(B) Establishment

The plan shall be established in consultation with the police officer or officers in command for the appropriate precinct or police department.

(C) Content

The plan shall describe the need for measures to ensure the safety of public housing residents and for crime prevention measures, describe any such activities conducted or to be conducted by the agency, and provide for coordination between the agency and the appropriate police precincts for carrying out such measures and activities.

(D) Secretarial action

If the Secretary determines, at any time, that the security needs of a project are not being adequately addressed by the plan, or that the local police precinct is not complying with the plan, the Secretary may mediate between the public housing agency and the local precinct to resolve any issues of conflict.

(15) Pets

The requirements of the agency, pursuant to section 1437z–3 of this title, relating to pet ownership in public housing.

(16) Civil rights certification

A certification by the public housing agency that the public housing agency will carry out the public housing agency plan in conformity with title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.], the Fair Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.], section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 [29 U.S.C. 794], and title II of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12131 et seq.], and will affirmatively further fair housing.

(17) Annual audit

The results of the most recent fiscal year audit of the public housing agency under section 1437c(h)(2) of this title.

(18) Asset management

A statement of how the agency will carry out its asset management functions with respect to the public housing inventory of the agency, including how the agency will plan for the long-term operating, capital investment, rehabilitation, modernization, disposition, and other needs for such inventory.

(19) Other

Any other information required by law to be included in a public housing agency plan.

(e) Resident advisory board

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (3), each public housing agency shall establish 1 or more resident advisory boards in accordance with this subsection, the membership of which shall adequately reflect and represent the residents assisted by the public housing agency.

(2) Functions

Each resident advisory board established under this subsection by a public housing agency shall assist and make recommendations regarding the development of the public housing agency plan for the agency. The agency shall consider the recommendations of the resident advisory boards in preparing the final public housing agency plan, and shall include, in the public housing agency plan submitted to the Secretary under this section, a copy of the recommendations and a description of the manner in which the recommendations were addressed.

(3) Waiver

The Secretary may waive the requirements of this subsection with respect to the establishment of resident advisory boards for a public housing agency if the agency demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that there exist resident councils or other resident organizations of the public housing agency that—

(A) adequately represent the interests of the residents of the public housing agency; and

(B) have the ability to perform the functions described in paragraph (2).

(4) Qualified public housing agencies

(A) In general

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), nothing in this section may be construed to exempt a qualified public housing agency from the requirement under paragraph (1) to establish 1 or more resident advisory boards. Notwithstanding that qualified public housing agencies are exempt under subsection (b)(3)(A) from the requirement under this section to prepare and submit an annual public housing plan, each qualified public housing agency shall consult with, and consider the recommendations of the resident advisory boards for the agency, at the annual public hearing required under subsection (f)(5), regarding any changes to the goals, objectives, and policies of that agency.

(B) Applicability of waiver authority

Paragraph (3) shall apply to qualified public housing agencies, except that for purposes of such qualified public housing agencies, subparagraph (B) of such paragraph shall be applied by substituting "the functions described in the second sentence of paragraph (4)(A)" for "the functions described in paragraph (2)".

(f) Public hearings

(1) In general

In developing a public housing agency plan under this section, the board of directors or similar governing body of a public housing agency shall conduct a public hearing to discuss the public housing agency plan and to invite public comment regarding that plan. The hearing shall be conducted at a location that is convenient to residents.

(2) Availability of information and notice

Not later than 45 days before the date of a hearing conducted under paragraph (1), the public housing agency shall—

(A) make the proposed public housing agency plan and all information relevant to the hearing and proposed plan available for inspection by the public at the principal office of the public housing agency during normal business hours; and

(B) publish a notice informing the public that—

(i) that 1 the information is available as required under subparagraph (A); and

(ii) that 1 a public hearing under paragraph (1) will be conducted.

(3) Adoption of plan

A public housing agency may adopt a public housing agency plan and submit the plan to the Secretary in accordance with this section only after—

(A) conducting a public hearing under paragraph (1);

(B) considering all public comments received; and

(C) making any appropriate changes in the public housing agency plan, in consultation with the resident advisory board.

(4) Advisory board consultation enforcement

Pursuant to a written request made by the resident advisory board for a public housing agency that documents a failure on the part of the agency to provide adequate notice and opportunity for comment under this subsection and a finding by the Secretary of good cause within the time period provided for in subsection (i)(4), the Secretary may require the public housing agency to adequately remedy such failure before final approval of the public housing agency plan under this section.

(5) Qualified public housing agencies

(A) Requirement

Notwithstanding that qualified public housing agencies are exempt under subsection (b)(3)(A) from the requirement under this section to conduct a public hearing regarding the annual public housing plan of the agency, each qualified public housing agency shall annually conduct a public hearing—

(i) to discuss any changes to the goals, objectives, and policies of the agency; and

(ii) to invite public comment regarding such changes.

(B) Availability of information and notice

Not later than 45 days before the date of any hearing described in subparagraph (A), a qualified public housing agency shall—

(i) make all information relevant to the hearing and any determinations of the agency regarding changes to the goals, objectives, and policies of the agency to be considered at the hearing available for inspection by the public at the principal office of the public housing agency during normal business hours; and

(ii) publish a notice informing the public that—

(I) the information is available as required under clause (i); and

(II) a public hearing under subparagraph (A) will be conducted.

(g) Amendments and modifications to plans

(1) In general

Except as provided in paragraph (2), nothing in this section shall preclude a public housing agency, after submitting a plan to the Secretary in accordance with this section, from amending or modifying any policy, rule, regulation, or plan of the public housing agency, except that a significant amendment or modification may not—

(A) be adopted, other than at a duly called meeting of board of directors (or similar governing body) of the public housing agency that is open to the public; and

(B) be implemented, until notification of the amendment or modification is provided to the Secretary and approved in accordance with subsection (i).

(2) Consistency and notice

Each significant amendment or modification to a public housing agency plan submitted to the Secretary under this section shall—

(A) meet the requirements under subsection (c)(2) (relating to consultation with resident advisory board and consistency with comprehensive housing affordability strategies); and

(B) be subject to the notice and public hearing requirements of subsection (f).

(h) Submission of plans

(1) Initial submission

Each public housing agency shall submit the initial plan required by this section, and any amendment or modification to the initial plan, to the Secretary at such time and in such form as the Secretary shall require.

(2) Annual submission

Not later than 75 days before the start of the fiscal year of the public housing agency, after submission of the initial plan required by this section in accordance with subparagraph (A), each public housing agency shall annually submit to the Secretary a plan update, including any amendments or modifications to the public housing agency plan.

(i) Review and determination of compliance

(1) Review

Subject to paragraph (2), after submission of the public housing agency plan or any amendment or modification to the plan to the Secretary, to the extent that the Secretary considers such action to be necessary to make determinations under this paragraph, the Secretary shall review the public housing agency plan (including any amendments or modifications thereto) and determine whether the contents of the plan—

(A) set forth the information required by this section and this chapter to be contained in a public housing agency plan;

(B) are consistent with information and data available to the Secretary, including the approved comprehensive housing affordability strategy under title I of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12701 et seq.] for the jurisdiction in which the public housing agency is located; and

(C) are not prohibited by or inconsistent with any provision of this subchapter or other applicable law.

(2) Elements exempted from review

The Secretary may, by regulation, provide that one or more elements of a public housing agency plan shall be reviewed only if the element is challenged, except that the Secretary shall review the information submitted in each plan pursuant to paragraphs (3)(B), (8), and (15) of subsection (d).

(3) Disapproval

The Secretary may disapprove a public housing agency plan (or any amendment or modification thereto) only if Secretary determines that the contents of the plan (or amendment or modification) do not comply with the requirements under subparagraph (A) through (C) of paragraph (1).

(4) Determination of compliance

(A) In general

Except as provided in subsection (j)(2), not later than 75 days after the date on which a public housing agency plan is submitted in accordance with this section, the Secretary shall make the determination under paragraph (1) and provide written notice to the public housing agency if the plan has been disapproved. If the Secretary disapproves the plan, the notice shall state with specificity the reasons for the disapproval.

(B) Failure to provide notice of disapproval

In the case of a plan disapproved, if the Secretary does not provide notice of disapproval under subparagraph (A) before the expiration of the period described in subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall be considered, for purposes of this chapter, to have made a determination that the plan complies with the requirements under this section and the agency shall be considered to have been notified of compliance upon the expiration of such period. The preceding sentence shall not preclude judicial review regarding such compliance pursuant to chapter 7 of title 5 or an action regarding such compliance under section 1983 of this title.

(5) Public availability

A public housing agency shall make the approved plan of the agency available to the general public.

(j) Troubled and at-risk PHAs

(1) In general

The Secretary may require, for each public housing agency that is at risk of being designated as troubled under section 1437d(j)(2) of this title or is designated as troubled under section 1437d(j)(2) of this title, that the public housing agency plan for such agency include such additional information as the Secretary determines to be appropriate, in accordance with such standards as the Secretary may establish or in accordance with such determinations as the Secretary may make on an agency-by-agency basis.

(2) Troubled agencies

The Secretary shall provide explicit written approval or disapproval, in a timely manner, for a public housing agency plan submitted by any public housing agency designated by the Secretary as a troubled public housing agency under section 1437d(j)(2) of this title.

(k) Streamlined plan

In carrying out this section, the Secretary may establish a streamlined public housing agency plan for—

(A) public housing agencies that are determined by the Secretary to be high performing public housing agencies;

(B) public housing agencies with less than 250 public housing units that have not been designated as troubled under section 1437d(j)(2) of this title; and

(C) public housing agencies that only administer tenant-based assistance and that do not own or operate public housing.

(l) Compliance with plan

(1) In general

In providing assistance under this subchapter, a public housing agency shall comply with the rules, standards, and policies established in the public housing agency plan of the public housing agency approved under this section.

(2) Investigation and enforcement

In carrying out this subchapter, the Secretary shall—

(A) provide an appropriate response to any complaint concerning noncompliance by a public housing agency with the applicable public housing agency plan; and

(B) if the Secretary determines, based on a finding of the Secretary or other information available to the Secretary, that a public housing agency is not complying with the applicable public housing agency plan, take such actions as the Secretary determines to be appropriate to ensure such compliance.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §5A, as added Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §511(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2531; amended Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §603, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3040; Pub. L. 110–289, div. B, title VII, §2702, July 30, 2008, 122 Stat. 2863.)

References in Text

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in subsecs. (c)(2)(B) and (i)(1)(B), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079. Title I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§12701 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title and Tables.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (d)(16), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

The Fair Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (d)(16), is title VIII of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 81, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§3601 et seq.) of chapter 45 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (d)(16), is Pub. L. 101–336, July 26, 1990, 104 Stat. 327. Title II of the Act is classified generally to subchapter II (§12131 et seq.) of chapter 126 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12101 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 110–289, §2702(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 110–289, §2702(b)(1), added par. (4).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–289, §2702(b)(1), inserted subsec. designation and heading.

Subsec. (f)(5). Pub. L. 110–289, §2702(b)(2), added par. (5).

2006—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 109–162, §603(1)(A), substituted "paragraph (3)" for "paragraph (2)".

Subsec. (a)(2), (3). Pub. L. 109–162, §603(1)(B), (C), added par. (2) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Subsec. (d)(13) to (19). Pub. L. 109–162, §603(2), (3), added par. (13) and redesignated former pars. (13) to (18) as (14) to (19), respectively.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §511(e), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2539, provided that: "This section [enacting this section, amending section 1437d of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect, and the amendments made by this section are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Regulations

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §511(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2538, provided that:

"(1) Interim rule.—Not later than 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], the Secretary shall issue an interim rule to require the submission of an interim public housing agency plan by each public housing agency, as required by section 5A of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437c–1] (as added by subsection (a) of this section). The interim rule shall provide for a public comment period of not less than 60 days.

"(2) Final regulations.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], the Secretary shall issue final regulations implementing section 5A of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437c–1] (as added by subsection (a) of this section).

"(3) Factors for consideration.—Before the publication of the final regulations under paragraph (2), in addition to public comments invited in connection with the publication of the interim rule, the Secretary shall—

"(A) seek recommendations on the implementation of section 5A of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437c–1] (as added by this [sic] subsection (a) of this section) from organizations representing—

"(i) State or local public housing agencies;

"(ii) residents, including resident management corporations; and

"(iii) other appropriate parties; and

"(B) convene not less than 2 public forums at which the persons or organizations making recommendations under subparagraph (A) may express views concerning the proposed disposition of the recommendations.

The Secretary shall publish in the final rule a summary of the recommendations made and public comments received and the Department of Housing and Urban Development's response to such recommendations and comments."

Audit and Review; Report

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §511(c), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2538, provided that:

"(1) Audit and review.—Not later than 1 year after the effective date of final regulations issued under subsection (b)(2) [set out as a note above], in order to determine the degree of compliance, by public housing agencies, with public housing agency plans approved under section 5A of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437c–1] (as added by subsection (a) of this section), the Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct—

"(A) a review of a representative sample of the public housing agency plans approved under such section 5A before such date; and

"(B) an audit and review of the public housing agencies submitting such plans.

"(2) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date on which public housing agency plans are initially required to be submitted under section 5A of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437c–1] (as added by subsection (a) of this section) the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to the Congress a report, which shall include—

"(A) a description of the results of each audit and review under paragraph (1); and

"(B) any recommendations for increasing compliance by public housing agencies with their public housing agency plans approved under section 5A of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (as added by subsection (a) of this section)."

1 So in original. The word "that" probably should not appear.

§1437d. Contract provisions and requirements; loans and annual contributions

(a) Conditions; elevators

The Secretary may include in any contract for loans, contributions, sale, lease, mortgage, or any other agreement or instrument made pursuant to this chapter, such covenants, conditions, or provisions as he may deem necessary in order to insure the lower income character of the project involved, in a manner consistent with the public housing agency plan. Any such contract shall require that, except in the case of housing predominantly for elderly or disabled families, high-rise elevator projects shall not be provided for families with children unless the Secretary makes a determination that there is no practical alternative.

(b) Limitation on development costs

(1) Each contract for loans (other than preliminary loans) or contributions for the development, acquisition, or operation of public housing shall provide that the total development cost of the project on which the computation of any annual contributions under this chapter may be based may not exceed the amount determined under paragraph (2) (for the appropriate structure type) unless the Secretary provides otherwise, and in any case may not exceed 110 per centum of such amount unless the Secretary for good cause determines otherwise.

(2) For purposes of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall determine the total development cost by multiplying the construction cost guideline for the project (which shall be determined by averaging the current construction costs, as listed by not less than 2 nationally recognized residential construction cost indices, for publicly bid construction of a good and sound quality) by—

(A) in the case of elevator type structures, 1.6; and

(B) in the case of nonelevator type structures, 1.75.


(3) In calculating the total development cost of a project under paragraph (2), the Secretary shall consider only capital assistance provided by the Secretary to a public housing agency that are 1 authorized for use in connection with the development of public housing, and shall exclude all other amounts, including amounts provided under—

(A) the HOME investment partnerships program authorized under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.]; or

(B) the community development block grants program under title I of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1974 [42 U.S.C. 5301 et seq.].


(4) The Secretary may restrict the amount of capital funds that a public housing agency may use to pay for housing construction costs. For purposes of this paragraph, housing construction costs include the actual hard costs for the construction of units, builders' overhead and profit, utilities from the street, and finish landscaping.

(c) Revision of maximum income limits; certification of compliance with requirements; notification of eligibility; informal hearing; compliance with procedures for sound management

Every contract for contributions shall provide that—

(1) the Secretary may require the public housing agency to review and revise its maximum income limits if the Secretary determines that changed conditions in the locality make such revision necessary in achieving the purposes of this chapter;

(2) the public housing agency shall determine, and so certify to the Secretary, that each family in the project was admitted in accordance with duly adopted regulations and approved income limits; and the public housing agency shall review the incomes of families living in the project no less frequently than annually;

(3) the public housing agency shall promptly notify (i) any applicant determined to be ineligible for admission to the project of the basis for such determination and provide the applicant upon request, within a reasonable time after the determination is made, with an opportunity for an informal hearing on such determination, and (ii) any applicant determined to be eligible for admission to the project of the approximate date of occupancy insofar as such date can be reasonably determined; and

(4) the public housing agency shall comply with such procedures and requirements as the Secretary may prescribe to assure that sound management practices will be followed in the operation of the project, including requirements pertaining to—

(A) making dwelling units in public housing available for occupancy, which shall provide that the public housing agency may establish a system for making dwelling units available that provides preference for such occupancy to families having certain characteristics; each system of preferences established pursuant to this subparagraph shall be based upon local housing needs and priorities, as determined by the public housing agency using generally accepted data sources, including any information obtained pursuant to an opportunity for public comment as provided under section 1437c–1(f) of this title and under the requirements applicable to the comprehensive housing affordability strategy for the relevant jurisdiction;

(B) the establishment of satisfactory procedures designed to assure the prompt payment and collection of rents and the prompt processing of evictions in the case of nonpayment of rent;

(C) the establishment of effective tenant-management relationships designed to assure that satisfactory standards of tenant security and project maintenance are formulated and that the public housing agency (together with tenant councils where they exist) enforces those standards fully and effectively;

(D) the development by local housing authority managements of viable homeownership opportunity programs for low-income families capable of assuming the responsibilities of homeownership;

(E) for each agency that receives assistance under this subchapter, the establishment and maintenance of a system of accounting for rental collections and costs (including administrative, utility, maintenance, repair and other operating costs) for each project or operating cost center (as determined by the Secretary), which collections and costs shall be made available to the general public and submitted to the appropriate local public official (as determined by the Secretary); except that the Secretary may permit agencies owning or operating less than 500 units to comply with the requirements of this subparagraph by accounting on an agency-wide basis; and

(F) requiring the public housing agency to ensure and maintain compliance with subtitle C of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13601 et seq.] and any regulations issued under such subtitle.

(d) Exemption from personal and real property taxes; payments in lieu of taxes; cash contribution or tax remission

Every contract for contributions with respect to a low-income housing project shall provide that no contributions by the Secretary shall be made available for such project unless such project (exclusive of any portion thereof which is not assisted by contributions under this chapter) is exempt from all real and personal property taxes levied or imposed by the State, city, county, or other political subdivision; and such contract shall require the public housing agency to make payments in lieu of taxes equal to 10 per centum of the sum of the shelter rents charged in such project, or such lesser amount as (i) is prescribed by State law, or (ii) is agreed to by the local governing body in its agreement for local cooperation with the public housing agency required under section 1437c(e)(2) of this title, or (iii) is due to failure of a local public body or bodies other than the public housing agency to perform any obligation under such agreement. If any such project is not exempt from all real and personal property taxes levied or imposed by the State, city, county, or other political subdivision, such contract shall provide, in lieu of the requirement for tax exemption and payments in lieu of taxes, that no contributions by the Secretary shall be made available for such project unless and until the State, city, county, or other political subdivision in which such project is situated shall contribute, in the form of cash or tax remission, the amount by which the taxes paid with respect to the project exceed 10 per centum of the shelter rents charged in such project.

(e) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §529(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2569

(f) Housing quality requirements

(1) In general

Each contract for contributions for a public housing agency shall require that the agency maintain its public housing in a condition that complies with standards which meet or exceed the housing quality standards established under paragraph (2).

(2) Federal standards

The Secretary shall establish housing quality standards under this paragraph that ensure that public housing dwelling units are safe and habitable. Such standards shall include requirements relating to habitability, including maintenance, health and sanitation factors, condition, and construction of dwellings, and shall, to the greatest extent practicable, be consistent with the standards established under section 1437f(o)(8)(B)(i) of this title. The Secretary may determine whether the laws, regulations, standards, or codes of any State or local jurisdiction meet or exceed these standards, for purposes of this subsection.

(3) Annual inspections

Each public housing agency that owns or operates public housing shall make an annual inspection of each public housing project to determine whether units in the project are maintained in accordance with the requirements under paragraph (1). The agency shall retain the results of such inspections and, upon the request of the Secretary, the Inspector General for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, or any auditor conducting an audit under section 1437c(h) of this title, shall make such results available.

(g) Substantial default; conveyance of title and delivery of possession; reconveyance and redelivery; payments for outstanding obligations

Every contract for contributions (including contracts which amend or supersede contracts previously made) may provide that—

(1) upon the occurrence of a substantial default in respect to the covenants or conditions to which the public housing agency is subject (as such substantial default shall be defined in such contract), the public housing agency shall be obligated at the option of the Secretary either to convey title in any case where, in the determination of the Secretary (which determination shall be final and conclusive), such conveyance of title is necessary to achieve the purposes of this chapter, or to deliver to the Secretary possession of the project, as then constituted, to which such contract relates; and

(2) the Secretary shall be obligated to reconvey or redeliver possession of the project as constituted at the time of reconveyance or redelivery, to such public housing agency or to its successor (if such public housing agency or a successor exists) upon such terms as shall be prescribed in such contract, and as soon as practicable (i) after the Secretary is satisfied that all defaults with respect to the project have been cured, and that the project will, in order to fulfill the purposes of this chapter, thereafter be operated in accordance with the terms of such contract; or (ii) after the termination of the obligation to make annual contributions available unless there are any obligations or covenants of the public housing agency to the Secretary which are then in default. Any prior conveyances and reconveyances or deliveries and redeliveries of possession shall not exhaust the right to require a conveyance or delivery of possession of the project to the Secretary pursuant to subparagraph (1) upon the subsequent occurrence of a substantial default.


Whenever such a contract for annual contributions includes provisions which the Secretary in such contract determines are in accordance with this subsection, and the portion of the annual contribution payable for debt service requirements pursuant to such contract has been pledged by the public housing agency as security for the payment of the principal and interest on any of its obligations, the Secretary (notwithstanding any other provisions of this chapter) shall continue to make such annual contributions available for the project so long as any of such obligations remain outstanding, and may covenant in such contract that in any event such annual contributions shall in each year be at least equal to an amount which, together with such income or other funds as are actually available from the project for the purpose at the time such annual contribution is made, will suffice for the payment of all installments, falling due within the next succeeding twelve months, of principal and interest on the obligations for which the annual contributions provided for in the contract shall have been pledged as security. In no case shall such annual contributions be in excess of the maximum sum specified in the contract involved, nor for longer than the remainder of the maximum period fixed by the contract.

(h) New construction contracts

On or after October 1, 1983, the Secretary may enter into a contract involving new construction only if the public housing agency demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Secretary that the cost of new construction in the neighborhood where the public housing agency determines the housing is needed is less than the cost of acquisition or acquisition and rehabilitation in such neighborhood, including any reserve fund under subsection (i), would be.

(i) Reserve fund; major repairs

The Secretary may, upon application by a public housing agency in connection with the acquisition of housing for use as public housing, establish and set aside a reserve fund in an amount not to exceed 30 per centum of the acquisition cost which shall be available for use for major repairs to such housing.

(j) Performance indicators for public housing agencies

(1) The Secretary shall develop and publish in the Federal Register indicators to assess the management performance of public housing agencies and resident management corporations. The indicators shall be established by rule under section 553 of title 5. Such indicators shall enable the Secretary to evaluate the performance of public housing agencies and resident management corporations in all major areas of management operations. The Secretary shall, in particular, use the following indicators for public housing agencies, to the extent practicable:

(A) The number and percentage of vacancies within an agency's inventory, including the progress that an agency has made within the previous 3 years to reduce such vacancies.

(B) The amount and percentage of funds provided to the public housing agency from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title which remain unobligated by the public housing agency after 3 years.

(C) The percentage of rents uncollected.

(D) The utility consumption (with appropriate adjustments to reflect different regions and unit sizes).

(E) The average period of time that an agency requires to repair and turn-around vacant units.

(F) The proportion of maintenance work orders outstanding, including any progress that an agency has made during the preceding 3 years to reduce the period of time required to complete maintenance work orders.

(G) The percentage of units that an agency fails to inspect to ascertain maintenance or modernization needs within such period of time as the Secretary deems appropriate (with appropriate adjustments, if any, for large and small agencies).

(H) The extent to which the public housing agency—

(i) coordinates, promotes, or provides effective programs and activities to promote the economic self-sufficiency of public housing residents; and

(ii) provides public housing residents with opportunities for involvement in the administration of the public housing.


(I) 2 The extent to which the public housing agency—

(i) implements effective screening and eviction policies and other anticrime strategies; and

(ii) coordinates with local government officials and residents in the project and implementation of such strategies.


(J) The extent to which the public housing agency is providing acceptable basic housing conditions.

(K) Any other factors as the Secretary deems appropriate which shall not exceed the seven factors in the statute, plus an additional five.

(I) 3 The Secretary shall:

(1) administer the system of evaluating public housing agencies flexibly to ensure that such agencies are not penalized as result of circumstances beyond their control;

(2) reflect in the weights assigned to the various indicators the differences in the difficulty of managing individual projects that result from their physical condition and their neighborhood environment; and

(3) determine a public housing agency's status as "troubled with respect to the program under section 1437l 4 of this title" based upon factors solely related to its ability to carry out that program.


(2)(A)(i) The Secretary shall, under the rulemaking procedures under section 553 of title 5, establish procedures for designating troubled public housing agencies, which procedures shall include identification of serious and substantial failure to perform as measured by the performance indicators specified under paragraph (1) and such other factors as the Secretary may deem to be appropriate. Such procedures shall provide that an agency that fails on a widespread basis to provide acceptable basic housing conditions for its residents shall be designated as a troubled public housing agency. The Secretary may use a simplified set of indicators for public housing agencies with less than 250 public housing units. The Secretary shall also designate, by rule under section 553 of title 5, agencies that are troubled with respect to the program for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title.

(ii) The Secretary may also, in consultation with national organizations representing public housing agencies and public officials (as the Secretary determines appropriate), identify and commend public housing agencies that meet the performance standards established under paragraph (1) in an exemplary manner.

(iii) The Secretary shall establish procedures for public housing agencies to appeal designation as a troubled agency (including designation as a troubled agency for purposes of the program for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title), to petition for removal of such designation, and to appeal any refusal to remove such designation.

(B)(i) Upon designating a public housing agency with more than 250 units as troubled pursuant to subparagraph (A) and determining that an assessment under this subparagraph will not duplicate any comparable and recent review, the Secretary shall provide for an on-site, independent assessment of the management of the agency.

(ii) To the extent the Secretary deems appropriate (taking into account an agency's performance under the indicators specified under paragraph (1)), the assessment team shall also consider issues relating to the agency's resident population and physical inventory, including the extent to which (I) the agency's comprehensive plan prepared pursuant to section 1437l 4 of this title adequately and appropriately addresses the rehabilitation needs of the agency's inventory, (II) residents of the agency are involved in and informed of significant management decisions, and (III) any projects in the agency's inventory are severely distressed and eligible for assistance pursuant to section 1437v of this title.

(iii) An independent assessment under this subparagraph shall be carried out by a team of knowledgeable individuals selected by the Secretary (referred to in this section as the "assessment team") with expertise in public housing and real estate management. In conducting an assessment, the assessment team shall consult with the residents and with public and private entities in the jurisdiction in which the public housing is located. The assessment team shall provide to the Secretary and the public housing agency a written report, which shall contain, at a minimum, recommendations for such management improvements as are necessary to eliminate or substantially remedy existing deficiencies.

(C) The Secretary shall seek to enter into an agreement with each troubled public housing agency, after reviewing the report submitted pursuant to subparagraph (B) (if applicable) and consulting with the agency's assessment team. Such agreement shall set forth—

(i) targets for improving performance as measured by the performance indicators specified under paragraph (1) and other requirements within a specified period of time;

(ii) strategies for meeting such targets, including a description of the technical assistance that the Secretary will make available to the agency; and

(iii) incentives or sanctions for effective implementation of such strategies, which may include any constraints on the use of funds that the Secretary determines are appropriate.


To the extent the Secretary deems appropriate (taking into account an agency's performance under the indicators specified under paragraph (1)), such agreement shall also set forth a plan for enhancing resident involvement in the management of the public housing agency. The Secretary and the public housing agency shall, to the maximum extent practicable, seek the assistance of local public and private entities in carrying out the agreement.

(D) The Secretary shall apply the provisions of this paragraph to resident management corporations as well as public housing agencies.

(3)(A) Notwithstanding any other provision of law or of any contract for contributions, upon the occurrence of events or conditions that constitute a substantial default by a public housing agency with respect to the covenants or conditions to which the public housing agency is subject or an agreement entered into under paragraph (2), the Secretary may—

(i) solicit competitive proposals from other public housing agencies and private housing management agents which (I) in the discretion of the Secretary, may be selected by existing public housing residents through administrative procedures established by the Secretary, and (II) if appropriate, shall provide for such agents to manage all, or part, of the housing administered by the public housing agency or all or part of the other programs of the agency;

(ii) petition for the appointment of a receiver (which may be another public housing agency or a private management corporation) of the public housing agency to any district court of the United States or to any court of the State in which the real property of the public housing agency is situated, that is authorized to appoint a receiver for the purposes and having the powers prescribed in this subsection;

(iii) solicit competitive proposals from other public housing agencies and private entities with experience in construction management in the eventuality that such agencies or firms may be needed to oversee implementation of assistance made available from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title for the housing; and 5

(iv) take possession of all or part of the public housing agency, including all or part of any project or program of the agency, including any project or program under any other provision of this subchapter; and

(v) require the agency to make other arrangements acceptable to the Secretary and in the best interests of the public housing residents and families assisted under section 1437f of this title for managing all, or part, of the public housing administered by the agency or of the programs of the agency.


Residents of a public housing agency designated as troubled pursuant to paragraph (2)(A) may petition the Secretary in writing to take 1 or more of the actions referred to in this subparagraph. The Secretary shall respond to such petitions in a timely manner with a written description of the actions, if any, the Secretary plans to take and, where applicable, the reasons why such actions differ from the course proposed by the residents.

(B)(i) If a public housing agency is identified as troubled under this subsection, the Secretary shall notify the agency of the troubled status of the agency.

(ii)(I) Upon the expiration of the 1-year period beginning on the later of the date on which the agency receives initial notice from the Secretary of the troubled status of the agency under clause (i) and October 21, 1998, the agency shall improve its performance, as measured by the performance indicators established pursuant to paragraph (1), by at least 50 percent of the difference between the most recent performance measurement and the measurement necessary to remove that agency's designation as troubled.

(II) Upon the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the later of the date on which the agency receives initial notice from the Secretary of the troubled status of the agency under clause (i) and October 21, 1998, the agency shall improve its performance, as measured by the performance indicators established pursuant to paragraph (1), such that the agency is no longer designated as troubled.

(III) In the event that a public housing agency designated as troubled under this subsection fails to comply with the requirements set forth in subclause (I) or (II), the Secretary shall—

(aa) in the case of a troubled public housing agency with 1,250 or more units, petition for the appointment of a receiver pursuant to subparagraph (A)(ii); or

(bb) in the case of a troubled public housing agency with fewer than 1,250 units, either petition for the appointment of a receiver pursuant to subparagraph (A)(ii), or take possession of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency) pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iv) and appoint, on a competitive or noncompetitive basis, an individual or entity as an administrative receiver to assume the responsibilities of the Secretary for the administration of all or part of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency).


This subparagraph shall not be construed to limit the courses of action available to the Secretary under subparagraph (A).

(IV) During the period between the date on which a petition is filed under subclause (III)(aa) and the date on which a receiver assumes responsibility for the management of the public housing agency under such subclause, the Secretary may take possession of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency) pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iv) and may appoint, on a competitive or noncompetitive basis, an individual or entity as an administrative receiver to assume the responsibilities of the Secretary for the administration of all or part of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency).

(C) If a receiver is appointed pursuant to subparagraph (A)(ii), in addition to the powers accorded by the court appointing the receiver, the receiver—

(i) may abrogate any contract to which the United States or an agency of the United States is not a party that, in the receiver's written determination (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default, but only after the receiver determines that reasonable efforts to renegotiate such contract have failed;

(ii) may demolish and dispose of all or part of the assets of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project of the agency) in accordance with section 1437p of this title, including disposition by transfer of properties to resident-supported nonprofit entities;

(iii) if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, may seek the establishment, as permitted by applicable State and local law, of 1 or more new public housing agencies;

(iv) if determined to be appropriate by the Secretary, may seek consolidation of all or part of the agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), as permitted by applicable State and local laws, into other well-managed public housing agencies with the consent of such well-managed agencies; and

(v) shall not be required to comply with any State or local law relating to civil service requirements, employee rights (except civil rights), procurement, or financial or administrative controls that, in the receiver's written determination (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default.


(D)(i) If, pursuant to subparagraph (A)(iv), the Secretary takes possession of all or part of the public housing agency, including all or part of any project or program of the agency, the Secretary—

(I) may abrogate any contract to which the United States or an agency of the United States is not a party that, in the written determination of the Secretary (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default, but only after the Secretary determines that reasonable efforts to renegotiate such contract have failed;

(II) may demolish and dispose of all or part of the assets of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project of the agency) in accordance with section 1437p of this title, including disposition by transfer of properties to resident-supported nonprofit entities;

(III) may seek the establishment, as permitted by applicable State and local law, of 1 or more new public housing agencies;

(IV) may seek consolidation of all or part of the agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), as permitted by applicable State and local laws, into other well-managed public housing agencies with the consent of such well-managed agencies;

(V) shall not be required to comply with any State or local law relating to civil service requirements, employee rights (except civil rights), procurement, or financial or administrative controls that, in the Secretary's written determination (which shall include the basis for such determination), substantially impedes correction of the substantial default; and

(VI) shall, without any action by a district court of the United States, have such additional authority as a district court of the United States would have the authority to confer upon a receiver to achieve the purposes of the receivership.


(ii) If, pursuant to subparagraph (B)(ii)(III)(bb), the Secretary appoints an administrative receiver to assume the responsibilities of the Secretary for the administration of all or part of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), the Secretary may delegate to the administrative receiver any or all of the powers given the Secretary by this subparagraph, as the Secretary determines to be appropriate and subject to clause (iii).

(iii) An administrative receiver may not take an action described in subclause (III) or (IV) of clause (i) unless the Secretary first approves an application by the administrative receiver to authorize such action.

(E) The Secretary may make available to receivers and other entities selected or appointed pursuant to this paragraph such assistance as the Secretary determines in the discretion of the Secretary is necessary and available to remedy the substantial deterioration of living conditions in individual public housing projects or other related emergencies that endanger the health, safety, and welfare of public housing residents or families assisted under section 1437f of this title. A decision made by the Secretary under this paragraph shall not be subject to review in any court of the United States, or in any court of any State, territory, or possession of the United States.

(F) In any proceeding under subparagraph (A)(ii), upon a determination that a substantial default has occurred and without regard to the availability of alternative remedies, the court shall appoint a receiver to conduct the affairs of all or part of the public housing agency in a manner consistent with this chapter and in accordance with such further terms and conditions as the court may provide. The receiver appointed may be another public housing agency, a private management corporation, or any other person or appropriate entity. The court shall have power to grant appropriate temporary or preliminary relief pending final disposition of the petition by the Secretary.

(G) The appointment of a receiver pursuant to this paragraph may be terminated, upon the petition of any party, when the court determines that all defaults have been cured or the public housing agency is capable again of discharging its duties.

(H) If the Secretary (or an administrative receiver appointed by the Secretary) takes possession of a public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), or if a receiver is appointed by a court, the Secretary or receiver shall be deemed to be acting not in the official capacity of that person or entity, but rather in the capacity of the public housing agency, and any liability incurred, regardless of whether the incident giving rise to that liability occurred while the Secretary or receiver was in possession of all or part of the public housing agency (including all or part of any project or program of the agency), shall be the liability of the public housing agency.

(4) Sanctions for improper use of amounts.—

(A) In general.—In addition to any other actions authorized under this chapter, if the Secretary finds that a public housing agency receiving assistance amounts under section 1437g of this title for public housing has failed to comply substantially with any provision of this chapter relating to the public housing program, the Secretary may—

(i) terminate assistance payments under this 6 section 1437g of this title to the agency;

(ii) withhold from the agency amounts from the total allocations for the agency pursuant to section 1437g of this title;

(iii) reduce the amount of future assistance payments under section 1437g of this title to the agency by an amount equal to the amount of such payments that were not expended in accordance with this chapter;

(iv) limit the availability of assistance amounts provided to the agency under section 1437g of this title to programs, projects, or activities not affected by such failure to comply;

(v) withhold from the agency amounts allocated for the agency under section 1437f of this title; or

(vi) order other corrective action with respect to the agency.


(B) Termination of compliance action.—If the Secretary takes action under subparagraph (A) with respect to a public housing agency, the Secretary shall—

(i) in the case of action under subparagraph (A)(i), resume payments of assistance amounts under section 1437g of this title to the agency in the full amount of the total allocations under section 1437g of this title for the agency at the time that the Secretary first determines that the agency will comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to the public housing program;

(ii) in the case of action under clause (ii) or (v) of subparagraph (A), make withheld amounts available as the Secretary considers appropriate to ensure that the agency complies with the provisions of this chapter relating to such program;

(iii) in the case of action under subparagraph (A)(iv), release such restrictions at the time that the Secretary first determines that the agency will comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to such program; or

(iv) in the case of action under subparagraph (vi), cease such action at the time that the Secretary first determines that the agency will comply with the provisions of this chapter relating to such program.


(5) The Secretary shall submit to the Congress annually, as a part of the report of the Secretary under section 3536 of this title, a report that—

(A) identifies the public housing agencies that have been designated as troubled under paragraph (2);

(B) describes the grounds on which such public housing agencies were designated as troubled and continue to be so designated;

(C) describes the agreements that have been entered into with such agencies under such paragraph;

(D) describes the status of progress under such agreements;

(E) describes any action that has been taken in accordance with paragraph (3), including an accounting of the authorized funds that have been expended to support such actions; and

(F) describes the status of any public housing agency designated as troubled with respect to the program for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title and specifies the amount of assistance the agency received under such program.


(6)(A) To the extent that the Secretary determines such action to be necessary in order to ensure the accuracy of any certification made under this section, the Secretary shall require an independent auditor to review documentation or other information maintained by a public housing agency pursuant to this section to substantiate each certification submitted by the agency or corporation relating to the performance of that agency or corporation.

(B) The Secretary may withhold, from assistance otherwise payable to the agency or corporation under section 1437g of this title, amounts sufficient to pay for the reasonable costs of any review under this paragraph.

(7) The Secretary shall apply the provisions of this subsection to resident management corporations in the same manner as applied to public housing agencies.

(k) Administrative grievance procedure regulations: grounds of adverse action, hearing, examination of documents, representation, evidence, decision; judicial hearing; eviction and termination procedures

The Secretary shall by regulation require each public housing agency receiving assistance under this chapter to establish and implement an administrative grievance procedure under which tenants will—

(1) be advised of the specific grounds of any proposed adverse public housing agency action;

(2) have an opportunity for a hearing before an impartial party upon timely request within any period applicable under subsection (l);

(3) have an opportunity to examine any documents or records or regulations related to the proposed action;

(4) be entitled to be represented by another person of their choice at any hearing;

(5) be entitled to ask questions of witnesses and have others make statements on their behalf; and

(6) be entitled to receive a written decision by the public housing agency on the proposed action.


For any grievance concerning an eviction or termination of tenancy that involves any activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises of other tenants or employees of the public housing agency or any violent or drug-related criminal activity on or off such premises, or any activity resulting in a felony conviction, the agency may (A) establish an expedited grievance procedure as the Secretary shall provide by rule under section 553 of title 5, or (B) exclude from its grievance procedure any such grievance, in any jurisdiction which requires that prior to eviction, a tenant be given a hearing in court which the Secretary determines provides the basic elements of due process (which the Secretary shall establish by rule under section 553 of title 5). Such elements of due process shall not include a requirement that the tenant be provided an opportunity to examine relevant documents within the possession of the public housing agency. The agency shall provide to the tenant a reasonable opportunity, prior to hearing or trial, to examine any relevant documents, records, or regulations directly related to the eviction or termination.

(l) Leases; terms and conditions; maintenance; termination

Each public housing agency shall utilize leases which—

(1) have a term of 12 months and shall be automatically renewed for all purposes except for noncompliance with the requirements under section 1437j(c) of this title (relating to community service requirements); except that nothing in this subchapter shall prevent a resident from seeking timely redress in court for failure to renew based on such noncompliance;

(2) do not contain unreasonable terms and conditions;

(3) obligate the public housing agency to maintain the project in a decent, safe, and sanitary condition;

(4) require the public housing agency to give adequate written notice of termination of the lease which shall not be less than—

(A) a reasonable period of time, but not to exceed 30 days—

(i) if the health or safety of other tenants, public housing agency employees, or persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises is threatened; or

(ii) in the event of any drug-related or violent criminal activity or any felony conviction;


(B) 14 days in the case of nonpayment of rent; and

(C) 30 days in any other case, except that if a State or local law provides for a shorter period of time, such shorter period shall apply;


(5) require that the public housing agency may not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms or conditions of the lease or for other good cause;

(6) provide that any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants or any drug-related criminal activity on or off such premises, engaged in by a public housing tenant, any member of the tenant's household, or any guest or other person under the tenant's control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;

(7) specify that with respect to any notice of eviction or termination, notwithstanding any State law, a public housing tenant shall be informed of the opportunity, prior to any hearing or trial, to examine any relevant documents, records, or regulations directly related to the eviction or termination;

(7) 7 provide that any occupancy in violation of section 13661(b) of this title (relating to ineligibility of illegal drug users and alcohol abusers) or the furnishing of any false or misleading information pursuant to section 13662 of this title (relating to termination of tenancy and assistance for illegal drug users and alcohol abusers) shall be cause for termination of tenancy; 8

(9) provide that it shall be cause for immediate termination of the tenancy of a public housing tenant if such tenant—

(A) is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, for a crime, or attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, or which, in the case of the State of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of such State; or

(2) 9 is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law.


For purposes of paragraph (5),10 the term "drug-related criminal activity" means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21).

(m) Reporting requirements; limitation

The Secretary shall not impose any unnecessarily duplicative or burdensome reporting requirements on tenants or public housing agencies assisted under this chapter.

(n) Notice to post office regarding eviction for criminal activity

When a public housing agency evicts an individual or family from a dwelling unit for engaging in criminal activity, including drug-related criminal activity, the public housing agency shall notify the local post office serving that dwelling unit that such individual or family is no longer residing in the dwelling unit.

(o) Public housing assistance for foster care children

In providing housing in low-income housing projects, each public housing agency may coordinate with any local public agencies involved in providing for the welfare of children to make available dwelling units to—

(1) families identified by the agencies as having a lack of adequate housing that is a primary factor—

(A) in the imminent placement of a child in foster care; or

(B) in preventing the discharge of a child from foster care and reunification with his or her family; and


(2) youth, upon discharge from foster care, in cases in which return to the family or extended family or adoption is not available.

(p) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §519(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2561

(q) Availability of records

(1) In general

(A) Provision of information

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, except as provided in subparagraph (C), the National Crime Information Center, police departments, and other law enforcement agencies shall, upon request, provide information to public housing agencies regarding the criminal conviction records of adult applicants for, or tenants of, covered housing assistance for purposes of applicant screening, lease enforcement, and eviction.

(B) Requests by owners of project-based section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] housing

A public housing agency may make a request under subparagraph (A) for information regarding applicants for, or tenants of, housing that is provided project-based assistance under section 1437f of this title only if the housing is located within the jurisdiction of the agency and the owner of such housing has requested that the agency obtain such information on behalf of the owner. Upon such a request by the owner, the agency shall make a request under subparagraph (A) for the information. The agency may not make such information available to the owner but shall perform determinations for the owner regarding screening, lease enforcement, and eviction based on criteria supplied by the owner.

(C) Exception

A law enforcement agency described in subparagraph (A) shall provide information under this paragraph relating to any criminal conviction of a juvenile only to the extent that the release of such information is authorized under the law of the applicable State, tribe, or locality.

(2) Opportunity to dispute

Before an adverse action is taken with regard to assistance under this subchapter on the basis of a criminal record, the public housing agency shall provide the tenant or applicant with a copy of the criminal record and an opportunity to dispute the accuracy and relevance of that record.

(3) Fees

A public housing agency may be charged a reasonable fee for information provided under paragraph (1). In the case of a public housing agency obtaining information pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) for another owner of housing, the agency may pass such fee on to the owner initiating the request and may charge additional reasonable fees for making the request on behalf of the owner and taking other actions for owners under this subsection.

(4) Records management

Each public housing agency shall establish and implement a system of records management that ensures that any criminal record received by the public housing agency is—

(A) maintained confidentially;

(B) not misused or improperly disseminated; and

(C) destroyed, once the purpose for which the record was requested has been accomplished.

(5) Confidentiality

A public housing agency receiving information under this subsection may use such information only for the purposes provided in this subsection and such information may not be disclosed to any person who is not an officer, employee, or authorized representative of the agency and who has a job-related need to have access to the information in connection with admission of applicants, eviction of tenants, or termination of assistance. For judicial eviction proceedings, disclosures may be made to the extent necessary. The Secretary shall, by regulation, establish procedures necessary to ensure that information provided under this subsection to a public housing agency is used, and confidentiality of such information is maintained, as required under this subsection. The Secretary shall establish standards for confidentiality of information obtained under this subsection by public housing agencies on behalf of owners.

(6) Penalty

Any person who knowingly and willfully requests or obtains any information concerning an applicant for, or tenant of, covered housing assistance pursuant to the authority under this subsection under false pretenses, or any person who knowingly and willfully discloses any such information in any manner to any individual not entitled under any law to receive it, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and fined not more than $5,000. The term "person" as used in this paragraph include 11 an officer, employee, or authorized representative of any public housing agency.

(7) Civil action

Any applicant for, or tenant of, covered housing assistance affected by (A) a negligent or knowing disclosure of information referred to in this subsection about such person by an officer, employee, or authorized representative of any public housing agency, which disclosure is not authorized by this subsection, or (B) any other negligent or knowing action that is inconsistent with this subsection, may bring a civil action for damages and such other relief as may be appropriate against any public housing agency responsible for such unauthorized action. The district court of the United States in the district in which the affected applicant or tenant resides, in which such unauthorized action occurred, or in which the officer, employee, or representative alleged to be responsible for any such unauthorized action resides, shall have jurisdiction in such matters. Appropriate relief that may be ordered by such district courts shall include reasonable attorney's fees and other litigation costs.

(8) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:

(A) Adult

The term "adult" means a person who is 18 years of age or older, or who has been convicted of a crime as an adult under any Federal, State, or tribal law.

(B) Covered housing assistance

The term "covered housing assistance" means—

(i) a dwelling unit in public housing;

(ii) a dwelling unit in housing that is provided project-based assistance under section 1437f of this title, including new construction and substantial rehabilitation projects; and

(iii) tenant-based assistance under section 1437f of this title.

(C) Owner

The term "owner" means, with respect to covered housing assistance described in subparagraph (B)(ii), the entity or private person (including a cooperative or public housing agency) that has the legal right to lease or sublease dwelling units in the housing assisted.

(r) Site-based waiting lists

(1) Authority

A public housing agency may establish procedures for maintaining waiting lists for admissions to public housing projects of the agency, which may include (notwithstanding any other law, regulation, handbook, or notice to the contrary) a system of site-based waiting lists under which applicants may apply directly at or otherwise designate the project or projects in which they seek to reside. All such procedures shall comply with all provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 [42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.], the Fair Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.], and other applicable civil rights laws.

(2) Notice

Any system described in paragraph (1) shall provide for the full disclosure by the public housing agency to each applicant of any option available to the applicant in the selection of the project in which to reside.

(s) Authority to require access to criminal records

A public housing agency may require, as a condition of providing admission to the public housing program or assisted housing program under the jurisdiction of the public housing agency, that each adult member of the household provide a signed, written authorization for the public housing agency to obtain records described in subsection (q)(1) regarding such member of the household from the National Crime Information Center, police departments, and other law enforcement agencies.

(t) Obtaining information from drug abuse treatment facilities

(1) Authority

Notwithstanding any other provision of law other than the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 201 et seq.), a public housing agency may require each person who applies for admission to public housing to sign one or more forms of written consent authorizing the agency to receive information from a drug abuse treatment facility that is solely related to whether the applicant is currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance.

(2) Confidentiality of applicant's records

(A) Limitation on information requested

In a form of written consent, a public housing agency may request only whether the drug abuse treatment facility has reasonable cause to believe that the applicant is currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance.

(B) Records management

Each public housing agency that receives information under this subsection from a drug abuse treatment facility shall establish and implement a system of records management that ensures that any information received by the public housing agency under this subsection—

(i) is maintained confidentially in accordance with section 543 of the Public Health Service Act [42 U.S.C. 290dd–2];

(ii) is not misused or improperly disseminated; and

(iii) is destroyed, as applicable—

(I) not later than 5 business days after the date on which the public housing agency gives final approval for an application for admission; or

(II) if the public housing agency denies the application for admission, in a timely manner after the date on which the statute of limitations for the commencement of a civil action from the applicant based upon that denial of admission has expired.

(C) Expiration of written consent

In addition to the requirements of subparagraph (B), an applicant's signed written consent shall expire automatically after the public housing agency has made a final decision to either approve or deny the applicant's application for admittance to public housing.

(3) Prohibition of discriminatory treatment of applicants

(A) Forms signed

A public housing agency may only require an applicant for admission to public housing to sign one or more forms of written consent under this subsection if the public housing agency requires all such applicants to sign the same form or forms of written consent.

(B) Circumstances of inquiry

A public housing agency may only make an inquiry to a drug abuse treatment facility under this subsection if—

(i) the public housing agency makes the same inquiry with respect to all applicants; or

(ii) the public housing agency only makes the same inquiry with respect to each and every applicant with respect to whom—

(I) the public housing agency receives information from the criminal record of the applicant that indicates evidence of a prior arrest or conviction; or

(II) the public housing agency receives information from the records of prior tenancy of the applicant that demonstrates that the applicant—

(aa) engaged in the destruction of property;

(bb) engaged in violent activity against another person; or

(cc) interfered with the right of peaceful enjoyment of the premises of another tenant.

(4) Fee permitted

A drug abuse treatment facility may charge a public housing agency a reasonable fee for information provided under this subsection.

(5) Disclosure permitted by treatment facilities

A drug abuse treatment facility shall not be liable for damages based on any information required to be disclosed pursuant to this subsection if such disclosure is consistent with section 543 of the Public Health Service Act (42 U.S.C. 290dd–2).

(6) Option to not request information

A public housing agency shall not be liable for damages based on its decision not to require each person who applies for admission to public housing to sign one or more forms of written consent authorizing the public housing agency to receive information from a drug abuse treatment facility under this subsection.

(7) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection, the following definitions shall apply:

(A) Drug abuse treatment facility

The term "drug abuse treatment facility" means an entity that—

(i) is—

(I) an identified unit within a general medical care facility; or

(II) an entity other than a general medical care facility; and


(ii) holds itself out as providing, and provides, diagnosis, treatment, or referral for treatment with respect to the illegal use of a controlled substance.

(B) Controlled substance

The term "controlled substance" has the meaning given the term in section 802 of title 21.

(C) Currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance

The term "currently engaging in the illegal use of a controlled substance" means the illegal use of a controlled substance that occurred recently enough to justify a reasonable belief that an applicant's illegal use of a controlled substance is current or that continuing illegal use of a controlled substance by the applicant is a real and ongoing problem.

(8) Effective date

This subsection shall take effect on October 21, 1998, and without the necessity of guidance from, or any regulation issued by, the Secretary.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §6, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 659; amended Pub. L. 96–153, title II, §206(a), Dec. 21, 1979, 93 Stat. 1108; Pub. L. 96–399, title II, §§201(c), (e), 202(c), Oct. 8, 1980, 94 Stat. 1625, 1629; Pub. L. 97–35, title III, §322(c), (d), Aug. 13, 1981, 95 Stat. 402; Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §§201(c), 203(a), 204, 205, 214(b)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1177–1179, 1185; Pub. L. 98–479, title I, §102(b)(4), (5), title II, §204(b)(1), Oct. 17, 1984, 98 Stat. 2221, 2233; Pub. L. 99–160, title I, §101, Nov. 25, 1985, 99 Stat. 910; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §§112(b)(2), 116, 170(d), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1824, 1826, 1867; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §§1001(b), 1014(a)(1), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3263, 3269; Pub. L. 100–690, title V, §5101, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4300; Pub. L. 101–144, title II, Nov. 9, 1989, 103 Stat. 846; Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §§501, 502(a), (c)(1), 503(a), (b), 504–506, 572, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4180, 4181, 4183-4185, 4236; Pub. L. 102–139, title II, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 756, 757; Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §§112, 113, title VI, §§622(b), 625(a)(2), 682(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3689, 3817, 3820, 3830; Pub. L. 103–233, title I, §101(c)(1), title III, §303, Apr. 11, 1994, 108 Stat. 357, 370; Pub. L. 103–327, title II, Sept. 28, 1994, 108 Stat. 2315; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(d)(1), (6)(A)(i), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 41, 42; Pub. L. 104–120, §9(a)–(c), Mar. 28, 1996, 110 Stat. 836, 837; Pub. L. 104–193, title IX, §903(a)(1), Aug. 22, 1996, 110 Stat. 2348; Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(b)(3), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4042; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §§511(d), 512(b), 514(a)(1), (2)(A), 519(b), 520(b), 521, 525, 529, 530, 564, 565(a), 575, 576(d)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2539, 2543, 2547, 2561, 2563, 2568, 2569, 2627, 2628, 2634, 2640; Pub. L. 109–162, title VI, §607, Jan. 5, 2006, 119 Stat. 3048; Pub. L. 109–271, §5(f), Aug. 12, 2006, 120 Stat. 761; Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §601(b)(1), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 107.)

References in Text

The Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(A), is Pub. L. 101–625, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4079. Title II of the Act, known as the "HOME Investments Partnership Act", is classified principally to subchapter II (§12721 et seq.) of chapter 130 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 12701 of this title and Tables.

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1974, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(B), is Pub. L. 93–383, Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 633. Title I of the Act is classified principally to chapter 69 (§5301 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

The Housing and Community Development Act of 1992, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(F), is Pub. L. 102–550, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3672. Subtitle C of title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter I (§13601 et seq.) of chapter 135 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1992 Amendment note set out under section 5301 of this title and Tables.

Section 1437l of this title, referred to in subsec. (j)(1)(I)(3), (2)(B)(ii), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §522(a), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2564.

Paragraph (5), referred to in the concluding provisions of subsec. (l), was redesignated as par. (6) by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §512(b)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2543.

The Civil Rights Act of 1964, referred to in subsec. (r)(1), is Pub. L. 88–352, July 2, 1964, 78 Stat. 241. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter V (§2000d et seq.) of chapter 21 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2000a of this title and Tables.

The Fair Housing Act, referred to in subsec. (r)(1), is title VIII of Pub. L. 90–284, Apr. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 81, which is classified principally to subchapter I (§3601 et seq.) of chapter 45 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3601 of this title and Tables.

The Public Health Service Act, referred to in subsec. (t)(1), is act July 1, 1944, ch. 373, 58 Stat. 682, which is classified generally to chapter 6A (§201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 201 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 6 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 890, as amended, enumerated financial provisions applicable to the Authority and was classified to section 1406 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

2013—Subsec. (c)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 113–4, §601(b)(1)(A), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (3) and (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (3) which read as follows: "the public housing agency shall not deny admission to the project to any applicant on the basis that the applicant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission, and that nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking".

Subsec. (l)(5). Pub. L. 113–4, §601(b)(1)(B)(i), struck out ", and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking will not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and will not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (l)(6). Pub. L. 113–4, §601(b)(1)(B)(ii), struck out before semicolon at end "; except that: (A) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant's household or any guest or other person under the tenant's control, shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant's family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (B) notwithstanding subparagraph (A) or any Federal, State, or local law to the contrary, a public housing agency may bifurcate a lease under this section, or remove a household member from a lease under this section, without regard to whether a household member is a signatory to a lease, in order to evict, remove, terminate occupancy rights, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant and such eviction, removal, termination of occupancy rights, or termination of assistance shall be effected in accordance with the procedures prescribed by Federal, State, and local law for the termination of leases or assistance under the relevant program of HUD-assisted housing; (C) nothing in subparagraph (A) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (D) nothing in subparagraph (A) limits any otherwise available authority of a public housing agency to evict a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant's household, provided that the public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (E) nothing in subparagraph (A) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency to terminate the tenancy of any tenant if the public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant's tenancy is not terminated; and (F) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking."

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 113–4, §601(b)(1)(C), struck out subsec. (u) which related to certification that an individual is a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and confidentiality of information provided to any public housing agency.

2006—Subsec. (c)(3) to (5). Pub. L. 109–162, §607(1), (2), added par. (3) and redesignated former pars. (3) and (4) as (4) and (5), respectively.

Subsec. (l)(5). Pub. L. 109–162, §607(3), inserted ", and that an incident or incidents of actual or threatened domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking will not be construed as a serious or repeated violation of the lease by the victim or threatened victim of that violence and will not be good cause for terminating the tenancy or occupancy rights of the victim of such violence" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (l)(6). Pub. L. 109–162, §607(4), inserted before semicolon at end "; except that: (A) criminal activity directly relating to domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking, engaged in by a member of a tenant's household or any guest or other person under the tenant's control, shall not be cause for termination of the tenancy or occupancy rights, if the tenant or immediate member of the tenant's family is a victim of that domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking; (B) notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a public housing agency under this section may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant; (C) nothing in subparagraph (A) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency, when notified, to honor court orders addressing rights of access to or control of the property, including civil protection orders issued to protect the victim and issued to address the distribution or possession of property among the household members in cases where a family breaks up; (D) nothing in subparagraph (A) limits any otherwise available authority of a public housing agency to evict a tenant for any violation of a lease not premised on the act or acts of violence in question against the tenant or a member of the tenant's household, provided that the public housing agency does not subject an individual who is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking to a more demanding standard than other tenants in determining whether to evict or terminate; (E) nothing in subparagraph (A) may be construed to limit the authority of a public housing agency to terminate the tenancy of any tenant if the public housing agency can demonstrate an actual and imminent threat to other tenants or those employed at or providing service to the property if that tenant's tenancy is not terminated; and (F) nothing in this section shall be construed to supersede any provision of any Federal, State, or local law that provides greater protection than this section for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking."

Subsec. (l)(6)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(f)(1), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "notwithstanding subparagraph (A), a public housing agency under this section may bifurcate a lease under this section, in order to evict, remove, or terminate assistance to any individual who is a tenant or lawful occupant and who engages in criminal acts of physical violence against family members or others, without evicting, removing, terminating assistance to, or otherwise penalizing the victim of such violence who is also a tenant or lawful occupant;".

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 109–162, §607(5), added subsec. (u).

Subsec. (u)(1)(A). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(f)(2)(A), substituted "the individual receives a request for such certification from the public housing agency" for "the public housing agency requests such certification".

Subsec. (u)(1)(B). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(f)(2)(B), substituted "the individual has received a request in writing for such certification from the public housing agency" for "the public housing agency has requested such certification in writing".

Subsec. (u)(3)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 109–271, §5(f)(2)(C), substituted "blood or marriage" for "blood and marriage".

1998—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 105–276, §511(d), in first sentence, inserted ", in a manner consistent with the public housing agency plan" before the period at end and struck out after first sentence "Any such contract may contain a condition requiring the maintenance of an open space or playground in connection with the housing project involved if deemed necessary by the Secretary for the safety or health of children."

Subsec. (b)(3), (4). Pub. L. 105–276, §520(b), added pars. (3) and (4).

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §514(a)(1), amended subpar. (A) generally. For former text of subpar. (A), see 1996 Amendment note below.

Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 105–276, §529(1), substituted "for each agency that receives assistance under this subchapter" for "except in the case of agencies not receiving operating assistance under section 1437g of this title".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–276, §529(2), struck out subsec. (e) which read as follows: "Every contract for annual contributions shall provide that whenever in any year the receipts of a public housing agency in connection with a low-income housing project exceed its expenditures (including debt service, operation, maintenance, establishment of reserves, and other costs and charges), an amount equal to such excess shall be applied, or set aside for application, to purposes, which, in the determination of the Secretary, will effect a reduction in the amount of subsequent annual contributions."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 105–276, §530, added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (j)(1)(B). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(1)(A), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "The amount and percentage of funds obligated to the public housing agency under section 1437l of this title which remain unexpended after 3 years."

Subsec. (j)(1)(D). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(1)(B), substituted "utility" for "energy".

Subsec. (j)(1)(E). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(1)(C), which directed the transfer and insertion of subpar. (E) after subpar. (D), required no change in text.

Subsec. (j)(1)(H) to (K). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(1)(D), (E), added subpars. (H), (I), relating to extent to which agency implements and coordinates strategies, and (J), and redesignated former subpar. (H) as (K).

Subsec. (j)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(2)(A), inserted after first sentence "Such procedures shall provide that an agency that fails on a widespread basis to provide acceptable basic housing conditions for its residents shall be designated as a troubled public housing agency. The Secretary may use a simplified set of indicators for public housing agencies with less than 250 public housing units." and, in last sentence, substituted "for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title" for "under section 1437l of this title".

Subsec. (j)(2)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(2)(B), substituted "for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title" for "under section 1437l of this title".

Subsec. (j)(2)(B)(i). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(2)(C), inserted "with more than 250 units" after "public housing agency" and substituted "comparable and recent review" for "review conducted under section 1437l(p) of this title".

Subsec. (j)(2)(C). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(2)(D), inserted "(if applicable)" after "subparagraph (B)" in first sentence.

Subsec. (j)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 105–276, §565(a)(1)(A), added cl. (i) and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "solicit competitive proposals from other public housing agencies and private housing management agents (which may be selected by existing tenants through administrative procedures established by the Secretary) in the eventuality that these agents may be needed for managing all, or part, of the housing administered by a public housing agency;".

Subsec. (j)(3)(A)(iii). Pub. L. 105–276, §565(a)(1)(B), substituted "from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title" for "under section 1437l of this title".

Subsec. (j)(3)(A)(iv), (v). Pub. L. 105–276, §565(a)(1)(C), added cls. (iv) and (v) and struck out former cl. (iv) which read as follows: "require the agency to make other arrangements acceptable to the Secretary and in the best interests of the public housing residents for managing all, or part of, such housing."

Subsec. (j)(3)(B) to (H). Pub. L. 105–276, §565(a)(2), added subpars. (B) to (H) and struck out former subpars. (B) to (D) which read as follows:

"(B) The Secretary may make available to receivers and other entities selected or appointed pursuant to this paragraph such assistance as is necessary to remedy the substantial deterioration of living conditions in individual public housing developments or other related emergencies that endanger the health, safety and welfare of the residents.

"(C) In any proceeding under subparagraph (A)(ii), upon a determination that a substantial default has occurred, and without regard to the availability of alternative remedies, the court shall appoint a receiver to conduct the affairs of the public housing agency in a manner consistent with this chapter and in accordance with such further terms and conditions as the court may provide. The court shall have power to grant appropriate temporary or preliminary relief pending final disposition of the petition by the Secretary.

"(D) The appointment of a receiver pursuant to this subsection may be terminated, upon the petition of any party, when the court determines that all defaults have been cured and the housing operated by the public housing agency will thereafter be operated in accordance with the covenants and conditions to which the public housing agency is subject."

Subsec. (j)(4), (5). Pub. L. 105–276, §521, added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

Subsec. (j)(5)(F). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(3), substituted "program for assistance from the Capital Fund under section 1437g(d) of this title and specifies the amount of assistance the agency received under such program." for "program under section 1437l of this title and specifies the amount of assistance the agency received under section 1437l of this title and any credits accumulated by the agency under section 1437l(k)(5)(D) of this title."

Subsec. (j)(6), (7). Pub. L. 105–276, §564(4), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(a), in first sentence of concluding provisions, inserted "violent or" before "drug-related" and "or any activity resulting in a felony conviction," after "on or off such premises,".

Subsec. (l)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 105–276, §512(b)(1), (3), added par. (1) and redesignated former pars. (1) to (3) as (2) to (4), respectively.

Subsec. (l)(4). Pub. L. 105–276, §512(b)(1), redesignated par. (3) as (4). Former par. (4) redesignated (5).

Subsec. (l)(4)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(b)(1)(A), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "a reasonable time, but not to exceed 30 days, when the health or safety of other tenants or public housing agency employees is threatened;".

Subsec. (l)(4)(C). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(b)(1)(B), inserted ", except that if a State or local law provides for a shorter period of time, such shorter period shall apply" before semicolon at end.

Subsec. (l)(5), (6). Pub. L. 105–276, §512(b)(1), redesignated pars. (4) and (5) as (5) and (6), respectively. Former par. (6) redesignated (7), relating to specification that tenant be informed of opportunity to examine documents.

Subsec. (l)(7). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(b)(4), added par. (7) relating to termination for illegal drug use and alcohol abuse.

Pub. L. 105–276, §575(b)(2), struck out "and" at end.

Pub. L. 105–276, §512(b)(2), which directed the redesignation of par. (7) as (9), was executed by redesignating the par. (7), relating to termination of tenancy if tenant is fleeing prosecution or in violation of parole, as (9), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105–276, §512(b)(1), redesignated par. (6) as (7), relating to specification that tenant be informed of opportunity to examine documents.

Subsec. (l)(9). Pub. L. 105–276, §512(b)(2), which directed the redesignation of par. (7) as (9), was executed by redesignating the par. (7), relating to termination of tenancy if tenant is fleeing prosecution or in violation of parole, as (9), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 105–276, §514(a)(2)(A), substituted "In" for "Subject" and all that follows through ", in" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 105–276, §519(b), struck out subsec. (p) which read as follows: "With respect to amounts available for obligation on or after October 1, 1991, the criteria established under section 1439(d)(5)(B) of this title for any competition for assistance for new construction, acquisition, or acquisition and rehabilitation of public housing shall give preference to applications for housing to be located in a local market area that has an inadequate supply of housing available for use by very low-income families. The Secretary shall establish criteria for determining that the housing supply of a local market area is inadequate, which shall require—

"(1)(A) information regarding housing market conditions showing that the supply of rental housing affordable by very low-income families is inadequate, taking into account vacancy rates in such housing and other market indicators; and

"(B) evidence that significant numbers of families in the local market area holding certificates and vouchers under section 1437f of this title are experiencing significant difficulty in leasing housing meeting program and family-size requirements; or

"(2) evidence that the proposed development would provide increased housing opportunities for minorities or address special housing needs."

Subsec. (q)(1)(A). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(c)(1)(A)(ii), which directed the substitution of "covered housing assistance" for "public housing", was executed by making the substitution in the second place that "public housing" appeared, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 105–276, §575(c)(1)(A)(i), substituted "subparagraph (C)" for "subparagraph (B)".

Subsec. (q)(1)(B), (C). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(c)(1)(B), (C), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpar. (B) as (C).

Subsec. (q)(3). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(c)(2), substituted "Fees" for "Fee" in heading and inserted at end "In the case of a public housing agency obtaining information pursuant to paragraph (1)(B) for another owner of housing, the agency may pass such fee on to the owner initiating the request and may charge additional reasonable fees for making the request on behalf of the owner and taking other actions for owners under this subsection."

Subsec. (q)(5) to (8). Pub. L. 105–276, §575(c)(3), (4), added pars. (5) to (8) and struck out heading and text of former par. (5). Text read as follows: "For purposes of this subsection, the term 'adult' means a person who is 18 years of age or older, or who has been convicted of a crime as an adult under any Federal, State, or tribal law."

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 105–276, §576(d)(1), redesignated subsec. (s) as (r) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (r). Text read as follows: "Any tenant evicted from housing assisted under this subchapter by reason of drug-related criminal activity (as that term is defined in section 1437f(f) of this title) shall not be eligible for housing assistance under this subchapter during the 3-year period beginning on the date of such eviction, unless the evicted tenant successfully completes a rehabilitation program approved by the public housing agency (which shall include a waiver of this subsection if the circumstances leading to eviction no longer exist)."

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 105–276, §576(d)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (t) as (s). Former subsec. (s) redesignated (r).

Pub. L. 105–276, §525, added subsec. (s).

Subsec. (t). Pub. L. 105–276, §576(d)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (u) as (t). Former subsec. (t) redesignated (s).

Pub. L. 105–276, §575(d), added subsec. (t).

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 105–276, §576(d)(1)(B), redesignated subsec. (u) as (t).

Pub. L. 105–276, §575(e), added subsec. (u).

1996—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–330 struck out "and public housing for Indians and Alaska Natives in accordance with the Indian Housing Act of 1988" after "operation of public housing".

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 104–99, §402(d)(1), (f), temporarily amended subpar. (A) generally, substituting

"(A) the establishment, after public notice and an opportunity for public comment, of a written system of preferences for admission to public housing, if any, that is not inconsistent with the comprehensive housing affordability strategy under title I of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act;" for

"(A) except for projects or portions of projects designated for occupancy pursuant to section 1437e(a) of this title with respect to which the Secretary has determined that application of this subparagraph would result in excessive delays in meeting the housing need of such families, the establishment of tenant selection criteria which—

"(i) for not less than 50 percent of the units that are made available for occupancy in a given fiscal year, give preference to families that occupy substandard housing (including families that are homeless or living in a shelter for homeless families), are paying more than 50 percent of family income for rent, or are involuntarily displaced (including displacement because of disposition of a multifamily housing project under section 1701z–11 of title 12) at the time they are seeking assistance under this chapter;

"(ii) for any remaining units to be made available for occupancy, give preference in accordance with a system of preferences established by the public housing agency in writing and after public hearing to respond to local housing needs and priorities, which may include (I) assisting very low-income families who either reside in transitional housing assisted under title IV of the Stewart B. McKinney Homeless Assistance Act, or participate in a program designed to provide public assistance recipients with greater access to employment and educational opportunities; (II) assisting families in accordance with subsection (u)(2); (III) assisting families identified by local public agencies involved in providing for the welfare of children as having a lack of adequate housing that is a primary factor in the imminent placement of a child in foster care, or in preventing the discharge of a child from foster care and reunification with his or her family; (IV) assisting youth, upon discharge from foster care, in cases in which return to the family or extended family or adoption is not available; (V) assisting families that include one or more adult members who are employed; and (VI) achieving other objectives of national housing policy as affirmed by Congress; subclause (V) shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995;

"(iii) prohibit any individual or family evicted from housing assisted under the chapter by reason of drug-related criminal activity from having a preference under any provision of this subparagraph for 3 years unless the evicted tenant successfully completes a rehabilitation program approved by the agency, except that the agency may waive the application of this clause under standards established by the Secretary (which shall include waiver for any member of a family of an individual prohibited from tenancy under this clause who the agency determines clearly did not participate in and had no knowledge of such criminal activity or when circumstances leading to eviction no longer exist); and

"(iv) are designed to ensure that, to the maximum extent feasible, the projects of an agency will include families with a broad range of incomes and will avoid concentrations of low-income and deprived families with serious social problems."

See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 104–120, §9(a)(1), in concluding provisions, substituted "involves any activity" for "involves any criminal activity" and "on or off such premises" for "on or near such premises".

Subsec. (l)(5). Pub. L. 104–120, §9(a)(2), substituted "on or off such premises" for "on or near such premises".

Subsec. (l)(7). Pub. L. 104–193 added par. (7).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 104–99, §402(d)(6)(A)(i), (f), in introductory provisions, temporarily substituted "written system of preferences for selection established pursuant to" for "preference rules specified in". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 104–120, §9(b), added subsec. (q).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 104–120, §9(c), added subsec. (r).

1994—Subsec. (c)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 103–233, §101(c)(1), inserted "(including displacement because of disposition of a multifamily housing project under section 1701z–11 of title 12)" after "displaced".

Subsec. (c)(4)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 103–327 added subcl. (V), redesignated former subcl. (V) as (VI), and inserted "subclause (V) shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995;" after semicolon at end.

Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 103–233, §303, substituted "500 units" for "250 units".

1992—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 102–550, §625(a)(2), substituted "elderly or disabled families" for "the elderly" in last sentence.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 102–550, §622(b), substituted "designated for occupancy pursuant to section 1437e(a) of this title" for "specifically designated for elderly families" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–550, §112, substituted "50 percent" for "70 percent" after "not less than".

Subsec. (c)(4)(F). Pub. L. 102–550, §682(a), added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (j)(1). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(e)(1)(C), which directed the substitution of "indicators for public housing agencies, to the extent practicable:" for "indicators." in fourth sentence, was executed by making the substitution for "indicators:" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 102–550, §113(e)(1)(A), (B), in introductory provisions, inserted "and resident management corporations" before period in first sentence and after "agencies" in third sentence.

Subsec. (j)(2)(B). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(a)(2), added subpar. (B). Former subpar. (B) redesignated (C).

Subsec. (j)(2)(C). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(a)(1), (3), redesignated subpar. (B) as (C), substituted "agency, after reviewing the report submitted pursuant to subparagraph (B) and consulting with the agency's assessment team. Such agreement shall set forth" for "agency setting forth" in introductory provisions, and inserted "To the extent the Secretary deems appropriate (taking into account an agency's performance under the indicators specified under paragraph (1)), such agreement shall also set forth a plan for enhancing resident involvement in the management of the public housing agency." before "The Secretary and the public" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (j)(2)(D). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(e)(2), added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (j)(3)(A). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(b)(5), inserted concluding provisions.

Subsec. (j)(3)(A)(i). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(b)(1), inserted "(which may be selected by existing tenants through administrative procedures established by the Secretary)" after "management agents".

Subsec. (j)(3)(A)(iii), (iv). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(b)(2)–(4), added cl. (iii) and redesignated former cl. (iii) as (iv).

Subsec. (j)(3)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(c), added subpar. (B) and redesignated former subpars. (B) and (C) as (C) and (D), respectively.

Subsec. (j)(4)(E). Pub. L. 102–550, §113(d), which directed the insertion of ", including an accounting of the authorized funds that have been expended to support such actions" before semicolon in par. (5)(E) of subsec. (j), was executed by making the insertion in par. (4)(E) to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because subsec. (j) does not contain a par. (5).

1991—Subsec. (j)(1)(H), (I). Pub. L. 102–139, which directed amendment of "Section 6(j)(1) of the Housing Act of 1937, 42 U.S.C. 1437d(j)(1) section 502(a) of the National Affordable Housing Act," by adding "which shall not exceed the seven factors in the statute, plus an additional five" at the end of subpar. (H) and by adding subpar. (I), requiring Secretary to administer evaluation system, reflect in weights assigned indicators, and determine status, was executed to subsec. (j)(1) of this section, which is section 6 of the United States Housing Act of 1937, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (p). Pub. L. 102–139 added subsec. (p).

1990—Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 101–625, §501, amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "except for projects or portions of projects specifically designated for elderly families with respect to which the Secretary has determined that application of this clause would result in excessive delays in meeting the housing needs of such families, the establishment of tenant selection criteria which gives preference to families which occupy substandard housing, are paying more than 50 percent of family income for rent, or are involuntarily displaced at the time they are seeking assistance under this chapter and which is designed to assure that, within a reasonable period of time, the project will include families with a broad range of incomes and will avoid concentrations of lower income and deprived families with serious social problems, but (i) this shall not permit maintenance of vacancies to await higher income tenants where lower income tenants are available and shall not permit public housing agencies to select families for residence in an order different from the order on the waiting list for the purpose of selecting relatively higher income families for residence; and (ii) the public housing agency may provide for circumstances in which families who do not qualify for any preference established in this subparagraph are provided assistance before families who do qualify for such preference, except that not more than 10 percent of the families who initially receive assistance in any 1-year period (or such shorter period selected by the public housing agency before the beginning of its first full year subject to this clause) may be families who do not qualify for such preference;".

Subsec. (c)(4)(D). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(1), substituted "low-income families" for "lower income families".

Subsec. (c)(4)(E). Pub. L. 101–625, §502(c)(1), added subpar. (E).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 101–625, §572(2), substituted "low-income housing" for "lower income housing" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–625, §502(a), amended subsec. (j) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (j) read as follows: "On or after October 1, 1983, in entering into commitments for the development of public housing, the Secretary shall give a priority to projects for the construction, acquisition, or acquisition and rehabilitation of housing suitable for occupancy by families requiring three or more bedrooms."

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 101–625, §503(a), added concluding provisions and struck out former concluding provisions which read as follows: "An agency may exclude from its procedure any grievance concerning an eviction or termination of tenancy in any jurisdiction which requires that, prior to eviction, a tenant be given a hearing in court which the Secretary determines provides the basic elements of due process."

Subsec. (l)(5). Pub. L. 101–625, §504, amended par. (5) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (5) read as follows: "provide that a public housing tenant, any member of the tenant's household, or a guest or other person under the tenant's control shall not engage in criminal activity, including drug-related criminal activity, on or near public housing premises, while the tenant is a tenant in public housing, and such criminal activity shall be cause for termination of tenancy."

Subsec. (l)(6). Pub. L. 101–625, §503(b), added par. (6).

Subsecs. (n), (o). Pub. L. 101–625, §§505, 506, added subsecs. (n) and (o).

1989—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–144 added subsec. (b).

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–242, §170(d)(1), substituted "The Secretary" for "Secretary" at beginning.

Pub. L. 100–242, §112(b)(2), struck out "annual" before "contributions".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–242, §112(b)(2), struck out "annual" before "contributions" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 100–628, §1014(a)(1), inserted cl. (i) designation after ", but" and added cl. (ii) before semicolon at end.

Pub. L. 100–628, §1001(b), inserted before semicolon at end "and shall not permit public housing agencies to select families for residence in an order different from the order on the waiting list for the purpose of selecting relatively higher income families for residence".

Pub. L. 100–242, §170(d)(2), inserted ", are paying more than 50 percent of family income for rent," after "substandard housing", and struck out "or are paying more than 50 per centum of family income for rent" after "under this chapter".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–242, §112(b)(2), struck out "annual" before "contributions" in four places and before "shelter" in two places.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 100–242, §112(b)(2), struck out "annual" before "contributions" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 100–242, §116, inserted "in the neighborhood where the public housing agency determines the housing is needed" after "is" and "in such neighborhood" after "rehabilitation".

Subsec. (k)(4), (5). Pub. L. 100–242, §170(d)(3), substituted "their" for "his".

Subsec. (l). Pub. L. 100–690 added par. (5) and concluding provisions defining term "drug-related criminal activity" for purposes of par. (5).

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–160 struck out subsec. (b) which related to cost of construction and equipment of a project, and prototype costs.

1984—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 98–479, §204(b)(1), substituted "covenants" for "convenants".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(4), inserted ", acquisition, or acquisition and rehabilitation" and substituted "families requiring three or more bedrooms" for "large families".

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 98–479, §102(b)(5), substituted "housing" for "hearing".

1983—Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 98–181, §203(a), inserted "or are paying more than 50 per centum of family income for rent".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 98–181, §214(b), repealed subsec. (f) which provided for modification or closeout of housing project.

Subsecs. (h) to (j). Pub. L. 98–181, §201(c), added subsecs. (h) to (j).

Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 98–181, §204, added subsecs. (k) and (l).

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 98–181, §205, added subsec. (m).

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–35, §322(c), substituted reference to lower income for reference to low-income.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 97–35, §322(c), (d), substituted provision in par. (2) requiring review at least annually for provision requiring review at least within two year intervals, or shorter where deemed desirable, in par. (4)(A) "lower income and" for "low-income and", and in par. (4)(D) reference to lower income for reference to low-income.

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 97–35, §322(c), substituted references to lower income for references to low-income wherever appearing.

1980—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 96–399, §201(c), inserted exception relating to availability of prototype costs for projects to be located on Indian reservations or in Alaskan Native villages, and added cl. (8).

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 96–399, §201(e), inserted exception relating to application of this clause to projects specifically designated for elderly families.

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 96–399, §202(c), inserted "pursuant to section 1437l of this title" wherever appearing.

1979—Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 96–153 substituted "tenant selection criteria which gives preference to families which occupy substandard housing or are involuntarily displaced at the time they are seeking assistance under this chapter and which is designed" for "tenant selection criteria designed".

Effective Date of 1998 Amendment

Amendment by title V of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 1, 1999, except as otherwise provided, with provision that Secretary may implement amendment before such date, except to extent that such amendment provides otherwise, and with savings provision, see section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1437 of this title.

Amendment by section 511 of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 21, 1998, see section 511(e) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1437c–1 of this title.

Amendment by section 514(a)(1), (2)(A) of Pub. L. 105–276 effective and applicable beginning upon Oct. 21, 1998, see section 514(g) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as a note under section 1701s of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §565(b), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2631, provided that: "The provisions of, and duties and authorities conferred or confirmed by, the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall apply with respect to any action taken before, on, or after the effective date of this Act [probably means the general effective date for title V of Pub. L. 105–276 included in section 503 of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as an Effective Date of 1998 Amendment note under section 1437 of this title] and shall apply to any receiver appointed for a public housing agency before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §565(e), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2632, provided that: "This section [amending this section and section 1437f of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] shall take effect on, and the amendments made by this section are made on, and shall apply beginning upon, the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–330 effective Oct. 1, 1997, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 107 of Pub. L. 104–330, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4101 of Title 25, Indians.

Pub. L. 104–120, §13, Mar. 28, 1996, 110 Stat. 845, provided that:

"(a) Applicability.—This Act [enacting section 1490p–2 of this title, amending this section, sections 1437e, 1437n, 1479, 1485, 1490p–2, and 5308 of this title, and sections 1715z–20, 1715z–22, and 1721 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1437f, 5305, and 12805 of this title and sections 1701 and 4101 of Title 12] and the amendments made by this Act shall be construed to have become effective on October 1, 1995.

"(b) Implementation.—The amendments made by sections 9 and 10 [amending this section and sections 1437e and 1437n of this title] shall apply as provided in subsection (a) of this section, notwithstanding the effective date of any regulations issued by the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to implement such amendments or any failure by the Secretary to issue any such regulations."

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–99 effective Jan. 26, 1996, only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, and to cease to be effective Oct. 21, 1998, see section 402(f) of Pub. L. 104–99, as amended, and section 514(f) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as notes under section 1437a of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by subtitles B through F of title VI [§§621–685] of Pub. L. 102–550 applicable upon expiration of 6-month period beginning Oct. 28, 1992, except as otherwise provided, see section 13642 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–35 effective Oct. 1, 1981, see section 371 of Pub. L. 97–35, set out as an Effective Date note under section 3701 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Implementation

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §565(d), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2632, provided that: "The Secretary may administer the amendments made by subsection (a) [amending this section] as necessary to ensure the efficient and effective initial implementation of this section [amending this section and section 1437f of this title and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section]."

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §502(c)(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4184, as amended by Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §130, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3712, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall, under the rulemaking procedures under section 553 of title 5, United States Code, establish guidelines and timetables appropriate to implement the amendment made by paragraph (1)(C) [amending this section], taking into account the requirements of public housing agencies of different sizes and characteristics, to achieve compliance with requirements established by such amendment not later than January 1, 1993 for public housing agencies with 500 or more units and not later than January 1, 1994 for public housing agencies with less than 500 units."

Regulations

For provisions requiring Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to issue regulations necessary to implement amendment to this section by section 101(c) of Pub. L. 103–233, see section 101(f) of Pub. L. 103–233, set out as a note under section 1701z–11 of Title 12, Banks and Banking.

Pub. L. 102–550, title I, §104, Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3684, provided that: "Not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 28, 1992], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue regulations implementing the amendments made by sections 501 and 545 of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [Pub. L. 101–625, amending this section and section 1437f of this title]. The regulations shall be issued after notice and opportunity for public comment pursuant to the provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code (notwithstanding subsections (a)(2), (b)(B), and (d)(3) of such section) and shall take effect upon issuance."

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §503(c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4185, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall issue, and publish in the Federal Register for comment, proposed rules implementing the amendments made by this section [amending this section] not later than the expiration of the 60-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990] and shall issue final rules implementing the amendments not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on the date of the enactment of this Act."

Construction

Pub. L. 113–4, title VI, §601(b)(3), Mar. 7, 2013, 127 Stat. 108, provided that: "Nothing in this Act [see Tables for classification], or the amendments made by this Act, shall be construed—

"(A) to limit the rights or remedies available to any person under section 6 or 8 of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437d and 1437f), as in effect on the day before the date of enactment of this Act [Mar. 7, 2013];

"(B) to limit any right, remedy, or procedure otherwise available under any provision of part 5, 91, 880, 882, 883, 884, 886, 891, 903, 960, 966, 982, or 983 of title 24, Code of Federal Regulations, that—

"(i) was issued under the Violence Against Women and Department of Justice Reauthorization Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–162; 119 Stat. 2960) [see Tables for classification] or an amendment made by that Act; and

"(ii) provides greater protection for victims of domestic violence, dating violence, sexual assault, and stalking than this Act; or

"(C) to disqualify an owner, manager, or other individual from participating in or receiving the benefits of the low income housing tax credit program under section 42 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 [26 U.S.C. 42] because of noncompliance with the provisions of this Act."

Shared Waiting Lists

Pub. L. 115–174, title II, §209(e), May 24, 2018, 132 Stat. 1316, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [May 24, 2018], the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall make available to interested public housing agencies and owners of multifamily properties receiving assistance from the Department of Housing and Urban Development 1 or more software programs that will facilitate the voluntary use of a shared waiting list by multiple public housing agencies or owners receiving assistance, and shall publish on the website of the Department of Housing and Urban Development procedural guidance for implementing shared waiting lists that includes information on how to obtain the software."

Study of Alternative Methods for Evaluating Public Housing Agencies

Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §563, Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2624, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall provide under subsection (e) for a study to be conducted to determine the effectiveness of various alternative methods of evaluating the performance of public housing agencies and other providers of federally assisted housing.

"(b) Purposes.—The purposes of the study under this section shall be—

"(1) to identify and examine various methods of evaluating and improving the performance of public housing agencies in administering public housing and tenant-based rental assistance programs and of other providers of federally assisted housing, which are alternatives to oversight by the Department of Housing and Urban Development; and

"(2) to identify specific monitoring and oversight activities currently conducted by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and to evaluate whether such activities should be eliminated, expanded, modified, or transferred to other entities (including governmental and private entities) to increase accuracy and effectiveness and improve monitoring.

"(c) Evaluation of Various Performance Evaluation Systems.—To carry out the purposes under subsection (b), the study under this section shall identify, and analyze the advantages and disadvantages of various methods of regulating and evaluating the performance of public housing agencies and other providers of federally assisted housing, including the following methods:

"(1) Current system.—The system pursuant to the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437 et seq.], including the methods and requirements under such system for reporting, auditing, reviewing, sanctioning, and monitoring of such agencies and housing providers and the public housing management assessment program pursuant to section 6(j) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437d(j)].

"(2) Accreditation models.—Various models that are based upon accreditation of such agencies and housing providers, subject to the following requirements:

"(A) The study shall identify and analyze various models used in other industries and professions for accreditation and determine the extent of their applicability to the programs for public housing and federally assisted housing.

"(B) If any accreditation models are determined to be applicable to the public and federally assisted housing programs, the study shall identify appropriate goals, objectives, and procedures for an accreditation program for such agencies and housing providers.

"(C) The study shall evaluate the feasibility and merit of establishing an independent accreditation and evaluation entity to assist, supplement, or replace the role of the Department of Housing and Urban Development in assessing and monitoring the performance of such agencies and housing providers.

"(D) The study shall identify the necessary and appropriate roles and responsibilities of various entities that would be involved in an accreditation program, including the Department of Housing and Urban Development, the Inspector General of the Department, an accreditation entity, independent auditors and examiners, local entities, and public housing agencies.

"(E) The study shall estimate the costs involved in developing and maintaining such an independent accreditation program.

"(3) Performance based models.—Various performance-based models, including systems that establish performance goals or targets, assess the compliance with such goals or targets, and provide for incentives or sanctions based on performance relative to such goals or targets.

"(4) Local review and monitoring models.—Various models providing for local, resident, and community review and monitoring of such agencies and housing providers, including systems for review and monitoring by local and State governmental bodies and agencies.

"(5) Private models.—Various models using private contractors for review and monitoring of such agencies and housing providers.

"(6) Other models.—Various models of any other systems that may be more effective and efficient in regulating and evaluating such agencies and housing providers.

"(d) Consultation.—The entity that, pursuant to subsection (e), carries out the study under this section shall, in carrying out the study, consult with individuals and organizations experienced in managing public housing, private real estate managers, representatives from State and local governments, residents of public housing, families and individuals receiving tenant-based assistance, the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development, the Inspector General of the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and the Comptroller General of the United States.

"(e) Contract to Conduct Study.—

"(1) In general.—Subject to paragraph (2), the Secretary shall enter into a contract, within 90 days of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998], with a public or nonprofit private entity to conduct the study under this section, using amounts made available pursuant to subsection (g).

"(2) National academy of public administration.—The Secretary shall request the National Academy of Public Administration to enter into the contract under paragraph (1) to conduct the study under this section. If such Academy declines to conduct the study, the Secretary shall carry out such paragraph through other public or nonprofit private entities, selected through a competitive process.

"(f) Report.—

"(1) Interim report.—The Secretary shall ensure that, not later than the expiration of the 6-month period beginning on the date of the execution of the contract under subsection (e)(1), the entity conducting the study under this section submits to the Congress an interim report describing the actions taken to carry out the study, the actions to be taken to complete the study, and any findings and recommendations available at the time.

"(2) Final report.—The Secretary shall ensure that—

"(A) not later than the expiration of the 12-month period beginning on the date of the execution of the contract under subsection (e)(1), the study required under this section is completed and a report describing the findings and recommendations as a result of the study is submitted to the Congress; and

"(B) before submitting the report under this paragraph to the Congress, the report is submitted to the Secretary, national organizations for public housing agencies, and other appropriate national organizations at such time to provide the Secretary and such agencies an opportunity to review the report and provide written comments on the report, which shall be included together with the report upon submission to the Congress under subparagraph (A).

"(g) Effective Date.—This section shall take effect on the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 21, 1998]."

References in Other Laws to Preferences for Assistance

Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(d)(6)(D), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 43, which provided that certain references to preferences for assistance under sections 1437d(c)(4)(A)(i) and 1437f(d)(1)(A)(i), (o)(3)(B) of this title, as such sections existed on the day before Jan. 26, 1996, were to be considered to refer to the written system of preferences for selection established pursuant to sections 1437d(c)(4)(A) and 1437f(d)(1)(A), (o)(3)(B) of this title, respectively, as amended by section 402 of Pub. L. 104–99, was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §514(b)(2)(D), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2548.

Inapplicability of Certain 1992 Amendments to Indian Public Housing

Amendment by sections 622(b) and 625(a)(2) of Pub. L. 102–550 not applicable with respect to lower income housing developed or operated pursuant to contract between Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and Indian housing authority, see section 626 of Pub. L. 102–550, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

Report on Training and Certification Standards

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §502(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4183, directed Secretary to submit to Congress, not later than 12 months after Nov. 28, 1990, a report regarding the feasibility and effectiveness of establishing uniform standards for training and certification of executive directors and other officers and members of local, regional, and State public housing agencies.

Applicability

Pub. L. 101–625, title V, §503(d), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4185, provided that: "Any exclusion of grievances by a public housing agency pursuant to a determination or waiver by the Secretary (under section 6(k) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [42 U.S.C. 1437d(k)], as such section existed before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 28, 1990]) that a jurisdiction requires a hearing in court providing the basic elements of due process shall be effective after the date of the enactment of this Act only to the extent that the exclusion complies with the amendments made by this section, except that any such waiver provided before the date of the enactment of this Act shall remain in effect until the earlier of the effective date of the final rules implementing the amendments made by this section or 180 days after the date of the enactment."

Report on Impact of Public Housing Lease and Grievance Regulation on Ability of Public Housing Agencies To Take Action Against Tenants Engaging in Drug Crimes

Pub. L. 100–690, title V, §5103, Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4300, provided that: "The Secretary of Housing and Urban Development shall submit to the Congress a report on the impact of the implementation of the public housing tenancy and administrative grievance procedure regulations issued under section 6(k) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 (42 U.S.C. 1437d(k)) on the ability of public housing agencies to evict or take other appropriate action against tenants engaging in criminal activity, especially with respect to the manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession of controlled substances (as defined in section 102 of the Controlled Substances Act (21 U.S.C. 802)). The report shall be submitted not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 18, 1988]."

Indian Housing

Pub. L. 100–628, title X, §1014(a)(2), Nov. 7, 1988, 102 Stat. 3269, provided that: "In accordance with section 201(b)(2) of the United States Housing Act of 1937 [former section 1437aa(b)(2) of this title], the amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall also apply to public housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and an Indian housing authority."

Study of Payments in Lieu of Taxes; Report to Congress

Pub. L. 95–128, title II, §201(g), Oct. 12, 1977, 91 Stat. 1129, provided that the Secretary of Housing and Urban Development conduct a study of payment in lieu of taxes made under subsec. (d) of this section and report to the Congress on the status and adequacy of such payments not later than 12 months after Oct. 12, 1977.

1 So in original. Probably should be "is".

2 Another subpar. (I) is set out after subpar. (K).

3 Another subpar. (I) is set out before subpar. (J).

4 See References in Text note below.

5 So in original. The word "and" probably should not appear.

6 So in original. The word "this" probably should not appear.

7 So in original. Probably should be "(8)".

8 So in original. Probably should be followed by "and".

9 So in original. Probably should be "(B)".

10 See References in Text note below.

11 So in original. Probably should be "includes".

§1437e. Designated housing for elderly and disabled families

(a) Authority to provide designated housing

(1) In general

Subject only to provisions of this section and notwithstanding any other provision of law, a public housing agency for which a plan under subsection (d) is in effect may provide public housing projects (or portions of projects) designated for occupancy by (A) only elderly families, (B) only disabled families, or (C) elderly and disabled families.

(2) Priority for occupancy

In determining priority for admission to public housing projects (or portions of projects) that are designated for occupancy as provided in paragraph (1), the public housing agency may make units in such projects (or portions) available only to the types of families for whom the project is designated.

(3) Eligibility of near-elderly families

If a public housing agency determines that there are insufficient numbers of elderly families to fill all the units in a project (or portion of a project) designated under paragraph (1) for occupancy by only elderly families, the agency may provide that near-elderly families may occupy dwelling units in the project (or portion).

(b) Standards regarding evictions

Except as provided in section 1437n(e)(1)(B) 1 of this title, any tenant who is lawfully residing in a dwelling unit in a public housing project may not be evicted or otherwise required to vacate such unit because of the designation of the project (or portion of a project) pursuant to this section or because of any action taken by the Secretary or any public housing agency pursuant to this section.

(c) Relocation assistance

A public housing agency that designates any existing project or building, or portion thereof, for occupancy as provided under subsection (a)(1) shall provide, to each person and family who agrees to be relocated in connection with such designation—

(1) notice of the designation and an explanation of available relocation benefits, as soon as is practicable for the agency and the person or family;

(2) access to comparable housing (including appropriate services and design features), which may include tenant-based rental assistance under section 1437f of this title, at a rental rate paid by the tenant that is comparable to that applicable to the unit from which the person or family has vacated; and

(3) payment of actual, reasonable moving expenses.

(d) Required plan

A plan under this subsection for designating a project (or portion of a project) for occupancy under subsection (a)(1) is a plan, prepared by the public housing agency for the project and submitted to the Secretary, that—

(1) establishes that the designation of the project is necessary—

(A) to achieve the housing goals for the jurisdiction under the comprehensive housing affordability strategy under section 12705 of this title; and

(B) to meet the housing needs of the low-income population of the jurisdiction; and


(2) includes a description of—

(A) the project (or portion of a project) to be designated;

(B) the types of tenants for which the project is to be designated;

(C) any supportive services to be provided to tenants of the designated project (or portion);

(D) how the design and related facilities (as such term is defined in section 1701q(d)(8) 1 of title 12) of the project accommodate the special environmental needs of the intended occupants; and

(E) any plans to secure additional resources or housing assistance to provide assistance to families that may have been housed if occupancy in the project were not restricted pursuant to this section.


For purposes of this subsection, the term "supportive services" means services designed to meet the special needs of residents.

(e) Review of plans

(1) Review and notification

The Secretary shall conduct a limited review of each plan under subsection (d) that is submitted to the Secretary to ensure that the plan is complete and complies with the requirements of subsection (d). The Secretary shall notify each public housing agency submitting a plan whether the plan complies with such requirements not later than 60 days after receiving the plan. If the Secretary does not notify the public housing agency, as required under this paragraph or paragraph (2), the plan shall be considered, for purposes of this section, to comply with the requirements under subsection (d) and the Secretary shall be considered to have notified the agency of such compliance upon the expiration of such 60-day period.

(2) Notice of reasons for determination of noncompliance

If the Secretary determines that a plan, as submitted, does not comply with the requirements under subsection (d), the Secretary shall specify in the notice under paragraph (1) the reasons for the noncompliance and any modifications necessary for the plan to meet such requirements.

(3) Standards for determination of noncompliance

The Secretary may determine that a plan does not comply with the requirements under subsection (d) only if—

(A) the plan is incomplete in significant matters required under such subsection; or

(B) there is evidence available to the Secretary that challenges, in a substantial manner, any information provided in the plan.

(4) Treatment of existing plans

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a public housing agency shall be considered to have submitted a plan under this subsection if the agency has submitted to the Secretary an application and allocation plan under this section (as in effect before March 28, 1996) that have not been approved or disapproved before March 28, 1996.

(f) Effectiveness

(1) 5-year effectiveness of original plan

A plan under subsection (d) shall be in effect for purposes of this section during the 5-year period that begins upon notification under subsection (e)(1) of the public housing agency that the plan complies with the requirements under subsection (d).

(2) Renewal of plan

Upon the expiration of the 5-year period under paragraph (1) or any 2-year period under this paragraph, an agency may extend the effectiveness of the designation and plan for an additional 2-year period (that begins upon such expiration) by submitting to the Secretary any information needed to update the plan. The Secretary may not limit the number of times a public housing agency extends the effectiveness of a designation and plan under this paragraph.

(3) Transition provision

Any application and allocation plan approved under this section (as in effect before March 28, 1996) before March 28, 1996, shall be considered to be a plan under subsection (d) that is in effect for purposes of this section for the 5-year period beginning upon such approval.

(g) Inapplicability of Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisitions Policy Act of 1970

No tenant of a public housing project shall be considered to be displaced for purposes of the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisitions Policy Act of 1970 [42 U.S.C. 4601 et seq.] because of the designation of any existing project or building, or portion thereof, for occupancy as provided under subsection (a) of this section.

(Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, title I, §7, as added Pub. L. 93–383, title II, §201(a), Aug. 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 662; amended Pub. L. 95–557, title IV, §412, Oct. 31, 1978, 92 Stat. 2110; Pub. L. 100–242, title I, §112(b)(3), Feb. 5, 1988, 101 Stat. 1824; renumbered title I, Pub. L. 100–358, §5, June 29, 1988, 102 Stat. 681; amended Pub. L. 102–550, title VI, §622(a), Oct. 28, 1992, 106 Stat. 3813; Pub. L. 104–99, title IV, §402(d)(6)(A)(ii), Jan. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 42; Pub. L. 104–120, §10(a), Mar. 28, 1996, 110 Stat. 838; Pub. L. 104–330, title V, §501(b)(4), Oct. 26, 1996, 110 Stat. 4042; Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §595(d), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2656.)

References in Text

Section 1437n(e)(1)(B) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §576(d)(2), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2640.

Section 1701q of title 12, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(D), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–625, title VIII, §801(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4297, and, as so amended, does not contain a subsec. (d)(8) or a definition of the term "related facilities".

The Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisitions Policy Act of 1970, referred to in subsec. (g), probably means the Uniform Relocation Assistance and Real Property Acquisition Policy Act of 1970, Pub. L. 91–646, Jan. 2, 1971, 84 Stat. 1894, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 61 (§4601 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4601 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7 of act Sept. 1, 1937, ch. 896, 50 Stat. 891, as amended, required publication of information and submission of annual report by the Authority and was classified to section 1407 of this title, prior to the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 93–383.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–276 struck out heading and text of subsec. (h). Text read as follows: "The provisions of this section shall not apply with respect to low-income housing developed or operated pursuant to a contract between the Secretary and an Indian housing authority."

1996Pub. L. 104–330, §501(b)(4), which directed amendment of "subsection 7" of the United States Housing Act of 1937, probably meaning this section, by striking subsec. (l), could not be executed because this section does not contain a subsec. (l).

Pub. L. 104–120 amended section generally, restating former subsecs. (a) to (g) relating to designated housing as subsecs. (a) to (h) relating to designated housing for elderly and disabled families.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–99, which directed the temporary amendment of par. (2) by substituting "in accordance with the written system of preferences for selection established pursuant to" for "according to the preferences for occupancy under", could not be executed because of the amendment by Pub. L. 104–120 which amended section generally retroactive to Oct. 1, 1995. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments note below.

1992Pub. L. 102–550 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to and defining "congregate housing" and providing for design, development, and acquisition of congregate housing for displaced or elderly families, limitation on amounts for contracts for congregate housing, and costs for central dining facilities.

1988Pub. L. 100–242 struck out "annual" before "contributions" in proviso.

1978Pub. L. 95–557 substituted "(1) low-rent housing which, as of January 1, 1979, was built or under construction, with which there is connected a central dining facility where wholesome and economical meals can be served to such occupants; or (2) low-rent housing constructed after, but not under construction prior to, January 1, 1979, connected with which there is a central dining facility to provide wholesome and economical meals for such occupants. Such occupants of congregate housing may also be provided with other supportive services appropriate to their needs under title IV of the Housing and Community Development Amendments of 1978" for "low-income housing (A) in which some or all of the dwelling units do not have kitchen facilities, and (B) connected with which there is a central dining facility to provide wholesome and economical meals for elderly and displaced families under terms and conditions prescribed by the public housing agency to permit a generally self-supporting operation".

Effective and Termination Dates of 1996 Amendments

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–330 effective Oct. 1, 1997, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 107 of Pub. L. 104–330, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4101 of Title 25, Indians.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–120 to be construed to have become effective Oct. 1, 1995, notwithstanding the effective date of any regulations issued by Secretary of Housing and Urban Development to implement amendments by sections 9 and 10 of Pub. L. 104–120 or any failure by Secretary to issue any such regulations, see section 13 of Pub. L. 104–120, set out as a note under section 1437d of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–99 effective Jan. 26, 1996, only for fiscal years 1996, 1997, and 1998, and to cease to be effective Oct. 21, 1998, see section 402(f) of Pub. L. 104–99, as amended, and section 514(f) of Pub. L. 105–276, set out as notes under section 1437a of this title.

Effective Date of 1992 Amendment

Amendment by subtitles B through F of title VI [§§621–685] of Pub. L. 102–550 applicable upon expiration of 6-month period beginning Oct. 28, 1992, except as otherwise provided, see section 13642 of this title.

Inapplicability of Certain 1992 Amendments to Indian Public Housing

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–550 not applicable with respect to lower income housing developed or operated pursuant to contract between Secretary of Housing and Urban Development and Indian housing authority, see section 626 of Pub. L. 102–550, set out as a note under section 1437a of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1437f. Low-income housing assistance

(a) Authorization for assistance payments

For the purpose of aiding low-income families in obtaining a decent place to live and of promoting economically mixed housing, assistance payments may be made with respect to existing housing in accordance with the provisions of this section.

(b) Other existing housing programs

(1) In general.—The Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with public housing agencies pursuant to which such agencies may enter into contracts to make assistance payments to owners of existing dwelling units in accordance with this section. In areas where no public housing agency has been organized or where the Secretary determines that a public housing agency is unable to implement the provisions of this section, the Secretary is authorized to enter into such contracts and to perform the other functions assigned to a public housing agency by this section.

(2) The Secretary is authorized to enter into annual contributions contracts with public housing agencies for the purpose of replacing public housing transferred in accordance with subchapter II–A of this chapter. Each contract entered into under this subsection shall be for a term of not more than 60 months.

(c) Contents and purposes of contracts for assistance payments; amount and scope of monthly assistance payments

(1)(A) An assistance contract entered into pursuant to this section shall establish the maximum monthly rent (including utilities and all maintenance and management charges) which the owner is entitled to receive for each dwelling unit with respect to which such assistance payments are to be made. The maximum monthly rent shall not exceed by more than 10 per centum the fair market rental established by the Secretary periodically but not less than annually for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units of various sizes and types in the market area suitable for occupancy by persons assisted under this section, except that the maximum monthly rent may exceed the fair market rental (A) by more than 10 but not more than 20 per centum where the Secretary determines that special circumstances warrant such higher maximum rent or that such higher rent is necessary to the implementation of a housing strategy as defined in section 12705 of this title, or (B) by such higher amount as may be requested by a tenant and approved by the public housing agency in accordance with paragraph (3)(B). In the case of newly constructed and substantially rehabilitated units, the exception in the preceding sentence shall not apply to more than 20 per centum of the total amount of authority to enter into annual contributions contracts for such units which is allocated to an area and obligated with respect to any fiscal year beginning on or after October 1, 1980. Each fair market rental in effect under this subsection shall be adjusted to be effective on October 1 of each year to reflect changes, based on the most recent available data trended so the rentals will be current for the year to which they apply, of rents for existing or newly constructed rental dwelling units, as the case may be, of various sizes and types in the market area suitable for occupancy by persons assisted under this section. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, after October 12, 1977, the Secretary shall prohibit high-rise elevator projects for families with children unless there is no practical alternative. If units assisted under this section are exempt from local rent control while they are so assisted or otherwise, the maximum monthly rent for such units shall be reasonable in comparison with other units in the market area that are exempt from local rent control.

(B) Fair market rentals for an area shall be published not less than annually by the Secretary on the site of the Department on the World Wide Web and in any other manner specified by the Secretary. Notice that such fair market rentals are being published shall be published in the Federal Register, and such fair market rentals shall become effective no earlier than 30 days after the date of such publication. The Secretary shall establish a procedure for public housing agencies and other interested parties to comment on such fair market rentals and to request, within a time specified by the Secretary, reevaluation of the fair market rentals in a jurisdiction before such rentals become effective. The Secretary shall cause to be published for comment in the Federal Register notices of proposed material changes in the methodology for estimating fair market rentals and notices specifying the final decisions regarding such proposed substantial methodological changes and responses to public comments.

(2)(A) The assistance contract shall provide for adjustment annually or more frequently in the maximum monthly rents for units covered by the contract to reflect changes in the fair market rentals established in the housing area for similar types and sizes of dwelling units or, if the Secretary determines, on the basis of a reasonable formula. However, where the maximum monthly rent, for a unit in a new construction, substantial rehabilitation, or moderate rehabilitation project, to be adjusted using an annual adjustment factor exceeds the fair market rental for an existing dwelling unit in the market area, the Secretary shall adjust the rent only to the extent that the owner demonstrates that the adjusted rent would not exceed the rent for an unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, as determined by the Secretary. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995, fiscal year 1996 prior to April 26, 1996, and fiscal years 1997 and 1998, and during fiscal year 1999 and thereafter. Except for assistance under the certificate program, for any unit occupied by the same family at the time of the last annual rental adjustment, where the assistance contract provides for the adjustment of the maximum monthly rent by applying an annual adjustment factor and where the rent for a unit is otherwise eligible for an adjustment based on the full amount of the factor, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the factor, except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0. In the case of assistance under the certificate program, 0.01 shall be subtracted from the amount of the annual adjustment factor (except that the factor shall not be reduced to less than 1.0), and the adjusted rent shall not exceed the rent for a comparable unassisted unit of similar quality, type, and age in the market area. The immediately foregoing two sentences shall be effective only during fiscal year 1995, fiscal year 1996 prior to April 26, 1996, and fiscal years 1997 and 1998, and during fiscal year 1999 and thereafter. In establishing annual adjustment factors for units in new construction and substantial rehabilitation projects, the Secretary shall take into account the fact that debt service is a fixed expense. The immediately foregoing sentence shall be effective only during fiscal year 1998.

(B) The contract shall further provide for the Secretary to make additional adjustments in the maximum monthly rent for units under contract to the extent he determines such adjustments are necessary to reflect increases in the actual and necessary expenses of owning and maintaining the units which have resulted from substantial general increases in real property taxes, utility rates, or similar costs which are not adequately compensated for by the adjustment in the maximum monthly rent authorized by subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall make additional adjustments in the maximum monthly rent for units under contract (subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments) to the extent the Secretary determines such adjustments are necessary to reflect increases in the actual and necessary expenses of owning and maintaining the units that have resulted from the expiration of a real property tax exemption. Where the Secretary determines that a project assisted under this section is located in a community where drug-related criminal activity is generally prevalent and the project's operating, maintenance, and capital repair expenses have been substantially increased primarily as a result of the prevalence of such drug-related activity, the Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments for this purpose), on a project by project basis, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents, to a level no greater than 120 percent of the project rents, to cover the costs of maintenance, security, capital repairs, and reserves required for the owner to carry out a strategy acceptable to the Secretary for addressing the problem of drug-related criminal activity. Any rent comparability standard required under this paragraph may be waived by the Secretary to so implement the preceding sentence. The Secretary may (at the discretion of the Secretary and subject to the availability of appropriations for contract amendments), on a project by project basis for projects receiving project-based assistance, provide adjustments to the maximum monthly rents to cover the costs of evaluating and reducing lead-based paint hazards, as defined in section 4851b of this title.

(C) Adjustments in the maximum rents under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall not result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, as determined by the Secretary. In implementing the limitation established under the preceding sentence, the Secretary shall establish regulations for conducting comparability studies for projects where the Secretary has reason to believe that the application of the formula adjustments under subparagraph (A) would result in such material differences. The Secretary shall conduct such studies upon the request of any owner of any project, or as the Secretary determines to be appropriate by establishing, to the extent practicable, a modified annual adjustment factor for such market area, as the Secretary shall designate, that is geographically smaller than the applicable housing area used for the establishment of the annual adjustment factor under subparagraph (A). The Secretary shall establish such modified annual adjustment factor on the basis of the results of a study conducted by the Secretary of the rents charged, and any change in such rents over the previous year, for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the smaller market area. Where the Secretary determines that such modified annual adjustment factor cannot be established or that such factor when applied to a particular project would result in material differences between the rents charged for assisted units and unassisted units of similar quality, type, and age in the same market area, the Secretary may apply an alternative methodology for conducting comparability studies in order to establish rents that are not materially different from rents charged for comparable unassisted units. If the Secretary or appropriate State agency does not complete and submit to the project owner a comparability study not later than 60 days before the anniversary date of the assistance contract under this section, the automatic annual adjustment factor shall be applied. The Secretary may not reduce the contract rents in effect on or after April 15, 1987, for newly constructed, substantially rehabilitated, or moderately rehabilitated projects assisted under this section (including projects assisted under this section as in effect prior to November 30, 1983), unless the project has been refinanced in a manner that reduces the periodic payments of the owner. Any maximum monthly rent that has been reduced by the Secretary after April 14, 1987, and prior to November 7, 1988, shall be restored to the maximum monthly rent in effect on April 15, 1987. For any project which has had its maximum monthly rents reduced after April 14, 1987, the Secretary shall make assistance payments (from amounts reserved for the original contract) to the owner of such project in an amount equal to the difference between the maximum monthly rents in effect on April 15, 1987, and the reduced maximum monthly rents, multiplied by the number of months that the reduced maximum monthly rents were in effect.

(3) The amount of the monthly assistance payment with respect to any dwelling unit shall be the difference between the maximum monthly rent which the contract provides that the owner is to receive for the unit and the rent the family is required to pay under section 1437a(a) of this title. Reviews of family income shall be made no less frequently than annually.

(4) The assistance contract shall provide that assistance payments may be made only with respect to a dwelling unit under lease for occupancy by a family determined to be a lower income family at the time it initially occupied such dwelling unit, except that such payments may be made with respect to unoccupied units for a period not exceeding sixty days (A) in the event that a family vacates a dwelling unit before the expiration date of the lease for occupancy or (B) where a good faith effort is being made to fill an unoccupied unit, and, subject to the provisions of the following sentence, such payments may be made, in the case of a newly constructed or substantially rehabilitated project, after such sixty-day period in an amount equal to the debt service attributable to such an unoccupied dwelling unit for a period not to exceed one year, if a good faith effort is being made to fill the unit and the unit provides decent, safe, and sanitary housing. No such payment may be made after such sixty-day period if the Secretary determines that the dwelling unit is in a project which provides the owner with revenues exceeding the costs incurred by such owner with respect to such project.

(5) The Secretary shall take such steps as may be necessary, including the making of contracts for assistance payments in amounts in excess of the amounts required at the time of the initial renting of dwelling units, the reservation of annual contributions authority for the purpose of amending housing assistance contracts, or the allocation of a portion of new authorizations for the purpose of amending housing assistance contracts, to assure that assistance payments are increased on a timely basis to cover increases in maximum monthly rents or decreases in family incomes.

(6) Redesignated (5).

(7) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §550(a)(3)(C), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609

(8)(A) Not less than one year before termination of any contract under which assistance payments are received under this section, other than a contract for tenant-based assistance under this section, an owner shall provide written notice to the Secretary and the tenants involved of the proposed termination. The notice shall also include a statement that, if the Congress makes funds available, the owner and the Secretary may agree to a renewal of the contract, thus avoiding termination, and that in the event of termination the Department of Housing and Urban Development will provide tenant-based rental assistance to all eligible residents, enabling them to choose the place they wish to rent, which is likely to include the dwelling unit in which they currently reside. Any contract covered by this paragraph that is renewed may be renewed for a period of up to 1 year or any number or years, with payments subject to the availability of appropriations for any year.

(B) In the event the owner does not provide the notice required, the owner may not evict the tenants or increase the tenants' rent payment until such time as the owner has provided the notice and 1 year has elapsed. The Secretary may allow the owner to renew the terminating contract for a period of time sufficient to give tenants 1 year of advance notice under such terms and conditions as the Secretary may require.

(C) Any notice under this paragraph shall also comply with any additional requirements established by the Secretary.

(D) For purposes of this paragraph, the term "termination" means the expiration of the assistance contract or an owner's refusal to renew the assistance contract, and such term shall include termination of the contract for business reasons.

(d) Required provisions and duration of contracts for assistance payments; waiver of limitation

(1) Contracts to make assistance payments entered into by a public housing agency with an owner of existing housing units shall provide (with respect to any unit) that—

(A) the selection of tenants shall be the function of the owner, subject to the annual contributions contract between the Secretary and the agency, except that with respect to the certificate and moderate rehabilitation programs only, for the purpose of selecting families to be assisted, the public housing agency may establish local preferences, consistent with the public housing agency plan submitted under section 1437c–1 of this title by the public housing agency;

(B)(i) the lease between the tenant and the owner shall be for at least one year or the term of such contract, whichever is shorter, and shall contain other terms and conditions specified by the Secretary;

(ii) during the term of the lease, the owner shall not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms and conditions of the lease, for violation of applicable Federal, State, or local law, or for other good cause;

(iii) during the term of the lease, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises, or any drug-related criminal activity on or near such premises, engaged in by a tenant of any unit, any member of the tenant's household, or any guest or other person under the tenant's control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;

(iv) any termination of tenancy shall be preceded by the owner's provision of written notice to the tenant specifying the grounds for such action; and

(v) it shall be cause for termination of the tenancy of a tenant if such tenant—

(I) is fleeing to avoid prosecution, or custody or confinement after conviction, under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, for a crime, or attempt to commit a crime, which is a felony under the laws of the place from which the individual flees, or which, in the case of the State of New Jersey, is a high misdemeanor under the laws of such State; or

(II) is violating a condition of probation or parole imposed under Federal or State law;


(C) maintenance and replacement (including redecoration) shall be in accordance with the standard practice for the building concerned as established by the owner and agreed to by the agency; and

(D) the agency and the owner shall carry out such other appropriate terms and conditions as may be mutually agreed to by them.


(2)(A) Each contract for an existing structure entered into under this section shall be for a term of not less than one month nor more than one hundred and eighty months. The Secretary shall permit public housing agencies to enter into contracts for assistance payments of less than 12 months duration in order to avoid disruption in assistance to eligible families if the annual contributions contract is within 1 year of its expiration date.

(B)(i) In determining the amount of assistance provided under an assistance contract for project-based assistance under this paragraph or a contract for assistance for housing constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under subsection (b)(2) of this section (as such subsection existed immediately before October 1, 1983), the Secretary may consider and annually adjust, with respect to such project, for the cost of employing or otherwise retaining the services of one or more service coordinators under section 661 1 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13631] to coordinate the provision of any services within the project for residents of the project who are elderly or disabled families.

(ii) The budget authority available under section 1437c(c) of this title for assistance under this section is authorized to be increased by $15,000,000 on or after October 1, 1992, and by $15,000,000 on or after October 1, 1993. Amounts made available under this subparagraph shall be used to provide additional amounts under annual contributions contracts for assistance under this section which shall be made available through assistance contracts only for the purpose of providing service coordinators under clause (i) for projects receiving project-based assistance under this paragraph and to provide additional amounts under contracts for assistance for projects constructed or substantially rehabilitated pursuant to assistance provided under subsection (b)(2) of this section (as such subsection existed immediately before October 1, 1983) only for such purpose.

(C) An assistance contract for project-based assistance under this paragraph shall provide that the owner shall ensure and maintain compliance with subtitle C of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13601 et seq.] and any regulations issued under such subtitle.

(D) An owner of a covered section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] housing project (as such term is defined in section 659 of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13619]) may give preference for occupancy of dwelling units in the project, and reserve units for occupancy, in accordance with subtitle D of title VI of the Housing and Community Development Act of 1992 [42 U.S.C. 13611 et seq.].

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, with the approval of the Secretary the public housing agency administering a contract under this section with respect to existing housing units may exercise all management and maintenance responsibilities with respect to those units pursuant to a contract between such agency and the owner of such units.

(4) A public housing agency that serves more than one unit of general local government may, at the discretion of the agency, in allocating assistance under this section, give priority to disabled families that are not elderly families.

(5) Calculation of limit.—Any contract entered into under section 514 of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 shall be excluded in computing the limit on project-based assistance under this subsection.

(6) Treatment of common areas.—The Secretary may not provide any assistance amounts pursuant to an existing contract for project-based assistance under this section for a housing project and may not enter into a new or renewal contract for such assistance for a project unless the owner of the project provides consent, to such local law enforcement agencies as the Secretary determines appropriate, for law enforcement officers of such agencies to enter common areas of the project at any time and without advance notice upon a determination of probable cause by such officers that criminal activity is taking place in such areas.

(e) Restrictions on contracts for assistance payments

(1) Nothing in this chapter shall be deemed to prohibit an owner from pledging, or offering as security for any loan or obligation, a contract for assistance payments entered into pursuant to this section: Provided, That such security is in connection with a project constructed or rehabilitated pursuant to authority granted in this section, and the terms of the financing or any refinancing have been approved by the Secretary.

(2) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–625, title II, §289(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4128

(f) Definitions

As used in this section—

(1) the term "owner" means any private person or entity, including a cooperative, an agency of the Federal Government, or a public housing agency, having the legal right to lease or sublease dwelling units;

(2) the terms "rent" or "rental" mean, with respect to members of a cooperative, the charges under the occupancy agreements between such members and the cooperative;

(3) the term "debt service" means the required payments for principal and interest made with respect to a mortgage secured by housing assisted under this chapter;

(4) the term "participating jurisdiction" means a State or unit of general local government designated by the Secretary to be a participating jurisdiction under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.];

(5) the term "drug-related criminal activity" means the illegal manufacture, sale, distribution, use, or possession with intent to manufacture, sell, distribute, or use, of a controlled substance (as defined in section 802 of title 21);

(6) the term "project-based assistance" means rental assistance under subsection (b) that is attached to the structure pursuant to subsection (d)(2) or (o)(13); and

(7) the term "tenant-based assistance" means rental assistance under subsection (o) that is not project-based assistance and that provides for the eligible family to select suitable housing and to move to other suitable housing.

(g) Regulations applicable for implementation of assistance payments

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, assistance payments under this section may be provided, in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Secretary, with respect to some or all of the units in any project approved pursuant to section 1701q of title 12.

(h) Nonapplicability of inconsistent provisions to contracts for assistance payments

Sections 1437c(e) and 1437d of this title (except as provided in section 1437d(j)(3) of this title), and any other provisions of this chapter which are inconsistent with the provisions of this section shall not apply to contracts for assistance entered into under this section.

(i) Receipt of assistance by public housing agency under other law not to be considered

The Secretary may not consider the receipt by a public housing agency of assistance under section 811(b)(1) of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 8013(b)(1)], or the amount received, in approving assistance for the agency under this section or determining the amount of such assistance to be provided.

(j) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §550(a)(6), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609

(k) Verification of income

The Secretary shall establish procedures which are appropriate and necessary to assure that income data provided to public housing agencies and owners by families applying for or receiving assistance under this section is complete and accurate. In establishing such procedures, the Secretary shall randomly, regularly, and periodically select a sample of families to authorize the Secretary to obtain information on these families for the purpose of income verification, or to allow those families to provide such information themselves. Such information may include, but is not limited to, data concerning unemployment compensation and Federal income taxation and data relating to benefits made available under the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 301 et seq.], the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.], or title 38. Any such information received pursuant to this subsection shall remain confidential and shall be used only for the purpose of verifying incomes in order to determine eligibility of families for benefits (and the amount of such benefits, if any) under this section.

(l), (m) Repealed. Pub. L. 98–181, title I [title II, §209(a)(5)], Nov. 30, 1983, 97 Stat. 1183

(n) Repealed. Pub. L. 105–276, title V, §550(a)(7), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2609

(o) Voucher program

(1) Authority

(A) In general

The Secretary may provide assistance to public housing agencies for tenant-based assistance using a payment standard established in accordance with subparagraph (B). The payment standard shall be used to determine the monthly assistance that may be paid for any family, as provided in paragraph (2).

(B) Establishment of payment standard

Except as provided under subparagraph (D), the payment standard for each size of dwelling unit in a market area shall not exceed 110 percent of the fair market rental established under subsection (c) for the same size of dwelling unit in the same market area and shall be not less than 90 percent of that fair market rental, except that no public housing agency shall be required as a result of a reduction in the fair market rental to reduce the payment standard applied to a family continuing to reside in a unit for which the family was receiving assistance under this section at the time the fair market rental was reduced. The Secretary shall allow public housing agencies to request exception payment standards within fair market rental areas subject to criteria and procedures established by the Secretary.

(C) Set-aside

The Secretary may set aside not more than 5 percent of the budget authority made available for assistance under this subsection as an adjustment pool. The Secretary shall use amounts in the adjustment pool to make adjusted payments to public housing agencies under subparagraph (A), to ensure continued affordability, if the Secretary determines that additional assistance for such purpose is necessary, based on documentation submitted by a public housing agency.

(D) Approval

The Secretary may require a public housing agency to submit the payment standard of the public housing agency to the Secretary for approval, if the payment standard is less than 90 percent of the fair market rental or exceeds 110 percent of the fair market rental, except that a public housing agency may establish a payment standard of not more than 120 percent of the fair market rent where necessary as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, without approval of the Secretary. A public housing agency may use a payment standard that is greater than 120 percent of the fair market rent as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, but only with the approval of the Secretary. In connection with the use of any increased payment standard established or approved pursuant to either of the preceding two sentences as a reasonable accommodation for a person with a disability, the Secretary may not establish additional requirements regarding the amount of adjusted income paid by such person for rent.

(E) Review

The Secretary—

(i) shall monitor rent burdens and review any payment standard that results in a significant percentage of the families occupying units of any size paying more than 30 percent of adjusted income for rent; and

(ii) may require a public housing agency to modify the payment standard of the public housing agency based on the results of that review.

(2) Amount of monthly assistance payment

Subject to the requirement under section 1437a(a)(3) of this title (relating to minimum rental amount), the monthly assistance payment for a family receiving assistance under this subsection shall be determined as follows:

(A) Tenant-based assistance; rent not exceeding payment standard

For a family receiving tenant-based assistance, if the rent for the family (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) does not exceed the applicable payment standard established under paragraph (1), the monthly assistance payment for the family shall be equal to the amount by which the rent (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) exceeds the greatest of the following amounts, rounded to the nearest dollar:

(i) 30 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family.

(ii) 10 percent of the monthly income of the family.

(iii) If the family is receiving payments for welfare assistance from a public agency and a part of those payments, adjusted in accordance with the actual housing costs of the family, is specifically designated by that agency to meet the housing costs of the family, the portion of those payments that is so designated.

(B) Tenant-based assistance; rent exceeding payment standard

For a family receiving tenant-based assistance, if the rent for the family (including the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities) exceeds the applicable payment standard established under paragraph (1), the monthly assistance payment for the family shall be equal to the amount by which the applicable payment standard exceeds the greatest of amounts under clauses (i), (ii), and (iii) of subparagraph (A).

(C) Families receiving project-based assistance

For a family receiving project-based assistance, the rent that the family is required to pay shall be determined in accordance with section 1437a(a)(1) of this title, and the amount of the housing assistance payment shall be determined in accordance with subsection (c)(3) of this section.

(D) Utility allowance

(i) General

In determining the monthly assistance payment for a family under subparagraphs (A) and (B), the amount allowed for tenant-paid utilities shall not exceed the appropriate utility allowance for the family unit size as determined by the public housing agency regardless of the size of the dwelling unit leased by the family.

(ii) Exception for families in including persons with disabilities

Notwithstanding subparagraph (A), upon request by a family that includes a person with disabilities, the public housing agency shall approve a utility allowance that is higher than the applicable amount on the utility allowance schedule if a higher utility allowance is needed as a reasonable accommodation to make the program accessible to and usable by the family member with a disability.

(3) 40 percent limit

At the time a family initially receives tenant-based assistance under this section with respect to any dwelling unit, the total amount that a family may be required to pay for rent may not exceed 40 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family.

(4) Eligible families

To be eligible to receive assistance under this subsection, a family shall, at the time a family initially receives assistance under this subsection, be a low-income family that is—

(A) a very low-income family;

(B) a family previously assisted under this subchapter;

(C) a low-income family that meets eligibility criteria specified by the public housing agency;

(D) a family that qualifies to receive a voucher in connection with a homeownership program approved under title IV of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act; or

(E) a family that qualifies to receive a voucher under section 223 or 226 of the Low-Income Housing Preservation and Resident Homeownership Act of 1990 [12 U.S.C. 4113, 4116].

(5) Reviews of family income

(A) In general

Reviews of family incomes for purposes of this section shall be subject to paragraphs (1), (6), and (7) of section 1437a(a) of this title and to section 3544 of this title.

(B) Procedures

Each public housing agency administering assistance under this subsection shall establish procedures that are appropriate and necessary to ensure that income data provided to the agency and owners by families applying for or receiving assistance from the agency is complete and accurate.

(6) Selection of families and disapproval of owners

(A) Preferences

(i) Authority to establish

Each public housing agency may establish a system for making tenant-based assistance under this subsection available on behalf of eligible families that provides preference for such assistance to eligible families having certain characteristics, which may include a preference for families residing in public housing who are victims of a crime of violence (as such term is defined in section 16 of title 18) that has been reported to an appropriate law enforcement agency.

(ii) Content

Each system of preferences established pursuant to this subparagraph shall be based upon local housing needs and priorities, as determined by the public housing agency using generally accepted data sources, including any information obtained pursuant to an opportunity for public comment as provided under section 1437c–1(f) of this title and under the requirements applicable to the comprehensive housing affordability strategy for the relevant jurisdiction.

(B) Selection of tenants

Each housing assistance payment contract entered into by the public housing agency and the owner of a dwelling unit) 2 shall provide that the screening and selection of families for those units shall be the function of the owner. In addition, the public housing agency may elect to screen applicants for the program in accordance with such requirements as the Secretary may establish. That an applicant or participant is or has been a victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking is not an appropriate basis for denial of program assistance or for denial of admission if the applicant otherwise qualifies for assistance or admission.

(C) PHA disapproval of owners

In addition to other grounds authorized by the Secretary, a public housing agency may elect not to enter into a housing assistance payments contract under this subsection with an owner who refuses, or has a history of refusing, to take action to terminate tenancy for activity engaged in by the tenant, any member of the tenant's household, any guest, or any other person under the control of any member of the household that—

(i) threatens the health or safety of, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by, other tenants or employees of the public housing agency, owner, or other manager of the housing;

(ii) threatens the health or safety of, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the residences by, persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises; or

(iii) is drug-related or violent criminal activity.

(7) Leases and tenancy

Each housing assistance payment contract entered into by the public housing agency and the owner of a dwelling unit—

(A) shall provide that the lease between the tenant and the owner shall be for a term of not less than 1 year, except that the public housing agency may approve a shorter term for an initial lease between the tenant and the dwelling unit owner if the public housing agency determines that such shorter term would improve housing opportunities for the tenant and if such shorter term is considered to be a prevailing local market practice;

(B) shall provide that the dwelling unit owner shall offer leases to tenants assisted under this subsection that—

(i) are in a standard form used in the locality by the dwelling unit owner; and

(ii) contain terms and conditions that—

(I) are consistent with State and local law; and

(II) apply generally to tenants in the property who are not assisted under this section;


(C) shall provide that during the term of the lease, the owner shall not terminate the tenancy except for serious or repeated violation of the terms and conditions of the lease, for violation of applicable Federal, State, or local law, or for other good cause, and in the case of an owner who is an immediate successor in interest pursuant to foreclosure during the term of the lease vacating the property prior to sale shall not constitute other good cause, except that the owner may terminate the tenancy effective on the date of transfer of the unit to the owner if the owner—

(i) will occupy the unit as a primary residence; and

(ii) has provided the tenant a notice to vacate at least 90 days before the effective date of such notice.; 3


(D) shall provide that during the term of the lease, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of the premises by other tenants, any criminal activity that threatens the health, safety, or right to peaceful enjoyment of their residences by persons residing in the immediate vicinity of the premises, or any violent or drug-related criminal activity on or near such premises, engaged in by a tenant of any unit, any member of the tenant's household, or any guest or other person under the tenant's control, shall be cause for termination of tenancy;

(E) shall provide that any termination of tenancy under this subsection shall be preceded by the provision of written notice by the owner to the tenant specifying the grounds for that action, and any relief shall be consistent with applicable State and local law; and

(F) may include any addenda required by the Secretary to set forth the provisions of this subsection. In the case of any foreclosure on any federally-related mortgage loan (as that term is defined in section 2602 of title 12) or on any residential real property in which a recipient of assistance under this subsection resides, the immediate successor in interest in such property pursuant to the foreclosure shall assume such interest subject to the lease between the prior owner and the tenant and to the housing assistance payments contract between the prior owner and the public housing agency for the occupied unit, except that this provision and the provisions related to foreclosure in subparagraph (C) shall not shall not 3 affect any State or local law that provides longer time periods or other additional protections for tenants.

(8) Inspection of units by PHAs

(A) Initial inspection

(i) In general

For each dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection, the public housing agency (or other entity pursuant to paragraph (11)) shall inspect the unit before any assistance payment is made to determine whether the dwelling unit meets the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), except as provided in clause (ii) or (iii) of this subparagraph.

(ii) Correction of non-life-threatening conditions

In the case of any dwelling unit that is determined, pursuant to an inspection under clause (i), not to meet the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), assistance payments may be made for the unit notwithstanding subparagraph (C) if failure to meet such standards is a result only of non-life-threatening conditions, as such conditions are established by the Secretary. A public housing agency making assistance payments pursuant to this clause for a dwelling unit shall, 30 days after the beginning of the period for which such payments are made, withhold any assistance payments for the unit if any deficiency resulting in noncompliance with the housing quality standards has not been corrected by such time. The public housing agency shall recommence assistance payments when such deficiency has been corrected, and may use any payments withheld to make assistance payments relating to the period during which payments were withheld.

(iii) Use of alternative inspection method for interim period

In the case of any property that within the previous 24 months has met the requirements of an inspection that qualifies as an alternative inspection method pursuant to subparagraph (E), a public housing agency may authorize occupancy before the inspection under clause (i) has been completed, and may make assistance payments retroactive to the beginning of the lease term after the unit has been determined pursuant to an inspection under clause (i) to meet the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B). This clause may not be construed to exempt any dwelling unit from compliance with the requirements of subparagraph (D).

(B) Housing quality standards

The housing quality standards under this subparagraph are standards for safe and habitable housing established—

(i) by the Secretary for purposes of this subsection; or

(ii) by local housing codes or by codes adopted by public housing agencies that—

(I) meet or exceed housing quality standards, except that the Secretary may waive the requirement under this subclause to significantly increase access to affordable housing and to expand housing opportunities for families assisted under this subsection, except where such waiver could adversely affect the health or safety of families assisted under this subsection; and

(II) do not severely restrict housing choice 4

(C) Inspection

The determination required under subparagraph (A) shall be made by the public housing agency (or other entity, as provided in paragraph (11)) pursuant to an inspection of the dwelling unit conducted before any assistance payment is made for the unit. Inspections of dwelling units under this subparagraph shall be made before the expiration of the 15-day period beginning upon a request by the resident or landlord to the public housing agency or, in the case of any public housing agency that provides assistance under this subsection on behalf of more than 1250 families, before the expiration of a reasonable period beginning upon such request. The performance of the agency in meeting the 15-day inspection deadline shall be taken into consideration in assessing the performance of the agency.

(D) Biennial inspections

(i) Requirement

Each public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection (or other entity, as provided in paragraph (11)) shall, for each assisted dwelling unit, make inspections not less often than biennially during the term of the housing assistance payments contract for the unit to determine whether the unit is maintained in accordance with the requirements under subparagraph (A).

(ii) Use of alternative inspection method

The requirements under clause (i) may be complied with by use of inspections that qualify as an alternative inspection method pursuant to subparagraph (E).

(iii) Records

The public housing agency (or other entity) shall retain the records of the inspection for a reasonable time, as determined by the Secretary, and shall make the records available upon request to the Secretary, the Inspector General for the Department of Housing and Urban Development, and any auditor conducting an audit under section 1437c(h) of this title.

(iv) Mixed-finance properties

The Secretary may adjust the frequency of inspections for mixed-finance properties assisted with vouchers under paragraph (13) to facilitate the use of the alternative inspections in subparagraph (E).

(E) Alternative inspection method

An inspection of a property shall qualify as an alternative inspection method for purposes of this subparagraph if—

(i) the inspection was conducted pursuant to requirements under a Federal, State, or local housing program (including the Home investment partnership program under title II of the Cranston-Gonzalez National Affordable Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 12721 et seq.] and the low-income housing tax credit program under section 42 of title 26); and

(ii) pursuant to such inspection, the property was determined to meet the standards or requirements regarding housing quality or safety applicable to properties assisted under such program, and, if a non-Federal standard or requirement was used, the public housing agency has certified to the Secretary that such standard or requirement provides the same (or greater) protection to occupants of dwelling units meeting such standard or requirement as would the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B).

(F) Interim inspections

Upon notification to the public housing agency, by a family (on whose behalf tenant-based rental assistance is provided under this subsection) or by a government official, that the dwelling unit for which such assistance is provided does not comply with the housing quality standards under subparagraph (B), the public housing agency shall inspect the dwelling unit—

(i) in the case of any condition that is life-threatening, within 24 hours after the agency's receipt of such notification, unless waived by the Secretary in extraordinary circumstances; and

(ii) in the case of any condition that is not life-threatening, within a reasonable time frame, as determined by the Secretary.

(G) Inspection guidelines

The Secretary shall establish procedural guidelines and performance standards to facilitate inspections of dwelling units and conform such inspections with practices utilized in the private housing market. Such guidelines and standards shall take into consideration variations in local laws and practices of public housing agencies and shall provide flexibility to authorities appropriate to facilitate efficient provision of assistance under this subsection.

(9) Vacated units

If an assisted family vacates a dwelling unit for which rental assistance is provided under a housing assistance payment contract before the expiration of the term of the lease for the unit, rental assistance pursuant to such contract may not be provided for the unit after the month during which the unit was vacated.

(10) Rent

(A) Reasonableness

The rent for dwelling units for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection shall be reasonable in comparison with rents charged for comparable dwelling units in the private, unassisted local market.

(B) Negotiations

A public housing agency (or other entity, as provided in paragraph (11)) shall, at the request of a family receiving tenant-based assistance under this subsection, assist that family in negotiating a reasonable rent with a dwelling unit owner. A public housing agency (or such other entity) shall review the rent for a unit under consideration by the family (and all rent increases for units under lease by the family) to determine whether the rent (or rent increase) requested by the owner is reasonable. If a public housing agency (or other such entity) determines that the rent (or rent increase) for a dwelling unit is not reasonable, the public housing agency (or other such entity) shall not make housing assistance payments to the owner under this subsection with respect to that unit.

(C) Units exempt from local rent control

If a dwelling unit for which a housing assistance payment contract is established under this subsection is exempt from local rent control provisions during the term of that contract, the rent for that unit shall be reasonable in comparison with other units in the market area that are exempt from local rent control provisions.

(D) Timely payments

Each public housing agency shall make timely payment of any amounts due to a dwelling unit owner under this subsection. The housing assistance payment contract between the owner and the public housing agency may provide for penalties for the late payment of amounts due under the contract, which shall be imposed on the public housing agency in accordance with generally accepted practices in the local housing market.

(E) Penalties

Unless otherwise authorized by the Secretary, each public housing agency shall pay any penalties from administrative fees collected by the public housing agency, except that no penalty shall be imposed if the late payment is due to factors that the Secretary determines are beyond the control of the public housing agency.

(F) Tax credit projects

In the case of a dwelling unit receiving tax credits pursuant to section 42 of title 26 or for which assistance is provided under subtitle A of title II of the Cranston Gonzalez 5 National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 [42 U.S.C. 12741 et seq.], for which a housing assistance contract not subject to paragraph (13) of this subsection is established, rent reasonableness shall be determined as otherwise provided by this paragraph, except that—

(i) comparison with rent for units in the private, unassisted local market shall not be required if the rent is equal to or less than the rent for other comparable units receiving such tax credits or assistance in the project that are not occupied by families assisted with tenant-based assistance under this subsection; and

(ii) the rent shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this paragraph if it exceeds the greater of—

(I) the rents charged for other comparable units receiving such tax credits or assistance in the project that are not occupied by families assisted with tenant-based assistance under this subsection; and

(II) the payment standard established by the public housing agency for a unit of the size involved.

(11) Leasing of units owned by PHA

(A) Inspections and rent determinations

If an eligible family assisted under this subsection leases a dwelling unit (other than a public housing dwelling unit) that is owned by a public housing agency administering assistance under this subsection, the Secretary shall require the unit of general local government or another entity approved by the Secretary, to make inspections required under paragraph (8) and rent determinations required under paragraph (10). The agency shall be responsible for any expenses of such inspections and determinations.

(B) Units owned by PHA

For purposes of this subsection, the term "owned by a public housing agency" means, with respect to a dwelling unit, that the dwelling unit is in a project that is owned by such agency, by an entity wholly controlled by such agency, or by a limited liability company or limited partnership in which such agency (or an entity wholly controlled by such agency) holds a controlling interest in the managing member or general partner. A dwelling unit shall not be deemed to be owned by a public housing agency for purposes of this subsection because the agency holds a fee interest as ground lessor in the property on which the unit is situated, holds a security interest under a mortgage or deed of trust on the unit, or holds a non-controlling interest in an entity which owns the unit or in the managing member or general partner of an entity which owns the unit.

(12) Assistance for rental of manufactured housing

(A) In general

A public housing agency may make assistance payments in accordance with this subsection on behalf of a family that utilizes a manufactured home as a principal place of residence. Such payments may be made only for the rental of the real property on which the manufactured home owned by any such family is located.

(B) Rent calculation

(i) Charges included

For assistance pursuant to this paragraph, the rent for the space on which a manufactured home is located and with respect to which assistance payments are to be made shall include maintenance and management charges and tenant-paid utilities.

(ii) Payment standard

The public housing agency shall establish a payment standard for the purpose of determining the monthly assistance that may be paid for any family under this paragraph. The payment standard may not exceed an amount approved or established by the Secretary.

(iii) Monthly assistance payment

The monthly assistance payment for a family assisted under this paragraph shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (2).

(13) PHA project-based assistance

(A) In general

A public housing agency may use amounts provided under an annual contributions contract under this subsection to enter into a housing assistance payment contract with respect to an existing, newly constructed, or rehabilitated structure, that is attached to the structure, subject to the limitations and requirements of this paragraph.

(B) Percentage limitation

Not more than 20 percent of the funding available for tenant-based assistance under this section that is administered by the agency may be attached to structures pursuant to this paragraph.

(C) Consistency with PHA plan and other goals

A public housing agency may approve a housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph only if the contract is consistent with—

(i) the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title; and

(ii) the goal of deconcentrating poverty and expanding housing and economic opportunities.

(D) Income mixing requirement

(i) In general

Not more than 25 percent of the dwelling units in any project may be assisted under a housing assistance payment contract for project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph. For purposes of this subparagraph, the term "project" means a single building, multiple contiguous buildings, or multiple buildings on contiguous parcels of land.

(ii) Exceptions

The limitation under clause (i) shall not apply in the case of assistance under a contract for housing consisting of single family properties or for dwelling units that are specifically made available for households comprised of elderly families, disabled families, and families receiving supportive services.

(E) Resident choice requirement

A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide as follows:

(i) Mobility

Each low-income family occupying a dwelling unit assisted under the contract may move from the housing at any time after the family has occupied the dwelling unit for 12 months.

(ii) Continued assistance

Upon such a move, the public housing agency shall provide the low-income family with tenant-based rental assistance under this section or such other tenant-based rental assistance that is subject to comparable income, assistance, rent contribution, affordability, and other requirements, as the Secretary shall provide by regulation. If such rental assistance is not immediately available to fulfill the requirement under the preceding sentence with respect to a low-income family, such requirement may be met by providing the family priority to receive the next voucher or other tenant-based rental assistance amounts that become available under the program used to fulfill such requirement.

(F) Contract term

A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph between a public housing agency and the owner of a structure may have a term of up to 15 years, subject to the availability of sufficient appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriations Acts and in the agency's annual contributions contract with the Secretary, and to annual compliance with the inspection requirements under paragraph (8), except that the agency shall not be required to make annual inspections of each assisted unit in the development. The contract may specify additional conditions for its continuation. If the units covered by the contract are owned by the agency, the term of the contract shall be agreed upon by the agency and the unit of general local government or other entity approved by the Secretary in the manner provided under paragraph (11).

(G) Extension of contract term

A public housing agency may enter into a contract with the owner of a structure assisted under a housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph to extend the term of the underlying housing assistance payment contract for such period as the agency determines to be appropriate to achieve long-term affordability of the housing or to expand housing opportunities. Such contract may, at the election of the public housing agency and the owner of the structure, specify that such contract shall be extended for renewal terms of up to 15 years each, if the agency makes the determination required by this subparagraph and the owner is in compliance with the terms of the contract. Such a contract shall provide that the extension of such term shall be contingent upon the future availability of appropriated funds for the purpose of renewing expiring contracts for assistance payments, as provided in appropriations Acts, and may obligate the owner to have such extensions of the underlying housing assistance payment contract accepted by the owner and the successors in interest of the owner. A public housing agency may agree to enter into such a contract at the time it enters into the initial agreement for a housing assistance payment contract or at any time thereafter that is before the expiration of the housing assistance payment contract.

(H) Rent calculation

A housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph shall establish rents for each unit assisted in an amount that does not exceed 110 percent of the applicable fair market rental (or any exception payment standard approved by the Secretary pursuant to paragraph (1)(D)), except that if a contract covers a dwelling unit that has been allocated low-income housing tax credits pursuant to section 42 of title 26 and is not located in a qualified census tract (as such term is defined in subsection (d) of such section 42), the rent for such unit may be established at any level that does not exceed the rent charged for comparable units in the building that also receive the low-income housing tax credit but do not have additional rental assistance, except that in the case of a contract unit that has been allocated low-income housing tax credits and for which the rent limitation pursuant to such section 42 is less than the amount that would otherwise be permitted under this subparagraph, the rent for such unit may, in the sole discretion of a public housing agency, be established at the higher section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] rent, subject only to paragraph (10)(A). The rents established by housing assistance payment contracts pursuant to this paragraph may vary from the payment standards established by the public housing agency pursuant to paragraph (1)(B), but shall be subject to paragraph (10)(A).

(I) Rent adjustments

A housing assistance payments contract pursuant to this paragraph shall provide for rent adjustments, except that—

(i) the adjusted rent for any unit assisted shall be reasonable in comparison with rents charged for comparable dwelling units in the private, unassisted, local market and may not exceed the maximum rent permitted under subparagraph (H), except that the contract may provide that the maximum rent permitted for a dwelling unit shall not be less than the initial rent for the dwelling unit under the initial housing assistance payments contract covering the unit; and

(ii) the provisions of subsection (c)(2)(C) shall not apply.

(J) Tenant selection

A public housing agency shall select families to receive project-based assistance pursuant to this paragraph from its waiting list for assistance under this subsection. Eligibility for such project-based assistance shall be subject to the provisions of section 1437n(b) of this title that apply to tenant-based assistance. The agency may establish preferences or criteria for selection for a unit assisted under this paragraph that are consistent with the public housing agency plan for the agency approved under section 1437c–1 of this title. Any family that rejects an offer of project-based assistance under this paragraph or that is rejected for admission to a structure by the owner or manager of a structure assisted under this paragraph shall retain its place on the waiting list as if the offer had not been made. The owner or manager of a structure assisted under this paragraph shall not admit any family to a dwelling unit assisted under a contract pursuant to this paragraph other than a family referred by the public housing agency from its waiting list. Subject to its waiting list policies and selection preferences, a public housing agency may place on its waiting list a family referred by the owner or manager of a structure and may maintain a separate waiting list for assistance under this paragraph, but only if all families on the agency's waiting list for assistance under this subsection are permitted to place their names on the separate list.

(K) Vacated units

Notwithstanding paragraph (9), a housing assistance payment contract pursuant to this paragraph may provide as follows:

(i) Payment for vacant units

That the public housing agency may, in its discretion, continue to provide assistance under the contract, for a reasonable period not exceeding 60 days, for a dwelling unit that becomes vacant, but only: (I) if the vacancy was not the fault of the owner of the dwelling unit; and (II) the agency and the owner take every reasonable action to minimize the likelihood and extent of any such vacancy. Rental assistance may not be provided for a vacant unit after the expiration of such period.

(ii) Reduction of contract

That, if despite reasonable efforts of the agency and the owner to fill a vacant unit, no eligible family has agreed to rent the unit within 120 days after the owner has notified the agency of the vacancy, the agency may reduce its housing assistance payments contract with the owner by the amount equivalent to the remaining months of subsidy attributable to the vacant unit. Amounts deobligated pursuant to such a contract provision shall be available to the agency to provide assistance under this subsection.


Eligible applicants for assistance under this subsection may enforce provisions authorized by this subparagraph.

(L) Use in cooperative housing and elevator buildings

A public housing agency may enter into a housing assistance payments contract under this paragraph with respect to—

(i) dwelling units in cooperative housing; and

(ii) notwithstanding subsection (c), dwelling units in a high-rise elevator project, including such a project that is occupied by families with children, without review and approval of the contract by the Secretary.

(M) Reviews

(i) Subsidy layering

A subsidy layering review in accordance with section 3545(d) of this title shall not be required for assistance under this paragraph in the case of a housing assistance payments contract for an existing structure, or if a subsidy layering review has been conducted by the applicable State or local agency.

(ii) Environmental review

A public housing agency shall not be required to undertake any environmental review before entering into a housing assistance payments contract under this paragraph for an existing structure, except to the extent such a review is otherwise required by law or regulation.

(14) Inapplicability to tenant-based assistance

Subsection (c) shall not apply to tenant-based assistance under this subsection.

(15) Homeownership option

(A) In general

A public housing agency providing assistance under this subsection may, at the option of the agency, provide assistance for homeownership under subsection (y).

(B) Alternative administration

A public housing agency may contract with a nonprofit organization to administer a homeownership program under subsection (y).

(16) Rental vouchers for relocation of witnesses and victims of crime

(A) Witnesses

Of amounts made available for assistance under this subsection in each fiscal year, the Secretary, in consultation with the Inspector General, shall make available such sums as may be necessary for the relocation of witnesses in connection with efforts to combat crime in public and assisted housing pursuant to requests from law enforcement or prosecution agencies.

(B) Victims of crime

(i) In general

Of amounts made available for assistance under this section in each fiscal year, the Secretary shall make available such sums as may be necessary for the relocation of families residing in public housing who are victims of a crime of violence (as that term is defined in section 16 of title 18) that has been reported to an appropriate law enforcement agency.

(ii) Notice

A public housing agency that receives amounts under this subparagraph shall establish procedures for providing notice of the availability of that assistance to families that may be eligible for that assistance.

(17) Deed restrictions

Assistance under this subsection may not be used in any manner that abrogates any local deed restriction that applies to any housing consisting of 1 to 4 dwelling units. This paragraph may not be construed to affect the provisions or applicability of the Fair Housing Act [42 U.S.C. 3601 et seq.].

(18) Rental assistance for assisted living facilities

(A) In general

A public housing agency may make assistance payments on behalf of a family that uses an assisted living facility as a principal place of residence and that uses such supportive services made available in the facility as the agency may require. Such payments may be made only for covering costs of rental of the dwelling unit in the assisted living facility and not for covering any portion of the cost of residing in such facility that is attributable to service relating to assisted living.

(B) Rent calculation

(i) Charges included

For assistance pursuant to this paragraph, the rent of the dwelling unit that is an assisted living facility with respect to which assistance payments are made shall include maintenance and management charges related to the dwelling unit and tenant-paid utilities. Such rent shall not include any charges attributable to services relating to assisted living.

(ii) Payment standard

In determining the monthly assistance that may be paid under this paragraph on behalf of any family residing in an assisted living facility, the public housing agency shall utilize the payment standard established under paragraph (1), for the market area in which the assisted living facility is located, for the applicable size dwelling unit.

(iii) Monthly assistance payment

The monthly assistance payment for a family assisted under this paragraph shall be determined in accordance with paragraph (2) (using the rent and payment standard for the dwelling unit as determined in accordance with this subsection), except that a family may be required at the time the family initially receives such assistance to pay rent in an amount exceeding 40 percent of the monthly adjusted income of the family by such an amount or percentage that is reasonable given the services and amenities provided and as the Secretary deems appropriate..6

(C) Definition

For the purposes of this paragraph, the term "assisted living facility" has the meaning given that term in section 232(b) of the National Housing Act (12 U.S.C. 1715w(b)), except that such a facility may be contained within a portion of a larger multifamily housing project.

(19) Rental vouchers for Veterans Affairs supported housing program

(A) Set aside

Subject to subparagraph (C), the Secretary shall set aside, from amounts made available for rental assistance under this subsection, the amounts specified in subparagraph (B) for use only for providing such assistance through a supported housing program administered in conjunction with the Department of Veterans Affairs. Such program shall provide rental assistance on behalf of homeless veterans who have chronic mental illnesses or chronic substance use disorders, shall require agreement of the veteran to continued treatment for such mental illness or substance use disorder as a condition of receipt of such rental assistance, and shall ensure such treatment and appropriate case management for each veteran receiving such rental assistance.

(B) Amount

The amount specified in this subparagraph is—

(i) for fiscal year 2007, the amount necessary to provide 500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;

(ii) for fiscal year 2008, the amount necessary to provide 1,000 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;

(iii) for fiscal year 2009, the amount necessary to provide 1,500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection;

(iv) for fiscal year 2010, the amount necessary to provide 2,000 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection; and

(v) for fiscal year 2011, the amount necessary to provide 2,500 vouchers for rental assistance under this subsection.

(C) Funding through incremental assistance

In any fiscal year, to the extent that this paragraph requires the Secretary to set aside rental assistance amounts for use under this paragraph in an amount that exceeds the amount set aside in the preceding fiscal year, such requirement shall be effective only to such extent or in such amounts as are or have been provided in appropriation Acts for such fiscal year for incremental rental assistance under this subsection.

(20) Collection of utility data

(A) Publication

The Secretary shall, to the extent that data can be collected cost effectively, regularly publish such data regarding utility consumption and costs in local areas as the Secretary determines will be useful for the establishment of allowances for tenant-paid utilities for families assisted under this subsection.

(B) Use of data

The Secretary shall provide such data in a manner that—

(i) avoids unnecessary administrative burdens for public housing agencies and owners; and

(ii) protects families in various unit sizes and building types, and using various utilities, from high rent and utility cost burdens relative to income.

(p) Shared housing for elderly and handicapped

In order to assist elderly families (as defined in section 1437a(b)(3) of this title who elect to live in a shared housing arrangement in which they benefit as a result of sharing the facilities of a dwelling with others in a manner that effectively and efficiently meets their housing needs and thereby reduces their cost of housing, the Secretary shall permit assistance provided under the existing housing and moderate rehabilitation programs to be used by such families in such arrangements. In carrying out this subsection, the Secretary shall issue minimum habitability standards for the purpose of assuring decent, safe, and sanitary housing for such families while taking into account the special circumstances of shared housing.

(q) Administrative fees

(1) Fee for ongoing costs of administration

(A) In general

The Secretary shall establish fees for the costs of administering the tenant-based assistance, certificate, voucher, and moderate rehabilitation programs under this section.

(B) Fiscal year 1999

(i) Calculation

For fiscal year 1999, the fee for each month for which a dwelling unit is covered by an assistance contract shall be—

(I) in the case of a public housing agency that, on an annual basis, is administering a program for not more than 600 dwelling units, 7.65 percent of the base amount; and

(II) in the case of an agency that, on an annual basis, is administering a program for more than 600 dwelling units (aa) for the first 600 units, 7.65 percent of the base amount, and (bb) for any additional dwelling units under the program, 7.0 percent of the base amount.

(ii) Base amount

For purposes of this subparagraph, the base amount shall be the higher of—

(I) the fair market rental established under subsection (c) of this section (as in effect immediately before the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998) for fiscal year 1993 for a 2-bedroom existing rental dwelling unit in the market area of the agency, and

(II) the amount that is the lesser of (aa) such fair market rental for fiscal year 1994, or (bb) 103.5 percent of the amount determined under clause (i),


 adjusted based on changes in wage data or other objectively measurable data that reflect the costs of administering the program, as determined by the Secretary. The Secretary may require that the base amount be not less than a minimum amount and not more than a maximum amount.

(C) Subsequent fiscal years

For subsequent fiscal years, the Secretary shall publish a notice in the Federal Register, for each geographic area, establishing the amount of the fee that would apply for public housing agencies administering the program, based on changes in wage data or other objectively measurable data that reflect the costs of administering the program, as determined by the Secretary.

(D) Increase

The Secretary may increase the fee if necessary to reflect the higher costs of administering small programs and programs operating over large geographic areas.

(E) Decrease

The Secretary may decrease the fee for units owned by a public housing agency to reflect reasonable costs of administration.

(2) Fee for preliminary expenses

The Secretary shall also establish reasonable fees (as determined by the Secretary) for—

(A) the costs of preliminary expenses, in the amount of $500, for a public housing agency, except that such fee shall apply to an agency only in the first year that the agency administers a tenant-based assistance program under this section, and only if, immediately before the effective date under section 503(a) of the Quality Housing and Work Responsibility Act of 1998, the agency was not administering a tenant-based assistance program under this chapter (as in effect immediately before such effective date), in connection with its initial increment of assistance received;

(B) the costs incurred in assisting families who experience difficulty (as determined by the Secretary) in obtaining appropriate housing under the programs; and

(C) extraordinary costs approved by the Secretary.

(3) Transfer of fees in cases of concurrent geographical jurisdiction

In each fiscal year, if any public housing agency provides tenant-based assistance under this section on behalf of a family who uses such assistance for a dwelling unit that is located within the jurisdiction of such agency but is also within the jurisdiction of another public housing agency, the Secretary shall take such steps as may be necessary to ensure that the public housing agency that provides the services for a family receives all or part of the administrative fee under this section (as appropriate).

(4) Applicability

This subsection shall apply to fiscal year 1999 and fiscal years thereafter.

(r) Portability

(1) In general.—(A) Any family receiving tenant-based assistance under subsection (o) may receive such assistance to rent an eligible dwelling unit if the dwelling unit to which the family moves is within any area in which a program is being administered under this section.

(B)(i) Notwithstanding subparagraph (A) and subject to any exceptions established under clause (ii) of this subparagraph, a public housing agency may require that any family not living within the jurisdiction of the public housing agency at the time the family applies for assistance from the agency shall, during the 12-month period beginning on the date of initial receipt of housing assistance made available on behalf of the family from such agency, lease and occupy an eligible dwelling unit located within the jurisdiction served by the agency.

(ii) The Secretary may establish such exceptions to the authority of public housing agencies established under clause (i).

(2) The public housing agency having authority with respect to the dwelling unit to which a family moves under this subsection shall have the responsibility of carrying out the provisions of this subsection with respect to the family.

(3) In providing assistance under subsection (o) for any fiscal year, the Secretary shall give consideration to any reduction in the number of resident families incurred by a public housing agency in the preceding fiscal year as a result of the provisions of this subsection. The Secretary shall establish procedures for the compensation of public housing agencies that issue vouchers to families that move into or out of the jurisdiction of the public housing agency under portability procedures. The Secretary may reserve amounts available for assistance under subsection (o) to compensate those public housing agencies.

(4) The provisions of this subsection may not be construed to restrict any authority of the Secretary under any other provision of law to provide for the portability of assistance under this section.

(5) Lease violations.—A family may not receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit of the family in violation of a lease, except that a family may receive a voucher from a public housing agency and move to another jurisdiction under the tenant-based assistance program if the family has complied with all other obligations of the section 8 [42 U.S.C. 1437f] program and has moved out of the assisted dwelling unit in order to protect the health or safety of an individual who is or has been the victim of domestic violence, dating violence, or stalking and who reasonably believed he or she was imminently threatened by harm from further violence if he or she remained in the assisted dwelling unit.

(s) Prohibition of denial of certificates and vouchers to residents of public housing

In selecting families for the provision of assistance under this section (including subsection (o)), a public housing agency may not exclude or penalize a family solely because the family resides in a public housing project.

(t) Enhanced vouchers

(1) In general

Enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection for a family shall be voucher assistance under subsection (o), except that under such enhanced voucher assistance—

(A) subject only to subparagraph (D), the assisted family shall pay as rent no less than the amount the family was paying on the date of the eligibility event for the project in which the family was residing on such date;

(B) the assisted family may elect to remain in the same project in which the family was residing on the date of the eligibility event for the project, and if, during any period the family makes such an election and continues to so reside, the rent for the dwelling unit of the family in such project exceeds the applicable payment standard established pursuant to subsection (o) for the unit, the amount of rental assistance provided on behalf of the family shall be determined using a payment standard that is equal to the rent for the dwelling unit (as such rent may be increased from time-to-time), subject to paragraph (10)(A) of subsection (o) and any other reasonable limit prescribed by the Secretary, except that a limit shall not be considered reasonable for purposes of this subparagraph if it adversely affects such assisted families;

(C) subparagraph (B) of this paragraph shall not apply and the payment standard for the dwelling unit occupied by the family shall be determined in accordance with subsection (o) if—

(i) the assisted family moves, at any time, from such project; or

(ii) the voucher is made available for use by any family other than the original family on behalf of whom the voucher was provided; and


(D) if the income of the assisted family declines to a significant extent, the percentage of income paid by the family for rent shall not exceed the greater of 30 percent or the percentage of income paid at the time of the eligibility event for the project.

(2) Eligibility event

For purposes of this subsection, the term "eligibility event" means, with respect to a multifamily housing project, the prepayment of the mortgage on such housing project, the voluntary termination of the insurance contract for the mortgage for such housing project (including any such mortgage prepayment during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter or any insurance contract voluntary termination during fiscal year 1996 or a fiscal year thereafter), the termination or expiration of the contract for rental assistance under this section for such housing project (including any such termination or expiration during fiscal years after fiscal year 1994 prior to the effective date of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2001), or the transaction under which the project is preserved as affordable housing, that, under paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 515(c), section 524(d) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (42 U.S.C. 1437f note), section 4113(f) of title 12, or section 1715z–1a(p) of title 12, results in tenants in such housing project being eligible for enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection.

(3) Treatment of enhanced vouchers provided under other authority

(A) In general

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, any enhanced voucher assistance provided under any authority specified in subparagraph (B) shall (regardless of the date that the amounts for providing such assistance were made available) be treated, and subject to the same requirements, as enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection.

(B) Identification of other authority

The authority specified in this subparagraph is the authority under—

(i) the 10th, 11th, and 12th provisos under the "Preserving Existing Housing Investment" account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (Public Law 104–204; 110 Stat. 2884), pursuant to such provisos, the first proviso under the "Housing Certificate Fund" account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1998 (Public Law 105–65; 111 Stat. 1351), or the first proviso under the "Housing Certificate Fund" account in title II of the Departments of Veterans Affairs and Housing and Urban Development, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 (Public Law 105–276; 112 Stat. 2469); and

(ii) paragraphs (3) and (4) of section 515(c) of the Multifamily Assisted Housing Reform and Affordability Act of 1997 (42 U.S.C. 1437f note), as in effect before October 20, 1999.

(4) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated for each of fiscal years 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, and 2004 such sums as may be necessary for enhanced voucher assistance under this subsection.

(u) Assistance for residents of rental rehabilitation projects

In the case of low-income families living in rental projects rehabilitated under section 1437o 7 of this title or section 1490m of this title before rehabilitation—

(1) vouchers under this section shall be made for families who are required to move out of their units because of the physical rehabilitation activities or because of overcrowding;

(2) at the discretion of each public housing agency or other agency administering the allocation of assistance or vouchers under this section may be made for families who would have to pay more than 30 percent of their adjusted income for rent after rehabilitation whether they choose to remain in, or to move from, the project; and

(3) the Secretary shall allocate assistance for vouchers under this section to ensure that sufficient resources are available to address the physical or economic displacement, or potential economic displacement, of existing tenants pursuant to paragraphs (1) and (2).

(v) Extension of expiring contracts

The Secretary may extend expiring contracts entered into under this section for project-based loan management assistance to the extent necessary to prevent displacement of low-income families receiving such assistance as of September 30, 1996.

(w) Repealed. Pub. L. 106–74, title V, §531(d)(2), Oct. 20, 1999, 113 Stat. 1116

(x) Family unification

(1) Increase in budget authority

The budget authority available under section 1437c(c) of this title for assistance under subsection (b) is authorized to be increased by $100,000,000 on or after October 1, 1992, and by $104,200,000 on or after October 1, 1993.

(2) Use of funds

The amounts made available under this subsection shall be used only in connection with tenant-based assistance under this section on behalf of (A) any family (i) who is otherwise eligible for such assistance, and (ii) who the public child welfare agency for the jurisdiction has certified is a family for whom the lack of adequate housing is a primary factor in the imminent placement of the family's child or children in out-of-home care or the delayed discharge of a child or children to the family from out-of-home care and (B) for a period not to exceed 36 months, otherwise eligible youths who have attained at least 18 years of age and not more than 24 years of age and who have left foster care, or will leave foster care within 90 days, in accordance with a transition plan described in section 475(5)(H) of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 675(5)(H)], and is homeless or is at risk of becoming homeless at age 16 or older.

(3) Allocation

The amounts made available under this subsection shall be allocated by the Secretary through a national competition among applicants based on demonstrated need for the assistance under this subsection. To be considered for assistance, an applicant shall submit to the Secretary a written proposal containing a report from the public child welfare agency serving the jurisdiction of the applicant that describes how a lack of adequate housing in the jurisdiction is resulting in the initial or prolonged separation of children from their families, and how the applicant will coordinate with the public child welfare agency to identify eligible families and provide the families with assistance under this subsection.

(4) Coordination between public housing agencies and public child welfare agencies

The Secretary shall, not later than the expiration of the 180-day period beginning on July 29, 2016, and after consultation with other appropriate Federal agencies, issue guidance to improve coordination between public housing agencies and public child welfare agencies in carrying out the program under this subsection, which shall provide guidance on—

(A) identifying eligible recipients for assistance under this subsection;

(B) coordinating with other local youth and family providers in the community and participating in the Continuum of Care program established under subtitle C of title IV of the McKinney-Vento Homeless Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 11381 et seq.);

(C) implementing housing strategies to assist eligible families and youth;

(D) aligning system goals to improve outcomes for families and youth and reducing lapses in housing for families and youth; and

(E) identifying resources that are available to eligible families and youth to provide supportive services available through parts B and E of title IV of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 621 et seq.; 670 et seq.) or that the head of household of a family or youth may be entitled to receive under section 477 of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 677).

(5) Definitions