[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 85, SUBCHAPTER II: EMISSION STANDARDS FOR MOVING SOURCES
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42 USC CHAPTER 85, SUBCHAPTER II: EMISSION STANDARDS FOR MOVING SOURCES
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 85—AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL

SUBCHAPTER II—EMISSION STANDARDS FOR MOVING SOURCES

Part A—Motor Vehicle Emission and Fuel Standards

§7521. Emission standards for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines

(a) Authority of Administrator to prescribe by regulation

Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b)—

(1) The Administrator shall by regulation prescribe (and from time to time revise) in accordance with the provisions of this section, standards applicable to the emission of any air pollutant from any class or classes of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, which in his judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare. Such standards shall be applicable to such vehicles and engines for their useful life (as determined under subsection (d), relating to useful life of vehicles for purposes of certification), whether such vehicles and engines are designed as complete systems or incorporate devices to prevent or control such pollution.

(2) Any regulation prescribed under paragraph (1) of this subsection (and any revision thereof) shall take effect after such period as the Administrator finds necessary to permit the development and application of the requisite technology, giving appropriate consideration to the cost of compliance within such period.

(3)(A) In general.—(i) Unless the standard is changed as provided in subparagraph (B), regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection applicable to emissions of hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and particulate matter from classes or categories of heavy-duty vehicles or engines manufactured during or after model year 1983 shall contain standards which reflect the greatest degree of emission reduction achievable through the application of technology which the Administrator determines will be available for the model year to which such standards apply, giving appropriate consideration to cost, energy, and safety factors associated with the application of such technology.

(ii) In establishing classes or categories of vehicles or engines for purposes of regulations under this paragraph, the Administrator may base such classes or categories on gross vehicle weight, horsepower, type of fuel used, or other appropriate factors.

(B) Revised standards for heavy duty trucks.—(i) On the basis of information available to the Administrator concerning the effects of air pollutants emitted from heavy-duty vehicles or engines and from other sources of mobile source related pollutants on the public health and welfare, and taking costs into account, the Administrator may promulgate regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection revising any standard promulgated under, or before the date of, the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (or previously revised under this subparagraph) and applicable to classes or categories of heavy-duty vehicles or engines.

(ii) Effective for the model year 1998 and thereafter, the regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection applicable to emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from gasoline and diesel-fueled heavy duty trucks shall contain standards which provide that such emissions may not exceed 4.0 grams per brake horsepower hour (gbh).

(C) Lead time and stability.—Any standard promulgated or revised under this paragraph and applicable to classes or categories of heavy-duty vehicles or engines shall apply for a period of no less than 3 model years beginning no earlier than the model year commencing 4 years after such revised standard is promulgated.

(D) Rebuilding practices.—The Administrator shall study the practice of rebuilding heavy-duty engines and the impact rebuilding has on engine emissions. On the basis of that study and other information available to the Administrator, the Administrator may prescribe requirements to control rebuilding practices, including standards applicable to emissions from any rebuilt heavy-duty engines (whether or not the engine is past its statutory useful life), which in the Administrator's judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare taking costs into account. Any regulation shall take effect after a period the Administrator finds necessary to permit the development and application of the requisite control measures, giving appropriate consideration to the cost of compliance within the period and energy and safety factors.

(E) Motorcycles.—For purposes of this paragraph, motorcycles and motorcycle engines shall be treated in the same manner as heavy-duty vehicles and engines (except as otherwise permitted under section 7525(f)(1) 1 of this title) unless the Administrator promulgates a rule reclassifying motorcycles as light-duty vehicles within the meaning of this section or unless the Administrator promulgates regulations under subsection (a) applying standards applicable to the emission of air pollutants from motorcycles as a separate class or category. In any case in which such standards are promulgated for such emissions from motorcycles as a separate class or category, the Administrator, in promulgating such standards, shall consider the need to achieve equivalency of emission reductions between motorcycles and other motor vehicles to the maximum extent practicable.

(4)(A) Effective with respect to vehicles and engines manufactured after model year 1978, no emission control device, system, or element of design shall be used in a new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine for purposes of complying with requirements prescribed under this subchapter if such device, system, or element of design will cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety in its operation or function.

(B) In determining whether an unreasonable risk exists under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall consider, among other factors, (i) whether and to what extent the use of any device, system, or element of design causes, increases, reduces, or eliminates emissions of any unregulated pollutants; (ii) available methods for reducing or eliminating any risk to public health, welfare, or safety which may be associated with the use of such device, system, or element of design, and (iii) the availability of other devices, systems, or elements of design which may be used to conform to requirements prescribed under this subchapter without causing or contributing to such unreasonable risk. The Administrator shall include in the consideration required by this paragraph all relevant information developed pursuant to section 7548 of this title.

(5)(A) If the Administrator promulgates final regulations which define the degree of control required and the test procedures by which compliance could be determined for gasoline vapor recovery of uncontrolled emissions from the fueling of motor vehicles, the Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation with respect to motor vehicle safety, prescribe, by regulation, fill pipe standards for new motor vehicles in order to insure effective connection between such fill pipe and any vapor recovery system which the Administrator determines may be required to comply with such vapor recovery regulations. In promulgating such standards the Administrator shall take into consideration limits on fill pipe diameter, minimum design criteria for nozzle retainer lips, limits on the location of the unleaded fuel restrictors, a minimum access zone surrounding a fill pipe, a minimum pipe or nozzle insertion angle, and such other factors as he deems pertinent.

(B) Regulations prescribing standards under subparagraph (A) shall not become effective until the introduction of the model year for which it would be feasible to implement such standards, taking into consideration the restraints of an adequate leadtime for design and production.

(C) Nothing in subparagraph (A) shall (i) prevent the Administrator from specifying different nozzle and fill neck sizes for gasoline with additives and gasoline without additives or (ii) permit the Administrator to require a specific location, configuration, modeling, or styling of the motor vehicle body with respect to the fuel tank fill neck or fill nozzle clearance envelope.

(D) For the purpose of this paragraph, the term "fill pipe" shall include the fuel tank fill pipe, fill neck, fill inlet, and closure.

(6) Onboard vapor recovery.—Within 1 year after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation regarding the safety of vehicle-based ("onboard") systems for the control of vehicle refueling emissions, promulgate standards under this section requiring that new light-duty vehicles manufactured beginning in the fourth model year after the model year in which the standards are promulgated and thereafter shall be equipped with such systems. The standards required under this paragraph shall apply to a percentage of each manufacturer's fleet of new light-duty vehicles beginning with the fourth model year after the model year in which the standards are promulgated. The percentage shall be as specified in the following table:

Implementation Schedule for Onboard Vapor Recovery Requirements
Model year commencing after

standards promulgated

Percentage*
Fourth  40
Fifth  80
After Fifth 100

*Percentages in the table refer to a percentage of the manufacturer's sales volume.

The standards shall require that such systems provide a minimum evaporative emission capture efficiency of 95 percent. The requirements of section 7511a(b)(3) of this title (relating to stage II gasoline vapor recovery) for areas classified under section 7511 of this title as moderate for ozone shall not apply after promulgation of such standards and the Administrator may, by rule, revise or waive the application of the requirements of such section 7511a(b)(3) of this title for areas classified under section 7511 of this title as Serious, Severe, or Extreme for ozone, as appropriate, after such time as the Administrator determines that onboard emissions control systems required under this paragraph are in widespread use throughout the motor vehicle fleet.

(b) Emissions of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen; annual report to Congress; waiver of emission standards; research objectives

(1)(A) The regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during model years 1977 through 1979 shall contain standards which provide that such emissions from such vehicles and engines may not exceed 1.5 grams per vehicle mile of hydrocarbons and 15.0 grams per vehicle mile of carbon monoxide. The regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of carbon monoxide from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during the model year 1980 shall contain standards which provide that such emissions may not exceed 7.0 grams per vehicle mile. The regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of hydrocarbons from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during or after model year 1980 shall contain standards which require a reduction of at least 90 percent from emissions of such pollutant allowable under the standards under this section applicable to light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured in model year 1970. Unless waived as provided in paragraph (5),1 regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of carbon monoxide from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during or after the model year 1981 shall contain standards which require a reduction of at least 90 percent from emissions of such pollutant allowable under the standards under this section applicable to light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured in model year 1970.

(B) The regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of oxides of nitrogen from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during model years 1977 through 1980 shall contain standards which provide that such emissions from such vehicles and engines may not exceed 2.0 grams per vehicle mile. The regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of oxides of nitrogen from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during the model year 1981 and thereafter shall contain standards which provide that such emissions from such vehicles and engines may not exceed 1.0 gram per vehicle mile. The Administrator shall prescribe standards in lieu of those required by the preceding sentence, which provide that emissions of oxides of nitrogen may not exceed 2.0 grams per vehicle mile for any light-duty vehicle manufactured during model years 1981 and 1982 by any manufacturer whose production, by corporate identity, for calendar year 1976 was less than three hundred thousand light-duty motor vehicles worldwide if the Administrator determines that—

(i) the ability of such manufacturer to meet emission standards in the 1975 and subsequent model years was, and is, primarily dependent upon technology developed by other manufacturers and purchased from such manufacturers; and

(ii) such manufacturer lacks the financial resources and technological ability to develop such technology.


(C) The Administrator may promulgate regulations under subsection (a)(1) revising any standard prescribed or previously revised under this subsection, as needed to protect public health or welfare, taking costs, energy, and safety into account. Any revised standard shall require a reduction of emissions from the standard that was previously applicable. Any such revision under this subchapter may provide for a phase-in of the standard. It is the intent of Congress that the numerical emission standards specified in subsections (a)(3)(B)(ii), (g), (h), and (i) shall not be modified by the Administrator after November 15, 1990, for any model year before the model year 2004.

(2) Emission standards under paragraph (1), and measurement techniques on which such standards are based (if not promulgated prior to November 15, 1990), shall be promulgated by regulation within 180 days after November 15, 1990.

(3) For purposes of this part—

(A)(i) The term "model year" with reference to any specific calendar year means the manufacturer's annual production period (as determined by the Administrator) which includes January 1 of such calendar year. If the manufacturer has no annual production period, the term "model year" shall mean the calendar year.

(ii) For the purpose of assuring that vehicles and engines manufactured before the beginning of a model year were not manufactured for purposes of circumventing the effective date of a standard required to be prescribed by subsection (b), the Administrator may prescribe regulations defining "model year" otherwise than as provided in clause (i).

(B) Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §230(1), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2529.

(C) The term "heavy duty vehicle" means a truck, bus, or other vehicle manufactured primarily for use on the public streets, roads, and highways (not including any vehicle operated exclusively on a rail or rails) which has a gross vehicle weight (as determined under regulations promulgated by the Administrator) in excess of six thousand pounds. Such term includes any such vehicle which has special features enabling off-street or off-highway operation and use.


(3) 2 Upon the petition of any manufacturer, the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, may waive the standard required under subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) to not exceed 1.5 grams of oxides of nitrogen per vehicle mile for any class or category of light-duty vehicles or engines manufactured by such manufacturer during any period of up to four model years beginning after the model year 1980 if the manufacturer demonstrates that such waiver is necessary to permit the use of an innovative power train technology, or innovative emission control device or system, in such class or category of vehicles or engines and that such technology or system was not utilized by more than 1 percent of the light-duty vehicles sold in the United States in the 1975 model year. Such waiver may be granted only if the Administrator determines—

(A) that such waiver would not endanger public health,

(B) that there is a substantial likelihood that the vehicles or engines will be able to comply with the applicable standard under this section at the expiration of the waiver, and

(C) that the technology or system has a potential for long-term air quality benefit and has the potential to meet or exceed the average fuel economy standard applicable under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act [42 U.S.C. 6201 et seq.] upon the expiration of the waiver.


No waiver under this subparagraph 3 granted to any manufacturer shall apply to more than 5 percent of such manufacturer's production or more than fifty thousand vehicles or engines, whichever is greater.

(c) Feasibility study and investigation by National Academy of Sciences; reports to Administrator and Congress; availability of information

(1) The Administrator shall undertake to enter into appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct a comprehensive study and investigation of the technological feasibility of meeting the emissions standards required to be prescribed by the Administrator by subsection (b) of this section.

(2) Of the funds authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator by this chapter, such amounts as are required shall be available to carry out the study and investigation authorized by paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(3) In entering into any arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences for conducting the study and investigation authorized by paragraph (1) of this subsection, the Administrator shall request the National Academy of Sciences to submit semiannual reports on the progress of its study and investigation to the Administrator and the Congress, beginning not later than July 1, 1971, and continuing until such study and investigation is completed.

(4) The Administrator shall furnish to such Academy at its request any information which the Academy deems necessary for the purpose of conducting the investigation and study authorized by paragraph (1) of this subsection. For the purpose of furnishing such information, the Administrator may use any authority he has under this chapter (A) to obtain information from any person, and (B) to require such person to conduct such tests, keep such records, and make such reports respecting research or other activities conducted by such person as may be reasonably necessary to carry out this subsection.

(d) Useful life of vehicles

The Administrator shall prescribe regulations under which the useful life of vehicles and engines shall be determined for purposes of subsection (a)(1) of this section and section 7541 of this title. Such regulations shall provide that except where a different useful life period is specified in this subchapter useful life shall—

(1) in the case of light duty vehicles and light duty vehicle engines and light-duty trucks up to 3,750 lbs. LVW and up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR, be a period of use of five years or fifty thousand miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs, except that in the case of any requirement of this section which first becomes applicable after November 15, 1990, where the useful life period is not otherwise specified for such vehicles and engines, the period shall be 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs, with testing for purposes of in-use compliance under section 7541 of this title up to (but not beyond) 7 years or 75,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs;

(2) in the case of any other motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine (other than motorcycles or motorcycle engines), be a period of use set forth in paragraph (1) unless the Administrator determines that a period of use of greater duration or mileage is appropriate; and

(3) in the case of any motorcycle or motorcycle engine, be a period of use the Administrator shall determine.

(e) New power sources or propulsion systems

In the event of a new power source or propulsion system for new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines is submitted for certification pursuant to section 7525(a) of this title, the Administrator may postpone certification until he has prescribed standards for any air pollutants emitted by such vehicle or engine which in his judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger the public health or welfare but for which standards have not been prescribed under subsection (a).

(f) 4 High altitude regulations

(1) The high altitude regulation in effect with respect to model year 1977 motor vehicles shall not apply to the manufacture, distribution, or sale of 1978 and later model year motor vehicles. Any future regulation affecting the sale or distribution of motor vehicles or engines manufactured before the model year 1984 in high altitude areas of the country shall take effect no earlier than model year 1981.

(2) Any such future regulation applicable to high altitude vehicles or engines shall not require a percentage of reduction in the emissions of such vehicles which is greater than the required percentage of reduction in emissions from motor vehicles as set forth in subsection (b). This percentage reduction shall be determined by comparing any proposed high altitude emission standards to high altitude emissions from vehicles manufactured during model year 1970. In no event shall regulations applicable to high altitude vehicles manufactured before the model year 1984 establish a numerical standard which is more stringent than that applicable to vehicles certified under non-high altitude conditions.

(3) Section 7607(d) of this title shall apply to any high altitude regulation referred to in paragraph (2) and before promulgating any such regulation, the Administrator shall consider and make a finding with respect to—

(A) the economic impact upon consumers, individual high altitude dealers, and the automobile industry of any such regulation, including the economic impact which was experienced as a result of the regulation imposed during model year 1977 with respect to high altitude certification requirements;

(B) the present and future availability of emission control technology capable of meeting the applicable vehicle and engine emission requirements without reducing model availability; and

(C) the likelihood that the adoption of such a high altitude regulation will result in any significant improvement in air quality in any area to which it shall apply.

(g) Light-duty trucks up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR and light-duty vehicles; standards for model years after 1993

(1) NMHC, CO, and NOx

Effective with respect to the model year 1994 and thereafter, the regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), and oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from light-duty trucks (LDTs) of up to 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and light-duty vehicles (LDVs) shall contain standards which provide that emissions from a percentage of each manufacturer's sales volume of such vehicles and trucks shall comply with the levels specified in table G. The percentage shall be as specified in the implementation schedule below:

table g—emission standards for nmhc, co, and nox from light-duty trucks of up to 6,000 lbs. gvwr and light-duty vehicles
Vehicle typeColumn A Column B
(5 yrs/50,000 mi) (10 yrs/100,000 mi)
NMHC CO NOxNMHC CO NOx
LDTs (0–3,750 lbs. LVW) and light-duty vehicles 0.25 3.4 0.4*  0.31 4.2 0.6*
LDTs (3,751–5,750 lbs. LVW) 0.32 4.4 0.7** 0.40 5.5 0.97

Standards are expressed in grams per mile (gpm).

For standards under column A, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs.

For standards under column B, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs.

*In the case of diesel-fueled LDTs (0–3,750 lvw) and light-duty vehicles, before the model year 2004, in lieu of the 0.4 and 0.6 standards for NOx, the applicable standards for NOx shall be 1.0 gpm for a useful life of 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs, and 1.25 gpm for a useful life of 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs.

**This standard does not apply to diesel-fueled LDTs (3,751–5,750 lbs. LVW).

Implementation Schedule for Table G Standards
Model yearPercentage*
1994  40
1995  80
after 1995 100

*Percentages in the table refer to a percentage of each manufacturer's sales volume.

(2) PM Standard

Effective with respect to model year 1994 and thereafter in the case of light-duty vehicles, and effective with respect to the model year 1995 and thereafter in the case of light-duty trucks (LDTs) of up to 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), the regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of particulate matter (PM) from such vehicles and trucks shall contain standards which provide that such emissions from a percentage of each manufacturer's sales volume of such vehicles and trucks shall not exceed the levels specified in the table below. The percentage shall be as specified in the Implementation Schedule below.

PM Standard for LDTs of up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR
Useful life periodStandard
5/50,000 0.08 gpm
10/100,000 0.10 gpm

The applicable useful life, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title and for purposes of in-use compliance under section 7541 of this title, shall be 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs, in the case of the 5/50,000 standard.

The applicable useful life, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title and for purposes of in-use compliance under section 7541 of this title, shall be 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs in the case of the 10/100,000 standard.

Implementation Schedule for PM Standards
Model yearLight-duty vehiclesLDTs
1994  40%*
1995  80%*  40%*
1996 100%*  80%*
after 1996 100%* 100%*

*Percentages in the table refer to a percentage of each manufacturer's sales volume.

(h) Light-duty trucks of more than 6,000 lbs. GVWR; standards for model years after 1995

Effective with respect to the model year 1996 and thereafter, the regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), carbon monoxide (CO), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) from light-duty trucks (LDTs) of more than 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) shall contain standards which provide that emissions from a specified percentage of each manufacturer's sales volume of such trucks shall comply with the levels specified in table H. The specified percentage shall be 50 percent in model year 1996 and 100 percent thereafter.

table h—emission standards for nmhc and co from gasoline and diesel fueled light-duty trucks of more than 6,000 lbs. gvwr
LDT Test weightColumn A Column B
(5 yrs/50,000 mi) (11 yrs/120,000 mi)
NMHC CO NOxNMHC CO NOxPM
3,751–5,750 lbs. TW 0.32 4.4 0.7* 0.46 6.4 0.98 0.10
Over 5,750 lbs. TW 0.39 5.0 1.1* 0.56 7.3 1.53 0.12

Standards are expressed in grams per mile (GPM).

For standards under column A, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs.

For standards under column B, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 11 years or 120,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs.

*Not applicable to diesel-fueled LDTs.

(i) Phase II study for certain light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks

(1) The Administrator, with the participation of the Office of Technology Assessment, shall study whether or not further reductions in emissions from light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks should be required pursuant to this subchapter. The study shall consider whether to establish with respect to model years commencing after January 1, 2003, the standards and useful life period for gasoline and diesel-fueled light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) of 3,750 lbs. or less specified in the following table:

table 3—pending emission standards for gasoline and diesel fueled light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks 3,750 lbs. lvw or less
PollutantEmission level*
NMHC 0.125 GPM
NOx 0.2 GPM
CO 1.7 GPM

*Emission levels are expressed in grams per mile (GPM). For vehicles and engines subject to this subsection for purposes of subsection (d) and any reference thereto, the useful life of such vehicles and engines shall be a period of 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs.

Such study shall also consider other standards and useful life periods which are more stringent or less stringent than those set forth in table 3 (but more stringent than those referred to in subsections (g) and (h)).

(2)(A) As part of the study under paragraph (1), the Administrator shall examine the need for further reductions in emissions in order to attain or maintain the national ambient air quality standards, taking into consideration the waiver provisions of section 7543(b) of this title. As part of such study, the Administrator shall also examine—

(i) the availability of technology (including the costs thereof), in the case of light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) of 3,750 lbs. or less, for meeting more stringent emission standards than those provided in subsections (g) and (h) for model years commencing not earlier than after January 1, 2003, and not later than model year 2006, including the lead time and safety and energy impacts of meeting more stringent emission standards; and

(ii) the need for, and cost effectiveness of, obtaining further reductions in emissions from such light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, taking into consideration alternative means of attaining or maintaining the national primary ambient air quality standards pursuant to State implementation plans and other requirements of this chapter, including their feasibility and cost effectiveness.


(B) The Administrator shall submit a report to Congress no later than June 1, 1997, containing the results of the study under this subsection, including the results of the examination conducted under subparagraph (A). Before submittal of such report the Administrator shall provide a reasonable opportunity for public comment and shall include a summary of such comments in the report to Congress.

(3)(A) Based on the study under paragraph (1) the Administrator shall determine, by rule, within 3 calendar years after the report is submitted to Congress, but not later than December 31, 1999, whether—

(i) there is a need for further reductions in emissions as provided in paragraph (2)(A);

(ii) the technology for meeting more stringent emission standards will be available, as provided in paragraph (2)(A)(i), in the case of light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) of 3,750 lbs. or less, for model years commencing not earlier than January 1, 2003, and not later than model year 2006, considering the factors listed in paragraph (2)(A)(i); and

(iii) obtaining further reductions in emissions from such vehicles will be needed and cost effective, taking into consideration alternatives as provided in paragraph (2)(A)(ii).


The rulemaking under this paragraph shall commence within 3 months after submission of the report to Congress under paragraph (2)(B).

(B) If the Administrator determines under subparagraph (A) that—

(i) there is no need for further reductions in emissions as provided in paragraph (2)(A);

(ii) the technology for meeting more stringent emission standards will not be available as provided in paragraph (2)(A)(i), in the case of light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) of 3,750 lbs. or less, for model years commencing not earlier than January 1, 2003, and not later than model year 2006, considering the factors listed in paragraph (2)(A)(i); or

(iii) obtaining further reductions in emissions from such vehicles will not be needed or cost effective, taking into consideration alternatives as provided in paragraph (2)(A)(ii),


the Administrator shall not promulgate more stringent standards than those in effect pursuant to subsections (g) and (h). Nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit the Administrator from exercising the Administrator's authority under subsection (a) to promulgate more stringent standards for light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) of 3,750 lbs. or less at any other time thereafter in accordance with subsection (a).

(C) If the Administrator determines under subparagraph (A) that—

(i) there is a need for further reductions in emissions as provided in paragraph (2)(A);

(ii) the technology for meeting more stringent emission standards will be available, as provided in paragraph (2)(A)(i), in the case of light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks with a loaded vehicle weight (LVW) of 3,750 lbs. or less, for model years commencing not earlier than January 1, 2003, and not later than model year 2006, considering the factors listed in paragraph (2)(A)(i); and

(iii) obtaining further reductions in emissions from such vehicles will be needed and cost effective, taking into consideration alternatives as provided in paragraph (2)(A)(ii),


the Administrator shall either promulgate the standards (and useful life periods) set forth in Table 3 in paragraph (1) or promulgate alternative standards (and useful life periods) which are more stringent than those referred to in subsections (g) and (h). Any such standards (or useful life periods) promulgated by the Administrator shall take effect with respect to any such vehicles or engines no earlier than the model year 2003 but not later than model year 2006, as determined by the Administrator in the rule.

(D) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed by the Administrator or by a court as a presumption that any standards (or useful life period) set forth in Table 3 shall be promulgated in the rulemaking required under this paragraph. The action required of the Administrator in accordance with this paragraph shall be treated as a nondiscretionary duty for purposes of section 7604(a)(2) of this title (relating to citizen suits).

(E) Unless the Administrator determines not to promulgate more stringent standards as provided in subparagraph (B) or to postpone the effective date of standards referred to in Table 3 in paragraph (1) or to establish alternative standards as provided in subparagraph (C), effective with respect to model years commencing after January 1, 2003, the regulations under subsection (a) applicable to emissions of nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC), oxides of nitrogen (NOx), and carbon monoxide (CO) from motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines in the classes specified in Table 3 in paragraph (1) above shall contain standards which provide that emissions may not exceed the pending emission levels specified in Table 3 in paragraph (1).

(j) Cold CO standard

(1) Phase I

Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under subsection (a) of this section applicable to emissions of carbon monoxide from 1994 and later model year light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks when operated at 20 degrees Fahrenheit. The regulations shall contain standards which provide that emissions of carbon monoxide from a manufacturer's vehicles when operated at 20 degrees Fahrenheit may not exceed, in the case of light-duty vehicles, 10.0 grams per mile, and in the case of light-duty trucks, a level comparable in stringency to the standard applicable to light-duty vehicles. The standards shall take effect after model year 1993 according to a phase-in schedule which requires a percentage of each manufacturer's sales volume of light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks to comply with applicable standards after model year 1993. The percentage shall be as specified in the following table:

Phase-In Schedule for Cold Start Standards
Model YearPercentage
1994  40
1995  80
1996 and after 100

(2) Phase II

(A) Not later than June 1, 1997, the Administrator shall complete a study assessing the need for further reductions in emissions of carbon monoxide and the maximum reductions in such emissions achievable from model year 2001 and later model year light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks when operated at 20 degrees Fahrenheit.

(B)(i) If as of June 1, 1997, 6 or more nonattainment areas have a carbon monoxide design value of 9.5 ppm or greater, the regulations under subsection (a)(1) of this section applicable to emissions of carbon monoxide from model year 2002 and later model year light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks shall contain standards which provide that emissions of carbon monoxide from such vehicles and trucks when operated at 20 degrees Fahrenheit may not exceed 3.4 grams per mile (gpm) in the case of light-duty vehicles and 4.4 grams per mile (gpm) in the case of light-duty trucks up to 6,000 GVWR and a level comparable in stringency in the case of light-duty trucks 6,000 GVWR and above.

(ii) In determining for purposes of this subparagraph whether 6 or more nonattainment areas have a carbon monoxide design value of 9.5 ppm or greater, the Administrator shall exclude the areas of Steubenville, Ohio, and Oshkosh, Wisconsin.

(3) Useful-life for phase I and phase II standards

In the case of the standards referred to in paragraphs (1) and (2), for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title and in-use compliance under section 7541 of this title, the applicable useful life period shall be 5 years or 50,000 miles, whichever first occurs, except that the Administrator may extend such useful life period (for purposes of section 7525 of this title, or section 7541 of this title, or both) if he determines that it is feasible for vehicles and engines subject to such standards to meet such standards for a longer useful life. If the Administrator extends such useful life period, the Administrator may make an appropriate adjustment of applicable standards for such extended useful life. No such extended useful life shall extend beyond the useful life period provided in regulations under subsection (d).

(4) Heavy-duty vehicles and engines

The Administrator may also promulgate regulations under subsection (a)(1) applicable to emissions of carbon monoxide from heavy-duty vehicles and engines when operated at cold temperatures.

(k) Control of evaporative emissions

The Administrator shall promulgate (and from time to time revise) regulations applicable to evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons from all gasoline-fueled motor vehicles—

(1) during operation; and

(2) over 2 or more days of nonuse;


under ozone-prone summertime conditions (as determined by regulations of the Administrator). The regulations shall take effect as expeditiously as possible and shall require the greatest degree of emission reduction achievable by means reasonably expected to be available for production during any model year to which the regulations apply, giving appropriate consideration to fuel volatility, and to cost, energy, and safety factors associated with the application of the appropriate technology. The Administrator shall commence a rulemaking under this subsection within 12 months after November 15, 1990. If final regulations are not promulgated under this subsection within 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall submit a statement to the Congress containing an explanation of the reasons for the delay and a date certain for promulgation of such final regulations in accordance with this chapter. Such date certain shall not be later than 15 months after the expiration of such 18 month deadline.

(l) Mobile source-related air toxics

(1) Study

Not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall complete a study of the need for, and feasibility of, controlling emissions of toxic air pollutants which are unregulated under this chapter and associated with motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels, and the need for, and feasibility of, controlling such emissions and the means and measures for such controls. The study shall focus on those categories of emissions that pose the greatest risk to human health or about which significant uncertainties remain, including emissions of benzene, formaldehyde, and 1,3 butadiene. The proposed report shall be available for public review and comment and shall include a summary of all comments.

(2) Standards

Within 54 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall, based on the study under paragraph (1), promulgate (and from time to time revise) regulations under subsection (a)(1) or section 7545(c)(1) of this title containing reasonable requirements to control hazardous air pollutants from motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels. The regulations shall contain standards for such fuels or vehicles, or both, which the Administrator determines reflect the greatest degree of emission reduction achievable through the application of technology which will be available, taking into consideration the standards established under subsection (a), the availability and costs of the technology, and noise, energy, and safety factors, and lead time. Such regulations shall not be inconsistent with standards under subsection (a). The regulations shall, at a minimum, apply to emissions of benzene and formaldehyde.

(m) Emissions control diagnostics

(1) Regulations

Within 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under subsection (a) requiring manufacturers to install on all new light duty vehicles and light duty trucks diagnostics systems capable of—

(A) accurately identifying for the vehicle's useful life as established under this section, emission-related systems deterioration or malfunction, including, at a minimum, the catalytic converter and oxygen sensor, which could cause or result in failure of the vehicles to comply with emission standards established under this section,

(B) alerting the vehicle's owner or operator to the likely need for emission-related components or systems maintenance or repair,

(C) storing and retrieving fault codes specified by the Administrator, and

(D) providing access to stored information in a manner specified by the Administrator.


The Administrator may, in the Administrator's discretion, promulgate regulations requiring manufacturers to install such onboard diagnostic systems on heavy-duty vehicles and engines.

(2) Effective date

The regulations required under paragraph (1) of this subsection shall take effect in model year 1994, except that the Administrator may waive the application of such regulations for model year 1994 or 1995 (or both) with respect to any class or category of motor vehicles if the Administrator determines that it would be infeasible to apply the regulations to that class or category in such model year or years, consistent with corresponding regulations or policies adopted by the California Air Resources Board for such systems.

(3) State inspection

The Administrator shall by regulation require States that have implementation plans containing motor vehicle inspection and maintenance programs to amend their plans within 2 years after promulgation of such regulations to provide for inspection of onboard diagnostics systems (as prescribed by regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection) and for the maintenance or repair of malfunctions or system deterioration identified by or affecting such diagnostics systems. Such regulations shall not be inconsistent with the provisions for warranties promulgated under section 7541(a) and (b) of this title.

(4) Specific requirements

In promulgating regulations under this subsection, the Administrator shall require—

(A) that any connectors through which the emission control diagnostics system is accessed for inspection, diagnosis, service, or repair shall be standard and uniform on all motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines;

(B) that access to the emission control diagnostics system through such connectors shall be unrestricted and shall not require any access code or any device which is only available from a vehicle manufacturer; and

(C) that the output of the data from the emission control diagnostics system through such connectors shall be usable without the need for any unique decoding information or device.

(5) Information availability

The Administrator, by regulation, shall require (subject to the provisions of section 7542(c) of this title regarding the protection of methods or processes entitled to protection as trade secrets) manufacturers to provide promptly to any person engaged in the repairing or servicing of motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines, and the Administrator for use by any such persons, with any and all information needed to make use of the emission control diagnostics system prescribed under this subsection and such other information including instructions for making emission related diagnosis and repairs. No such information may be withheld under section 7542(c) of this title if that information is provided (directly or indirectly) by the manufacturer to franchised dealers or other persons engaged in the repair, diagnosing, or servicing of motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines. Such information shall also be available to the Administrator, subject to section 7542(c) of this title, in carrying out the Administrator's responsibilities under this section.

(f) 5 Model years after 1990

For model years prior to model year 1994, the regulations under subsection (a) applicable to buses other than those subject to standards under section 7554 of this title shall contain a standard which provides that emissions of particulate matter (PM) from such buses may not exceed the standards set forth in the following table:

pm standard for buses
Model yearStandard*
1991 0.25
1992 0.25
1993 and thereafter 0.10

*Standards are expressed in grams per brake horsepower hour (g/bhp/hr).

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §202, as added Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 91–604, §6(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1690; Pub. L. 93–319, §5, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 258; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §§201, 202(b), 213(b), 214(a), 215–217, 224(a), (b), (g), title IV, §401(d), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 751–753, 758-761, 765, 767, 769, 791; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(60)–(65), (b)(5), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1403, 1405; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §§201–207, 227(b), 230(1)–(5), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2472–2481, 2507, 2529.)

References in Text

The enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(B), probably means the enactment of Pub. L. 101–549, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2399, which was approved Nov. 15, 1990. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

Section 7525(f)(1) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a)(3)(E), was redesignated section 7525(f) of this title by Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §230(8), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2529.

Paragraph (5) of subsec. (b), referred to in subsec. (b)(1)(A), related to waivers for model years 1981 and 1982, and was repealed by Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §230(3), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2529. See 1990 Amendment note below.

The Energy Policy and Conservation Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(C), is Pub. L. 94–163, Dec. 22, 1975, 89 Stat. 871, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 77 (§6201 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6201 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–1 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(3)(A). Pub. L. 101–549, §201(1), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which related to promulgation of regulations applicable to reduction of emissions from heavy-duty vehicles or engines manufactured during and after model year 1979 in the case of carbon monoxide, hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen, and from vehicles manufactured during and after model year 1981 in the case of particulate matter.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 101–549, §201(1), added subpar. (B) and struck out former subpar. (B) which read as follows: "During the period of June 1 through December 31, 1978, in the case of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, or during the period of June 1 through December 31, 1980, in the case of oxides of nitrogen, and during each period of June 1 through December 31 of each third year thereafter, the Administrator may, after notice and opportunity for a public hearing promulgate regulations revising any standard prescribed as provided in subparagraph (A)(ii) for any class or category of heavy-duty vehicles or engines. Such standard shall apply only for the period of three model years beginning four model years after the model year in which such revised standard is promulgated. In revising any standard under this subparagraph for any such three model year period, the Administrator shall determine the maximum degree of emission reduction which can be achieved by means reasonably expected to be available for production of such period and shall prescribe a revised emission standard in accordance with such determination. Such revised standard shall require a reduction of emissions from any standard which applies in the previous model year."

Subsec. (a)(3)(C). Pub. L. 101–549, §201(1), added subpar. (C) and struck out former subpar. (C) which read as follows: "Action revising any standard for any period may be taken by the Administrator under subparagraph (B) only if he finds—

"(i) that compliance with the emission standards otherwise applicable for such model year cannot be achieved by technology, processes, operating methods, or other alternatives reasonably expected to be available for production for such model year without increasing cost or decreasing fuel economy to an excessive and unreasonable degree; and

"(ii) the National Academy of Sciences has not, pursuant to its study and investigation under subsection (c), issued a report substantially contrary to the findings of the Administrator under clause (i)."

Subsec. (a)(3)(D). Pub. L. 101–549, §201(1), added subpar. (D) and struck out former subpar. (D) which read as follows: "A report shall be made to the Congress with respect to any standard revised under subparagraph (B) which shall contain—

"(i) a summary of the health effects found, or believed to be associated with, the pollutant covered by such standard,

"(ii) an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of other strategies for attaining and maintaining national ambient air quality standards and carrying out regulations under part C of subchapter I (relating to significant deterioration) in relation to the cost-effectiveness for such purposes of standards which, but for such revision, would apply.

"(iii) a summary of the research and development efforts and progress being made by each manufacturer for purposes of meeting the standards promulgated as provided in subparagraph (A)(ii) or, if applicable, subparagraph (E), and

"(iv) specific findings as to the relative costs of compliance, and relative fuel economy, which may be expected to result from the application for any model year of such revised standard and the application for such model year of the standard, which, but for such revision, would apply."

Subsec. (a)(3)(E), (F). Pub. L. 101–549, §201, redesignated subpar. (F) as (E), inserted heading, and struck out former subpar. (E) which read as follows:

"(i) The Administrator shall conduct a continuing pollutant-specific study concerning the effects of each air pollutant emitted from heavy-duty vehicles or engines and from other sources of mobile source related pollutants on the public health and welfare. The results of such study shall be published in the Federal Register and reported to the Congress not later than June 1, 1978, in the case of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, and June 1, 1980, in the case of oxides of nitrogen, and before June 1 of each third year thereafter.

"(ii) On the basis of such study and such other information as is available to him (including the studies under section 7548 of this title), the Administrator may, after notice and opportunity for a public hearing, promulgate regulations under paragraph (1) of this subsection changing any standard prescribed in subparagraph (A)(ii) (or revised under subparagraph (B) or previously changed under this subparagraph). No such changed standard shall apply for any model year before the model year four years after the model year during which regulations containing such changed standard are promulgated."

Subsec. (a)(4)(A), (B). Pub. L. 101–549, §227(b), substituted "requirements prescribed under this subchapter" for "standards prescribed under this subsection".

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 101–549, §202, amended par. (6) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (6) read as follows: "The Administrator shall determine the feasibility and desirability of requiring new motor vehicles to utilize onboard hydrocarbon control technology which would avoid the necessity of gasoline vapor recovery of uncontrolled emissions emanating from the fueling of motor vehicles. The Administrator shall compare the costs and effectiveness of such technology to that of implementing and maintaining vapor recovery systems (taking into consideration such factors as fuel economy, economic costs of such technology, administrative burdens, and equitable distribution of costs). If the Administrator finds that it is feasible and desirable to employ such technology, he shall, after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation with respect to motor vehicle safety, prescribe, by regulation, standards requiring the use of onboard hydrocarbon technology which shall not become effective until the introduction to the model year for which it would be feasible to implement such standards, taking into consideration compliance costs and the restraints of an adequate lead time for design and production."

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 101–549, §203(c), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "Effective with respect to vehicles and engines manufactured after model year 1978 (or in the case of heavy-duty vehicles or engines, such later model year as the Administrator determines is the earliest feasible model year), the test procedure promulgated under paragraph (2) for measurement of evaporative emissions of hydrocarbons shall require that such emissions be measured from the vehicle or engine as a whole. Regulations to carry out this subparagraph shall be promulgated not later than two hundred and seventy days after August 7, 1977."

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, §203(d), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "Emission standards under paragraph (1), and measurement techniques on which such standards are based (if not promulgated prior to December 31, 1970), shall be prescribed by regulation within 180 days after such date."

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(4), redesignated par. (6) relating to waiver of standards for oxides of nitrogen as par. (3), struck out subpar. (A) designation before "Upon the petition", redesignated former cls. (i) to (iii) as subpars. (A) to (C), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which authorized the Administrator to waive the standard under subsec. (b)(1)(B) of this section for emissions of oxides of nitrogen from light-duty vehicles and engines beginning in model year 1981 after providing notice and opportunity for a public hearing, and set forth conditions under which a waiver could be granted.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(1), in the par. (3) defining terms for purposes of this part struck out subpar. (B) which defined "light duty vehicles and engines".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(2), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "On July 1 of 1971, and of each year thereafter, the Administrator shall report to the Congress with respect to the development of systems necessary to implement the emission standards established pursuant to this section. Such reports shall include information regarding the continuing effects of such air pollutants subject to standards under this section on the public health and welfare, the extent and progress of efforts being made to develop the necessary systems, the costs associated with development and application of such systems, and following such hearings as he may deem advisable, any recommendations for additional congressional action necessary to achieve the purposes of this chapter. In gathering information for the purposes of this paragraph and in connection with any hearing, the provisions of section 7607(a) of this title (relating to subpenas) shall apply."

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(3), struck out par. (5) which related to waivers for model years 1981 and 1982 of the effective date of the emissions standard required under par. (1)(A) for carbon monoxide applicable to light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured in those model years.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(4), redesignated par. (6) as (3).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(5), struck out par. (7) which read as follows: "The Congress hereby declares and establishes as a research objective, the development of propulsion systems and emission control technology to achieve standards which represent a reduction of at least 90 per centum from the average emissions of oxides of nitrogen actually measured from light duty motor vehicles manufactured in model year 1971 not subject to any Federal or State emission standard for oxides of nitrogen. The Administrator shall, by regulations promulgated within one hundred and eighty days after August 7, 1977, require each manufacturer whose sales represent at least 0.5 per centum of light duty motor vehicle sales in the United States, to build and, on a regular basis, demonstrate the operation of light duty motor vehicles that meet this research objective, in addition to any other applicable standards or requirements for other pollutants under this chapter. Such demonstration vehicles shall be submitted to the Administrator no later than model year 1979 and in each model year thereafter. Such demonstration shall, in accordance with applicable regulations, to the greatest extent possible, (A) be designed to encourage the development of new powerplant and emission control technologies that are fuel efficient, (B) assure that the demonstration vehicles are or could reasonably be expected to be within the productive capability of the manufacturers, and (C) assure the utilization of optimum engine, fuel, and emission control systems."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–549, §203(b)(1), substituted "provide that except where a different useful life period is specified in this subchapter" for "provide that".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §203(b)(2), (3), inserted "and light-duty trucks up to 3,750 lbs. LVW and up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR" after "engines" and substituted for semicolon at end ", except that in the case of any requirement of this section which first becomes applicable after November 15, 1990, where the useful life period is not otherwise specified for such vehicles and engines, the period shall be 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs, with testing for purposes of in-use compliance under section 7541 of this title up to (but not beyond) 7 years or 75,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs;".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–549, §207(b), added (after subsec. (m) at end) subsec. (f) relating to regulations applicable to buses for model years after 1990.

Subsecs. (g) to (i). Pub. L. 101–549, §203(a), added subsecs. (g) to (i).

Subsecs. (j) to (m). Pub. L. 101–549, §§204–207(a), added subsecs. (j) to (m).

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(60), restructured subsec. (a) by providing for designation of par. (1) to precede "The Administrator" in place of "Except as".

Pub. L. 95–95, §401(d)(1), substituted "Except as otherwise provided in subsection (b) the Administrator" for "The Administrator", "cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare" for "causes or contributes to, or is likely to cause or contribute to, air pollution which endangers the public health or welfare", and "useful life (as determined under subsection (d), relating to useful life of vehicles for purposes of certification), whether such vehicles and engines are designed as complete systems or incorporate devices" for "useful life (as determined under subsection (d)) whether such vehicles and engines are designed as complete systems or incorporated devices".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–95, §214(a), substituted "prescribed under paragraph (1) of this subsection" for "prescribed under this subsection".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–95, §224(a), added par. (3).

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(61), (62), substituted provisions setting forth applicable periods of from June 1 through Dec. 31, 1978, June 1 through Dec. 31, 1980, and during each period of June 1 through Dec. 31 of each third year thereafter, for provisions setting forth applicable periods of from June 1 through Dec. 31, 1979, and during each period of June 1 through Dec. 31 of each third year after 1979, and substituted "from any" for "of from any".

Subsec. (a)(3)(E). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(63), substituted "1978, in the case of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide, and June 1, 1980, in the case of oxides of nitrogen" for "1979,".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 95–95, §214(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 95–95, §215, added par. (5).

Subsec. (a)(6). Pub. L. 95–95, §216, added par. (6).

Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–95, §201(a), substituted provisions setting the standards for emissions from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during the model years 1977 through 1980 for provisions which had set the standards for emissions from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during the model years 1975 and 1976, substituted "model year 1980" for "model year 1977" in provisions requiring a reduction of at least 90 per centum from the emissions allowable under standards for model year 1970, and inserted provisions that, unless waived as provided in par. (5), the standards for vehicles and engines manufactured during or after the model year 1981 represent a reduction of at least 90 per centum from the emissions allowable under standards for model year 1970.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(64), (65), substituted "calendar year 1976" for "model year 1976" and in cl. (i) substituted "other" for "United States".

Pub. L. 95–95, §201(b), substituted provisions setting the standards for emissions from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during the model years 1977 through 1980 for provisions which had set the standards for emissions from light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured during the model years 1975 through 1977, substituted provisions that the standards for model years 1981 and after allow emissions of no more than 1.0 gram per vehicle mile for provisions that the standards for model year 1978 and after require a reduction of at least 90 per centum from the average of emissions actually measured from light-duty vehicles manufactured during model year 1971 which were not subject to any Federal or State emission standards for oxides of nitrogen, and inserted provisions directing the Administrator to prescribe separate standards for model years 1981 and 1982 for manufacturers whose production, by corporate identity, for model year 1976 was less than three hundred thousand light-duty motor vehicles worldwide if the manufacturer's capability to meet emission standards depends upon United States technology and if the manufacturer cannot develop one.

Subsec. (b)(1)(C). Pub. L. 95–95, §217, added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(3)(C). Pub. L. 95–95, §224(b), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 95–95, §201(c), substituted provisions setting up a procedure under which a manufacturer may apply for a waiver for model years 1981 and 1982 of the effective date of the emission standards for carbon monoxide required by par. (1)(A) for provisions which had set up a procedure under which a manufacturer, after Jan. 1, 1975, could apply for a one-year suspension of the effective date of any emission standard required by par. (1)(A) for model year 1977.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 95–95, §201(c), added par. (6).

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 95–95, §202(b), added par. (7).

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 95–95, §224(g), as amended by Pub. L. 95–190, §14(b)(5), to correct typographical error in directory language, inserted "(other than motorcycles or motorcycle engines)" after "motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 95–95, §224(g), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–95, §401(d)(2), substituted "which in his judgment cause, or contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger" for "which cause or contribute to, or are likely to cause or contribute to, air pollution which endangers".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–95, §213(b), added subsec. (f).

1974—Subsec. (b)(1)(A). Pub. L. 93–319, §5(a), substituted "model year 1977" for "model year 1975" in provisions requiring a reduction of at least 90 per centum from the emissions allowable under standards for model year 1970 and inserted provisions covering regulations for model years 1975 and 1976.

Subsec. (b)(1)(B). Pub. L. 93–319, §5(b), substituted "model year 1978" for "model year 1976" in provisions requiring a reduction of at least 90 per centum from the average of emissions actually measured from vehicles manufactured during model year 1971 and inserted provisions covering regulations for model years 1975, 1976, and 1977.

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 93–319, §5(c), (d), substituted in subpar. (A), "At any time after January 1, 1975" for "At any time after January 1, 1972", "with respect to such manufacturer for light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured in model year 1977" for "with respect to such manufacturer", "sixty days" for "60 days", "paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection" for "paragraph (1)(A)", and "vehicles and engines manufactured during model year 1977" for "vehicles and engines manufactured during model year 1975", redesignated subpars. (C) to (E) as (B) to (D), respectively, and struck out former subpar. (B) which had allowed manufacturers, at any time after Jan. 1, 1973, to file with the Administrator an application requesting a 1-year suspension of the effective date of any emission standard required by subsec. (b)(1)(B) with respect to such manufacturer.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604 redesignated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted Administrator for Secretary as the issuing authority for standards, inserted references to the useful life of engines, and substituted the emission of any air pollutant for the emission of any kind of substance as the subject to be regulated, and added par. (2).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604 added subsec. (b). Former subsec. (b) redesignated as par. (2) of subsec. (a).

Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 91–604 added subsecs. (c) to (e).

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Study on Oxides of Nitrogen From Light-Duty Vehicles

Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §202(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 753, provided that the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency conduct a study of the public health implications of attaining an emission standard on oxides of nitrogen from light-duty vehicles of 0.4 gram per vehicle mile, the cost and technological capability of attaining such standard, and the need for such a standard to protect public health or welfare and that the Administrator submit a report of such study to the Congress, together with recommendations not later than July 1, 1980.

Study of Carbon Monoxide Intrusion Into Sustained-Use Vehicles

Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §226, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 769, provided that the Administrator, in conjunction with the Secretary of Transportation, study the problem of carbon monoxide intrusion into the passenger area of sustained-use motor vehicles and that within one year the Administrator report to the Congress respecting the results of such study.

Continuing Comprehensive Studies and Investigations by National Academy of Sciences

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(f), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 793, provided that: "The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall undertake to enter into appropriate arrangements with the National Academy of Sciences to conduct continuing comprehensive studies and investigations of the effects on public health and welfare of emissions subject to section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act [subsec. (a) of this section] (including sulfur compounds) and the technological feasibility of meeting emission standards required to be prescribed by the Administrator by section 202(b) of such Act [subsec. (b) of this section]. The Administrator shall report to the Congress within six months of the date of enactment of this section [Aug. 7, 1977] and each year thereafter regarding the status of the contractual arrangements and conditions necessary to implement this paragraph."

[For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions relating to annual report to Congress in section 403(f) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out above, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 2nd item on page 165 of House Document No. 103–7.]

Study on Emission of Sulfur-Bearing Compounds From Motor Vehicles and Motor Vehicle and Aircraft Engines

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(g), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 793, provided that the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency conduct a study and report to the Congress by the date one year after Aug. 7, 1977, on the emission of sulfur-bearing compounds from motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines and aircraft engines.

Ex. Ord. No. 13432. Cooperation Among Agencies in Protecting the Environment With Respect to Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Motor Vehicles, Nonroad Vehicles, and Nonroad Engines

Ex. Ord. No. 13432, May 14, 2007, 72 F.R. 27717, as amended by Ex. Ord. No. 13693, §16(e), Mar. 19, 2015, 80 F.R. 15881, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the United States to ensure the coordinated and effective exercise of the authorities of the President and the heads of the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency to protect the environment with respect to greenhouse gas emissions from motor vehicles, nonroad vehicles, and nonroad engines, in a manner consistent with sound science, analysis of benefits and costs, public safety, and economic growth.

Sec. 2. Definitions. As used in this order:

(a) "agencies" refers to the Department of Transportation, the Department of Energy, and the Environmental Protection Agency, and all units thereof, and "agency" refers to any of them;

(b) "alternative fuels" has the meaning specified for that term in section 301(2) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (42 U.S.C. 13211(2));

(c) "authorities" include the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401–7671q), the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (Public Law 102–486), the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (Public Law 109–58), the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (Public Law 94–163), and any other current or future laws or regulations that may authorize or require any of the agencies to take regulatory action that directly or indirectly affects emissions of greenhouse gases from motor vehicles;

(d) "greenhouse gases" means carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydrofluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, nitrogen triflouride [sic], and sulfur hexafluoride;

(e) "motor vehicle" has the meaning specified for that term in section 216(2) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(2));

(f) "nonroad engine" has the meaning specified for that term in section 216(10) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(10));

(g) "nonroad vehicle" has the meaning specified for that term in section 216(11) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7550(11));

(h) "regulation" has the meaning specified for that term in section 3(d) of Executive Order 12866 of September 30, 1993, as amended (Executive Order 12866); and

(i) "regulatory action" has the meaning specified for that term in section 3(e) of Executive Order 12866.

Sec. 3. Coordination Among the Agencies. In carrying out the policy set forth in section 1 of this order, the head of an agency undertaking a regulatory action that can reasonably be expected to directly regulate emissions, or to substantially and predictably affect emissions, of greenhouse gases from motor vehicles, nonroad vehicles, nonroad engines, or the use of motor vehicle fuels, including alternative fuels, shall:

(a) undertake such a regulatory action, to the maximum extent permitted by law and determined by the head of the agency to be practicable, jointly with the other agencies;

(b) in undertaking such a regulatory action, consider, in accordance with applicable law, information and recommendations provided by the other agencies;

(c) in undertaking such a regulatory action, exercise authority vested by law in the head of such agency effectively, in a manner consistent with the effective exercise by the heads of the other agencies of the authority vested in them by law; and

(d) obtain, to the extent permitted by law, concurrence or other views from the heads of the other agencies during the development and preparation of the regulatory action and prior to any key decision points during that development and preparation process, and in no event later than 30 days prior to publication of such action.

Sec. 4. Duties of the Heads of Agencies. (a) To implement this order, the head of each agency shall:

(1) designate appropriate personnel within the agency to (i) direct the agency's implementation of this order, (ii) ensure that the agency keeps the other agencies and the Office of Management and Budget informed of the agency regulatory actions to which section 3 refers, and (iii) coordinate such actions with the agencies;

(2) in coordination as appropriate with the Committee on Climate Change Science and Technology, continue to conduct and share research designed to advance technologies to further the policy set forth in section 1 of this order;

(3) facilitate the sharing of personnel and the sharing of information among the agencies to further the policy set forth in section 1 of this order;

(4) coordinate with the other agencies to avoid duplication of requests to the public for information from the public in the course of undertaking such regulatory action, consistent with the Paperwork Reduction Act (44 U.S.C. 3501 et seq.); and

(5) consult with the Secretary of Agriculture whenever a regulatory action will have a significant effect on agriculture related to the production or use of ethanol, biodiesel, or other renewable fuels, including actions undertaken in whole or in part based on authority or requirements in title XV of the Energy Policy Act of 2005, or the amendments made by such title, or when otherwise appropriate or required by law.

(b) To implement this order, the heads of the agencies acting jointly may allocate as appropriate among the agencies administrative responsibilities relating to regulatory actions to which section 3 refers, such as publication of notices in the Federal Register and receipt of comments in response to notices.

Sec. 5. Duties of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget and the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality. (a) The Director of the Office of Management and Budget, with such assistance from the Chairman of the Council on Environmental Quality as the Director may require, shall monitor the implementation of this order by the heads of the agencies and shall report thereon to the President from time to time, and not less often than semiannually, with any recommendations of the Director for strengthening the implementation of this order.

(b) To implement this order and further the policy set forth in section 1, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget may require the heads of the agencies to submit reports to, and coordinate with, such Office on matters related to this order.

Sec. 6. General Provisions. (a) This order shall be implemented in accordance with applicable law and subject to the availability of appropriations.

(b) This order shall not be construed to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the Director of the Office of Management and Budget relating to budget, administrative, and legislative proposals.

(c) This order is not intended to, and does not, create any right, benefit or privilege, substantive or procedural, enforceable at law or in equity by any party against the United States, its departments, agencies, instrumentalities, or entities, its officers or employees, or any other person.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "(4)".

3 So in original. Probably should be "paragraph".

4 Another subsec. (f) is set out after subsec. (m).

5 So in original. Probably should be "(n)".

§7522. Prohibited acts

(a) Enumerated prohibitions

The following acts and the causing thereof are prohibited—

(1) in the case of a manufacturer of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines for distribution in commerce, the sale, or the offering for sale, or the introduction, or delivery for introduction, into commerce, or (in the case of any person, except as provided by regulation of the Administrator), the importation into the United States, of any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine, manufactured after the effective date of regulations under this part which are applicable to such vehicle or engine unless such vehicle or engine is covered by a certificate of conformity issued (and in effect) under regulations prescribed under this part or part C in the case of clean-fuel vehicles (except as provided in subsection (b));

(2)(A) for any person to fail or refuse to permit access to or copying of records or to fail to make reports or provide information required under section 7542 of this title;

(B) for any person to fail or refuse to permit entry, testing or inspection authorized under section 7525(c) of this title or section 7542 of this title;

(C) for any person to fail or refuse to perform tests, or have tests performed as required under section 7542 of this title;

(D) for any manufacturer to fail to make information available as provided by regulation under section 7521(m)(5) of this title;

(3)(A) for any person to remove or render inoperative any device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine in compliance with regulations under this subchapter prior to its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser, or for any person knowingly to remove or render inoperative any such device or element of design after such sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser; or

(B) for any person to manufacture or sell, or offer to sell, or install, any part or component intended for use with, or as part of, any motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine, where a principal effect of the part or component is to bypass, defeat, or render inoperative any device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine in compliance with regulations under this subchapter, and where the person knows or should know that such part or component is being offered for sale or installed for such use or put to such use; or

(4) for any manufacturer of a new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine subject to standards prescribed under section 7521 of this title or part C—

(A) to sell or lease any such vehicle or engine unless such manufacturer has complied with (i) the requirements of section 7541(a) and (b) of this title with respect to such vehicle or engine, and unless a label or tag is affixed to such vehicle or engine in accordance with section 7541(c)(3) of this title, or (ii) the corresponding requirements of part C in the case of clean fuel vehicles unless the manufacturer has complied with the corresponding requirements of part C 1

(B) to fail or refuse to comply with the requirements of section 7541(c) or (e) of this title, or the corresponding requirements of part C in the case of clean fuel vehicles 1

(C) except as provided in subsection (c)(3) of section 7541 of this title and the corresponding requirements of part C in the case of clean fuel vehicles, to provide directly or indirectly in any communication to the ultimate purchaser or any subsequent purchaser that the coverage of any warranty under this chapter is conditioned upon use of any part, component, or system manufactured by such manufacturer or any person acting for such manufacturer or under his control, or conditioned upon service performed by any such person, or

(D) to fail or refuse to comply with the terms and conditions of the warranty under section 7541(a) or (b) of this title or the corresponding requirements of part C in the case of clean fuel vehicles with respect to any vehicle; or


(5) for any person to violate section 7553 of this title, 7554 of this title, or part C of this subchapter or any regulations under section 7553 of this title, 7554 of this title, or part C.


No action with respect to any element of design referred to in paragraph (3) (including any adjustment or alteration of such element) shall be treated as a prohibited act under such paragraph (3) if such action is in accordance with section 7549 of this title. Nothing in paragraph (3) shall be construed to require the use of manufacturer parts in maintaining or repairing any motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine. For the purposes of the preceding sentence, the term "manufacturer parts" means, with respect to a motor vehicle engine, parts produced or sold by the manufacturer of the motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine. No action with respect to any device or element of design referred to in paragraph (3) shall be treated as a prohibited act under that paragraph if (i) the action is for the purpose of repair or replacement of the device or element, or is a necessary and temporary procedure to repair or replace any other item and the device or element is replaced upon completion of the procedure, and (ii) such action thereafter results in the proper functioning of the device or element referred to in paragraph (3). No action with respect to any device or element of design referred to in paragraph (3) shall be treated as a prohibited act under that paragraph if the action is for the purpose of a conversion of a motor vehicle for use of a clean alternative fuel (as defined in this subchapter) and if such vehicle complies with the applicable standard under section 7521 of this title when operating on such fuel, and if in the case of a clean alternative fuel vehicle (as defined by rule by the Administrator), the device or element is replaced upon completion of the conversion procedure and such action results in proper functioning of the device or element when the motor vehicle operates on conventional fuel.

(b) Exemptions; refusal to admit vehicle or engine into United States; vehicles or engines intended for export

(1) The Administrator may exempt any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine, from subsection (a), upon such terms and conditions as he may find necessary for the purpose of research, investigations, studies, demonstrations, or training, or for reasons of national security.

(2) A new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine offered for importation or imported by any person in violation of subsection (a) shall be refused admission into the United States, but the Secretary of the Treasury and the Administrator may, by joint regulation, provide for deferring final determination as to admission and authorizing the delivery of such a motor vehicle or engine offered for import to the owner or consignee thereof upon such terms and conditions (including the furnishing of a bond) as may appear to them appropriate to insure that any such motor vehicle or engine will be brought into conformity with the standards, requirements, and limitations applicable to it under this part. The Secretary of the Treasury shall, if a motor vehicle or engine is finally refused admission under this paragraph, cause disposition thereof in accordance with the customs laws unless it is exported, under regulations prescribed by such Secretary, within ninety days of the date of notice of such refusal or such additional time as may be permitted pursuant to such regulations, except that disposition in accordance with the customs laws may not be made in such manner as may result, directly or indirectly, in the sale, to the ultimate consumer, of a new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine that fails to comply with applicable standards of the Administrator under this part.

(3) A new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine intended solely for export, and so labeled or tagged on the outside of the container and on the vehicle or engine itself, shall be subject to the provisions of subsection (a), except that if the country which is to receive such vehicle or engine has emission standards which differ from the standards prescribed under section 7521 of this title, then such vehicle or engine shall comply with the standards of such country which is to receive such vehicle or engine.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §203, as added Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 993; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 91–604, §§7(a), 11(a)(2)(A), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1693, 1705, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §§206, 211(a), 218(a), (d), 219(a), (b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 755, 757, 761, 762; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(66)–(68), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §§228(a), (b), (e), 230(6), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2507, 2511, 2529.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–2 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(b)(2), inserted two sentences at end which set forth conditions under which actions with respect to devices or elements of design, referred to in par. (3), would not be deemed prohibited acts.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(e)(1), inserted "or part C in the case of clean-fuel vehicles" before "(except".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(a), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "for any person to fail or refuse to permit access to or copying of records or to fail to make reports or provide information, required under section 7542 of this title or for any person to fail or refuse to permit entry, testing, or inspection authorized under section 7525(c) of this title;".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(b)(1), amended par. (3) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (3) read as follows:

"(A) for any person to remove or render inoperative any device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine in compliance with regulations under this subchapter prior to its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser, or for any manufacturer or dealer knowingly to remove or render inoperative any such device or element of design after such sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser; or

"(B) for any person engaged in the business of repairing, servicing, selling, leasing, or trading motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines, or who operates a fleet of motor vehicles, knowingly to remove or render inoperative any device or element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine in compliance with regulations under this subchapter following its sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser; or".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(e)(2), inserted "or part C" after "section 7521 of this title".

Subsec. (a)(4)(A). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(e)(3), inserted cl. (i) designation and added cl. (ii).

Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(e)(4), inserted at end "or the corresponding requirements of part C in the case of clean fuel vehicles".

Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(e)(5), inserted "and the corresponding requirements of part C in the case of clean fuel vehicles" after "section 7541 of this title".

Subsec. (a)(4)(D). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(e)(6), inserted "or the corresponding requirements of part C in the case of clean fuel vehicles" before "with respect to any vehicle".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(e)(7), added par. (5).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(6), struck out subsec. (c) which related to exemptions to permit modifications of emission control devices or systems.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(68), in closing text inserted a period after "section 7549 of this title".

Pub. L. 95–95, §§206, 211(a), 218(a), 219(a), (b), inserted "or for any person to fail or refuse to permit entry, testing, or inspection authorized under section 7525(c) of this title" in par. (2), designated existing provisions of par. (3) as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B), added subpars. (C) and (D) in par. (4), and, following par. (4), inserted provisions that no action with respect to any element of design referred to in par. (3) (including adjustment or alteration of such element) be treated as a prohibited act under par. (3) if the action is in accordance with section 7549 of this title and that nothing in par. (3) be construed to require the use of manufacturer parts in maintaining or repairing motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines.

Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(66), substituted "purchaser;" for "purchaser,".

Subsec. (a)(4)(C). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(67), inserted "or" after "such person,".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 95–95, §218(d), substituted "section 7521 of this title" for "subsection (a)" and "country which is to receive such vehicle or engine" for "country of export".

1970—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 91–604, §7(a)(1), struck out reference to the manufacture of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines for sale, inserted provision for issuance by the Administrator of regulations regarding exceptions in the case of importation of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, and substituted "importation" into the United States of such units for "importation for sale or resale" into the United States of such units.

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 91–604, §7(a)(2), substituted "section 208" for "section 207", both of which, for purposes of codification, are translated as "section 7542 of this title".

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 91–604, §§7(a)(3), 11(a)(2)(A), substituted "part" for "subchapter" and inserted provisions prohibiting the knowing removal or inoperation by manufacturers or dealers of devices or elements of design after sale and delivery to the ultimate purchaser.

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 91–604, §7(a)(4), added par. (4).

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 91–604, §§7(a)(5), 15(c)(2), struck out reference to the exemption of a class of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, struck out the protection of the public health and welfare from the enumeration of purposes for which exemptions may be made, and substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 91–604, §§7(a)(6), 11(a)(2)(A), 15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare", "importation or imported by any person" for "importation by a manufacturer", and "part" for "subchapter".

Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 91–604, §7(a)(7)(A), inserted provision that, if the country of export has emission standards which differ from the standards prescribed under subsec. (a), such vehicle or engine must comply with the standards of such country of export.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, §7(a)(7)(B), added subsec. (c).

1967—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 90–148 substituted "conformity with regulations prescribed under this subchapter" for "conformity with regulations prescribed under section 7521 of this title" in par. (1).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§7523. Actions to restrain violations

(a) Jurisdiction

The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to restrain violations of section 7522(a) of this title.

(b) Actions brought by or in name of United States; subpenas

Actions to restrain such violations shall be brought by and in the name of the United States. In any such action, subpenas for witnesses who are required to attend a district court in any district may run into any other district.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §204, as added Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 994; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 500; Pub. L. 91–604, §7(b), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §218(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 761.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–3 of this title.

Amendments

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–95 struck out "paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4)" after "restrain violations of".

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604 inserted reference to par. (4) of section 7522(a) of this title.

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7524. Civil penalties

(a) Violations

Any person who violates sections 1 7522(a)(1), 7522(a)(4), or 7522(a)(5) of this title or any manufacturer or dealer who violates section 7522(a)(3)(A) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $25,000. Any person other than a manufacturer or dealer who violates section 7522(a)(3)(A) of this title or any person who violates section 7522(a)(3)(B) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $2,500. Any such violation with respect to paragraph (1), (3)(A), or (4) of section 7522(a) of this title shall constitute a separate offense with respect to each motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine. Any such violation with respect to section 7522(a)(3)(B) of this title shall constitute a separate offense with respect to each part or component. Any person who violates section 7522(a)(2) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $25,000 per day of violation.

(b) Civil actions

The Administrator may commence a civil action to assess and recover any civil penalty under subsection (a) of this section, section 7545(d) of this title, or section 7547(d) of this title. Any action under this subsection may be brought in the district court of the United States for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred or in which the defendant resides or has the Administrator's principal place of business, and the court shall have jurisdiction to assess a civil penalty. In determining the amount of any civil penalty to be assessed under this subsection, the court shall take into account the gravity of the violation, the economic benefit or savings (if any) resulting from the violation, the size of the violator's business, the violator's history of compliance with this subchapter, action taken to remedy the violation, the effect of the penalty on the violator's ability to continue in business, and such other matters as justice may require. In any such action, subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a district court in any district may run into any other district.

(c) Administrative assessment of certain penalties

(1) Administrative penalty authority

In lieu of commencing a civil action under subsection (b), the Administrator may assess any civil penalty prescribed in subsection (a) of this section, section 7545(d) of this title, or section 7547(d) of this title, except that the maximum amount of penalty sought against each violator in a penalty assessment proceeding shall not exceed $200,000, unless the Administrator and the Attorney General jointly determine that a matter involving a larger penalty amount is appropriate for administrative penalty assessment. Any such determination by the Administrator and the Attorney General shall not be subject to judicial review. Assessment of a civil penalty under this subsection shall be by an order made on the record after opportunity for a hearing in accordance with sections 554 and 556 of title 5. The Administrator shall issue reasonable rules for discovery and other procedures for hearings under this paragraph. Before issuing such an order, the Administrator shall give written notice to the person to be assessed an administrative penalty of the Administrator's proposal to issue such order and provide such person an opportunity to request such a hearing on the order, within 30 days of the date the notice is received by such person. The Administrator may compromise, or remit, with or without conditions, any administrative penalty which may be imposed under this section.

(2) Determining amount

In determining the amount of any civil penalty assessed under this subsection, the Administrator shall take into account the gravity of the violation, the economic benefit or savings (if any) resulting from the violation, the size of the violator's business, the violator's history of compliance with this subchapter, action taken to remedy the violation, the effect of the penalty on the violator's ability to continue in business, and such other matters as justice may require.

(3) Effect of Administrator's action

(A) Action by the Administrator under this subsection shall not affect or limit the Administrator's authority to enforce any provision of this chapter; except that any violation,

(i) with respect to which the Administrator has commenced and is diligently prosecuting an action under this subsection, or

(ii) for which the Administrator has issued a final order not subject to further judicial review and the violator has paid a penalty assessment under this subsection,


shall not be the subject of civil penalty action under subsection (b).

(B) No action by the Administrator under this subsection shall affect any person's obligation to comply with any section of this chapter.

(4) Finality of order

An order issued under this subsection shall become final 30 days after its issuance unless a petition for judicial review is filed under paragraph (5).

(5) Judicial review

Any person against whom a civil penalty is assessed in accordance with this subsection may seek review of the assessment in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia, or for the district in which the violation is alleged to have occurred, in which such person resides, or where such person's principal place of business is located, within the 30-day period beginning on the date a civil penalty order is issued. Such person shall simultaneously send a copy of the filing by certified mail to the Administrator and the Attorney General. The Administrator shall file in the court a certified copy, or certified index, as appropriate, of the record on which the order was issued within 30 days. The court shall not set aside or remand any order issued in accordance with the requirements of this subsection unless there is not substantial evidence in the record, taken as a whole, to support the finding of a violation or unless the Administrator's assessment of the penalty constitutes an abuse of discretion, and the court shall not impose additional civil penalties unless the Administrator's assessment of the penalty constitutes an abuse of discretion. In any proceedings, the United States may seek to recover civil penalties assessed under this section.

(6) Collection

If any person fails to pay an assessment of a civil penalty imposed by the Administrator as provided in this subsection—

(A) after the order making the assessment has become final, or

(B) after a court in an action brought under paragraph (5) has entered a final judgment in favor of the Administrator,


the Administrator shall request the Attorney General to bring a civil action in an appropriate district court to recover the amount assessed (plus interest at rates established pursuant to section 6621(a)(2) of title 26 from the date of the final order or the date of the final judgment, as the case may be). In such an action, the validity, amount, and appropriateness of the penalty shall not be subject to review. Any person who fails to pay on a timely basis the amount of an assessment of a civil penalty as described in the first sentence of this paragraph shall be required to pay, in addition to that amount and interest, the United States' enforcement expenses, including attorneys fees and costs for collection proceedings, and a quarterly nonpayment penalty for each quarter during which such failure to pay persists. The nonpayment penalty shall be in an amount equal to 10 percent of the aggregate amount of that person's penalties and nonpayment penalties which are unpaid as of the beginning of such quarter.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, §205, as added Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 994; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 500; Pub. L. 91–604, §7(c), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §219(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 762; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §228(c), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2508.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–4 of this title.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–549 amended section generally. Prior to amendment, section read as follows: "Any person who violates paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of section 7522(a) of this title or any manufacturer, dealer, or other person who violates paragraph (3)(A) of section 7522(a) of this title shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $10,000. Any person who violates paragraph (3)(B) of such section 7522(a) shall be subject to a civil penalty of not more than $2,500. Any such violation with respect to paragraph (1), (3), or (4) of section 7522(a) of this title shall constitute a separate offense with respect to each motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine."

1977Pub. L. 95–95 substituted "Any person who violates paragraph (1), (2), or (4) of section 7522(a) of this title, or any manufacturer, dealer, or other person who violates paragraph (3)(A) of section 7522(a) of this title" for "Any person who violates paragraph (1), (2), (3), or (4) of section 7522(a) of this title" in provisions covering the civil penalty of $10,000, and inserted provisions for a civil penalty of not more than $2,500 for violations of par. (3)(B) of section 7522(a) of this title.

1970Pub. L. 91–604 increased the upper limit of the allowable fine from "$1,000" to "$10,000".

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§7525. Motor vehicle and motor vehicle engine compliance testing and certification

(a) Testing and issuance of certificate of conformity

(1) The Administrator shall test, or require to be tested in such manner as he deems appropriate, any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine submitted by a manufacturer to determine whether such vehicle or engine conforms with the regulations prescribed under section 7521 of this title. If such vehicle or engine conforms to such regulations, the Administrator shall issue a certificate of conformity upon such terms, and for such period (not in excess of one year), as he may prescribe. In the case of any original equipment manufacturer (as defined by the Administrator in regulations promulgated before November 15, 1990) of vehicles or vehicle engines whose projected sales in the United States for any model year (as determined by the Administrator) will not exceed 300, the Administrator shall not require, for purposes of determining compliance with regulations under section 7521 of this title for the useful life of the vehicle or engine, operation of any vehicle or engine manufactured during such model year for more than 5,000 miles or 160 hours, respectively, unless the Administrator, by regulation, prescribes otherwise. The Administrator shall apply any adjustment factors that the Administrator deems appropriate to assure that each vehicle or engine will comply during its useful life (as determined under section 7521(d) of this title) with the regulations prescribed under section 7521 of this title.

(2) The Administrator shall test any emission control system incorporated in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine submitted to him by any person, in order to determine whether such system enables such vehicle or engine to conform to the standards required to be prescribed under section 7521(b) of this title. If the Administrator finds on the basis of such tests that such vehicle or engine conforms to such standards, the Administrator shall issue a verification of compliance with emission standards for such system when incorporated in vehicles of a class of which the tested vehicle is representative. He shall inform manufacturers and the National Academy of Sciences, and make available to the public, the results of such tests. Tests under this paragraph shall be conducted under such terms and conditions (including requirements for preliminary testing by qualified independent laboratories) as the Administrator may prescribe by regulations.

(3)(A) A certificate of conformity may be issued under this section only if the Administrator determines that the manufacturer (or in the case of a vehicle or engine for import, any person) has established to the satisfaction of the Administrator that any emission control device, system, or element of design installed on, or incorporated in, such vehicle or engine conforms to applicable requirements of section 7521(a)(4) of this title.

(B) The Administrator may conduct such tests and may require the manufacturer (or any such person) to conduct such tests and provide such information as is necessary to carry out subparagraph (A) of this paragraph. Such requirements shall include a requirement for prompt reporting of the emission of any unregulated pollutant from a system, device, or element of design if such pollutant was not emitted, or was emitted in significantly lesser amounts, from the vehicle or engine without use of the system, device, or element of design.

(4)(A) Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall revise the regulations promulgated under this subsection to add test procedures capable of determining whether model year 1994 and later model year light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks, when properly maintained and used, will pass the inspection methods and procedures established under section 7541(b) of this title for that model year, under conditions reasonably likely to be encountered in the conduct of inspection and maintenance programs, but which those programs cannot reasonably influence or control. The conditions shall include fuel characteristics, ambient temperature, and short (30 minutes or less) waiting periods before tests are conducted. The Administrator shall not grant a certificate of conformity under this subsection for any 1994 or later model year vehicle or engine that the Administrator concludes cannot pass the test procedures established under this paragraph.

(B) From time to time, the Administrator may revise the regulations promulgated under subparagraph (A), as the Administrator deems appropriate.

(5)(A) A motor vehicle engine (including all engine emission controls) may be installed in an exempted specially produced motor vehicle if the motor vehicle engine is from a motor vehicle that is covered by a certificate of conformity issued by the Administrator for the model year in which the exempted specially produced motor vehicle is produced, or the motor vehicle engine is covered by an Executive order subject to regulations promulgated by the California Air Resources Board for the model year in which the exempted specially produced motor vehicle is produced, and—

(i) the manufacturer of the engine supplies written instructions to the Administrator and the manufacturer of the exempted specially produced motor vehicle explaining how to install the engine and maintain functionality of the engine's emission control system and the on-board diagnostic system (commonly known as "OBD"), except with respect to evaporative emissions;

(ii) the manufacturer of the exempted specially produced motor vehicle installs the engine in accordance with such instructions and certifies such installation in accordance with subparagraph (E);

(iii) the installation instructions include emission control warranty information from the engine manufacturer in compliance with section 7541 of this title, including where warranty repairs can be made, emission control labels to be affixed to the vehicle, and the certificate of conformity number for the applicable vehicle in which the engine was originally intended or the applicable Executive order number for the engine; and

(iv) the manufacturer of the exempted specially produced motor vehicle does not produce more than 325 such vehicles in the calendar year in which the vehicle is produced.


(B) A motor vehicle containing an engine compliant with the requirements of subparagraph (A) shall be treated as meeting the requirements of section 7521 of this title applicable to new vehicles produced or imported in the model year in which the exempted specially produced motor vehicle is produced or imported.

(C) Engine installations that are not performed in accordance with installation instructions provided by the manufacturer and alterations to the engine not in accordance with the installation instructions shall—

(i) be treated as prohibited acts by the installer under section 7522 of this title and any applicable regulations; and

(ii) subject to civil penalties under section 7524(a) of this title, civil actions under section 7524(b) of this title, and administrative assessment of penalties under section 7524(c) of this title.


(D) The manufacturer of an exempted specially produced motor vehicle that has an engine compliant with the requirements of subparagraph (A) shall provide to the purchaser of such vehicle all information received by the manufacturer from the engine manufacturer, including information regarding emissions warranties from the engine manufacturer and all emissions-related recalls by the engine manufacturer.

(E) To qualify to install an engine under this paragraph, and sell, offer for sale, introduce into commerce, deliver for introduction into commerce or import an exempted specially produced motor vehicle, a manufacturer of exempted specially produced motor vehicles shall register with the Administrator at such time and in such manner as the Administrator determines appropriate. The manufacturer shall submit an annual report to the Administrator that includes—

(i) a description of the exempted specially produced motor vehicles and engines installed in such vehicles;

(ii) the certificate of conformity number issued to the motor vehicle in which the engine was originally intended or the applicable Executive order number for the engine; and

(iii) a certification that it produced all exempted specially produced motor vehicles according to the written instructions from the engine manufacturer, and otherwise that the engine conforms in all material respects to the description in the application for the applicable certificate of conformity or Executive order.


(F) Exempted specially produced motor vehicles compliant with this paragraph shall be exempted from—

(i) motor vehicle certification testing under this section; and

(ii) vehicle emission control inspection and maintenance programs required under section 7410 of this title.


(G)(i) Except as provided in subparagraphs (A) through (F), a person engaged in the manufacturing or assembling of exempted specially produced motor vehicles shall be considered a manufacturer for purposes of this chapter.

(ii) Nothing in this paragraph shall be construed to exempt any person from the prohibitions in section 7522(a)(3) of this title or the requirements in sections 7542, 7525(c), or 7521(m)(5) of this title.

(H) In this paragraph:

(i) The term "exempted specially produced motor vehicle" means a light-duty vehicle or light-duty truck produced by a low-volume manufacturer and that—

(I) is intended to resemble the body of another motor vehicle that was manufactured not less than 25 years before the manufacture of the exempted specially produced motor vehicle; and

(II) is manufactured under a license for the product configuration, trade dress, trademark, or patent, for the motor vehicle that is intended to be replicated from the original manufacturer, its successors or assignees, or current owner of such product configuration, trade dress, trademark, or patent rights.


(ii) The term "low-volume manufacturer" means a motor vehicle manufacturer, other than a person who is registered as an importer under section 30141 of title 49, whose annual worldwide production, including by a parent or subsidiary of the manufacturer, if applicable, is not more than 5,000 motor vehicles.

(b) Testing procedures; hearing; judicial review; additional evidence

(1) In order to determine whether new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines being manufactured by a manufacturer do in fact conform with the regulations with respect to which the certificate of conformity was issued, the Administrator is authorized to test such vehicles or engines. Such tests may be conducted by the Administrator directly or, in accordance with conditions specified by the Administrator, by the manufacturer.

(2)(A)(i) If, based on tests conducted under paragraph (1) on a sample of new vehicles or engines covered by a certificate of conformity, the Administrator determines that all or part of the vehicles or engines so covered do not conform with the regulations with respect to which the certificate of conformity was issued and with the requirements of section 7521(a)(4) of this title, he may suspend or revoke such certificate in whole or in part, and shall so notify the manufacturer. Such suspension or revocation shall apply in the case of any new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines manufactured after the date of such notification (or manufactured before such date if still in the hands of the manufacturer), and shall apply until such time as the Administrator finds that vehicles and engines manufactured by the manufacturer do conform to such regulations and requirements. If, during any period of suspension or revocation, the Administrator finds that a vehicle or engine actually conforms to such regulations and requirements, he shall issue a certificate of conformity applicable to such vehicle or engine.

(ii) If, based on tests conducted under paragraph (1) on any new vehicle or engine, the Administrator determines that such vehicle or engine does not conform with such regulations and requirements, he may suspend or revoke such certificate insofar as it applies to such vehicle or engine until such time as he finds such vehicle or engine actually so conforms with such regulations and requirements, and he shall so notify the manufacturer.

(B)(i) At the request of any manufacturer the Administrator shall grant such manufacturer a hearing as to whether the tests have been properly conducted or any sampling methods have been properly applied, and make a determination on the record with respect to any suspension or revocation under subparagraph (A); but suspension or revocation under subparagraph (A) shall not be stayed by reason of such hearing.

(ii) In any case of actual controversy as to the validity of any determination under clause (i), the manufacturer may at any time prior to the 60th day after such determination is made file a petition with the United States court of appeals for the circuit wherein such manufacturer resides or has his principal place of business for a judicial review of such determination. A copy of the petition shall be forthwith transmitted by the clerk of the court to the Administrator or other officer designated by him for that purpose. The Administrator thereupon shall file in the court the record of the proceedings on which the Administrator based his determination, as provided in section 2112 of title 28.

(iii) If the petitioner applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shows to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Administrator, the court may order such additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) to be taken before the Administrator, in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as the court may deem proper. The Administrator may modify his findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of the additional evidence so taken and he shall file such modified or new findings, and his recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of his original determination, with the return of such additional evidence.

(iv) Upon the filing of the petition referred to in clause (ii), the court shall have jurisdiction to review the order in accordance with chapter 7 of title 5 and to grant appropriate relief as provided in such chapter.

(c) Inspection

For purposes of enforcement of this section, officers or employees duly designated by the Administrator, upon presenting appropriate credentials to the manufacturer or person in charge, are authorized (1) to enter, at reasonable times, any plant or other establishment of such manufacturer, for the purpose of conducting tests of vehicles or engines in the hands of the manufacturer, or (2) to inspect, at reasonable times, records, files, papers, processes, controls, and facilities used by such manufacturer in conducting tests under regulations of the Administrator. Each such inspection shall be commenced and completed with reasonable promptness.

(d) Rules and regulations

The Administrator shall by regulation establish methods and procedures for making tests under this section.

(e) Publication of test results

The Administrator shall make available to the public the results of his tests of any motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine submitted by a manufacturer under subsection (a) as promptly as possible after December 31, 1970, and at the beginning of each model year which begins thereafter. Such results shall be described in such nontechnical manner as will reasonably disclose to prospective ultimate purchasers of new motor vehicles and new motor vehicle engines the comparative performance of the vehicles and engines tested in meeting the standards prescribed under section 7521 of this title.

(f) High altitude regulations

All light duty 1 vehicles and engines manufactured during or after model year 1984 and all light-duty trucks manufactured during or after model year 1995 shall comply with the requirements of section 7521 of this title regardless of the altitude at which they are sold.

(g) Nonconformance penalty

(1) In the case of any class or category of heavy-duty vehicles or engines to which a standard promulgated under section 7521(a) of this title applies, except as provided in paragraph (2), a certificate of conformity shall be issued under subsection (a) and shall not be suspended or revoked under subsection (b) for such vehicles or engines manufactured by a manufacturer notwithstanding the failure of such vehicles or engines to meet such standard if such manufacturer pays a nonconformance penalty as provided under regulations promulgated by the Administrator after notice and opportunity for public hearing. In the case of motorcycles to which such a standard applies, such a certificate may be issued notwithstanding such failure if the manufacturer pays such a penalty.

(2) No certificate of conformity may be issued under paragraph (1) with respect to any class or category of vehicle or engine if the degree by which the manufacturer fails to meet any standard promulgated under section 7521(a) of this title with respect to such class or category exceeds the percentage determined under regulations promulgated by the Administrator to be practicable. Such regulations shall require such testing of vehicles or engines being produced as may be necessary to determine the percentage of the classes or categories of vehicles or engines which are not in compliance with the regulations with respect to which a certificate of conformity was issued and shall be promulgated not later than one year after August 7, 1977.

(3) The regulations promulgated under paragraph (1) shall, not later than one year after August 7, 1977, provide for nonconformance penalties in amounts determined under a formula established by the Administrator. Such penalties under such formula—

(A) may vary from pollutant-to-pollutant;

(B) may vary by class or category or vehicle or engine;

(C) shall take into account the extent to which actual emissions of any air pollutant exceed allowable emissions under the standards promulgated under section 7521 of this title;

(D) shall be increased periodically in order to create incentives for the development of production vehicles or engines which achieve the required degree of emission reduction; and

(E) shall remove any competitive disadvantage to manufacturers whose engines or vehicles achieve the required degree of emission reduction (including any such disadvantage arising from the application of paragraph (4)).


(4) In any case in which a certificate of conformity has been issued under this subsection, any warranty required under section 7541(b)(2) of this title and any action under section 7541(c) of this title shall be required to be effective only for the emission levels which the Administrator determines that such certificate was issued and not for the emission levels required under the applicable standard.

(5) The authorities of section 7542(a) of this title shall apply, subject to the conditions of section 7542(b) 2 of this title, for purposes of this subsection.

(h) Review and revision of regulations

Within 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall review and revise as necessary the regulations under subsection 3 (a) and (b) of this section regarding the testing of motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines to insure that vehicles are tested under circumstances which reflect the actual current driving conditions under which motor vehicles are used, including conditions relating to fuel, temperature, acceleration, and altitude.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §206, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §8(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §§213(a), 214(b), (c), 220, 224(e), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 758–760, 762, 768; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(69), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §§208, 230(7), (8), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2483, 2529; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, §24405(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1723.)

References in Text

Section 7542 of this title, referred to in subsec. (g)(5), was amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §211, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2487, and provisions formerly contained in section 7542(b) of this title are contained in section 7542(c).

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–5 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 206 of act July 14, 1955, related to testing of motor vehicles and motor vehicle engines and was classified to section 1857f–5 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 91–604.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 114–94 added par. (5).

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §208(b), inserted new third sentence and struck out former third sentence which read as follows: "In the case of any manufacturer of vehicles or vehicle engines whose projected sales in the United States for any model year (as determined by the Administrator) will not exceed three hundred, the regulations prescribed by the Administrator concerning testing by the manufacturer for purposes of determining compliance with regulations under section 7521 of this title for the useful life of the vehicle or engine shall not require operation of any vehicle or engine manufactured during such model year for more than five thousand miles or one hundred and sixty hours, respectively, but the Administrator shall apply such adjustment factors as he deems appropriate to assure that each such vehicle or engine will comply during its useful life (as determined under section 7521(d) of this title) with the regulations prescribed under section 7521 of this title."

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §208(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(7), struck out "announce in the Federal Register and" after "The Administrator shall".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(8), struck out par. (1) designation before "All light duty vehicles", inserted reference to all light-duty trucks manufactured during or after model year 1995, and struck out par. (2) which required the Administrator to report to Congress by Oct. 1, 1978, on the economic impact and technological feasibility of the requirements of former par. (1).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–549, §208(c), added subsec. (h).

1977—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–95, §220, inserted provisions covering testing by small manufacturers.

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–95, §214(b), added par. (3).

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 95–95, §214(c)(1), (2), substituted "certificate of conformity was issued and with the requirements of section 7521(a)(4) of this title, he may suspend" for "certificate of conformity was issued, he may suspend" and "such regulations and requirements" for "such regulations".

Subsec. (b)(2)(A)(ii). Pub. L. 95–95, §214(c)(2), substituted "such regulations and requirements" for "such regulations".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–95, §213(a), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–95, §224(e), added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (g)(3)(D). Pub. L. 95–190 inserted "shall" before "be".

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 91–604, §8(b), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1698, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and section 7541 of this title] shall not apply to vehicles or engines imported into the United States before the sixtieth day after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 31, 1970]."

Regulations

Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, §24405(c), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1725, provided that: "Not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary of Transportation and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall issue such regulations as may be necessary to implement the amendments made by subsections (a) [amending section 30114 of Title 49, Transportation] and (b) [amending this section], respectively."

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "light-duty".

2 See References in Text note below.

3 So in original. Probably should be "subsections".

§7541. Compliance by vehicles and engines in actual use

(a) Warranty; certification; payment of replacement costs of parts, devices, or components designed for emission control

(1) Effective with respect to vehicles and engines manufactured in model years beginning more than 60 days after December 31, 1970, the manufacturer of each new motor vehicle and new motor vehicle engine shall warrant to the ultimate purchaser and each subsequent purchaser that such vehicle or engine is (A) designed, built, and equipped so as to conform at the time of sale with applicable regulations under section 7521 of this title, and (B) free from defects in materials and workmanship which cause such vehicle or engine to fail to conform with applicable regulations for its useful life (as determined under section 7521(d) of this title). In the case of vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1995 and thereafter such warranty shall require that the vehicle or engine is free from any such defects for the warranty period provided under subsection (i).

(2) In the case of a motor vehicle part or motor vehicle engine part, the manufacturer or rebuilder of such part may certify that use of such part will not result in a failure of the vehicle or engine to comply with emission standards promulgated under section 7521 of this title. Such certification shall be made only under such regulations as may be promulgated by the Administrator to carry out the purposes of subsection (b). The Administrator shall promulgate such regulations no later than two years following August 7, 1977.

(3) The cost of any part, device, or component of any light-duty vehicle that is designed for emission control and which in the instructions issued pursuant to subsection (c)(3) of this section is scheduled for replacement during the useful life of the vehicle in order to maintain compliance with regulations under section 7521 of this title, the failure of which shall not interfere with the normal performance of the vehicle, and the expected retail price of which, including installation costs, is greater than 2 percent of the suggested retail price of such vehicle, shall be borne or reimbursed at the time of replacement by the vehicle manufacturer and such replacement shall be provided without cost to the ultimate purchaser, subsequent purchaser, or dealer. The term "designed for emission control" as used in the preceding sentence means a catalytic converter, thermal reactor, or other component installed on or in a vehicle for the sole or primary purpose of reducing vehicle emissions (not including those vehicle components which were in general use prior to model year 1968 and the primary function of which is not related to emission control).

(b) Testing methods and procedures

If the Administrator determines that (i) there are available testing methods and procedures to ascertain whether, when in actual use throughout its 1 the warranty period (as determined under subsection (i)), each vehicle and engine to which regulations under section 7521 of this title apply complies with the emission standards of such regulations, (ii) such methods and procedures are in accordance with good engineering practices, and (iii) such methods and procedures are reasonably capable of being correlated with tests conducted under section 7525(a)(1) of this title, then—

(1) he shall establish such methods and procedures by regulation, and

(2) at such time as he determines that inspection facilities or equipment are available for purposes of carrying out testing methods and procedures established under paragraph (1), he shall prescribe regulations which shall require manufacturers to warrant the emission control device or system of each new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine to which a regulation under section 7521 of this title applies and which is manufactured in a model year beginning after the Administrator first prescribes warranty regulations under this paragraph (2). The warranty under such regulations shall run to the ultimate purchaser and each subsequent purchaser and shall provide that if—

(A) the vehicle or engine is maintained and operated in accordance with instructions under subsection (c)(3),

(B) it fails to conform at any time during its 1 the warranty period (as determined under subsection (i)) to the regulations prescribed under section 7521 of this title, and

(C) such nonconformity results in the ultimate purchaser (or any subsequent purchaser) of such vehicle or engine having to bear any penalty or other sanction (including the denial of the right to use such vehicle or engine) under State or Federal law,


then such manufacturer shall remedy such nonconformity under such warranty with the cost thereof to be borne by the manufacturer. No such warranty shall be invalid on the basis of any part used in the maintenance or repair of a vehicle or engine if such part was certified as provided under subsection (a)(2).

(c) Nonconforming vehicles; plan for remedying nonconformity; instructions for maintenance and use; label or tag

Effective with respect to vehicles and engines manufactured during model years beginning more than 60 days after December 31, 1970—

(1) If the Administrator determines that a substantial number of any class or category of vehicles or engines, although properly maintained and used, do not conform to the regulations prescribed under section 7521 of this title, when in actual use throughout their useful life (as determined under section 7521(d) of this title), he shall immediately notify the manufacturer thereof of such nonconformity, and he shall require the manufacturer to submit a plan for remedying the nonconformity of the vehicles or engines with respect to which such notification is given. The plan shall provide that the nonconformity of any such vehicles or engines which are properly used and maintained will be remedied at the expense of the manufacturer. If the manufacturer disagrees with such determination of nonconformity and so advises the Administrator, the Administrator shall afford the manufacturer and other interested persons an opportunity to present their views and evidence in support thereof at a public hearing. Unless, as a result of such hearing the Administrator withdraws such determination of nonconformity, he shall, within 60 days after the completion of such hearing, order the manufacturer to provide prompt notification of such nonconformity in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Any notification required by paragraph (1) with respect to any class or category of vehicles or engines shall be given to dealers, ultimate purchasers, and subsequent purchasers (if known) in such manner and containing such information as the Administrator may by regulations require.

(3)(A) The manufacturer shall furnish with each new motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine written instructions for the proper maintenance and use of the vehicle or engine by the ultimate purchaser and such instructions shall correspond to regulations which the Administrator shall promulgate. The manufacturer shall provide in boldface type on the first page of the written maintenance instructions notice that maintenance, replacement, or repair of the emission control devices and systems may be performed by any automotive repair establishment or individual using any automotive part which has been certified as provided in subsection (a)(2).

(B) The instruction under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph shall not include any condition on the ultimate purchaser's using, in connection with such vehicle or engine, any component or service (other than a component or service provided without charge under the terms of the purchase agreement) which is identified by brand, trade, or corporate name; or directly or indirectly distinguishing between service performed by the franchised dealers of such manufacturer or any other service establishments with which such manufacturer has a commercial relationship, and service performed by independent automotive repair facilities with which such manufacturer has no commercial relationship; except that the prohibition of this subsection may be waived by the Administrator if—

(i) the manufacturer satisfies the Administrator that the vehicle or engine will function properly only if the component or service so identified is used in connection with such vehicle or engine, and

(ii) the Administrator finds that such a waiver is in the public interest.


(C) In addition, the manufacturer shall indicate by means of a label or tag permanently affixed to such vehicle or engine that such vehicle or engine is covered by a certificate of conformity issued for the purpose of assuring achievement of emissions standards prescribed under section 7521 of this title. Such label or tag shall contain such other information relating to control of motor vehicle emissions as the Administrator shall prescribe by regulation.

(4) Intermediate in-use standards.—

(A) Model years 1994 and 1995.—For light-duty trucks of up to 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and light-duty vehicles which are subject to standards under table G of section 7521(g)(1) of this title in model years 1994 and 1995 (40 percent of the manufacturer's sales volume in model year 1994 and 80 percent in model year 1995), the standards applicable to NMHC, CO, and NOx for purposes of this subsection shall be those set forth in table A below in lieu of the standards for such air pollutants otherwise applicable under this subchapter.

table a—intermediate in-use standards ldts up to 6,000 lbs. gvwr and light-duty vehicles
Vehicle typeNMHCCONOx
Light-duty vehicles 0.32 3.4 0.4*
LDT's (0–3,750 LVW) 0.32 5.2 0.4*
LDT's (3,751–5,750 LVW) 0.41 6.7 0.7*

*Not applicable to diesel-fueled vehicles.

(B) Model years 1996 and thereafter.—(i) In the model years 1996 and 1997, light-duty trucks (LDTs) up to 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and light-duty vehicles which are not subject to final in-use standards under paragraph (5) (60 percent of the manufacturer's sales volume in model year 1996 and 20 percent in model year 1997) shall be subject to the standards set forth in table A of subparagraph (A) for NMHC, CO, and NOx for purposes of this subsection in lieu of those set forth in paragraph (5).

(ii) For LDTs of more than 6,000 lbs. GVWR—

(I) in model year 1996 which are subject to the standards set forth in Table H of section 7521(h) of this title (50%);

(II) in model year 1997 (100%); and

(III) in model year 1998 which are not subject to final in-use standards under paragraph (5) (50%);


the standards for NMHC, CO, and NOx for purposes of this subsection shall be those set forth in Table B below in lieu of the standards for such air pollutants otherwise applicable under this subchapter.

Table B—Intermediate In-Use Standards LDTs More Than 6,000 Lbs. GVWR
Vehicle typeNMHCCONOx
LDTs (3,751–5,750 lbs. TW) 0.40 5.5 0.88*
LDTs (over 5,750 lbs. TW) 0.49 6.2 1.38*

*Not applicable to diesel-fueled vehicles.

(C) Useful life.—In the case of the in-use standards applicable under this paragraph, for purposes of applying this subsection, the applicable useful life shall be 5 years or 50,000 miles or the equivalent (whichever first occurs).


(5) Final in-use standards.—(A) After the model year 1995, for purposes of applying this subsection, in the case of the percentage specified in the implementation schedule below of each manufacturer's sales volume of light-duty trucks of up to 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR) and light duty 2 vehicles, the standards for NMHC, CO, and NOx shall be as provided in Table G in section 7521(g) of this title, except that in applying the standards set forth in Table G for purposes of determining compliance with this subsection, the applicable useful life shall be (i) 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 50,000 miles; and (ii) 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 100,000 miles, except that no testing shall be done beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles, or the equivalent whichever first occurs.

LDTs up to 6,000 Lbs. GVWR and Light-Duty Vehicle Schedule for Implementation of Final In-Use Standards
Model yearPercent
1996  40
1997  80
1998 100

(B) After the model year 1997, for purposes of applying this subsection, in the case of the percentage specified in the implementation schedule below of each manufacturer's sales volume of light-duty trucks of more than 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (GVWR), the standards for NMHC, CO, and NOx shall be as provided in Table H in section 7521(h) of this title, except that in applying the standards set forth in Table H for purposes of determining compliance with this subsection, the applicable useful life shall be (i) 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 50,000 miles; and (ii) 11 years or 120,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 120,000 miles, except that no testing shall be done beyond 7 years or 90,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs.

LDTs of More Than 6,000 Lbs. GVWR Implementation Schedule for Implementation of Final In-Use Standards
Model yearPercent
1998  50
1999 100

(6) Diesel vehicles; in-use useful life and testing.—(A) In the case of diesel-fueled light-duty trucks up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR and light-duty vehicles, the useful life for purposes of determining in-use compliance with the standards under section 7521(g) of this title for NOx shall be a period of 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs, in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 100,000 miles, except that testing shall not be done for a period beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs.

(B) In the case of diesel-fueled light-duty trucks of 6,000 lbs. GVWR or more, the useful life for purposes of determining in-use compliance with the standards under section 7521(h) of this title for NOx shall be a period of 11 years or 120,000 miles (or the equivalent), whichever first occurs, in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 120,000 miles, except that testing shall not be done for a period beyond 7 years or 90,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs.

(d) Dealer costs borne by manufacturer

Any cost obligation of any dealer incurred as a result of any requirement imposed by subsection (a), (b), or (c) shall be borne by the manufacturer. The transfer of any such cost obligation from a manufacturer to any dealer through franchise or other agreement is prohibited.

(e) Cost statement

If a manufacturer includes in any advertisement a statement respecting the cost or value of emission control devices or systems, such manufacturer shall set forth in such statement the cost or value attributed to such devices or systems by the Secretary of Labor (through the Bureau of Labor Statistics). The Secretary of Labor, and his representatives, shall have the same access for this purpose to the books, documents, papers, and records of a manufacturer as the Comptroller General has to those of a recipient of assistance for purposes of section 7611 of this title.

(f) Inspection after sale to ultimate purchaser

Any inspection of a motor vehicle or a motor vehicle engine for purposes of subsection (c)(1), after its sale to the ultimate purchaser, shall be made only if the owner of such vehicle or engine voluntarily permits such inspection to be made, except as may be provided by any State or local inspection program.

(g) Replacement and maintenance costs borne by owner

For the purposes of this section, the owner of any motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine warranted under this section is responsible in the proper maintenance of such vehicle or engine to replace and to maintain, at his expense at any service establishment or facility of his choosing, such items as spark plugs, points, condensers, and any other part, item, or device related to emission control (but not designed for emission control under the terms of the last sentence of subsection (a)(3))),3 unless such part, item, or device is covered by any warranty not mandated by this chapter.

(h) Dealer certification

(1) If at any time during the period for which the warranty applies under subsection (b), a motor vehicle fails to conform to the applicable regulations under section 7521 of this title as determined under subsection (b) of this section such nonconformity shall be remedied by the manufacturer at the cost of the manufacturer pursuant to such warranty as provided in subsection (b)(2)(without regard to subparagraph (C) thereof).

(2) Nothing in section 7543(a) of this title shall be construed to prohibit a State from testing, or requiring testing of, a motor vehicle after the date of sale of such vehicle to the ultimate purchaser (except that no new motor vehicle manufacturer or dealer may be required to conduct testing under this paragraph).

(i) Warranty period

(1) In general

For purposes of subsection (a)(1) and subsection (b) of this section, the warranty period, effective with respect to new light-duty trucks and new light-duty vehicles and engines, manufactured in the model year 1995 and thereafter, shall be the first 2 years or 24,000 miles of use (whichever first occurs), except as provided in paragraph (2). For purposes of subsection (a)(1) and subsection (b), for other vehicles and engines the warranty period shall be the period established by the Administrator by regulation (promulgated prior to November 15, 1990) for such purposes unless the Administrator subsequently modifies such regulation.

(2) Specified major emission control components

In the case of a specified major emission control component, the warranty period for new light-duty trucks and new light-duty vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1995 and thereafter for purposes of subsection (a)(1) and subsection (b) shall be 8 years or 80,000 miles of use (whichever first occurs). As used in this paragraph, the term "specified major emission control component" means only a catalytic converter, an electronic emissions control unit, and an onboard emissions diagnostic device, except that the Administrator may designate any other pollution control device or component as a specified major emission control component if—

(A) the device or component was not in general use on vehicles and engines manufactured prior to the model year 1990; and

(B) the Administrator determines that the retail cost (exclusive of installation costs) of such device or component exceeds $200 (in 1989 dollars), adjusted for inflation or deflation as calculated by the Administrator at the time of such determination.


For purposes of this paragraph, the term "onboard emissions diagnostic device" means any device installed for the purpose of storing or processing emissions related diagnostic information, but not including any parts or other systems which it monitors except specified major emissions control components. Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to provide that any part (other than a part referred to in the preceding sentence) shall be required to be warranted under this chapter for the period of 8 years or 80,000 miles referred to in this paragraph.

(3) Instructions

Subparagraph (A) of subsection (b)(2) shall apply only where the Administrator has made a determination that the instructions concerned conform to the requirements of subsection (c)(3).

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §207, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §8(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1696; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §§205, 208–210, 212, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 754–756, 758; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(70)–(72), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §§209, 210, 230(9), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2484, 2485, 2529; Pub. L. 113–109, §1, June 9, 2014, 128 Stat. 1170.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–5a of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 207 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 208 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7542 of this title.

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 113–109 redesignated pars. (2) and (3) as (1) and (2), respectively, and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "Upon the sale of each new light-duty motor vehicle by a dealer, the dealer shall furnish to the purchaser a certificate that such motor vehicle conforms to the applicable regulations under section 7521 of this title, including notice of the purchaser's rights under paragraph (2)."

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §209(4), inserted at end "In the case of vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1995 and thereafter such warranty shall require that the vehicle or engine is free from any such defects for the warranty period provided under subsection (i)."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–549, §209(1), (2), substituted "the warranty period (as determined under subsection (i))" for "useful life (as determined under section 7521(d) of this title)" in introductory provisions and par. (2)(B), and struck out closing provisions which read as follows: "For purposes of the warranty under this subsection, for the period after twenty-four months or twenty-four thousand miles (whichever first occurs) the term 'emission control device or system' means a catalytic converter, thermal reactor, or other component installed on or in a vehicle for the sole or primary purpose of reducing vehicle emissions. Such term shall not include those vehicle components which were in general use prior to model year 1968."

Subsec. (c)(4) to (6). Pub. L. 101–549, §210, added pars. (4) to (6).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–549, §230(9), substituted "the last sentence of subsection (a)(3))" for "the last three sentences of subsection (a)(1)".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–549, §209(3), added subsec. (i).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(70), designated provisions contained in cl. (3) of subsec. (a), formerly set out as containing cls. (1), (2), and (3), to be par. (3) of subsec. (a) after the amendment by Pub. L. 95–95, §209(b), which designated provisions of former subsec. (a) as par. (1) and former cls. (1) and (2) as (A) and (B) of par. (1) and added a new par. (2).

Pub. L. 95–95, §205, added cl. (3).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–95, §209(a), (c), inserted provisions to par. (2) that no warranty be held invalid on the basis of any part used in the maintenance or repair of a vehicle or engine if the part was certified as provided in subsec. (a)(2) of this section, and, following par. (2), inserted provisions defining "emission control device or system".

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 95–95, §208, designated existing provisions as subpars. (A) and (C), added requirement for the bold face printing of a required notice on the first page of the written maintenance instructions in subpar. (A), and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(71), redesignated subsec. (f) as added by Pub. L. 95–95, §212, as (h).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–95, §210, added subsec. (g).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(71), redesignated subsec. (f) as added by Pub. L. 95–95, §212, as (h).

Subsec. (h)(2). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(72), substituted "determined under" for "determined and".

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §209, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2484, provided that the amendments made by that section are effective with respect to new motor vehicles and engines manufactured in model year 1995 and thereafter.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Effective Date

Section not applicable to vehicles or engines imported into United States before sixtieth day after Dec. 31, 1970, see section 8(b) of Pub. L. 91–604, set out as a note under section 7525 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. The word "its" probably should not appear.

2 So in original. Probably should be "light-duty".

3 So in original. The final closing parenthesis probably should not appear.

§7542. Information collection

(a) Manufacturer's responsibility

Every manufacturer of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines, and every manufacturer of new motor vehicle or engine parts or components, and other persons subject to the requirements of this part or part C, shall establish and maintain records, perform tests where such testing is not otherwise reasonably available under this part and part C (including fees for testing), make reports and provide information the Administrator may reasonably require to determine whether the manufacturer or other person has acted or is acting in compliance with this part and part C and regulations thereunder, or to otherwise carry out the provision of this part and part C, and shall, upon request of an officer or employee duly designated by the Administrator, permit such officer or employee at reasonable times to have access to and copy such records.

(b) Enforcement authority

For the purposes of enforcement of this section, officers or employees duly designated by the Administrator upon presenting appropriate credentials are authorized—

(1) to enter, at reasonable times, any establishment of the manufacturer, or of any person whom the manufacturer engages to perform any activity required by subsection (a), for the purposes of inspecting or observing any activity conducted pursuant to subsection (a), and

(2) to inspect records, files, papers, processes, controls, and facilities used in performing any activity required by subsection (a), by such manufacturer or by any person whom the manufacturer engages to perform any such activity.

(c) Availability to public; trade secrets

Any records, reports, or information obtained under this part or part C shall be available to the public, except that upon a showing satisfactory to the Administrator by any person that records, reports, or information, or a particular portion thereof (other than emission data), to which the Administrator has access under this section, if made public, would divulge methods or processes entitled to protection as trade secrets of that person, the Administrator shall consider the record, report, or information or particular portion thereof confidential in accordance with the purposes of section 1905 of title 18. Any authorized representative of the Administrator shall be considered an employee of the United States for purposes of section 1905 of title 18. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the Administrator or authorized representative of the Administrator from disclosing records, reports or information to other officers, employees or authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this chapter or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter. Nothing in this section shall authorize the withholding of information by the Administrator or any officer or employee under the Administrator's control from the duly authorized committees of the Congress.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §208, formerly §207, as added Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 994; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 501; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§8(a), 10(a), 11(a)(2)(A), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694, 1700, 1705, 1713; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §211, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2487.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–6 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 208 of act July 14, 1955, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 501, was renumbered section 209 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7543 of this title.

Another prior section 208 of act July 14, 1955, as added Oct. 20, 1965, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), 79 Stat. 994, was renumbered section 212 by Pub. L. 90–148, renumbered section 213 by Pub. L. 91–604, renumbered 214 by Pub. L. 93–319, and renumbered section 216 by Pub. L. 95–95, and is classified to section 7550 of this title.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–549 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which related to: in subsec. (a), manufacturer's responsibility; and in subsec. (b), availability to public except for trade secrets.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §§11(a)(2)(A), 15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing and "part" for "subchapter".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, §§10(a), 15(c)(2), substituted provisions authorizing the Administrator to make available to the public any records, reports, of information obtained under subsec. (a) of this section, except those shown to the Administrator to be entitled to protection as trade secrets, for provisions that all information reported or otherwise obtained by the Secretary or his representative pursuant to subsec. (a) of this section, which information contains or relates to a trade secret or other matter referred to in section 1905 of title 18, be considered confidential for the purpose of such section 1905, and substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

§7543. State standards

(a) Prohibition

No State or any political subdivision thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard relating to the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines subject to this part. No State shall require certification, inspection, or any other approval relating to the control of emissions from any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine as condition precedent to the initial retail sale, titling (if any), or registration of such motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, or equipment.

(b) Waiver

(1) The Administrator shall, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, waive application of this section to any State which has adopted standards (other than crankcase emission standards) for the control of emissions from new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines prior to March 30, 1966, if the State determines that the State standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable Federal standards. No such waiver shall be granted if the Administrator finds that—

(A) the determination of the State is arbitrary and capricious,

(B) such State does not need such State standards to meet compelling and extraordinary conditions, or

(C) such State standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with section 7521(a) of this title.


(2) If each State standard is at least as stringent as the comparable applicable Federal standard, such State standard shall be deemed to be at least as protective of health and welfare as such Federal standards for purposes of paragraph (1).

(3) In the case of any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine to which State standards apply pursuant to a waiver granted under paragraph (1), compliance with such State standards shall be treated as compliance with applicable Federal standards for purposes of this subchapter.

(c) Certification of vehicle parts or engine parts

Whenever a regulation with respect to any motor vehicle part or motor vehicle engine part is in effect under section 7541(a)(2) of this title, no State or political subdivision thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard or any requirement of certification, inspection, or approval which relates to motor vehicle emissions and is applicable to the same aspect of such part. The preceding sentence shall not apply in the case of a State with respect to which a waiver is in effect under subsection (b).

(d) Control, regulation, or restrictions on registered or licensed motor vehicles

Nothing in this part shall preclude or deny to any State or political subdivision thereof the right otherwise to control, regulate, or restrict the use, operation, or movement of registered or licensed motor vehicles.

(e) Nonroad engines or vehicles

(1) Prohibition on certain State standards

No State or any political subdivision thereof shall adopt or attempt to enforce any standard or other requirement relating to the control of emissions from either of the following new nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles subject to regulation under this chapter—

(A) New engines which are used in construction equipment or vehicles or used in farm equipment or vehicles and which are smaller than 175 horsepower.

(B) New locomotives or new engines used in locomotives.


Subsection (b) shall not apply for purposes of this paragraph.

(2) Other nonroad engines or vehicles

(A) In the case of any nonroad vehicles or engines other than those referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1), the Administrator shall, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, authorize California to adopt and enforce standards and other requirements relating to the control of emissions from such vehicles or engines if California determines that California standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable Federal standards. No such authorization shall be granted if the Administrator finds that—

(i) the determination of California is arbitrary and capricious,

(ii) California does not need such California standards to meet compelling and extraordinary conditions, or

(iii) California standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with this section.


(B) Any State other than California which has plan provisions approved under part D of subchapter I may adopt and enforce, after notice to the Administrator, for any period, standards relating to control of emissions from nonroad vehicles or engines (other than those referred to in subparagraph (A) or (B) of paragraph (1)) and take such other actions as are referred to in subparagraph (A) of this paragraph respecting such vehicles or engines if—

(i) such standards and implementation and enforcement are identical, for the period concerned, to the California standards authorized by the Administrator under subparagraph (A), and

(ii) California and such State adopt such standards at least 2 years before commencement of the period for which the standards take effect.


The Administrator shall issue regulations to implement this subsection.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §209, formerly §208, as added Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 501; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§8(a), 11(a)(2)(A), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694, 1705, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §§207, 221, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 755, 762; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §222(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2502.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–6a of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 209 of act July 14, 1955, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 502, was renumbered section 210 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7544 of this title.

Another prior section 209 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, as added Oct. 20, 1965, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), 79 Stat. 995, related to appropriations for the fiscal years ending June 30, 1966, 1967, 1968, and 1969, and was classified to section 1857f–8 of this title, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 89–675, §2(b), Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 954.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–549 added subsec. (e).

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–95, §207, designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "March 30, 1966, if the State determines that the State standards will be, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as applicable Federal standards" for "March 30, 1966, unless he finds that such State does not require standards more stringent than applicable Federal standards to meet compelling the extraordinary conditions or that such State standards and accompanying enforcement procedures are not consistent with section 7521(a) of this title", added subpars. (A), (B), and (C), and added pars. (2) and (3).

Subsecs. (c), (d). Pub. L. 95–95, §221, added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsec. (c) as (d).

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §11(a)(2)(A), substituted "part" for "subchapter".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, §11(a)(2)(A), substituted "part" for "subchapter".

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7544. State grants

The Administrator is authorized to make grants to appropriate State agencies in an amount up to two-thirds of the cost of developing and maintaining effective vehicle emission devices and systems inspection and emission testing and control programs, except that—

(1) no such grant shall be made for any part of any State vehicle inspection program which does not directly relate to the cost of the air pollution control aspects of such a program;

(2) no such grant shall be made unless the Secretary of Transportation has certified to the Administrator that such program is consistent with any highway safety program developed pursuant to section 402 of title 23; and

(3) no such grant shall be made unless the program includes provisions designed to insure that emission control devices and systems on vehicles in actual use have not been discontinued or rendered inoperative.


Grants may be made under this section by way of reimbursement in any case in which amounts have been expended by the State before the date on which any such grant was made.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §210, formerly §209, as added Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 502; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§8(a), 10(b), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694, 1700; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §204, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 754.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–6b of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 210 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 211 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7545 of this title.

Amendments

1977Pub. L. 95–95 inserted provision allowing grants to be made by way of reimbursement in any case in which amounts have been expended by States before the date on which the grants were made.

1970Pub. L. 91–604, §10(b), substituted provisions authorizing the Administrator to make grants to appropriate State agencies for the development and maintenance of effective vehicle emission devices and systems inspection and emission testing and control programs, for provisions authorizing the Secretary to make grants to appropriate State air pollution control agencies for the development of meaningful uniform motor vehicle emission device inspection and emission testing programs.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

§7545. Regulation of fuels

(a) Authority of Administrator to regulate

The Administrator may by regulation designate any fuel or fuel additive (including any fuel or fuel additive used exclusively in nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles) and, after such date or dates as may be prescribed by him, no manufacturer or processor of any such fuel or additive may sell, offer for sale, or introduce into commerce such fuel or additive unless the Administrator has registered such fuel or additive in accordance with subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Registration requirement

(1) For the purpose of registration of fuels and fuel additives, the Administrator shall require—

(A) the manufacturer of any fuel to notify him as to the commercial identifying name and manufacturer of any additive contained in such fuel; the range of concentration of any additive in the fuel; and the purpose-in-use of any such additive; and

(B) the manufacturer of any additive to notify him as to the chemical composition of such additive.


(2) For the purpose of registration of fuels and fuel additives, the Administrator shall, on a regular basis, require the manufacturer of any fuel or fuel additive—

(A) to conduct tests to determine potential public health and environmental effects of the fuel or additive (including carcinogenic, teratogenic, or mutagenic effects); and

(B) to furnish the description of any analytical technique that can be used to detect and measure any additive in such fuel, the recommended range of concentration of such additive, and the recommended purpose-in-use of such additive, and such other information as is reasonable and necessary to determine the emissions resulting from the use of the fuel or additive contained in such fuel, the effect of such fuel or additive on the emission control performance of any vehicle, vehicle engine, nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle, or the extent to which such emissions affect the public health or welfare.


Tests under subparagraph (A) shall be conducted in conformity with test procedures and protocols established by the Administrator. The result of such tests shall not be considered confidential.

(3) Upon compliance with the provision of this subsection, including assurances that the Administrator will receive changes in the information required, the Administrator shall register such fuel or fuel additive.

(4) Study on certain fuel additives and blendstocks.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 2 years after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall—

(i) conduct a study on the effects on public health (including the effects on children, pregnant women, minority or low-income communities, and other sensitive populations), air quality, and water resources of increased use of, and the feasibility of using as substitutes for methyl tertiary butyl ether in gasoline—

(I) ethyl tertiary butyl ether;

(II) tertiary amyl methyl ether;

(III) di-isopropyl ether;

(IV) tertiary butyl alcohol;

(V) other ethers and heavy alcohols, as determined by then 1 Administrator;

(VI) ethanol;

(VII) iso-octane; and

(VIII) alkylates; and


(ii) conduct a study on the effects on public health (including the effects on children, pregnant women, minority or low-income communities, and other sensitive populations), air quality, and water resources of the adjustment for ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline to the volatile organic compounds performance requirements that are applicable under paragraphs (1) and (3) of subsection (k); and

(iii) submit to the Committee on Environment and Public Works of the Senate and the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives a report describing the results of the studies under clauses (i) and (ii).


(B) Contracts for study.—In carrying out this paragraph, the Administrator may enter into one or more contracts with nongovernmental entities such as—

(i) the national energy laboratories; and

(ii) institutions of higher education (as defined in section 1001 of title 20).

(c) Offending fuels and fuel additives; control; prohibition

(1) The Administrator may, from time to time on the basis of information obtained under subsection (b) of this section or other information available to him, by regulation, control or prohibit the manufacture, introduction into commerce, offering for sale, or sale of any fuel or fuel additive for use in a motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, or nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle if, in the judgment of the Administrator, any fuel or fuel additive or any emission product of such fuel or fuel additive causes, or contributes, to air pollution or water pollution (including any degradation in the quality of groundwater) that may reasonably be anticipated to endanger the public health or welfare, or (B) 2 if emission products of such fuel or fuel additive will impair to a significant degree the performance of any emission control device or system which is in general use, or which the Administrator finds has been developed to a point where in a reasonable time it would be in general use were such regulation to be promulgated.

(2)(A) No fuel, class of fuels, or fuel additive may be controlled or prohibited by the Administrator pursuant to clause (A) of paragraph (1) except after consideration of all relevant medical and scientific evidence available to him, including consideration of other technologically or economically feasible means of achieving emission standards under section 7521 of this title.

(B) No fuel or fuel additive may be controlled or prohibited by the Administrator pursuant to clause (B) of paragraph (1) except after consideration of available scientific and economic data, including a cost benefit analysis comparing emission control devices or systems which are or will be in general use and require the proposed control or prohibition with emission control devices or systems which are or will be in general use and do not require the proposed control or prohibition. On request of a manufacturer of motor vehicles, motor vehicle engines, fuels, or fuel additives submitted within 10 days of notice of proposed rulemaking, the Administrator shall hold a public hearing and publish findings with respect to any matter he is required to consider under this subparagraph. Such findings shall be published at the time of promulgation of final regulations.

(C) No fuel or fuel additive may be prohibited by the Administrator under paragraph (1) unless he finds, and publishes such finding, that in his judgment such prohibition will not cause the use of any other fuel or fuel additive which will produce emissions which will endanger the public health or welfare to the same or greater degree than the use of the fuel or fuel additive proposed to be prohibited.

(3)(A) For the purpose of obtaining evidence and data to carry out paragraph (2), the Administrator may require the manufacturer of any motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine to furnish any information which has been developed concerning the emissions from motor vehicles resulting from the use of any fuel or fuel additive, or the effect of such use on the performance of any emission control device or system.

(B) In obtaining information under subparagraph (A), section 7607(a) of this title (relating to subpenas) shall be applicable.

(4)(A) Except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (B) or (C), no State (or political subdivision thereof) may prescribe or attempt to enforce, for purposes of motor vehicle emission control, any control or prohibition respecting any characteristic or component of a fuel or fuel additive in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine—

(i) if the Administrator has found that no control or prohibition of the characteristic or component of a fuel or fuel additive under paragraph (1) is necessary and has published his finding in the Federal Register, or

(ii) if the Administrator has prescribed under paragraph (1) a control or prohibition applicable to such characteristic or component of a fuel or fuel additive, unless State prohibition or control is identical to the prohibition or control prescribed by the Administrator.


(B) Any State for which application of section 7543(a) of this title has at any time been waived under section 7543(b) of this title may at any time prescribe and enforce, for the purpose of motor vehicle emission control, a control or prohibition respecting any fuel or fuel additive.

(C)(i) A State may prescribe and enforce, for purposes of motor vehicle emission control, a control or prohibition respecting the use of a fuel or fuel additive in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine if an applicable implementation plan for such State under section 7410 of this title so provides. The Administrator may approve such provision in an implementation plan, or promulgate an implementation plan containing such a provision, only if he finds that the State control or prohibition is necessary to achieve the national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard which the plan implements. The Administrator may find that a State control or prohibition is necessary to achieve that standard if no other measures that would bring about timely attainment exist, or if other measures exist and are technically possible to implement, but are unreasonable or impracticable. The Administrator may make a finding of necessity under this subparagraph even if the plan for the area does not contain an approved demonstration of timely attainment.

(ii) The Administrator may temporarily waive a control or prohibition respecting the use of a fuel or fuel additive required or regulated by the Administrator pursuant to subsection (c), (h), (i), (k), or (m) of this section or prescribed in an applicable implementation plan under section 7410 of this title approved by the Administrator under clause (i) of this subparagraph if, after consultation with, and concurrence by, the Secretary of Energy, the Administrator determines that—

(I) extreme and unusual fuel or fuel additive supply circumstances exist in a State or region of the Nation which prevent the distribution of an adequate supply of the fuel or fuel additive to consumers;

(II) such extreme and unusual fuel and fuel additive supply circumstances are the result of a natural disaster, an Act of God, a pipeline or refinery equipment failure, or another event that could not reasonably have been foreseen or prevented and not the lack of prudent planning on the part of the suppliers of the fuel or fuel additive to such State or region; and

(III) it is in the public interest to grant the waiver (for example, when a waiver is necessary to meet projected temporary shortfalls in the supply of the fuel or fuel additive in a State or region of the Nation which cannot otherwise be compensated for).


(iii) If the Administrator makes the determinations required under clause (ii), such a temporary extreme and unusual fuel and fuel additive supply circumstances waiver shall be permitted only if—

(I) the waiver applies to the smallest geographic area necessary to address the extreme and unusual fuel and fuel additive supply circumstances;

(II) the waiver is effective for a period of 20 calendar days or, if the Administrator determines that a shorter waiver period is adequate, for the shortest practicable time period necessary to permit the correction of the extreme and unusual fuel and fuel additive supply circumstances and to mitigate impact on air quality;

(III) the waiver permits a transitional period, the exact duration of which shall be determined by the Administrator (but which shall be for the shortest practicable period), after the termination of the temporary waiver to permit wholesalers and retailers to blend down their wholesale and retail inventory;

(IV) the waiver applies to all persons in the motor fuel distribution system; and

(V) the Administrator has given public notice to all parties in the motor fuel distribution system, and local and State regulators, in the State or region to be covered by the waiver.


The term "motor fuel distribution system" as used in this clause shall be defined by the Administrator through rulemaking.

(iv) Within 180 days of August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations to implement clauses (ii) and (iii).

(v) 3 Nothing in this subparagraph shall—

(I) limit or otherwise affect the application of any other waiver authority of the Administrator pursuant to this section or pursuant to a regulation promulgated pursuant to this section; and

(II) subject any State or person to an enforcement action, penalties, or liability solely arising from actions taken pursuant to the issuance of a waiver under this subparagraph.


(v)(I) 3 The Administrator shall have no authority, when considering a State implementation plan or a State implementation plan revision, to approve under this paragraph any fuel included in such plan or revision if the effect of such approval increases the total number of fuels approved under this paragraph as of September 1, 2004, in all State implementation plans.

(II) The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, shall determine the total number of fuels approved under this paragraph as of September 1, 2004, in all State implementation plans and shall publish a list of such fuels, including the States and Petroleum Administration for Defense District in which they are used, in the Federal Register for public review and comment no later than 90 days after August 8, 2005.

(III) The Administrator shall remove a fuel from the list published under subclause (II) if a fuel ceases to be included in a State implementation plan or if a fuel in a State implementation plan is identical to a Federal fuel formulation implemented by the Administrator, but the Administrator shall not reduce the total number of fuels authorized under the list published under subclause (II).

(IV) Subclause (I) shall not limit the Administrator's authority to approve a control or prohibition respecting any new fuel under this paragraph in a State implementation plan or revision to a State implementation plan if such new fuel—

(aa) completely replaces a fuel on the list published under subclause (II); or

(bb) does not increase the total number of fuels on the list published under subclause (II) as of September 1, 2004.


In the event that the total number of fuels on the list published under subclause (II) at the time of the Administrator's consideration of a control or prohibition respecting a new fuel is lower than the total number of fuels on such list as of September 1, 2004, the Administrator may approve a control or prohibition respecting a new fuel under this subclause if the Administrator, after consultation with the Secretary of Energy, publishes in the Federal Register after notice and comment a finding that, in the Administrator's judgment, such control or prohibition respecting a new fuel will not cause fuel supply or distribution interruptions or have a significant adverse impact on fuel producibility in the affected area or contiguous areas.

(V) The Administrator shall have no authority under this paragraph, when considering any particular State's implementation plan or a revision to that State's implementation plan, to approve any fuel unless that fuel was, as of the date of such consideration, approved in at least one State implementation plan in the applicable Petroleum Administration for Defense District. However, the Administrator may approve as part of a State implementation plan or State implementation plan revision a fuel with a summertime Reid Vapor Pressure of 7.0 psi. In no event shall such approval by the Administrator cause an increase in the total number of fuels on the list published under subclause (II).

(VI) Nothing in this clause shall be construed to have any effect regarding any available authority of States to require the use of any fuel additive registered in accordance with subsection (b), including any fuel additive registered in accordance with subsection (b) after August 8, 2005.

(d) Penalties and injunctions

(1) Civil penalties

Any person who violates subsection (a), (f), (g), (k), (l), (m), (n), or (o) of this section or the regulations prescribed under subsection (c), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), (n), or (o) of this section or who fails to furnish any information or conduct any tests required by the Administrator under subsection (b) of this section shall be liable to the United States for a civil penalty of not more than the sum of $25,000 for every day of such violation and the amount of economic benefit or savings resulting from the violation. Any violation with respect to a regulation prescribed under subsection (c), (k), (l), (m), or (o) of this section which establishes a regulatory standard based upon a multiday averaging period shall constitute a separate day of violation for each and every day in the averaging period. Civil penalties shall be assessed in accordance with subsections (b) and (c) of section 7524 of this title.

(2) Injunctive authority

The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to restrain violations of subsections (a), (f), (g), (k), (l), (m), (n), and (o) of this section and of the regulations prescribed under subsections (c), (h), (i), (k), (l), (m), (n), and (o) of this section, to award other appropriate relief, and to compel the furnishing of information and the conduct of tests required by the Administrator under subsection (b) of this section. Actions to restrain such violations and compel such actions shall be brought by and in the name of the United States. In any such action, subpoenas for witnesses who are required to attend a district court in any district may run into any other district.

(e) Testing of fuels and fuel additives

(1) Not later than one year after August 7, 1977, and after notice and opportunity for a public hearing, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations which implement the authority under subsection (b)(2)(A) and (B) with respect to each fuel or fuel additive which is registered on the date of promulgation of such regulations and with respect to each fuel or fuel additive for which an application for registration is filed thereafter.

(2) Regulations under subsection (b) to carry out this subsection shall require that the requisite information be provided to the Administrator by each such manufacturer—

(A) prior to registration, in the case of any fuel or fuel additive which is not registered on the date of promulgation of such regulations; or

(B) not later than three years after the date of promulgation of such regulations, in the case of any fuel or fuel additive which is registered on such date.


(3) In promulgating such regulations, the Administrator may—

(A) exempt any small business (as defined in such regulations) from or defer or modify the requirements of, such regulations with respect to any such small business;

(B) provide for cost-sharing with respect to the testing of any fuel or fuel additive which is manufactured or processed by two or more persons or otherwise provide for shared responsibility to meet the requirements of this section without duplication; or

(C) exempt any person from such regulations with respect to a particular fuel or fuel additive upon a finding that any additional testing of such fuel or fuel additive would be duplicative of adequate existing testing.

(f) New fuels and fuel additives

(1)(A) Effective upon March 31, 1977, it shall be unlawful for any manufacturer of any fuel or fuel additive to first introduce into commerce, or to increase the concentration in use of, any fuel or fuel additive for general use in light duty motor vehicles manufactured after model year 1974 which is not substantially similar to any fuel or fuel additive utilized in the certification of any model year 1975, or subsequent model year, vehicle or engine under section 7525 of this title.

(B) Effective upon November 15, 1990, it shall be unlawful for any manufacturer of any fuel or fuel additive to first introduce into commerce, or to increase the concentration in use of, any fuel or fuel additive for use by any person in motor vehicles manufactured after model year 1974 which is not substantially similar to any fuel or fuel additive utilized in the certification of any model year 1975, or subsequent model year, vehicle or engine under section 7525 of this title.

(2) Effective November 30, 1977, it shall be unlawful for any manufacturer of any fuel to introduce into commerce any gasoline which contains a concentration of manganese in excess of .0625 grams per gallon of fuel, except as otherwise provided pursuant to a waiver under paragraph (4).

(3) Any manufacturer of any fuel or fuel additive which prior to March 31, 1977, and after January 1, 1974, first introduced into commerce or increased the concentration in use of a fuel or fuel additive that would otherwise have been prohibited under paragraph (1)(A) if introduced on or after March 31, 1977 shall, not later than September 15, 1978, cease to distribute such fuel or fuel additive in commerce. During the period beginning 180 days after August 7, 1977, and before September 15, 1978, the Administrator shall prohibit, or restrict the concentration of any fuel additive which he determines will cause or contribute to the failure of an emission control device or system (over the useful life of any vehicle in which such device or system is used) to achieve compliance by the vehicle with the emission standards with respect to which it has been certified under section 7525 of this title.

(4) The Administrator, upon application of any manufacturer of any fuel or fuel additive, may waive the prohibitions established under paragraph (1) or (3) of this subsection or the limitation specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection, if he determines that the applicant has established that such fuel or fuel additive or a specified concentration thereof, and the emission products of such fuel or fuel additive or specified concentration thereof, will not cause or contribute to a failure of any emission control device or system (over the useful life of the motor vehicle, motor vehicle engine, nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle in which such device or system is used) to achieve compliance by the vehicle or engine with the emission standards with respect to which it has been certified pursuant to sections 7525 and 7547(a) of this title. The Administrator shall take final action to grant or deny an application submitted under this paragraph, after public notice and comment, within 270 days of the receipt of such an application.

(5) No action of the Administrator under this section may be stayed by any court pending judicial review of such action.

(g) Misfueling

(1) No person shall introduce, or cause or allow the introduction of, leaded gasoline into any motor vehicle which is labeled "unleaded gasoline only," which is equipped with a gasoline tank filler inlet designed for the introduction of unleaded gasoline, which is a 1990 or later model year motor vehicle, or which such person knows or should know is a vehicle designed solely for the use of unleaded gasoline.

(2) Beginning October 1, 1993, no person shall introduce or cause or allow the introduction into any motor vehicle of diesel fuel which such person knows or should know contains a concentration of sulfur in excess of 0.05 percent (by weight) or which fails to meet a cetane index minimum of 40 or such equivalent alternative aromatic level as prescribed by the Administrator under subsection (i)(2).

(h) Reid Vapor Pressure requirements

(1) Prohibition

Not later than 6 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations making it unlawful for any person during the high ozone season (as defined by the Administrator) to sell, offer for sale, dispense, supply, offer for supply, transport, or introduce into commerce gasoline with a Reid Vapor Pressure in excess of 9.0 pounds per square inch (psi). Such regulations shall also establish more stringent Reid Vapor Pressure standards in a nonattainment area as the Administrator finds necessary to generally achieve comparable evaporative emissions (on a per-vehicle basis) in nonattainment areas, taking into consideration the enforceability of such standards, the need of an area for emission control, and economic factors.

(2) Attainment areas

The regulations under this subsection shall not make it unlawful for any person to sell, offer for supply, transport, or introduce into commerce gasoline with a Reid Vapor Pressure of 9.0 pounds per square inch (psi) or lower in any area designated under section 7407 of this title as an attainment area. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, the Administrator may impose a Reid vapor pressure requirement lower than 9.0 pounds per square inch (psi) in any area, formerly an ozone nonattainment area, which has been redesignated as an attainment area.

(3) Effective date; enforcement

The regulations under this subsection shall provide that the requirements of this subsection shall take effect not later than the high ozone season for 1992, and shall include such provisions as the Administrator determines are necessary to implement and enforce the requirements of this subsection.

(4) Ethanol waiver

For fuel blends containing gasoline and 10 percent denatured anhydrous ethanol, the Reid vapor pressure limitation under this subsection shall be one pound per square inch (psi) greater than the applicable Reid vapor pressure limitations established under paragraph (1); Provided, however, That a distributor, blender, marketer, reseller, carrier, retailer, or wholesale purchaser-consumer shall be deemed to be in full compliance with the provisions of this subsection and the regulations promulgated thereunder if it can demonstrate (by showing receipt of a certification or other evidence acceptable to the Administrator) that—

(A) the gasoline portion of the blend complies with the Reid vapor pressure limitations promulgated pursuant to this subsection;

(B) the ethanol portion of the blend does not exceed its waiver condition under subsection (f)(4); and

(C) no additional alcohol or other additive has been added to increase the Reid Vapor Pressure of the ethanol portion of the blend.

(5) Exclusion from ethanol waiver

(A) Promulgation of regulations

Upon notification, accompanied by supporting documentation, from the Governor of a State that the Reid vapor pressure limitation established by paragraph (4) will increase emissions that contribute to air pollution in any area in the State, the Administrator shall, by regulation, apply, in lieu of the Reid vapor pressure limitation established by paragraph (4), the Reid vapor pressure limitation established by paragraph (1) to all fuel blends containing gasoline and 10 percent denatured anhydrous ethanol that are sold, offered for sale, dispensed, supplied, offered for supply, transported, or introduced into commerce in the area during the high ozone season.

(B) Deadline for promulgation

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations under subparagraph (A) not later than 90 days after the date of receipt of a notification from a Governor under that subparagraph.

(C) Effective date

(i) In general

With respect to an area in a State for which the Governor submits a notification under subparagraph (A), the regulations under that subparagraph shall take effect on the later of—

(I) the first day of the first high ozone season for the area that begins after the date of receipt of the notification; or

(II) 1 year after the date of receipt of the notification.

(ii) Extension of effective date based on determination of insufficient supply

(I) In general

If, after receipt of a notification with respect to an area from a Governor of a State under subparagraph (A), the Administrator determines, on the Administrator's own motion or on petition of any person and after consultation with the Secretary of Energy, that the promulgation of regulations described in subparagraph (A) would result in an insufficient supply of gasoline in the State, the Administrator, by regulation—

(aa) shall extend the effective date of the regulations under clause (i) with respect to the area for not more than 1 year; and

(bb) may renew the extension under item (aa) for two additional periods, each of which shall not exceed 1 year.

(II) Deadline for action on petitions

The Administrator shall act on any petition submitted under subclause (I) not later than 180 days after the date of receipt of the petition.

(6) Areas covered

The provisions of this subsection shall apply only to the 48 contiguous States and the District of Columbia.

(i) Sulfur content requirements for diesel fuel

(1) Effective October 1, 1993, no person shall manufacture, sell, supply, offer for sale or supply, dispense, transport, or introduce into commerce motor vehicle diesel fuel which contains a concentration of sulfur in excess of 0.05 percent (by weight) or which fails to meet a cetane index minimum of 40.

(2) Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations to implement and enforce the requirements of paragraph (1). The Administrator may require manufacturers and importers of diesel fuel not intended for use in motor vehicles to dye such fuel in a particular manner in order to segregate it from motor vehicle diesel fuel. The Administrator may establish an equivalent alternative aromatic level to the cetane index specification in paragraph (1).

(3) The sulfur content of fuel required to be used in the certification of 1991 through 1993 model year heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines shall be 0.10 percent (by weight). The sulfur content and cetane index minimum of fuel required to be used in the certification of 1994 and later model year heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines shall comply with the regulations promulgated under paragraph (2).

(4) The States of Alaska and Hawaii may be exempted from the requirements of this subsection in the same manner as provided in section 7625 4 of this title. The Administrator shall take final action on any petition filed under section 7625 4 of this title or this paragraph for an exemption from the requirements of this subsection, within 12 months from the date of the petition.

(j) Lead substitute gasoline additives

(1) After November 15, 1990, any person proposing to register any gasoline additive under subsection (a) or to use any previously registered additive as a lead substitute may also elect to register the additive as a lead substitute gasoline additive for reducing valve seat wear by providing the Administrator with such relevant information regarding product identity and composition as the Administrator deems necessary for carrying out the responsibilities of paragraph (2) of this subsection (in addition to other information which may be required under subsection (b)).

(2) In addition to the other testing which may be required under subsection (b), in the case of the lead substitute gasoline additives referred to in paragraph (1), the Administrator shall develop and publish a test procedure to determine the additives' effectiveness in reducing valve seat wear and the additives' tendencies to produce engine deposits and other adverse side effects. The test procedures shall be developed in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture and with the input of additive manufacturers, engine and engine components manufacturers, and other interested persons. The Administrator shall enter into arrangements with an independent laboratory to conduct tests of each additive using the test procedures developed and published pursuant to this paragraph. The Administrator shall publish the results of the tests by company and additive name in the Federal Register along with, for comparison purposes, the results of applying the same test procedures to gasoline containing 0.1 gram of lead per gallon in lieu of the lead substitute gasoline additive. The Administrator shall not rank or otherwise rate the lead substitute additives. Test procedures shall be established within 1 year after November 15, 1990. Additives shall be tested within 18 months of November 15, 1990, or 6 months after the lead substitute additives are identified to the Administrator, whichever is later.

(3) The Administrator may impose a user fee to recover the costs of testing of any fuel additive referred to in this subsection. The fee shall be paid by the person proposing to register the fuel additive concerned. Such fee shall not exceed $20,000 for a single fuel additive.

(4) There are authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator not more than $1,000,000 for the second full fiscal year after November 15, 1990, to establish test procedures and conduct engine tests as provided in this subsection. Not more than $500,000 per year is authorized to be appropriated for each of the 5 subsequent fiscal years.

(5) Any fees collected under this subsection shall be deposited in a special fund in the United States Treasury for licensing and other services which thereafter shall be available for appropriation, to remain available until expended, to carry out the Agency's activities for which the fees were collected.

(k) Reformulated gasoline for conventional vehicles

(1) EPA regulations

(A) In general

Not later than November 15, 1991, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under this section establishing requirements for reformulated gasoline to be used in gasoline-fueled vehicles in specified nonattainment areas. Such regulations shall require the greatest reduction in emissions of ozone forming volatile organic compounds (during the high ozone season) and emissions of toxic air pollutants (during the entire year) achievable through the reformulation of conventional gasoline, taking into consideration the cost of achieving such emission reductions, any nonair-quality and other air-quality related health and environmental impacts and energy requirements.

(B) Maintenance of toxic air pollutant emissions reductions from reformulated gasoline

(i) Definition of PADD

In this subparagraph the term "PADD" means a Petroleum Administration for Defense District.

(ii) Regulations concerning emissions of toxic air pollutants

Not later than 270 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall establish by regulation, for each refinery or importer (other than a refiner or importer in a State that has received a waiver under section 7543(b) of this title with respect to gasoline produced for use in that State), standards for toxic air pollutants from use of the reformulated gasoline produced or distributed by the refiner or importer that maintain the reduction of the average annual aggregate emissions of toxic air pollutants for reformulated gasoline produced or distributed by the refiner or importer during calendar years 2001 and 2002 (as determined on the basis of data collected by the Administrator with respect to the refiner or importer).

(iii) Standards applicable to specific refineries or importers

(I) Applicability of standards

For any calendar year, the standards applicable to a refiner or importer under clause (ii) shall apply to the quantity of gasoline produced or distributed by the refiner or importer in the calendar year only to the extent that the quantity is less than or equal to the average annual quantity of reformulated gasoline produced or distributed by the refiner or importer during calendar years 2001 and 2002.

(II) Applicability of other standards

For any calendar year, the quantity of gasoline produced or distributed by a refiner or importer that is in excess of the quantity subject to subclause (I) shall be subject to standards for emissions of toxic air pollutants promulgated under subparagraph (A) and paragraph (3)(B).

(iv) Credit program

The Administrator shall provide for the granting and use of credits for emissions of toxic air pollutants in the same manner as provided in paragraph (7).

(v) Regional protection of toxics reduction baselines

(I) In general

Not later than 60 days after August 8, 2005, and not later than April 1 of each calendar year that begins after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register a report that specifies, with respect to the previous calendar year—

(aa) the quantity of reformulated gasoline produced that is in excess of the average annual quantity of reformulated gasoline produced in 2001 and 2002; and

(bb) the reduction of the average annual aggregate emissions of toxic air pollutants in each PADD, based on retail survey data or data from other appropriate sources.

(II) Effect of failure to maintain aggregate toxics reductions

If, in any calendar year, the reduction of the average annual aggregate emissions of toxic air pollutants in a PADD fails to meet or exceed the reduction of the average annual aggregate emissions of toxic air pollutants in the PADD in calendar years 2001 and 2002, the Administrator, not later than 90 days after the date of publication of the report for the calendar year under subclause (I), shall—

(aa) identify, to the maximum extent practicable, the reasons for the failure, including the sources, volumes, and characteristics of reformulated gasoline that contributed to the failure; and

(bb) promulgate revisions to the regulations promulgated under clause (ii), to take effect not earlier than 180 days but not later than 270 days after the date of promulgation, to provide that, notwithstanding clause (iii)(II), all reformulated gasoline produced or distributed at each refiner or importer shall meet the standards applicable under clause (iii)(I) beginning not later than April 1 of the calendar year following publication of the report under subclause (I) and in each calendar year thereafter.


(vi) Not later than July 1, 2007, the Administrator shall promulgate final regulations to control hazardous air pollutants from motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels, as provided for in section 80.1045 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on August 8, 2005), and as authorized under section 7521(l) 5 of this title. If the Administrator promulgates by such date, final regulations to control hazardous air pollutants from motor vehicles and motor vehicle fuels that achieve and maintain greater overall reductions in emissions of air toxics from reformulated gasoline than the reductions that would be achieved under subsection (k)(1)(B) as amended by this clause, then subsections (k)(1)(B)(i) through (k)(1)(B)(v) shall be null and void and regulations promulgated thereunder shall be rescinded and have no further effect.

(2) General requirements

The regulations referred to in paragraph (1) shall require that reformulated gasoline comply with paragraph (3) and with each of the following requirements (subject to paragraph (7)):

(A) NOx emissions

The emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from baseline vehicles when using the reformulated gasoline shall be no greater than the level of such emissions from such vehicles when using baseline gasoline. If the Administrator determines that compliance with the limitation on emissions of oxides of nitrogen under the preceding sentence is technically infeasible, considering the other requirements applicable under this subsection to such gasoline, the Administrator may, as appropriate to ensure compliance with this subparagraph, adjust (or waive entirely), any other requirements of this paragraph or any requirements applicable under paragraph (3)(A).

(B) Benzene content

The benzene content of the gasoline shall not exceed 1.0 percent by volume.

(C) Heavy metals

The gasoline shall have no heavy metals, including lead or manganese. The Administrator may waive the prohibition contained in this subparagraph for a heavy metal (other than lead) if the Administrator determines that addition of the heavy metal to the gasoline will not increase, on an aggregate mass or cancer-risk basis, toxic air pollutant emissions from motor vehicles.

(3) More stringent of formula or performance standards

The regulations referred to in paragraph (1) shall require compliance with the more stringent of either the requirements set forth in subparagraph (A) or the requirements of subparagraph (B) of this paragraph. For purposes of determining the more stringent provision, clause (i) and clause (ii) of subparagraph (B) shall be considered independently.

(A) Formula

(i) Benzene

The benzene content of the reformulated gasoline shall not exceed 1.0 percent by volume.

(ii) Aromatics

The aromatic hydrocarbon content of the reformulated gasoline shall not exceed 25 percent by volume.

(iii) Lead

The reformulated gasoline shall have no lead content.

(iv) Detergents

The reformulated gasoline shall contain additives to prevent the accumulation of deposits in engines or vehicle fuel supply systems.

(B) Performance standard

(i) VOC emissions

During the high ozone season (as defined by the Administrator), the aggregate emissions of ozone forming volatile organic compounds from baseline vehicles when using the reformulated gasoline shall be 15 percent below the aggregate emissions of ozone forming volatile organic compounds from such vehicles when using baseline gasoline. Effective in calendar year 2000 and thereafter, 25 percent shall be substituted for 15 percent in applying this clause, except that the Administrator may adjust such 25 percent requirement to provide for a lesser or greater reduction based on technological feasibility, considering the cost of achieving such reductions in VOC emissions. No such adjustment shall provide for less than a 20 percent reduction below the aggregate emissions of such air pollutants from such vehicles when using baseline gasoline. The reductions required under this clause shall be on a mass basis.

(ii) Toxics

During the entire year, the aggregate emissions of toxic air pollutants from baseline vehicles when using the reformulated gasoline shall be 15 percent below the aggregate emissions of toxic air pollutants from such vehicles when using baseline gasoline. Effective in calendar year 2000 and thereafter, 25 percent shall be substituted for 15 percent in applying this clause, except that the Administrator may adjust such 25 percent requirement to provide for a lesser or greater reduction based on technological feasibility, considering the cost of achieving such reductions in toxic air pollutants. No such adjustment shall provide for less than a 20 percent reduction below the aggregate emissions of such air pollutants from such vehicles when using baseline gasoline. The reductions required under this clause shall be on a mass basis.


Any reduction greater than a specific percentage reduction required under this subparagraph shall be treated as satisfying such percentage reduction requirement.

(4) Certification procedures

(A) Regulations

The regulations under this subsection shall include procedures under which the Administrator shall certify reformulated gasoline as complying with the requirements established pursuant to this subsection. Under such regulations, the Administrator shall establish procedures for any person to petition the Administrator to certify a fuel formulation, or slate of fuel formulations. Such procedures shall further require that the Administrator shall approve or deny such petition within 180 days of receipt. If the Administrator fails to act within such 180-day period, the fuel shall be deemed certified until the Administrator completes action on the petition.

(B) Certification; equivalency

The Administrator shall certify a fuel formulation or slate of fuel formulations as complying with this subsection if such fuel or fuels—

(i) comply with the requirements of paragraph (2), and

(ii) achieve equivalent or greater reductions in emissions of ozone forming volatile organic compounds and emissions of toxic air pollutants than are achieved by a reformulated gasoline meeting the applicable requirements of paragraph (3).

(C) EPA determination of emissions level

Within 1 year after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall determine the level of emissions of ozone forming volatile organic compounds and emissions of toxic air pollutants emitted by baseline vehicles when operating on baseline gasoline. For purposes of this subsection, within 1 year after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall, by rule, determine appropriate measures of, and methodology for, ascertaining the emissions of air pollutants (including calculations, equipment, and testing tolerances).

(5) Prohibition

Effective beginning January 1, 1995, each of the following shall be a violation of this subsection:

(A) The sale or dispensing by any person of conventional gasoline to ultimate consumers in any covered area.

(B) The sale or dispensing by any refiner, blender, importer, or marketer of conventional gasoline for resale in any covered area, without (i) segregating such gasoline from reformulated gasoline, and (ii) clearly marking such conventional gasoline as "conventional gasoline, not for sale to ultimate consumer in a covered area".


Any refiner, blender, importer or marketer who purchases property 6 segregated and marked conventional gasoline, and thereafter labels, represents, or wholesales such gasoline as reformulated gasoline shall also be in violation of this subsection. The Administrator may impose sampling, testing, and recordkeeping requirements upon any refiner, blender, importer, or marketer to prevent violations of this section.

(6) Opt-in areas

(A) Classified areas

(i) In general

Upon the application of the Governor of a State, the Administrator shall apply the prohibition set forth in paragraph (5) in any area in the State classified under subpart 2 of part D of subchapter I as a Marginal, Moderate, Serious, or Severe Area (without regard to whether or not the 1980 population of the area exceeds 250,000). In any such case, the Administrator shall establish an effective date for such prohibition as he deems appropriate, not later than January 1, 1995, or 1 year after such application is received, whichever is later. The Administrator shall publish such application in the Federal Register upon receipt.

(ii) Effect of insufficient domestic capacity to produce reformulated gasoline

If the Administrator determines, on the Administrator's own motion or on petition of any person, after consultation with the Secretary of Energy, that there is insufficient domestic capacity to produce gasoline certified under this subsection, the Administrator shall, by rule, extend the effective date of such prohibition in Marginal, Moderate, Serious, or Severe Areas referred to in clause (i) for one additional year, and may, by rule, renew such extension for 2 additional one-year periods. The Administrator shall act on any petition submitted under this subparagraph within 6 months after receipt of the petition. The Administrator shall issue such extensions for areas with a lower ozone classification before issuing any such extension for areas with a higher classification.

(B) Ozone transport region

(i) Application of prohibition

(I) In general

On application of the Governor of a State in the ozone transport region established by section 7511c(a) of this title, the Administrator, not later than 180 days after the date of receipt of the application, shall apply the prohibition specified in paragraph (5) to any area in the State (other than an area classified as a marginal, moderate, serious, or severe ozone nonattainment area under subpart 2 of part D of subchapter I) unless the Administrator determines under clause (iii) that there is insufficient capacity to supply reformulated gasoline.

(II) Publication of application

As soon as practicable after the date of receipt of an application under subclause (I), the Administrator shall publish the application in the Federal Register.

(ii) Period of applicability

Under clause (i), the prohibition specified in paragraph (5) shall apply in a State—

(I) commencing as soon as practicable but not later than 2 years after the date of approval by the Administrator of the application of the Governor of the State; and

(II) ending not earlier than 4 years after the commencement date determined under subclause (I).

(iii) Extension of commencement date based on insufficient capacity

(I) In general

If, after receipt of an application from a Governor of a State under clause (i), the Administrator determines, on the Administrator's own motion or on petition of any person, after consultation with the Secretary of Energy, that there is insufficient capacity to supply reformulated gasoline, the Administrator, by regulation—

(aa) shall extend the commencement date with respect to the State under clause (ii)(I) for not more than 1 year; and

(bb) may renew the extension under item (aa) for 2 additional periods, each of which shall not exceed 1 year.

(II) Deadline for action on petitions

The Administrator shall act on any petition submitted under subclause (I) not later than 180 days after the date of receipt of the petition.

(7) Credits

(A) The regulations promulgated under this subsection shall provide for the granting of an appropriate amount of credits to a person who refines, blends, or imports and certifies a gasoline or slate of gasoline that—

(i) has an aromatic hydrocarbon content (by volume) that is less than the maximum aromatic hydrocarbon content required to comply with paragraph (3); or

(ii) has a benzene content (by volume) that is less than the maximum benzene content specified in paragraph (2).


(B) The regulations described in subparagraph (A) shall also provide that a person who is granted credits may use such credits, or transfer all or a portion of such credits to another person for use within the same nonattainment area, for the purpose of complying with this subsection.

(C) The regulations promulgated under subparagraphs (A) and (B) shall ensure the enforcement of the requirements for the issuance, application, and transfer of the credits. Such regulations shall prohibit the granting or transfer of such credits for use with respect to any gasoline in a nonattainment area, to the extent the use of such credits would result in any of the following:

(i) An average gasoline aromatic hydrocarbon content (by volume) for the nonattainment (taking into account all gasoline sold for use in conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles in the nonattainment area) higher than the average fuel aromatic hydrocarbon content (by volume) that would occur in the absence of using any such credits.

(ii) An average benzene content (by volume) for the nonattainment area (taking into account all gasoline sold for use in conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles in the nonattainment area) higher than the average benzene content (by volume) that would occur in the absence of using any such credits.

(8) Anti-dumping rules

(A) In general

Within 1 year after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations applicable to each refiner, blender, or importer of gasoline ensuring that gasoline sold or introduced into commerce by such refiner, blender, or importer (other than reformulated gasoline subject to the requirements of paragraph (1)) does not result in average per gallon emissions (measured on a mass basis) of (i) volatile organic compounds, (ii) oxides of nitrogen, (iii) carbon monoxide, and (iv) toxic air pollutants in excess of such emissions of such pollutants attributable to gasoline sold or introduced into commerce in calendar year 1990 by that refiner, blender, or importer. Such regulations shall take effect beginning January 1, 1995.

(B) Adjustments

In evaluating compliance with the requirements of subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall make appropriate adjustments to insure that no credit is provided for improvement in motor vehicle emissions control in motor vehicles sold after the calendar year 1990.

(C) Compliance determined for each pollutant independently

In determining whether there is an increase in emissions in violation of the prohibition contained in subparagraph (A) the Administrator shall consider an increase in each air pollutant referred to in clauses (i) through (iv) as a separate violation of such prohibition, except that the Administrator shall promulgate regulations to provide that any increase in emissions of oxides of nitrogen resulting from adding oxygenates to gasoline may be offset by an equivalent or greater reduction (on a mass basis) in emissions of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, or toxic air pollutants, or any combination of the foregoing.

(D) Compliance period

The Administrator shall promulgate an appropriate compliance period or appropriate compliance periods to be used for assessing compliance with the prohibition contained in subparagraph (A).

(E) Baseline for determining compliance

If the Administrator determines that no adequate and reliable data exists regarding the composition of gasoline sold or introduced into commerce by a refiner, blender, or importer in calendar year 1990, for such refiner, blender, or importer, baseline gasoline shall be substituted for such 1990 gasoline in determining compliance with subparagraph (A).

(9) Emissions from entire vehicle

In applying the requirements of this subsection, the Administrator shall take into account emissions from the entire motor vehicle, including evaporative, running, refueling, and exhaust emissions.

(10) Definitions

For purposes of this subsection—

(A) Baseline vehicles

The term "baseline vehicles" mean representative model year 1990 vehicles.

(B) Baseline gasoline

(i) Summertime

The term "baseline gasoline" means in the case of gasoline sold during the high ozone period (as defined by the Administrator) a gasoline which meets the following specifications:

 
  BASELINE GASOLINE FUEL PROPERTIES 
API Gravity 57.4 
Sulfur, ppm 339   
Benzene, % 1.53
RVP, psi 8.7 
Octane, R+M/2 87.3 
IBP, F 91   
10%, F 128   
50%, F 218   
90%, F 330   
End Point, F 415   
Aromatics, % 32.0 
Olefins, % 9.2 
Saturates, % 58.8 

(ii) Wintertime

The Administrator shall establish the specifications of "baseline gasoline" for gasoline sold at times other than the high ozone period (as defined by the Administrator). Such specifications shall be the specifications of 1990 industry average gasoline sold during such period.

(C) Toxic air pollutants

The term "toxic air pollutants" means the aggregate emissions of the following:

Benzene

1,3 Butadiene

Polycyclic organic matter (POM)

Acetaldehyde

Formaldehyde.

(D) Covered area

The 9 ozone nonattainment areas having a 1980 population in excess of 250,000 and having the highest ozone design value during the period 1987 through 1989 shall be "covered areas" for purposes of this subsection. Effective one year after the reclassification of any ozone nonattainment area as a Severe ozone nonattainment area under section 7511(b) of this title, such Severe area shall also be a "covered area" for purposes of this subsection.

(E) Reformulated gasoline

The term "reformulated gasoline" means any gasoline which is certified by the Administrator under this section as complying with this subsection.

(F) Conventional gasoline

The term "conventional gasoline" means any gasoline which does not meet specifications set by a certification under this subsection.

(l) Detergents

Effective beginning January 1, 1995, no person may sell or dispense to an ultimate consumer in the United States, and no refiner or marketer may directly or indirectly sell or dispense to persons who sell or dispense to ultimate consumers in the United States any gasoline which does not contain additives to prevent the accumulation of deposits in engines or fuel supply systems. Not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate a rule establishing specifications for such additives.

(m) Oxygenated fuels

(1) Plan revisions for CO nonattainment areas

(A) Each State in which there is located all or part of an area which is designated under subchapter I as a nonattainment area for carbon monoxide and which has a carbon monoxide design value of 9.5 parts per million (ppm) or above based on data for the 2-year period of 1988 and 1989 and calculated according to the most recent interpretation methodology issued by the Administrator prior to November 15, 1990, shall submit to the Administrator a State implementation plan revision under section 7410 of this title and part D of subchapter I for such area which shall contain the provisions specified under this subsection regarding oxygenated gasoline.

(B) A plan revision which contains such provisions shall also be submitted by each State in which there is located any area which, for any 2-year period after 1989 has a carbon monoxide design value of 9.5 ppm or above. The revision shall be submitted within 18 months after such 2-year period.

(2) Oxygenated gasoline in CO nonattainment areas

Each plan revision under this subsection shall contain provisions to require that any gasoline sold, or dispensed, to the ultimate consumer in the carbon monoxide nonattainment area or sold or dispensed directly or indirectly by fuel refiners or marketers to persons who sell or dispense to ultimate consumers, in the larger of—

(A) the Consolidated Metropolitan Statistical Area (CMSA) in which the area is located, or

(B) if the area is not located in a CMSA, the Metropolitan Statistical Area in which the area is located,


be blended, during the portion of the year in which the area is prone to high ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide to contain not less than 2.7 percent oxygen by weight (subject to a testing tolerance established by the Administrator). The portion of the year in which the area is prone to high ambient concentrations of carbon monoxide shall be as determined by the Administrator, but shall not be less than 4 months. At the request of a State with respect to any area designated as nonattainment for carbon monoxide, the Administrator may reduce the period specified in the preceding sentence if the State can demonstrate that because of meteorological conditions, a reduced period will assure that there will be no exceedances of the carbon monoxide standard outside of such reduced period. For areas with a carbon monoxide design value of 9.5 ppm or more of 7 November 15, 1990, the revision shall provide that such requirement shall take effect no later than November 1, 1992 (or at such other date during 1992 as the Administrator establishes under the preceding provisions of this paragraph). For other areas, the revision shall provide that such requirement shall take effect no later than November 1 of the third year after the last year of the applicable 2-year period referred to in paragraph (1) (or at such other date during such third year as the Administrator establishes under the preceding provisions of this paragraph) and shall include a program for implementation and enforcement of the requirement consistent with guidance to be issued by the Administrator.

(3) Waivers

(A) The Administrator shall waive, in whole or in part, the requirements of paragraph (2) upon a demonstration by the State to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the use of oxygenated gasoline would prevent or interfere with the attainment by the area of a national primary ambient air quality standard (or a State or local ambient air quality standard) for any air pollutant other than carbon monoxide.

(B) The Administrator shall, upon demonstration by the State satisfactory to the Administrator, waive the requirement of paragraph (2) where the Administrator determines that mobile sources of carbon monoxide do not contribute significantly to carbon monoxide levels in an area.

(C)(i) Any person may petition the Administrator to make a finding that there is, or is likely to be, for any area, an inadequate domestic supply of, or distribution capacity for, oxygenated gasoline meeting the requirements of paragraph (2) or fuel additives (oxygenates) necessary to meet such requirements. The Administrator shall act on such petition within 6 months after receipt of the petition.

(ii) If the Administrator determines, in response to a petition under clause (i), that there is an inadequate supply or capacity described in clause (i), the Administrator shall delay the effective date of paragraph (2) for 1 year. Upon petition, the Administrator may extend such effective date for one additional year. No partial delay or lesser waiver may be granted under this clause.

(iii) In granting waivers under this subparagraph the Administrator shall consider distribution capacity separately from the adequacy of domestic supply and shall grant such waivers in such manner as will assure that, if supplies of oxygenated gasoline are limited, areas having the highest design value for carbon monoxide will have a priority in obtaining oxygenated gasoline which meets the requirements of paragraph (2).

(iv) As used in this subparagraph, the term distribution capacity includes capacity for transportation, storage, and blending.

(4) Fuel dispensing systems

Any person selling oxygenated gasoline at retail pursuant to this subsection shall be required under regulations promulgated by the Administrator to label the fuel dispensing system with a notice that the gasoline is oxygenated and will reduce the carbon monoxide emissions from the motor vehicle.

(5) Guidelines for credit

The Administrator shall promulgate guidelines, within 9 months after November 15, 1990, allowing the use of marketable oxygen credits from gasolines during that portion of the year specified in paragraph (2) with higher oxygen content than required to offset the sale or use of gasoline with a lower oxygen content than required. No credits may be transferred between nonattainment areas.

(6) Attainment areas

Nothing in this subsection shall be interpreted as requiring an oxygenated gasoline program in an area which is in attainment for carbon monoxide, except that in a carbon monoxide nonattainment area which is redesignated as attainment for carbon monoxide, the requirements of this subsection shall remain in effect to the extent such program is necessary to maintain such standard thereafter in the area.

(7) Failure to attain CO standard

If the Administrator determines under section 7512(b)(2) of this title that the national primary ambient air quality standard for carbon monoxide has not been attained in a Serious Area by the applicable attainment date, the State shall submit a plan revision for the area within 9 months after the date of such determination. The plan revision shall provide that the minimum oxygen content of gasoline referred to in paragraph (2) shall be 3.1 percent by weight unless such requirement is waived in accordance with the provisions of this subsection.

(n) Prohibition on leaded gasoline for highway use

After December 31, 1995, it shall be unlawful for any person to sell, offer for sale, supply, offer for supply, dispense, transport, or introduce into commerce, for use as fuel in any motor vehicle (as defined in section 7554(2) 8 of this title) any gasoline which contains lead or lead additives.

(o) Renewable fuel program

(1) Definitions

In this section:

(A) Additional renewable fuel

The term "additional renewable fuel" means fuel that is produced from renewable biomass and that is used to replace or reduce the quantity of fossil fuel present in home heating oil or jet fuel.

(B) Advanced biofuel

(i) In general

The term "advanced biofuel" means renewable fuel, other than ethanol derived from corn starch, that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for comment, that are at least 50 percent less than baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions.

(ii) Inclusions

The types of fuels eligible for consideration as "advanced biofuel" may include any of the following:

(I) Ethanol derived from cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin.

(II) Ethanol derived from sugar or starch (other than corn starch).

(III) Ethanol derived from waste material, including crop residue, other vegetative waste material, animal waste, and food waste and yard waste.

(IV) Biomass-based diesel.

(V) Biogas (including landfill gas and sewage waste treatment gas) produced through the conversion of organic matter from renewable biomass.

(VI) Butanol or other alcohols produced through the conversion of organic matter from renewable biomass.

(VII) Other fuel derived from cellulosic biomass.

(C) Baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions

The term "baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions" means the average lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for comment, for gasoline or diesel (whichever is being replaced by the renewable fuel) sold or distributed as transportation fuel in 2005.

(D) Biomass-based diesel

The term "biomass-based diesel" means renewable fuel that is biodiesel as defined in section 13220(f) of this title and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for comment, that are at least 50 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence, renewable fuel derived from co-processing biomass with a petroleum feedstock shall be advanced biofuel if it meets the requirements of subparagraph (B), but is not biomass-based diesel.

(E) Cellulosic biofuel

The term "cellulosic biofuel" means renewable fuel derived from any cellulose, hemicellulose, or lignin that is derived from renewable biomass and that has lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, as determined by the Administrator, that are at least 60 percent less than the baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions.

(F) Conventional biofuel

The term "conventional biofuel" means renewable fuel that is ethanol derived from corn starch.

(G) Greenhouse gas

The term "greenhouse gas" means carbon dioxide, hydrofluorocarbons, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons,9 sulfur hexafluoride. The Administrator may include any other anthropogenically-emitted gas that is determined by the Administrator, after notice and comment, to contribute to global warming.

(H) Lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions

The term "lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions" means the aggregate quantity of greenhouse gas emissions (including direct emissions and significant indirect emissions such as significant emissions from land use changes), as determined by the Administrator, related to the full fuel lifecycle, including all stages of fuel and feedstock production and distribution, from feedstock generation or extraction through the distribution and delivery and use of the finished fuel to the ultimate consumer, where the mass values for all greenhouse gases are adjusted to account for their relative global warming potential.

(I) Renewable biomass

The term "renewable biomass" means each of the following:

(i) Planted crops and crop residue harvested from agricultural land cleared or cultivated at any time prior to December 19, 2007, that is either actively managed or fallow, and nonforested.

(ii) Planted trees and tree residue from actively managed tree plantations on non-federal 10 land cleared at any time prior to December 19, 2007, including land belonging to an Indian tribe or an Indian individual, that is held in trust by the United States or subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States.

(iii) Animal waste material and animal byproducts.

(iv) Slash and pre-commercial thinnings that are from non-federal 10 forestlands, including forestlands belonging to an Indian tribe or an Indian individual, that are held in trust by the United States or subject to a restriction against alienation imposed by the United States, but not forests or forestlands that are ecological communities with a global or State ranking of critically imperiled, imperiled, or rare pursuant to a State Natural Heritage Program, old growth forest, or late successional forest.

(v) Biomass obtained from the immediate vicinity of buildings and other areas regularly occupied by people, or of public infrastructure, at risk from wildfire.

(vi) Algae.

(vii) Separated yard waste or food waste, including recycled cooking and trap grease.

(J) Renewable fuel

The term "renewable fuel" means fuel that is produced from renewable biomass and that is used to replace or reduce the quantity of fossil fuel present in a transportation fuel.

(K) Small refinery

The term "small refinery" means a refinery for which the average aggregate daily crude oil throughput for a calendar year (as determined by dividing the aggregate throughput for the calendar year by the number of days in the calendar year) does not exceed 75,000 barrels.

(L) Transportation fuel

The term "transportation fuel" means fuel for use in motor vehicles, motor vehicle engines, nonroad vehicles, or nonroad engines (except for ocean-going vessels).

(2) Renewable fuel program

(A) Regulations

(i) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations to ensure that gasoline sold or introduced into commerce in the United States (except in noncontiguous States or territories), on an annual average basis, contains the applicable volume of renewable fuel determined in accordance with subparagraph (B). Not later than 1 year after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall revise the regulations under this paragraph to ensure that transportation fuel sold or introduced into commerce in the United States (except in noncontiguous States or territories), on an annual average basis, contains at least the applicable volume of renewable fuel, advanced biofuel, cellulosic biofuel, and biomass-based diesel, determined in accordance with subparagraph (B) and, in the case of any such renewable fuel produced from new facilities that commence construction after December 19, 2007, achieves at least a 20 percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions.

(ii) Noncontiguous State opt-in

(I) In general

On the petition of a noncontiguous State or territory, the Administrator may allow the renewable fuel program established under this subsection to apply in the noncontiguous State or territory at the same time or any time after the Administrator promulgates regulations under this subparagraph.

(II) Other actions

In carrying out this clause, the Administrator may—

(aa) issue or revise regulations under this paragraph;

(bb) establish applicable percentages under paragraph (3);

(cc) provide for the generation of credits under paragraph (5); and

(dd) take such other actions as are necessary to allow for the application of the renewable fuels program in a noncontiguous State or territory.

(iii) Provisions of regulations

Regardless of the date of promulgation, the regulations promulgated under clause (i)—

(I) shall contain compliance provisions applicable to refineries, blenders, distributors, and importers, as appropriate, to ensure that the requirements of this paragraph are met; but

(II) shall not—

(aa) restrict geographic areas in which renewable fuel may be used; or

(bb) impose any per-gallon obligation for the use of renewable fuel.

(iv) Requirement in case of failure to promulgate regulations

If the Administrator does not promulgate regulations under clause (i), the percentage of renewable fuel in gasoline sold or dispensed to consumers in the United States, on a volume basis, shall be 2.78 percent for calendar year 2006.

(B) Applicable volumes

(i) Calendar years after 2005

(I) Renewable fuel

For the purpose of subparagraph (A), the applicable volume of renewable fuel for the calendar years 2006 through 2022 shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

 
    Calendar year:

 

Applicable volume of renewable fuel

(in billions of gallons):

 2006 4.0
 2007 4.7
 2008 9.0
 2009 11.1
 2010 12.95
 2011 13.95
 2012 15.2
 2013 16.55
 2014 18.15
 2015 20.5
 2016 22.25
 2017 24.0
 2018 26.0
 2019 28.0
 2020 30.0
 2021 33.0
 2022 36.0

(II) Advanced biofuel

For the purpose of subparagraph (A), of the volume of renewable fuel required under subclause (I), the applicable volume of advanced biofuel for the calendar years 2009 through 2022 shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

 
    Calendar year:

 

Applicable volume of advanced biofuel

(in billions of gallons):

 2009 0.6
 2010 0.95
 2011 1.35
 2012 2.0
 2013 2.75
 2014 3.75
 2015 5.5
 2016 7.25
 2017 9.0
 2018 11.0
 2019 13.0
 2020 15.0
 2021 18.0
 2022 21.0

(III) Cellulosic biofuel

For the purpose of subparagraph (A), of the volume of advanced biofuel required under subclause (II), the applicable volume of cellulosic biofuel for the calendar years 2010 through 2022 shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

 
    Calendar year:

 

Applicable volume of cellulosic biofuel

(in billions of gallons):

 2010 0.1
 2011 0.25
 2012 0.5
 2013 1.0
 2014 1.75
 2015 3.0
 2016 4.25
 2017 5.5
 2018 7.0
 2019 8.5
 2020 10.5
 2021 13.5
 2022 16.0

(IV) Biomass-based diesel

For the purpose of subparagraph (A), of the volume of advanced biofuel required under subclause (II), the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel for the calendar years 2009 through 2012 shall be determined in accordance with the following table:

 
    Calendar year:

 

Applicable volume of biomass-based diesel (in billions

of gallons):

 2009 0.5
 2010 0.65
 2011 0.80
 2012 1.0

(ii) Other calendar years

For the purposes of subparagraph (A), the applicable volumes of each fuel specified in the tables in clause (i) for calendar years after the calendar years specified in the tables shall be determined by the Administrator, in coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture, based on a review of the implementation of the program during calendar years specified in the tables, and an analysis of—

(I) the impact of the production and use of renewable fuels on the environment, including on air quality, climate change, conversion of wetlands, ecosystems, wildlife habitat, water quality, and water supply;

(II) the impact of renewable fuels on the energy security of the United States;

(III) the expected annual rate of future commercial production of renewable fuels, including advanced biofuels in each category (cellulosic biofuel and biomass-based diesel);

(IV) the impact of renewable fuels on the infrastructure of the United States, including deliverability of materials, goods, and products other than renewable fuel, and the sufficiency of infrastructure to deliver and use renewable fuel;

(V) the impact of the use of renewable fuels on the cost to consumers of transportation fuel and on the cost to transport goods; and

(VI) the impact of the use of renewable fuels on other factors, including job creation, the price and supply of agricultural commodities, rural economic development, and food prices.


 The Administrator shall promulgate rules establishing the applicable volumes under this clause no later than 14 months before the first year for which such applicable volume will apply.

(iii) Applicable volume of advanced biofuel

For the purpose of making the determinations in clause (ii), for each calendar year, the applicable volume of advanced biofuel shall be at least the same percentage of the applicable volume of renewable fuel as in calendar year 2022.

(iv) Applicable volume of cellulosic biofuel

For the purpose of making the determinations in clause (ii), for each calendar year, the applicable volume of cellulosic biofuel established by the Administrator shall be based on the assumption that the Administrator will not need to issue a waiver for such years under paragraph (7)(D).

(v) Minimum applicable volume of biomass-based diesel

For the purpose of making the determinations in clause (ii), the applicable volume of biomass-based diesel shall not be less than the applicable volume listed in clause (i)(IV) for calendar year 2012.

(3) Applicable percentages

(A) Provision of estimate of volumes of gasoline sales

Not later than October 31 of each of calendar years 2005 through 2021, the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration shall provide to the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency an estimate, with respect to the following calendar year, of the volumes of transportation fuel, biomass-based diesel, and cellulosic biofuel projected to be sold or introduced into commerce in the United States.

(B) Determination of applicable percentages

(i) In general

Not later than November 30 of each of calendar years 2005 through 2021, based on the estimate provided under subparagraph (A), the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall determine and publish in the Federal Register, with respect to the following calendar year, the renewable fuel obligation that ensures that the requirements of paragraph (2) are met.

(ii) Required elements

The renewable fuel obligation determined for a calendar year under clause (i) shall—

(I) be applicable to refineries, blenders, and importers, as appropriate;

(II) be expressed in terms of a volume percentage of transportation fuel sold or introduced into commerce in the United States; and

(III) subject to subparagraph (C)(i), consist of a single applicable percentage that applies to all categories of persons specified in subclause (I).

(C) Adjustments

In determining the applicable percentage for a calendar year, the Administrator shall make adjustments—

(i) to prevent the imposition of redundant obligations on any person specified in subparagraph (B)(ii)(I); and

(ii) to account for the use of renewable fuel during the previous calendar year by small refineries that are exempt under paragraph (9).

(4) Modification of greenhouse gas reduction percentages

(A) In general

The Administrator may, in the regulations under the last sentence of paragraph (2)(A)(i), adjust the 20 percent, 50 percent, and 60 percent reductions in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions specified in paragraphs (2)(A)(i) (relating to renewable fuel), (1)(D) (relating to biomass-based diesel), (1)(B)(i) (relating to advanced biofuel), and (1)(E) (relating to cellulosic biofuel) to a lower percentage. For the 50 and 60 percent reductions, the Administrator may make such an adjustment only if he determines that generally such reduction is not commercially feasible for fuels made using a variety of feedstocks, technologies, and processes to meet the applicable reduction.

(B) Amount of adjustment

In promulgating regulations under this paragraph, the specified 50 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from advanced biofuel and in biomass-based diesel may not be reduced below 40 percent. The specified 20 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from renewable fuel may not be reduced below 10 percent, and the specified 60 percent reduction in greenhouse gas emissions from cellulosic biofuel may not be reduced below 50 percent.

(C) Adjusted reduction levels

An adjustment under this paragraph to a percent less than the specified 20 percent greenhouse gas reduction for renewable fuel shall be the minimum possible adjustment, and the adjusted greenhouse gas reduction shall be established by the Administrator at the maximum achievable level, taking cost in consideration, for natural gas fired corn-based ethanol plants, allowing for the use of a variety of technologies and processes. An adjustment in the 50 or 60 percent greenhouse gas levels shall be the minimum possible adjustment for the fuel or fuels concerned, and the adjusted greenhouse gas reduction shall be established at the maximum achievable level, taking cost in consideration, allowing for the use of a variety of feedstocks, technologies, and processes.

(D) 5-year review

Whenever the Administrator makes any adjustment under this paragraph, not later than 5 years thereafter he shall review and revise (based upon the same criteria and standards as required for the initial adjustment) the regulations establishing the adjusted level.

(E) Subsequent adjustments

After the Administrator has promulgated a final rule under the last sentence of paragraph (2)(A)(i) with respect to the method of determining lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, except as provided in subparagraph (D), the Administrator may not adjust the percent greenhouse gas reduction levels unless he determines that there has been a significant change in the analytical methodology used for determining the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. If he makes such determination, he may adjust the 20, 50, or 60 percent reduction levels through rulemaking using the criteria and standards set forth in this paragraph.

(F) Limit on upward adjustments

If, under subparagraph (D) or (E), the Administrator revises a percent level adjusted as provided in subparagraphs (A), (B), and (C) to a higher percent, such higher percent may not exceed the applicable percent specified in paragraph (2)(A)(i), (1)(D), (1)(B)(i), or (1)(E).

(G) Applicability of adjustments

If the Administrator adjusts, or revises, a percent level referred to in this paragraph or makes a change in the analytical methodology used for determining the lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions, such adjustment, revision, or change (or any combination thereof) shall only apply to renewable fuel from new facilities that commence construction after the effective date of such adjustment, revision, or change.

(5) Credit program

(A) In general

The regulations promulgated under paragraph (2)(A) shall provide—

(i) for the generation of an appropriate amount of credits by any person that refines, blends, or imports gasoline that contains a quantity of renewable fuel that is greater than the quantity required under paragraph (2);

(ii) for the generation of an appropriate amount of credits for biodiesel; and

(iii) for the generation of credits by small refineries in accordance with paragraph (9)(C).

(B) Use of credits

A person that generates credits under subparagraph (A) may use the credits, or transfer all or a portion of the credits to another person, for the purpose of complying with paragraph (2).

(C) Duration of credits

A credit generated under this paragraph shall be valid to show compliance for the 12 months as of the date of generation.

(D) Inability to generate or purchase sufficient credits

The regulations promulgated under paragraph (2)(A) shall include provisions allowing any person that is unable to generate or purchase sufficient credits to meet the requirements of paragraph (2) to carry forward a renewable fuel deficit on condition that the person, in the calendar year following the year in which the renewable fuel deficit is created—

(i) achieves compliance with the renewable fuel requirement under paragraph (2); and

(ii) generates or purchases additional renewable fuel credits to offset the renewable fuel deficit of the previous year.

(E) Credits for additional renewable fuel

The Administrator may issue regulations providing: (i) for the generation of an appropriate amount of credits by any person that refines, blends, or imports additional renewable fuels specified by the Administrator; and (ii) for the use of such credits by the generator, or the transfer of all or a portion of the credits to another person, for the purpose of complying with paragraph (2).

(6) Seasonal variations in renewable fuel use

(A) Study

For each of calendar years 2006 through 2012, the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration shall conduct a study of renewable fuel blending to determine whether there are excessive seasonal variations in the use of renewable fuel.

(B) Regulation of excessive seasonal variations

If, for any calendar year, the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration, based on the study under subparagraph (A), makes the determinations specified in subparagraph (C), the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall promulgate regulations to ensure that 25 percent or more of the quantity of renewable fuel necessary to meet the requirements of paragraph (2) is used during each of the 2 periods specified in subparagraph (D) of each subsequent calendar year.

(C) Determinations

The determinations referred to in subparagraph (B) are that—

(i) less than 25 percent of the quantity of renewable fuel necessary to meet the requirements of paragraph (2) has been used during 1 of the 2 periods specified in subparagraph (D) of the calendar year;

(ii) a pattern of excessive seasonal variation described in clause (i) will continue in subsequent calendar years; and

(iii) promulgating regulations or other requirements to impose a 25 percent or more seasonal use of renewable fuels will not prevent or interfere with the attainment of national ambient air quality standards or significantly increase the price of motor fuels to the consumer.

(D) Periods

The 2 periods referred to in this paragraph are—

(i) April through September; and

(ii) January through March and October through December.

(E) Exclusion

Renewable fuel blended or consumed in calendar year 2006 in a State that has received a waiver under section 7543(b) of this title shall not be included in the study under subparagraph (A).

(F) State exemption from seasonality requirements

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the seasonality requirement relating to renewable fuel use established by this paragraph shall not apply to any State that has received a waiver under section 7543(b) of this title or any State dependent on refineries in such State for gasoline supplies.

(7) Waivers

(A) In general

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Energy, may waive the requirements of paragraph (2) in whole or in part on petition by one or more States, by any person subject to the requirements of this subsection, or by the Administrator on his own motion by reducing the national quantity of renewable fuel required under paragraph (2)—

(i) based on a determination by the Administrator, after public notice and opportunity for comment, that implementation of the requirement would severely harm the economy or environment of a State, a region, or the United States; or

(ii) based on a determination by the Administrator, after public notice and opportunity for comment, that there is an inadequate domestic supply.

(B) Petitions for waivers

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Energy, shall approve or disapprove a petition for a waiver of the requirements of paragraph (2) within 90 days after the date on which the petition is received by the Administrator.

(C) Termination of waivers

A waiver granted under subparagraph (A) shall terminate after 1 year, but may be renewed by the Administrator after consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Energy.

(D) Cellulosic biofuel

(i) For any calendar year for which the projected volume of cellulosic biofuel production is less than the minimum applicable volume established under paragraph (2)(B), as determined by the Administrator based on the estimate provided under paragraph (3)(A), not later than November 30 of the preceding calendar year, the Administrator shall reduce the applicable volume of cellulosic biofuel required under paragraph (2)(B) to the projected volume available during that calendar year. For any calendar year in which the Administrator makes such a reduction, the Administrator may also reduce the applicable volume of renewable fuel and advanced biofuels requirement established under paragraph (2)(B) by the same or a lesser volume.

(ii) Whenever the Administrator reduces the minimum cellulosic biofuel volume under this subparagraph, the Administrator shall make available for sale cellulosic biofuel credits at the higher of $0.25 per gallon or the amount by which $3.00 per gallon exceeds the average wholesale price of a gallon of gasoline in the United States. Such amounts shall be adjusted for inflation by the Administrator for years after 2008.

(iii) Eighteen months after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations to govern the issuance of credits under this subparagraph. The regulations shall set forth the method for determining the exact price of credits in the event of a waiver. The price of such credits shall not be changed more frequently than once each quarter. These regulations shall include such provisions, including limiting the credits' uses and useful life, as the Administrator deems appropriate to assist market liquidity and transparency, to provide appropriate certainty for regulated entities and renewable fuel producers, and to limit any potential misuse of cellulosic biofuel credits to reduce the use of other renewable fuels, and for such other purposes as the Administrator determines will help achieve the goals of this subsection. The regulations shall limit the number of cellulosic biofuel credits for any calendar year to the minimum applicable volume (as reduced under this subparagraph) of cellulosic biofuel for that year.

(E) Biomass-based diesel

(i) Market evaluation

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall periodically evaluate the impact of the biomass-based diesel requirements established under this paragraph on the price of diesel fuel.

(ii) Waiver

If the Administrator determines that there is a significant renewable feedstock disruption or other market circumstances that would make the price of biomass-based diesel fuel increase significantly, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall issue an order to reduce, for up to a 60-day period, the quantity of biomass-based diesel required under subparagraph (A) by an appropriate quantity that does not exceed 15 percent of the applicable annual requirement for biomass-based diesel. For any calendar year in which the Administrator makes a reduction under this subparagraph, the Administrator may also reduce the applicable volume of renewable fuel and advanced biofuels requirement established under paragraph (2)(B) by the same or a lesser volume.

(iii) Extensions

If the Administrator determines that the feedstock disruption or circumstances described in clause (ii) is continuing beyond the 60-day period described in clause (ii) or this clause, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture, may issue an order to reduce, for up to an additional 60-day period, the quantity of biomass-based diesel required under subparagraph (A) by an appropriate quantity that does not exceed an additional 15 percent of the applicable annual requirement for biomass-based diesel.

(F) Modification of applicable volumes

For any of the tables in paragraph (2)(B), if the Administrator waives—

(i) at least 20 percent of the applicable volume requirement set forth in any such table for 2 consecutive years; or

(ii) at least 50 percent of such volume requirement for a single year,


the Administrator shall promulgate a rule (within 1 year after issuing such waiver) that modifies the applicable volumes set forth in the table concerned for all years following the final year to which the waiver applies, except that no such modification in applicable volumes shall be made for any year before 2016. In promulgating such a rule, the Administrator shall comply with the processes, criteria, and standards set forth in paragraph (2)(B)(ii).

(8) Study and waiver for initial year of program

(A) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, the Secretary of Energy shall conduct for the Administrator a study assessing whether the renewable fuel requirement under paragraph (2) will likely result in significant adverse impacts on consumers in 2006, on a national, regional, or State basis.

(B) Required evaluations

The study shall evaluate renewable fuel—

(i) supplies and prices;

(ii) blendstock supplies; and

(iii) supply and distribution system capabilities.

(C) Recommendations by the Secretary

Based on the results of the study, the Secretary of Energy shall make specific recommendations to the Administrator concerning waiver of the requirements of paragraph (2), in whole or in part, to prevent any adverse impacts described in subparagraph (A).

(D) Waiver

(i) In general

Not later than 270 days after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall, if and to the extent recommended by the Secretary of Energy under subparagraph (C), waive, in whole or in part, the renewable fuel requirement under paragraph (2) by reducing the national quantity of renewable fuel required under paragraph (2) in calendar year 2006.

(ii) No effect on waiver authority

Clause (i) does not limit the authority of the Administrator to waive the requirements of paragraph (2) in whole, or in part, under paragraph (7).

(9) Small refineries

(A) Temporary exemption

(i) In general

The requirements of paragraph (2) shall not apply to small refineries until calendar year 2011.

(ii) Extension of exemption

(I) Study by Secretary of Energy

Not later than December 31, 2008, the Secretary of Energy shall conduct for the Administrator a study to determine whether compliance with the requirements of paragraph (2) would impose a disproportionate economic hardship on small refineries.

(II) Extension of exemption

In the case of a small refinery that the Secretary of Energy determines under subclause (I) would be subject to a disproportionate economic hardship if required to comply with paragraph (2), the Administrator shall extend the exemption under clause (i) for the small refinery for a period of not less than 2 additional years.

(B) Petitions based on disproportionate economic hardship

(i) Extension of exemption

A small refinery may at any time petition the Administrator for an extension of the exemption under subparagraph (A) for the reason of disproportionate economic hardship.

(ii) Evaluation of petitions

In evaluating a petition under clause (i), the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Energy, shall consider the findings of the study under subparagraph (A)(ii) and other economic factors.

(iii) Deadline for action on petitions

The Administrator shall act on any petition submitted by a small refinery for a hardship exemption not later than 90 days after the date of receipt of the petition.

(C) Credit program

If a small refinery notifies the Administrator that the small refinery waives the exemption under subparagraph (A), the regulations promulgated under paragraph (2)(A) shall provide for the generation of credits by the small refinery under paragraph (5) beginning in the calendar year following the date of notification.

(D) Opt-in for small refineries

A small refinery shall be subject to the requirements of paragraph (2) if the small refinery notifies the Administrator that the small refinery waives the exemption under subparagraph (A).

(10) Ethanol market concentration analysis

(A) Analysis

(i) In general

Not later than 180 days after August 8, 2005, and annually thereafter, the Federal Trade Commission shall perform a market concentration analysis of the ethanol production industry using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index to determine whether there is sufficient competition among industry participants to avoid price-setting and other anticompetitive behavior.

(ii) Scoring

For the purpose of scoring under clause (i) using the Herfindahl-Hirschman Index, all marketing arrangements among industry participants shall be considered.

(B) Report

Not later than December 1, 2005, and annually thereafter, the Federal Trade Commission shall submit to Congress and the Administrator a report on the results of the market concentration analysis performed under subparagraph (A)(i).

(11) Periodic reviews

To allow for the appropriate adjustment of the requirements described in subparagraph (B) of paragraph (2), the Administrator shall conduct periodic reviews of—

(A) existing technologies;

(B) the feasibility of achieving compliance with the requirements; and

(C) the impacts of the requirements described in subsection (a)(2) 11 on each individual and entity described in paragraph (2).

(12) Effect on other provisions

Nothing in this subsection, or regulations issued pursuant to this subsection, shall affect or be construed to affect the regulatory status of carbon dioxide or any other greenhouse gas, or to expand or limit regulatory authority regarding carbon dioxide or any other greenhouse gas, for purposes of other provisions (including section 7475) of this chapter. The previous sentence shall not affect implementation and enforcement of this subsection.

(q) 12 Analyses of motor vehicle fuel changes and emissions model

(1) Anti-backsliding analysis

(A) Draft analysis

Not later than 4 years after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall publish for public comment a draft analysis of the changes in emissions of air pollutants and air quality due to the use of motor vehicle fuel and fuel additives resulting from implementation of the amendments made by the Energy Policy Act of 2005.

(B) Final analysis

After providing a reasonable opportunity for comment but not later than 5 years after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall publish the analysis in final form.

(2) Emissions model

For the purposes of this section, not later than 4 years after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall develop and finalize an emissions model that reflects, to the maximum extent practicable, the effects of gasoline characteristics or components on emissions from vehicles in the motor vehicle fleet during calendar year 2007.

(3) Permeation effects study

(A) In general

Not later than 1 year after August 8, 2005, the Administrator shall conduct a study, and report to Congress the results of the study, on the effects of ethanol content in gasoline on permeation, the process by which fuel molecules migrate through the elastomeric materials (rubber and plastic parts) that make up the fuel and fuel vapor systems of a motor vehicle.

(B) Evaporative emissions

The study shall include estimates of the increase in total evaporative emissions likely to result from the use of gasoline with ethanol content in a motor vehicle, and the fleet of motor vehicles, due to permeation.

(r) Fuel and fuel additive importers and importation

For the purposes of this section, the term "manufacturer" includes an importer and the term "manufacture" includes importation.

(s) Conversion assistance for cellulosic biomass, waste-derived ethanol, approved renewable fuels

(1) In general

The Secretary of Energy may provide grants to merchant producers of cellulosic biomass ethanol, waste-derived ethanol, and approved renewable fuels in the United States to assist the producers in building eligible production facilities described in paragraph (2) for the production of ethanol or approved renewable fuels.

(2) Eligible production facilities

A production facility shall be eligible to receive a grant under this subsection if the production facility—

(A) is located in the United States; and

(B) uses cellulosic or renewable biomass or waste-derived feedstocks derived from agricultural residues, wood residues, municipal solid waste, or agricultural byproducts.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated the following amounts to carry out this subsection:

(A) $100,000,000 for fiscal year 2006.

(B) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.

(C) $400,000,000 for fiscal year 2008.

(4) Definitions

For the purposes of this subsection:

(A) The term "approved renewable fuels" are fuels and components of fuels that have been approved by the Department of Energy, as defined in section 13211 of this title, which have been made from renewable biomass.

(B) The term "renewable biomass" is, as defined in Presidential Executive Order 13134, published in the Federal Register on August 16, 1999, any organic matter that is available on a renewable or recurring basis (excluding old-growth timber), including dedicated energy crops and trees, agricultural food and feed crop residues, aquatic plants, animal wastes, wood and wood residues, paper and paper residues, and other vegetative waste materials. Old-growth timber means timber of a forest from the late successional stage of forest development.

(t) Blending of compliant reformulated gasolines

(1) In general

Notwithstanding subsections (h) and (k) and subject to the limitations in paragraph (2) of this subsection, it shall not be a violation of this part 13 for a gasoline retailer, during any month of the year, to blend at a retail location batches of ethanol-blended and non-ethanol-blended reformulated gasoline, provided that—

(A) each batch of gasoline to be blended has been individually certified as in compliance with subsections (h) and (k) prior to being blended;

(B) the retailer notifies the Administrator prior to such blending, and identifies the exact location of the retail station and the specific tank in which such blending will take place;

(C) the retailer retains and, as requested by the Administrator or the Administrator's designee, makes available for inspection such certifications accounting for all gasoline at the retail outlet; and

(D) the retailer does not, between June 1 and September 15 of each year, blend a batch of VOC-controlled, or "summer", gasoline with a batch of non-VOC-controlled, or "winter", gasoline (as these terms are defined under subsections (h) and (k)).

(2) Limitations

(A) Frequency limitation

A retailer shall only be permitted to blend batches of compliant reformulated gasoline under this subsection a maximum of two blending periods between May 1 and September 15 of each calendar year.

(B) Duration of blending period

Each blending period authorized under subparagraph (A) shall extend for a period of no more than 10 consecutive calendar days.

(3) Surveys

A sample of gasoline taken from a retail location that has blended gasoline within the past 30 days and is in compliance with subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D) of paragraph (1) shall not be used in a VOC survey mandated by 40 CFR Part 80.

(4) State implementation plans

A State shall be held harmless and shall not be required to revise its State implementation plan under section 7410 of this title to account for the emissions from blended gasoline authorized under paragraph (1).

(5) Preservation of State law

Nothing in this subsection shall—

(A) preempt existing State laws or regulations regulating the blending of compliant gasolines; or

(B) prohibit a State from adopting such restrictions in the future.

(6) Regulations

The Administrator shall promulgate, after notice and comment, regulations implementing this subsection within 1 year after August 8, 2005.

(7) Effective date

This subsection shall become effective 15 months after August 8, 2005, and shall apply to blended batches of reformulated gasoline on or after that date, regardless of whether the implementing regulations required by paragraph (6) have been promulgated by the Administrator by that date.

(8) Liability

No person other than the person responsible for blending under this subsection shall be subject to an enforcement action or penalties under subsection (d) solely arising from the blending of compliant reformulated gasolines by the retailers.

(9) Formulation of gasoline

This subsection does not grant authority to the Administrator or any State (or any subdivision thereof) to require reformulation of gasoline at the refinery to adjust for potential or actual emissions increases due to the blending authorized by this subsection.

(u) Standard specifications for biodiesel

(1) Unless the American Society for Testing and Materials has adopted a standard for diesel fuel containing 20 percent biodiesel (commonly known as "B20") within 1 year after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall initiate a rulemaking to establish a uniform per gallon fuel standard for such fuel and designate an identification number so that vehicle manufacturers are able to design engines to use fuel meeting such standard.

(2) Unless the American Society for Testing and Materials has adopted a standard for diesel fuel containing 5 percent biodiesel (commonly known as "B5") within 1 year after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall initiate a rulemaking to establish a uniform per gallon fuel standard for such fuel and designate an identification so that vehicle manufacturers are able to design engines to use fuel meeting such standard.

(3) Whenever the Administrator is required to initiate a rulemaking under paragraph (1) or (2), the Administrator shall promulgate a final rule within 18 months after December 19, 2007.

(4) Not later than 180 days after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall establish an annual inspection and enforcement program to ensure that diesel fuel containing biodiesel sold or distributed in interstate commerce meets the standards established under regulations under this section, including testing and certification for compliance with applicable standards of the American Society for Testing and Materials. There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out the inspection and enforcement program under this paragraph $3,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2010.

(5) For purposes of this subsection, the term "biodiesel" has the meaning provided by section 13220(f) of this title.

(v) Prevention of air quality deterioration

(1) Study

(A) In general

Not later than 18 months after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall complete a study to determine whether the renewable fuel volumes required by this section will adversely impact air quality as a result of changes in vehicle and engine emissions of air pollutants regulated under this chapter.

(B) Considerations

The study shall include consideration of—

(i) different blend levels, types of renewable fuels, and available vehicle technologies; and

(ii) appropriate national, regional, and local air quality control measures.

(2) Regulations

Not later than 3 years after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall—

(A) promulgate fuel regulations to implement appropriate measures to mitigate, to the greatest extent achievable, considering the results of the study under paragraph (1), any adverse impacts on air quality, as the result of the renewable volumes required by this section; or

(B) make a determination that no such measures are necessary.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §211, formerly §210, as added Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 502; renumbered and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§8(a), 9(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694, 1698; Pub. L. 92–157, title III, §302(d), (e), Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §§222, 223, title IV, §401(e), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 762, 764, 791; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(73), (74), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1403, 1404; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §§212–221, 228(d), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2488–2500, 2510; Pub. L. 109–58, title XV, §§1501(a)–(c), 1504(a)(1), (b), 1505–1507, 1512, 1513, 1541(a), (b), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1067–1074, 1076, 1077, 1080, 1081, 1088, 1089, 1106, 1107; Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §§201, 202, 203(f), 208, 209, 210(b), 247, 251, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1519, 1521, 1529, 1531, 1532, 1547, 1548.)

References in Text

August 8, 2005, referred to in subsec. (c)(4)(C)(v)(II), was in the original "enactment", which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 109–58, which enacted subsec. (c)(4)(C)(v), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Section 7521(l) of this title, referred to in subsec. (k)(1)(B)(vi), was in the original "section 202(1) of the Clean Air Act", which was translated as meaning section 202(l) of the Clean Air Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

The Energy Policy Act of 2005, referred to in subsec. (q)(1)(A), is Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

Executive Order 13134, referred to in subsec. (s)(4)(B), which was set out as a note under section 8601 of Title 7, Agriculture, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13423, §11(a)(iii), Jan. 24, 2007, 72 F.R. 3923.

This part, referred to in subsec. (t)(1), was in the original "this subtitle" which was translated as "this part", meaning part A of title II of act July 14, 1955, as the probable intent of Congress, because title II of act July 14, 1955, does not contain subtitles.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–6c of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 211 of act July 14, 1955, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 503, provided for a national emissions standards study and was classified to section 1857f–6d of this title, prior to repeal by section 8(a) of Pub. L. 91–604.

Amendments

2007—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 110–140, §208, substituted "nonroad vehicle if, in the judgment of the Administrator, any fuel or fuel additive or" for "nonroad vehicle (A) if in the judgment of the Administrator" and "air pollution or water pollution (including any degradation in the quality of groundwater) that" for "air pollution which".

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 110–140, §251, amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (4) read as follows: "The Administrator, upon application of any manufacturer of any fuel or fuel additive, may waive the prohibitions established under paragraph (1) or (3) of this subsection or the limitation specified in paragraph (2) of this subsection, if he determines that the applicant has established that such fuel or fuel additive or a specified concentration thereof, and the emission products of such fuel or additive or specified concentration thereof, will not cause or contribute to a failure of any emission control device or system (over the useful life of any vehicle in which such device or system is used) to achieve compliance by the vehicle with the emission standards with respect to which it has been certified pursuant to section 7525 of this title. If the Administrator has not acted to grant or deny an application under this paragraph within one hundred and eighty days of receipt of such application, the waiver authorized by this paragraph shall be treated as granted."

Subsec. (o)(1). Pub. L. 110–140, §201, amended par. (1) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (1) defined "cellulosic biomass ethanol", "waste derived ethanol", "renewable fuel", and "small refinery".

Subsec. (o)(2)(A)(i). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(a)(1), inserted at end "Not later than 1 year after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall revise the regulations under this paragraph to ensure that transportation fuel sold or introduced into commerce in the United States (except in noncontiguous States or territories), on an annual average basis, contains at least the applicable volume of renewable fuel, advanced biofuel, cellulosic biofuel, and biomass-based diesel, determined in accordance with subparagraph (B) and, in the case of any such renewable fuel produced from new facilities that commence construction after December 19, 2007, achieves at least a 20 percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions."

Subsec. (o)(2)(B). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(a)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) set forth table of applicable volumes for renewable fuel and related to determination of applicable volumes after the years addressed by the table, including the minimum quantity of renewable fuel to be derived from cellulosic biomass and the method of calculating the minimum applicable volume.

Subsec. (o)(3)(A). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(b)(1), (2), substituted "2021" for "2011" and "transportation fuel, biomass-based diesel, and cellulosic biofuel" for "gasoline".

Subsec. (o)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(b)(3), substituted "2021" for "2012".

Subsec. (o)(3)(B)(ii)(II). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(b)(4), substituted "transportation fuel" for "gasoline".

Subsec. (o)(4). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(c), amended par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "For the purpose of paragraph (2), 1 gallon of cellulosic biomass ethanol or waste derived ethanol shall be considered to be the equivalent of 2.5 gallons of renewable fuel."

Subsec. (o)(5)(E). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(d), added subpar. (E).

Subsec. (o)(7)(A). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(e)(1), inserted ", by any person subject to the requirements of this subsection, or by the Administrator on his own motion" after "one or more States" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (o)(7)(B). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(e)(1), struck out "State" before "petition for a waiver".

Subsec. (o)(7)(D) to (F). Pub. L. 110–140, §202(e)(2), (3), added subpars. (D) to (F).

Subsec. (o)(11). Pub. L. 110–140, §203(f), added par. (11).

Subsec. (o)(12). Pub. L. 110–140, §210(b), added par. (12).

Subsecs. (r), (s). Pub. L. 110–140, §247, redesignated subsecs. (r), relating to conversion assistance for cellulosic biomass, waste-derived ethanol, approved renewable fuels, and (s) as (s) and (t), respectively.

Subsec. (u). Pub. L. 110–140, §247, which directed amendment of this section by adding subsec. (u) at the end, was executed by adding subsec. (u) after subsec. (t) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (v). Pub. L. 110–140, §209, added subsec. (v).

2005—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 109–58, §1505(1)(A), substituted "shall, on a regular basis," for "may also" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–58, §1505(1)(B), added subpar. (A) and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "to conduct tests to determine potential public health effects of such fuel or additive (including, but not limited to, carcinogenic, teratogenic, or mutagenic effects), and".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 109–58, §1505(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c)(4)(C). Pub. L. 109–58, §1541(a), designated existing provisions as cl. (i) and added cls. (ii) to (iv) and (v) relating to waiver authority.

Subsec. (c)(4)(C)(v). Pub. L. 109–58, §1541(b), added cl. (v) relating to approval of fuels.

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 109–58, §1501(b)(1), substituted "(n), or (o)" for "or (n)" in two places in first sentence and "(m), or (o)" for "or (m)" in second sentence.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 109–58, §1501(b)(2), substituted "(n), and (o)" for "and (n)" in two places in first sentence.

Subsec. (h)(5), (6). Pub. L. 109–58, §1501(c), added par. (5) and redesignated former par. (5) as (6).

Subsec. (k)(1). Pub. L. 109–58, §1504(b), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A), inserted heading, substituted "Not later than November 15, 1991," for "Within 1 year after November 15, 1990,", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (k)(2)(A). Pub. L. 109–58, §1504(a)(1)(A)(i), struck out "(including the oxygen content requirement contained in subparagraph (B))" after "requirements of this paragraph".

Subsec. (k)(2)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 109–58, §1504(a)(1)(A)(ii), (iii), redesignated subpars. (C) and (D) as (B) and (C), respectively, and struck out heading and text of former subpar. (B). Text read as follows: "The oxygen content of the gasoline shall equal or exceed 2.0 percent by weight (subject to a testing tolerance established by the Administrator) except as otherwise required by this chapter. The Administrator may waive, in whole or in part, the application of this subparagraph for any ozone nonattainment area upon a determination by the Administrator that compliance with such requirement would prevent or interfere with the attainment by the area of a national primary ambient air quality standard."

Subsec. (k)(3)(A)(v). Pub. L. 109–58, §1504(a)(1)(B), struck out heading and text of cl. (v). Text read as follows: "The oxygen content of the reformulated gasoline shall equal or exceed 2.0 percent by weight (subject to a testing tolerance established by the Administrator) except as otherwise required by this chapter."

Subsec. (k)(6). Pub. L. 109–58, §1507, redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) as cls. (i) and (ii), respectively, of subpar. (A), inserted subpar. and cl. headings, in cl. (ii) substituted "clause (i)" for "subparagraph (A)" and "this subparagraph" for "this paragraph", and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (k)(7)(A). Pub. L. 109–58, §1504(a)(1)(C)(i), redesignated cls. (ii) and (iii) as (i) and (ii), respectively, and struck out former cl. (i) which read as follows: "has an oxygen content (by weight) that exceeds the minimum oxygen content specified in paragraph (2);".

Subsec. (k)(7)(C)(ii), (iii). Pub. L. 109–58, §1504(a)(1)(C)(ii), redesignated cl. (iii) as (ii) and struck out former cl. (ii) which read as follows: "An average gasoline oxygen content (by weight) for the nonattainment area (taking into account all gasoline sold for use in conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles in the nonattainment area) lower than the average gasoline oxygen content (by weight) that would occur in the absence of using any such credits."

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 109–58, §1501(a)(2), added subsec. (o). Former subsec. (o) redesignated (r) relating to fuel and fuel additive importers and importation.

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 109–58, §1506, which directed amendment of this section by adding subsec. (q) after subsec. (p), was executed by making the addition after subsec. (o) to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 109–58, §1512, added subsec. (r) relating to conversion assistance for cellulosic biomass, waste-derived ethanol, approved renewable fuels.

Pub. L. 109–58, §1501(a)(1), redesignated subsec. (o) as (r) relating to fuel and fuel additive importers and importation.

Subsec. (s). Pub. L. 109–58, §1513, added subsec. (s).

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–549, §212, inserted "(including any fuel or fuel additive used exclusively in nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles)" after "fuel or fuel additive".

Subsecs. (b)(2)(B), (c)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §212(b), (c), inserted reference to nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle.

Subsec. (c)(4)(A). Pub. L. 101–549, §213(a), substituted "any characteristic or component of a" for "use of a", inserted "of the characteristic or component of a fuel or fuel additive" after "control or prohibition" in cl. (i), and inserted "characteristic or component of a" after "such" in cl. (ii).

Subsec. (c)(4)(C). Pub. L. 101–549, §213(b), inserted last two sentences, authorizing Administrator to make a finding that State control or prohibition is necessary to achieve the standard.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–549, §228(d), amended subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (d) read as follows: "Any person who violates subsection (a) or (f) or the regulations prescribed under subsection (c) or who fails to furnish any information required by the Administrator under subsection (b) shall forfeit and pay to the United States a civil penalty of $10,000 for each and every day of the continuance of such violation, which shall accrue to the United States and be recovered in a civil suit in the name of the United States, brought in the district where such person has his principal office or in any district in which he does business. The Administrator may, upon application therefor, remit or mitigate any forfeiture provided for in this subsection and he shall have authority to determine the facts upon all such applications."

Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §214(a), designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §214(b), substituted reference to paragraph (1)(A) for reference to paragraph (1).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–549, §215, amended subsec. (g) generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which defined "gasoline", "refinery", and "small refinery" and which limited Administrator's authority to require small refineries to reduce average lead content per gallon of gasoline.

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–549, §216, added subsec. (h).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 101–549, §217, added subsec. (i).

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 101–549, §218(a), added subsec. (j).

Subsecs. (k) to (m). Pub. L. 101–549, §219, added subsecs. (k) to (m).

Subsec. (n). Pub. L. 101–549, §220, added subsec. (n).

Subsec. (o). Pub. L. 101–549, §221, added subsec. (o).

1977—Subsec. (c)(1)(A). Pub. L. 95–95, §401(e), substituted "if in the judgment of the Administrator any emission product of such fuel or fuel additive causes, or contributes, to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger" for "if any emission products of such fuel or fuel additive will endanger".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–95, §222(b), inserted "or (f)" after "Any person who violates subsection (a)".

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 95–95, §222(a), added subsecs. (e) and (f).

Subsec. (f)(2). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(73), inserted provision relating to waiver under par. (4) of this subsec., and struck out "first" before "introduce".

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(74), inserted provision relating to applicability of limitation specified under par. (2) of this subsection.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–95, §223, added subsec. (g).

1971—Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 92–157, §302(d), substituted "purpose of obtaining" for "purpose of".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 92–157, §302(e), substituted "subsection (b)" for "subsection (c)" where appearing the second time.

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §9(a), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" as the registering authority, inserted references to fuel additives, and substituted the selling, offering for sale, and introduction into commerce of fuel or fuel additives, for the delivery for introduction into interstate commerce or delivery to another person who can reasonably be expected to deliver fuel into interstate commerce.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, §9(a), designated existing provisions as pars. (1) and (3), added par. (2), and substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, §9(a), substituted provisions covering the control or prohibition of offending fuels and fuel additives, for provisions covering trade secrets and substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 91–604, §9(a), inserted references to failure to obey regulations prescribed under subsec. (c) and failure to furnish information required by the Administrator under subsec. (c), increased the daily civil penalty from $1,000 to $10,000 and substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 91–604, §9(a), struck out subsec. (e) which directed the various United States Attorneys to prosecute for the recovery of forfeitures.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §210(c), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1532, provided that: "The amendments made by this title to section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7545(o)] shall take effect January 1, 2009, except that the Administrator [of the Environmental Protection Agency] shall promulgate regulations to carry out such amendments not later than 1 year after the enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2007]."

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2005 Amendment

Pub. L. 109–58, title XV, §1504(a)(2), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1077, provided that: "The amendments made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] apply—

"(A) in the case of a State that has received a waiver under section 209(b) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7543(b)), beginning on the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 2005]; and

"(B) in the case of any other State, beginning 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 2005]."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Savings

Pub. L. 109–58, title XV, §1504(d), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1079, provided that:

"(1) In general.—Nothing in this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section] or any amendment made by this section affects or prejudices any legal claim or action with respect to regulations promulgated by the Administrator [of the Environmental Protection Agency] before the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 2005] regarding—

"(A) emissions of toxic air pollutants from motor vehicles; or

"(B) the adjustment of standards applicable to a specific refinery or importer made under those regulations.

"(2) Adjustment of standards.—

"(A) Applicability.—The Administrator may apply any adjustments to the standards applicable to a refinery or importer under subparagraph (B)(iii)(I) of section 211(k)(1) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7545(k)(1)(B)(iii)(I)] (as added by subsection (b)(2)), except that—

"(i) the Administrator shall revise the adjustments to be based only on calendar years 1999 and 2000;

"(ii) any such adjustment shall not be made at a level below the average percentage of reductions of emissions of toxic air pollutants for reformulated gasoline supplied to PADD I during calendar years 1999 and 2000; and

"(iii) in the case of an adjustment based on toxic air pollutant emissions from reformulated gasoline significantly below the national annual average emissions of toxic air pollutants from all reformulated gasoline—

"(I) the Administrator may revise the adjustment to take account of the scope of the prohibition on methyl tertiary butyl ether imposed by a State; and

"(II) any such adjustment shall require the refiner or importer, to the maximum extent practicable, to maintain the reduction achieved during calendar years 1999 and 2000 in the average annual aggregate emissions of toxic air pollutants from reformulated gasoline produced or distributed by the refiner or importer."

Environmental and Resource Conservation Impacts

Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §204, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1529, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 3 years after the enactment of this section [Dec. 19, 2007] and every 3 years thereafter, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, in consultation with the Secretary of Agriculture and the Secretary of Energy, shall assess and report to Congress on the impacts to date and likely future impacts of the requirements of section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7545(o)] on the following:

"(1) Environmental issues, including air quality, effects on hypoxia, pesticides, sediment, nutrient and pathogen levels in waters, acreage and function of waters, and soil environmental quality.

"(2) Resource conservation issues, including soil conservation, water availability, and ecosystem health and biodiversity, including impacts on forests, grasslands, and wetlands.

"(3) The growth and use of cultivated invasive or noxious plants and their impacts on the environment and agriculture.

In advance of preparing the report required by this subsection, the Administrator may seek the views of the National Academy of Sciences or another appropriate independent research institute. The report shall include the annual volume of imported renewable fuels and feedstocks for renewable fuels, and the environmental impacts outside the United States of producing such fuels and feedstocks. The report required by this subsection shall include recommendations for actions to address any adverse impacts found.

"(b) Effect on Air Quality and Other Environmental Requirements.—Except as provided in section 211(o)(12) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7545(o)(12)], nothing in the amendments made by this title to section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act shall be construed as superseding, or limiting, any more environmentally protective requirement under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], or under any other provision of State or Federal law or regulation, including any environmental law or regulation."

Transition Rules

Pub. L. 110–140, title II, §210(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1532, provided that:

"(1) For calendar year 2008, transportation fuel sold or introduced into commerce in the United States (except in noncontiguous States or territories), that is produced from facilities that commence construction after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 19, 2007] shall be treated as renewable fuel within the meaning of section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7545(o)] only if it achieves at least a 20 percent reduction in lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions compared to baseline lifecycle greenhouse gas emissions. For calendar years 2008 and 2009, any ethanol plant that is fired with natural gas, biomass, or any combination thereof is deemed to be in compliance with such 20 percent reduction requirement and with the 20 percent reduction requirement of section 211(o)(1) of the Clean Air Act. The terms used in this subsection shall have the same meaning as provided in the amendment made by this Act to section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act.

"(2) Until January 1, 2009, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall implement section 211(o) of the Clean Air Act and the rules promulgated under that section in accordance with the provisions of that section as in effect before the enactment of this Act and in accordance with the rules promulgated before the enactment of this Act, except that for calendar year 2008, the number '9.0' shall be substituted for the number '5.4' in the table in section 211(o)(2)(B) and in the corresponding rules promulgated to carry out those provisions. The Administrator is authorized to take such other actions as may be necessary to carry out this paragraph notwithstanding any other provision of law."

Survey of Renewable Fuel Market

Pub. L. 109–58, title XV, §1501(d), Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1075, provided that:

"(1) Survey and report.—Not later than December 1, 2006, and annually thereafter, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (in consultation with the Secretary [of Energy] acting through the Administrator of the Energy Information Administration) shall—

"(A) conduct, with respect to each conventional gasoline use area and each reformulated gasoline use area in each State, a survey to determine the market shares of—

"(i) conventional gasoline containing ethanol;

"(ii) reformulated gasoline containing ethanol;

"(iii) conventional gasoline containing renewable fuel; and

"(iv) reformulated gasoline containing renewable fuel; and

"(B) submit to Congress, and make publicly available, a report on the results of the survey under subparagraph (A).

"(2) Recordkeeping and reporting requirements.—The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the 'Administrator') may require any refiner, blender, or importer to keep such records and make such reports as are necessary to ensure that the survey conducted under paragraph (1) is accurate. The Administrator, to avoid duplicative requirements, shall rely, to the extent practicable, on existing reporting and recordkeeping requirements and other information available to the Administrator including gasoline distribution patterns that include multistate use areas.

"(3) Applicable law.—Activities carried out under this subsection shall be conducted in a manner designed to protect confidentiality of individual responses."

Findings

Pub. L. 109–58, title XV, §1502, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1076, provided that: "Congress finds that—

"(1) since 1979, methyl tertiary butyl ether (hereinafter in this section referred to as 'MTBE') has been used nationwide at low levels in gasoline to replace lead as an octane booster or anti-knocking agent;

"(2) Public Law 101–549 (commonly known as the 'Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990') (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) [see Tables for classification] established a fuel oxygenate standard under which reformulated gasoline must contain at least 2 percent oxygen by weight; and

"(3) the fuel industry responded to the fuel oxygenate standard established by Public Law 101–549 by making substantial investments in—

"(A) MTBE production capacity; and

"(B) systems to deliver MTBE-containing gasoline to the marketplace."

Claims Filed After August 8, 2005

Pub. L. 109–58, title XV, §1503, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1076, provided that: "Claims and legal actions filed after the date of enactment of this Act [Aug. 8, 2005] related to allegations involving actual or threatened contamination of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) may be removed to the appropriate United States district court."

Findings and Sense of Congress on Ethanol Usage

Pub. L. 100–203, title I, §1508, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–29, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—Congress finds that—

"(1) the United States is dependent for a large and growing share of its energy needs on the Middle East at a time when world petroleum reserves are declining;

"(2) the burning of gasoline causes pollution;

"(3) ethanol can be blended with gasoline to produce a cleaner source of fuel;

"(4) ethanol can be produced from grain, a renewable resource that is in considerable surplus in the United States;

"(5) the conversion of grain into ethanol would reduce farm program costs and grain surpluses; and

"(6) increasing the quantity of motor fuels that contain at least 10 percent ethanol from current levels to 50 percent by 1992 would create thousands of new jobs in ethanol production facilities.

"(b) Sense of Congress.—It is the sense of Congress that the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency should use authority provided under the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) to require greater use of ethanol as motor fuel."

Agricultural Machinery: Study of Unleaded Fuel

Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, §1765, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1653, directed Administrator of EPA and Secretary of Agriculture jointly to conduct a study of use of fuel containing lead additives, and alternative lubricating additives, in gasoline engines that are used in agricultural machinery, and designed to combust fuel containing such additives, study to analyze potential for mechanical problems (including but not limited to valve recession) that may be associated with use of other fuels in such engines, and not later than Jan. 1, 1987, Administrator and Secretary to publish results of the study, with Administrator to publish in Federal Register notice of publication of such study and a summary thereof; directed Administrator, after notice and opportunity for hearing, but not later than 6 months after publication of the study, to make findings and recommendations on need for lead additives in gasoline to be used on a farm for farming purposes, including a determination of whether a modification of regulations limiting lead content of gasoline would be appropriate in the case of gasoline used on a farm for farming purposes, and submit to President and Congress a report containing the study, a summary of comments received during public hearing (including comments of Secretary), and findings and recommendations of Administrator made in accordance with clause (1), such report to be transmitted named congressional committees; directed Administrator between Jan. 1, 1986, and Dec. 31, 1987, to monitor actual lead content of leaded gasoline sold in the United States, with Administrator to determine average lead content of such gasoline for each 3-month period between Jan. 1, 1986, and Dec. 31, 1987, and if actual lead content falls below an average of 0.2 of a gram of lead per gallon in any such 3-month period, to report to Congress, and publish a notice thereof in Federal Register; provided that until Jan. 1, 1988, no regulation of Administrator issued under this section 211 could require an average lead content per gallon that is less than 0.1 of a gram per gallon; and authorized an appropriation.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "the".

2 So in original. Par. (1) does not contain a cl. (A).

3 So in original. Two cls. (v) have been enacted.

4 So in original. Probably should be section "7625–1".

5 So in original. See References in Text note below.

6 So in original. Probably should be "properly".

7 So in original. Probably should be "as of".

8 So in original. Probably should be section "7550(2)".

9 So in original. The word "and" probably should appear.

10 So in original. Probably should be "non-Federal".

11 So in original. Subsection (a) does not contain a par. (2).

12 So in original. No subsec. (p) has been enacted.

13 See References in Text note below.

§7546. Renewable fuel

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Municipal solid waste

The term "municipal solid waste" has the meaning given the term "solid waste" in section 6903 of this title.

(2) RFG State

The term "RFG State" means a State in which is located one or more covered areas (as defined in section 7545(k)(10)(D) of this title).

(3) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Energy.

(b) Cellulosic biomass ethanol and municipal solid waste loan guarantee program

(1) In general

Funds may be provided for the cost (as defined in the Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990 (2 U.S.C. 661 et seq.)) of loan guarantees issued under title XIV of the Energy Policy Act 1 to carry out commercial demonstration projects for celluosic 2 biomass and sucrose-derived ethanol.

(2) Demonstration projects

(A) In general

The Secretary shall issue loan guarantees under this section to carry out not more than 4 projects to commercially demonstrate the feasibility and viability of producing cellulosic biomass ethanol or sucrose-derived ethanol, including at least 1 project that uses cereal straw as a feedstock and 1 project that uses municipal solid waste as a feedstock.

(B) Design capacity

Each project shall have a design capacity to produce at least 30,000,000 gallons of cellulosic biomass ethanol each year.

(3) Applicant assurances

An applicant for a loan guarantee under this section shall provide assurances, satisfactory to the Secretary, that—

(A) the project design has been validated through the operation of a continuous process facility with a cumulative output of at least 50,000 gallons of ethanol;

(B) the project has been subject to a full technical review;

(C) the project is covered by adequate project performance guarantees;

(D) the project, with the loan guarantee, is economically viable; and

(E) there is a reasonable assurance of repayment of the guaranteed loan.

(4) Limitations

(A) Maximum guarantee

Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a loan guarantee under this section may be issued for up to 80 percent of the estimated cost of a project, but may not exceed $250,000,000 for a project.

(B) Additional guarantees

(i) In general

The Secretary may issue additional loan guarantees for a project to cover up to 80 percent of the excess of actual project cost over estimated project cost but not to exceed 15 percent of the amount of the original guarantee.

(ii) Principal and interest

Subject to subparagraph (A), the Secretary shall guarantee 100 percent of the principal and interest of a loan made under subparagraph (A).

(5) Equity contributions

To be eligible for a loan guarantee under this section, an applicant for the loan guarantee shall have binding commitments from equity investors to provide an initial equity contribution of at least 20 percent of the total project cost.

(6) Insufficient amounts

If the amount made available to carry out this section is insufficient to allow the Secretary to make loan guarantees for 3 projects described in subsection (b), the Secretary shall issue loan guarantees for one or more qualifying projects under this section in the order in which the applications for the projects are received by the Secretary.

(7) Approval

An application for a loan guarantee under this section shall be approved or disapproved by the Secretary not later than 90 days after the application is received by the Secretary.

(c) Authorization of appropriations for resource center

There is authorized to be appropriated, for a resource center to further develop bioconversion technology using low-cost biomass for the production of ethanol at the Center for Biomass-Based Energy at the Mississippi State University and the Oklahoma State University, $4,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2005 through 2007.

(d) Renewable fuel production research and development grants

(1) In general

The Administrator shall provide grants for the research into, and development and implementation of, renewable fuel production technologies in RFG States with low rates of ethanol production, including low rates of production of cellulosic biomass ethanol.

(2) Eligibility

(A) In general

The entities eligible to receive a grant under this subsection are academic institutions in RFG States, and consortia made up of combinations of academic institutions, industry, State government agencies, or local government agencies in RFG States, that have proven experience and capabilities with relevant technologies.

(B) Application

To be eligible to receive a grant under this subsection, an eligible entity shall submit to the Administrator an application in such manner and form, and accompanied by such information, as the Administrator may specify.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection $25,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2006 through 2010.

(e) Cellulosic biomass ethanol conversion assistance

(1) In general

The Secretary may provide grants to merchant producers of cellulosic biomass ethanol in the United States to assist the producers in building eligible production facilities described in paragraph (2) for the production of cellulosic biomass ethanol.

(2) Eligible production facilities

A production facility shall be eligible to receive a grant under this subsection if the production facility—

(A) is located in the United States; and

(B) uses cellulosic biomass feedstocks derived from agricultural residues or municipal solid waste.

(3) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this subsection—

(A) $250,000,000 for fiscal year 2006; and

(B) $400,000,000 for fiscal year 2007.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §212, as added Pub. L. 109–58, title XV, §1511, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 1086.)

References in Text

The Federal Credit Reform Act of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), is title V of Pub. L. 93–344, as added by Pub. L. 101–508, title XIII, §13201(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–609, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§661 et seq.) of chapter 17A of Title 2, The Congress. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 621 of Title 2 and Tables.

The Energy Policy Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), probably means the Energy Policy Act of 2005, Pub. L. 109–58, Aug. 8, 2005, 119 Stat. 594. Title XIV of the Act probably should be a reference to title XV of the Act which relates to ethanol and motor fuels and enacted subchapter XIV (§16501 et seq.) of chapter 149 of this title and sections 6991i to 6991m and 7546 of this title, amended sections 6991 to 6991f, 6991h, 1991i, 7135, 7545, and 13220 of this title, and enacted provisions set out as notes under section 7545 of this title. Title XIV of the Act, which contains miscellaneous provisions, is classified principally to subchapter XIII (§16491 et seq.) of chapter 149 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 15801 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 7546, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §212, as added Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §10(c), 84 Stat. 1700; amended Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–605, §202(a), 84 Stat. 1739; Apr. 9, 1973, Pub. L. 93–15, §1(b), 87 Stat. 11; June 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–319, §13(b), 88 Stat. 265, related to low-emission vehicles, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §230(10), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2529.

A prior section 212 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 213 by Pub. L. 91–604, renumbered section 214 by Pub. L. 93–319, and renumbered section 216 by Pub. L. 95–95, and is classified to section 7550 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original.

§7547. Nonroad engines and vehicles

(a) Emissions standards

(1) The Administrator shall conduct a study of emissions from nonroad engines and nonroad vehicles (other than locomotives or engines used in locomotives) to determine if such emissions cause, or significantly contribute to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare. Such study shall be completed within 12 months of November 15, 1990.

(2) After notice and opportunity for public hearing, the Administrator shall determine within 12 months after completion of the study under paragraph (1), based upon the results of such study, whether emissions of carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen, and volatile organic compounds from new and existing nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles (other than locomotives or engines used in locomotives) are significant contributors to ozone or carbon monoxide concentrations in more than 1 area which has failed to attain the national ambient air quality standards for ozone or carbon monoxide. Such determination shall be included in the regulations under paragraph (3).

(3) If the Administrator makes an affirmative determination under paragraph (2) the Administrator shall, within 12 months after completion of the study under paragraph (1), promulgate (and from time to time revise) regulations containing standards applicable to emissions from those classes or categories of new nonroad engines and new nonroad vehicles (other than locomotives or engines used in locomotives) which in the Administrator's judgment cause, or contribute to, such air pollution. Such standards shall achieve the greatest degree of emission reduction achievable through the application of technology which the Administrator determines will be available for the engines or vehicles to which such standards apply, giving appropriate consideration to the cost of applying such technology within the period of time available to manufacturers and to noise, energy, and safety factors associated with the application of such technology. In determining what degree of reduction will be available, the Administrator shall first consider standards equivalent in stringency to standards for comparable motor vehicles or engines (if any) regulated under section 7521 of this title, taking into account the technological feasibility, costs, safety, noise, and energy factors associated with achieving, as appropriate, standards of such stringency and lead time. The regulations shall apply to the useful life of the engines or vehicles (as determined by the Administrator).

(4) If the Administrator determines that any emissions not referred to in paragraph (2) from new nonroad engines or vehicles significantly contribute to air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare, the Administrator may promulgate (and from time to time revise) such regulations as the Administrator deems appropriate containing standards applicable to emissions from those classes or categories of new nonroad engines and new nonroad vehicles (other than locomotives or engines used in locomotives) which in the Administrator's judgment cause, or contribute to, such air pollution, taking into account costs, noise, safety, and energy factors associated with the application of technology which the Administrator determines will be available for the engines and vehicles to which such standards apply. The regulations shall apply to the useful life of the engines or vehicles (as determined by the Administrator).

(5) Within 5 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations containing standards applicable to emissions from new locomotives and new engines used in locomotives. Such standards shall achieve the greatest degree of emission reduction achievable through the application of technology which the Administrator determines will be available for the locomotives or engines to which such standards apply, giving appropriate consideration to the cost of applying such technology within the period of time available to manufacturers and to noise, energy, and safety factors associated with the application of such technology.

(b) Effective date

Standards under this section shall take effect at the earliest possible date considering the lead time necessary to permit the development and application of the requisite technology, giving appropriate consideration to the cost of compliance within such period and energy and safety.

(c) Safe controls

Effective with respect to new engines or vehicles to which standards under this section apply, no emission control device, system, or element of design shall be used in such a new nonroad engine or new nonroad vehicle for purposes of complying with such standards if such device, system, or element of design will cause or contribute to an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety in its operation or function. In determining whether an unreasonable risk exists, the Administrator shall consider factors including those described in section 7521(a)(4)(B) of this title.

(d) Enforcement

The standards under this section shall be subject to sections 7525, 7541, 7542, and 7543 of this title, with such modifications of the applicable regulations implementing such sections as the Administrator deems appropriate, and shall be enforced in the same manner as standards prescribed under section 7521 of this title. The Administrator shall revise or promulgate regulations as may be necessary to determine compliance with, and enforce, standards in effect under this section.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §213, as added Pub. L. 93–319, §10, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 261; amended Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §222(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2500.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–6f of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 213 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 214 by Pub. L. 93–319 and renumbered section 216 by Pub. L. 95–95, and is classified to section 7550 of this title.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–549 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring Administrator and Secretary of Transportation to conduct study on fuel economy improvement for new motor vehicles manufactured during and after model year 1980.

Regulations Relating to Standards To Reduce Emissions

Pub. L. 108–199, div. G, title IV, §428(b), Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 418, provided that: "Not later than December 1, 2004, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall propose regulations under the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.] that shall contain standards to reduce emissions from new nonroad spark-ignition engines smaller than 50 horsepower. Not later than December 31, 2005, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register final regulations containing such standards."

§7548. Study of particulate emissions from motor vehicles

(a) Study and analysis

(1) The Administrator shall conduct a study concerning the effects on health and welfare of particulate emissions from motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines to which section 7521 of this title applies. Such study shall characterize and quantify such emissions and analyze the relationship of such emissions to various fuels and fuel additives.

(2) The study shall also include an analysis of particulate emissions from mobile sources which are not related to engine emissions (including, but not limited to tire debris, and asbestos from brake lining).

(b) Report to Congress

The Administrator shall report to the Congress the findings and results of the study conducted under subsection (a) not later than two years after August 7, 1977. Such report shall also include recommendations for standards or methods to regulate particulate emissions described in paragraph (2) of subsection (a).

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §214, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §224(d), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 767.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 214 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 216 by Pub. L. 95–95 and is classified to section 7550 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Study on Suspended Particulate Matter

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 792, directed Administrator of EPA, not later than 18 months after Aug. 7, 1977, in cooperation with National Academy of Sciences, to study and report to Congress on relationship between size, weight, and chemical composition of suspended particulate matter and nature and degree of endangerment to public health or welfare presented by such particulate matter and availability of technology for controlling such particulate matter.

§7549. High altitude performance adjustments

(a) Instruction of the manufacturer

(1) Any action taken with respect to any element of design installed on or in a motor vehicle or motor vehicle engine in compliance with regulations under this subchapter (including any alteration or adjustment of such element), shall be treated as not in violation of section 7522(a) of this title if such action is performed in accordance with high altitude adjustment instructions provided by the manufacturer under subsection (b) and approved by the Administrator.

(2) If the Administrator finds that adjustments or modifications made pursuant to instructions of the manufacturer under paragraph (1) will not insure emission control performance with respect to each standard under section 7521 of this title at least equivalent to that which would result if no such adjustments or modifications were made, he shall disapprove such instructions. Such finding shall be based upon minimum engineering evaluations consistent with good engineering practice.

(b) Regulations

(1) Instructions respecting each class or category of vehicles or engines to which this subchapter applies providing for such vehicle and engine adjustments and modifications as may be necessary to insure emission control performance at different altitudes shall be submitted by the manufacturer to the Administrator pursuant to regulations promulgated by the Administrator.

(2) Any knowing violation by a manufacturer of requirements of the Administrator under paragraph (1) shall be treated as a violation by such manufacturer of section 7522(a)(3) of this title for purposes of the penalties contained in section 7524 of this title.

(3) Such instructions shall provide, in addition to other adjustments, for adjustments for vehicles moving from high altitude areas to low altitude areas after the initial registration of such vehicles.

(c) Manufacturer parts

No instructions under this section respecting adjustments or modifications may require the use of any manufacturer parts (as defined in section 7522(a) of this title) unless the manufacturer demonstrates to the satisfaction of the Administrator that the use of such manufacturer parts is necessary to insure emission control performance.

(d) State inspection and maintenance programs

Before January 1, 1981 the authority provided by this section shall be available in any high altitude State (as determined under regulations of the Administrator under regulations promulgated before August 7, 1977) but after December 31, 1980, such authority shall be available only in any such State in which an inspection and maintenance program for the testing of motor vehicle emissions has been instituted for the portions of the State where any national ambient air quality standard for auto-related pollutants has not been attained.

(e) High altitude testing

(1) The Administrator shall promptly establish at least one testing center (in addition to the testing centers existing on November 15, 1990) located at a site that represents high altitude conditions, to ascertain in a reasonable manner whether, when in actual use throughout their useful life (as determined under section 7521(d) of this title), each class or category of vehicle and engines to which regulations under section 7521 of this title apply conforms to the emissions standards established by such regulations. For purposes of this subsection, the term "high altitude conditions" refers to high altitude as defined in regulations of the Administrator in effect as of November 15, 1990.

(2) The Administrator, in cooperation with the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Federal Transit Administration, and such other agencies as the Administrator deems appropriate, shall establish a research and technology assessment center to provide for the development and evaluation of less-polluting heavy-duty engines and fuels for use in buses, heavy-duty trucks, and non-road engines and vehicles, which shall be located at a high-altitude site that represents high-altitude conditions. In establishing and funding such a center, the Administrator shall give preference to proposals which provide for local cost-sharing of facilities and recovery of costs of operation through utilization of such facility for the purposes of this section.

(3) The Administrator shall designate at least one center at high-altitude conditions to provide research on after-market emission components, dual-fueled vehicles and conversion kits, the effects of tampering on emissions equipment, testing of alternate fuels and conversion kits, and the development of curricula, training courses, and materials to maximize the effectiveness of inspection and maintenance programs as they relate to promoting effective control of vehicle emissions at high-altitude elevations. Preference shall be given to existing vehicle emissions testing and research centers that have established reputations for vehicle emissions research and development and training, and that possess in-house Federal Test Procedure capacity.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §215, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §211(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 757; amended Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(75), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §224, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2503; Pub. L. 102–240, title III, §3004(b), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2088.)

Codification

In subsec. (d), "August 7, 1977" substituted for "the date of enactment of this Act" to reflect the probable intent of Congress that such date of enactment meant the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 101–549 added subsec. (e).

1977—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–190 substituted "December 31, 1980" for "December 31, 1981".

Change of Name

"Federal Transit Administration" substituted for "Urban Mass Transportation Administration" in subsec. (e)(2) pursuant to section 3004(b) of Pub. L. 102–240, set out as a note under section 107 of Title 49, Transportation.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7550. Definitions

As used in this part—

(1) The term "manufacturer" as used in sections 7521, 7522, 7525, 7541, and 7542 of this title means any person engaged in the manufacturing or assembling of new motor vehicles, new motor vehicle engines, new nonroad vehicles or new nonroad engines, or importing such vehicles or engines for resale, or who acts for and is under the control of any such person in connection with the distribution of new motor vehicles, new motor vehicle engines, new nonroad vehicles or new nonroad engines, but shall not include any dealer with respect to new motor vehicles, new motor vehicle engines, new nonroad vehicles or new nonroad engines received by him in commerce.

(2) The term "motor vehicle" means any self-propelled vehicle designed for transporting persons or property on a street or highway.

(3) Except with respect to vehicles or engines imported or offered for importation, the term "new motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle the equitable or legal title to which has never been transferred to an ultimate purchaser; and the term "new motor vehicle engine" means an engine in a new motor vehicle or a motor vehicle engine the equitable or legal title to which has never been transferred to the ultimate purchaser; and with respect to imported vehicles or engines, such terms mean a motor vehicle and engine, respectively, manufactured after the effective date of a regulation issued under section 7521 of this title which is applicable to such vehicle or engine (or which would be applicable to such vehicle or engine had it been manufactured for importation into the United States).

(4) The term "dealer" means any person who is engaged in the sale or the distribution of new motor vehicles or new motor vehicle engines to the ultimate purchaser.

(5) The term "ultimate purchaser" means, with respect to any new motor vehicle or new motor vehicle engine, the first person who in good faith purchases such new motor vehicle or new engine for purposes other than resale.

(6) The term "commerce" means (A) commerce between any place in any State and any place outside thereof; and (B) commerce wholly within the District of Columbia.

(7) Vehicle curb weight, gross vehicle weight rating, light-duty truck, light-duty vehicle, and loaded vehicle weight.—The terms "vehicle curb weight", "gross vehicle weight rating" (GVWR), "light-duty truck" (LDT), light-duty vehicle,1 and "loaded vehicle weight" (LVW) have the meaning provided in regulations promulgated by the Administrator and in effect as of November 15, 1990. The abbreviations in parentheses corresponding to any term referred to in this paragraph shall have the same meaning as the corresponding term.

(8) Test weight.—The term "test weight" and the abbreviation "tw" mean the vehicle curb weight added to the gross vehicle weight rating (gvwr) and divided by 2.

(9) Motor vehicle or engine part manufacturer.—The term "motor vehicle or engine part manufacturer" as used in sections 7541 and 7542 of this title means any person engaged in the manufacturing, assembling or rebuilding of any device, system, part, component or element of design which is installed in or on motor vehicles or motor vehicle engines.

(10) Nonroad engine.—The term "nonroad engine" means an internal combustion engine (including the fuel system) that is not used in a motor vehicle or a vehicle used solely for competition, or that is not subject to standards promulgated under section 7411 of this title or section 7521 of this title.

(11) Nonroad vehicle.—The term "nonroad vehicle" means a vehicle that is powered by a nonroad engine and that is not a motor vehicle or a vehicle used solely for competition.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §216, formerly §208, as added Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(8), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 994; renumbered §212, and amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 503; renumbered §213, and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§8(a), 10(d), 11(a)(2)(A), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1694, 1703, 1705; renumbered §214, Pub. L. 93–319, §10, June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 261; renumbered §216, Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §224(d), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §223, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2503.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–7 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Par. (1). Pub. L. 101–549, §223(b), inserted references to new nonroad vehicles or new nonroad engines.

Pars. (7) to (11). Pub. L. 101–549, §223(a), added pars. (7) to (11).

1970Pub. L. 91–604, §11(a)(2)(A), substituted "part" for "subchapter".

Par. (1). Pub. L. 91–604, §10(d)(1), inserted reference to section 7521 of this title.

Par. (3). Pub. L. 91–604, §10(d)(2), inserted provisions which defined such terms with respect to imported vehicles or engines.

1967Pub. L. 90–148 inserted "as used in sections 7522, 7525, 7541, and 7542 of this title" after "manufacturer" in par. (1).

1 So in original. Probably should be set off by quotation marks.

§7551. Omitted

Section, Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §203, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 754; Pub. L. 97–375, title I, §106(a), Dec. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1820, which required the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency to report to Congress respecting the motor vehicle fuel consumption associated with the standards applicable for the immediately preceding model year, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, the 5th item on page 165 of House Document No. 103–7. Section was enacted as part of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977, and not as part of the Clean Air Act which comprises this chapter.

§7552. Motor vehicle compliance program fees

(a) Fee collection

Consistent with section 9701 of title 31, the Administrator may promulgate (and from time to time revise) regulations establishing fees to recover all reasonable costs to the Administrator associated with—

(1) new vehicle or engine certification under section 7525(a) of this title or part C,

(2) new vehicle or engine compliance monitoring and testing under section 7525(b) of this title or part C, and

(3) in-use vehicle or engine compliance monitoring and testing under section 7541(c) of this title or part C.


The Administrator may establish for all foreign and domestic manufacturers a fee schedule based on such factors as the Administrator finds appropriate and equitable and nondiscriminatory, including the number of vehicles or engines produced under a certificate of conformity. In the case of heavy-duty engine and vehicle manufacturers, such fees shall not exceed a reasonable amount to recover an appropriate portion of such reasonable costs.

(b) Special Treasury fund

Any fees collected under this section shall be deposited in a special fund in the United States Treasury for licensing and other services which thereafter shall be available for appropriation, to remain available until expended, to carry out the Agency's activities for which the fees were collected.

(c) Limitation on fund use

Moneys in the special fund referred to in subsection (b) shall not be used until after the first fiscal year commencing after the first July 1 when fees are paid into the fund.

(d) Administrator's testing authority

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to limit the Administrator's authority to require manufacturer or confirmatory testing as provided in this part.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §217, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §225, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2504.)

§7553. Prohibition on production of engines requiring leaded gasoline

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations applicable to motor vehicle engines and nonroad engines manufactured after model year 1992 that prohibit the manufacture, sale, or introduction into commerce of any engine that requires leaded gasoline.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §218, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §226, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2505.)

§7554. Urban bus standards

(a) Standards for model years after 1993

Not later than January 1, 1992, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under section 7521(a) of this title applicable to urban buses for the model year 1994 and thereafter. Such standards shall be based on the best technology that can reasonably be anticipated to be available at the time such measures are to be implemented, taking costs, safety, energy, lead time, and other relevant factors into account. Such regulations shall require that such urban buses comply with the provisions of subsection (b) of this section (and subsection (c) of this subsection,1 if applicable) in addition to compliance with the standards applicable under section 7521(a) of this title for heavy-duty vehicles of the same type and model year.

(b) PM standard

(1) 50 percent reduction

The standards under section 7521(a) of this title applicable to urban buses shall require that, effective for the model year 1994 and thereafter, emissions of particulate matter (PM) from urban buses shall not exceed 50 percent of the emissions of particulate matter (PM) allowed under the emission standard applicable under section 7521(a) of this title as of November 15, 1990, for particulate matter (PM) in the case of heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1994.

(2) Revised reduction

The Administrator shall increase the level of emissions of particulate matter allowed under the standard referred to in paragraph (1) if the Administrator determines that the 50 percent reduction referred to in paragraph (1) is not technologically achievable, taking into account durability, costs, lead time, safety, and other relevant factors. The Administrator may not increase such level of emissions above 70 percent of the emissions of particulate matter (PM) allowed under the emission standard applicable under section 7521(a) of this title as of November 15, 1990, for particulate matter (PM) in the case of heavy-duty diesel vehicles and engines manufactured in the model year 1994.

(3) Determination as part of rule

As part of the rulemaking under subsection (a), the Administrator shall make a determination as to whether the 50 percent reduction referred to in paragraph (1) is technologically achievable, taking into account durability, costs, lead time, safety, and other relevant factors.

(c) Low-polluting fuel requirement

(1) Annual testing

Beginning with model year 1994 buses, the Administrator shall conduct annual tests of a representative sample of operating urban buses subject to the particulate matter (PM) standard applicable pursuant to subsection (b) to determine whether such buses comply with such standard in use over their full useful life.

(2) Promulgation of additional low-polluting fuel requirement

(A) If the Administrator determines, based on the testing under paragraph (1), that urban buses subject to the particulate matter (PM) standard applicable pursuant to subsection (b) do not comply with such standard in use over their full useful life, he shall revise the standards applicable to such buses to require (in addition to compliance with the PM standard applicable pursuant to subsection (b)) that all new urban buses purchased or placed into service by owners or operators of urban buses in all metropolitan statistical areas or consolidated metropolitan statistical areas with a 1980 population of 750,000 or more shall be capable of operating, and shall be exclusively operated, on low-polluting fuels. The Administrator shall establish the pass-fail rate for purposes of testing under this subparagraph.

(B) The Administrator shall promulgate a schedule phasing in any low-polluting fuel requirement established pursuant to this paragraph to an increasing percentage of new urban buses purchased or placed into service in each of the first 5 model years commencing 3 years after the determination under subparagraph (A). Under such schedule 100 percent of new urban buses placed into service in the fifth model year commencing 3 years after the determination under subparagraph (A) shall comply with the low-polluting fuel requirement established pursuant to this paragraph.

(C) The Administrator may extend the requirements of this paragraph to metropolitan statistical areas or consolidated metropolitan statistical areas with a 1980 population of less than 750,000, if the Administrator determines that a significant benefit to public health could be expected to result from such extension.

(d) Retrofit requirements

Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under section 7521(a) of this title requiring that urban buses which—

(1) are operating in areas referred to in subparagraph (A) of subsection (c)(2) (or subparagraph (C) of subsection (c)(2) if the Administrator has taken action under that subparagraph);

(2) were not subject to standards in effect under the regulations under subsection (a) of this section; and

(3) have their engines replaced or rebuilt after January 1, 1995,


shall comply with an emissions standard or emissions control technology requirement established by the Administrator in such regulations. Such emissions standard or emissions control technology requirement shall reflect the best retrofit technology and maintenance practices reasonably achievable.

(e) Procedures for administration and enforcement

The Administrator shall establish, within 18 months after November 15, 1990, and in accordance with section 7525(h) of this title, procedures for the administration and enforcement of standards for buses subject to standards under this section, testing procedures, sampling protocols, in-use compliance requirements, and criteria governing evaluation of buses. Procedures for testing (including, but not limited to, certification testing) shall reflect actual operating conditions.

(f) Definitions

For purposes of this section—

(1) Urban bus

The term "urban bus" has the meaning provided under regulations of the Administrator promulgated under section 7521(a) of this title.

(2) Low-polluting fuel

The term "low-polluting fuel" means methanol, ethanol, propane, or natural gas, or any comparably low-polluting fuel. In determining whether a fuel is comparably low-polluting, the Administrator shall consider both the level of emissions of air pollutants from vehicles using the fuel and the contribution of such emissions to ambient levels of air pollutants. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "methanol" includes any fuel which contains at least 85 percent methanol unless the Administrator increases such percentage as he deems appropriate to protect public health and welfare.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §219, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §227[(a)], Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2505.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "section,".

Part B—Aircraft Emission Standards

§7571. Establishment of standards

(a) Study; proposed standards; hearings; issuance of regulations

(1) Within 90 days after December 31, 1970, the Administrator shall commence a study and investigation of emissions of air pollutants from aircraft in order to determine—

(A) the extent to which such emissions affect air quality in air quality control regions throughout the United States, and

(B) the technological feasibility of controlling such emissions.


(2)(A) The Administrator shall, from time to time, issue proposed emission standards applicable to the emission of any air pollutant from any class or classes of aircraft engines which in his judgment causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare.

(B)(i) The Administrator shall consult with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration on aircraft engine emission standards.

(ii) The Administrator shall not change the aircraft engine emission standards if such change would significantly increase noise and adversely affect safety.

(3) The Administrator shall hold public hearings with respect to such proposed standards. Such hearings shall, to the extent practicable, be held in air quality control regions which are most seriously affected by aircraft emissions. Within 90 days after the issuance of such proposed regulations, he shall issue such regulations with such modifications as he deems appropriate. Such regulations may be revised from time to time.

(b) Effective date of regulations

Any regulation prescribed under this section (and any revision thereof) shall take effect after such period as the Administrator finds necessary (after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation) to permit the development and application of the requisite technology, giving appropriate consideration to the cost of compliance within such period.

(c) Regulations which create hazards to aircraft safety

Any regulations in effect under this section on August 7, 1977, or proposed or promulgated thereafter, or amendments thereto, with respect to aircraft shall not apply if disapproved by the President, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, on the basis of a finding by the Secretary of Transportation that any such regulation would create a hazard to aircraft safety. Any such finding shall include a reasonably specific statement of the basis upon which the finding was made.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §231, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §11(a)(1), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1703; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §225, title IV, §401(f), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 769, 791; Pub. L. 104–264, title IV, §406(b), Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3257.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–9 of this title.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–264 designated existing provisions as subpar. (A) and added subpar. (B).

1977—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 95–95, §401(f), substituted "The Administrator shall, from time to time, issue proposed emission standards applicable to the emission of any air pollutant from any class or classes of aircraft engines which in his judgment causes, or contributes to, air pollution which may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare" for "Within 180 days after commencing such study and investigation, the Administrator shall publish a report of such study and investigation and shall issue proposed emission standards applicable to emissions of any air pollutant from any class or classes of aircraft or aircraft engines which in his judgment cause or contribute to or are likely to cause or contribute to air pollution which endangers the public health or welfare".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–95, §225, substituted "Any regulations in effect under this section on August 7, 1977, or proposed or promulgated thereafter, or amendments thereto, with respect to aircraft shall not apply if disapproved by the President, after notice and opportunity for public hearing, on the basis of a finding by the Secretary of Transportation that any such regulation would create a hazard to aircraft safety" for "Any regulations under this section, or amendments thereto, with respect to aircraft, shall be prescribed only after consultation with the Secretary of Transportation in order to assure appropriate consideration for aircraft safety" and inserted provision that findings include a reasonably specific statement of the basis upon which the finding was made.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of Title 49, Transportation.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Study and Investigation of Uninstalled Aircraft Engines

Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §233, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2529, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Transportation, in consultation with the Secretary of Defense, shall commence a study and investigation of the testing of uninstalled aircraft engines in enclosed test cells that shall address at a minimum the following issues and such other issues as they shall deem appropriate—

"(1) whether technologies exist to control some or all emissions of oxides of nitrogen from test cells;

"(2) the effectiveness of such technologies;

"(3) the cost of implementing such technologies;

"(4) whether such technologies affect the safety, design, structure, operation, or performance of aircraft engines;

"(5) whether such technologies impair the effectiveness and accuracy of aircraft engine safety design, and performance tests conducted in test cells; and

"(6) the impact of not controlling such oxides of nitrogen in the applicable nonattainment areas and on other sources, stationary and mobile, on oxides of nitrogen in such areas.

"(b) Report, Authority To Regulate.—Not later than 24 months after enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Secretary of Transportation shall submit to Congress a report of the study conducted under this section. Following the completion of such study, any of the States may adopt or enforce any standard for emissions of oxides of nitrogen from test cells only after issuing a public notice stating whether such standards are in accordance with the findings of the study."

§7572. Enforcement of standards

(a) Regulations to insure compliance with standards

The Secretary of Transportation, after consultation with the Administrator, shall prescribe regulations to insure compliance with all standards prescribed under section 7571 of this title by the Administrator. The regulations of the Secretary of Transportation shall include provisions making such standards applicable in the issuance, amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of any certificate authorized by part A of subtitle VII of title 49 or the Department of Transportation Act. Such Secretary shall insure that all necessary inspections are accomplished, and,1 may execute any power or duty vested in him by any other provision of law in the execution of all powers and duties vested in him under this section.

(b) Notice and appeal rights

In any action to amend, modify, suspend, or revoke a certificate in which violation of an emission standard prescribed under section 7571 of this title or of a regulation prescribed under subsection (a) is at issue, the certificate holder shall have the same notice and appeal rights as are prescribed for such holders in part A of subtitle VII of title 49 or the Department of Transportation Act, except that in any appeal to the National Transportation Safety Board, the Board may amend, modify, or revoke the order of the Secretary of Transportation only if it finds no violation of such standard or regulation and that such amendment, modification, or revocation is consistent with safety in air transportation.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §232, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §11(a)(1), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1704.)

References in Text

The Department of Transportation Act, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b), is Pub. L. 89–670, Oct. 15, 1966, 80 Stat. 931, as amended, which was classified principally to sections 1651 to 1660 of former Title 49, Transportation. The Act was repealed and the provisions thereof reenacted in Title 49, Transportation, by Pub. L. 97–449, Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2413, and Pub. L. 103–272, July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 745. The Act was also repealed by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(5), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400. For disposition of sections of former Title 49, see Table at the beginning of Title 49.

Codification

In subsecs. (a) and (b), "part A of subtitle VII of title 49" substituted for "the Federal Aviation Act [49 App. U.S.C. 1301 et seq.]" and "the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 [49 App. U.S.C. 1301 et seq.]" on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–10 of this title.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§7573. State standards and controls

No State or political subdivision thereof may adopt or attempt to enforce any standard respecting emissions of any air pollutant from any aircraft or engine thereof unless such standard is identical to a standard applicable to such aircraft under this part.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §233, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §11(a)(1), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1704.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–11 of this title.

§7574. Definitions

Terms used in this part (other than Administrator) shall have the same meaning as such terms have under section 40102(a) of title 49.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §234, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §11(a)(1), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705.)

Codification

In text, "section 40102(a) of title 49" substituted for "section 101 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958" on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857f–12 of this title.

Part C—Clean Fuel Vehicles

§7581. Definitions

For purposes of this part—

(1) Terms defined in part A

The definitions applicable to part A under section 7550 of this title shall also apply for purposes of this part.

(2) Clean alternative fuel

The term "clean alternative fuel" means any fuel (including methanol, ethanol, or other alcohols (including any mixture thereof containing 85 percent or more by volume of such alcohol with gasoline or other fuels), reformulated gasoline, diesel, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, and hydrogen) or power source (including electricity) used in a clean-fuel vehicle that complies with the standards and requirements applicable to such vehicle under this subchapter when using such fuel or power source. In the case of any flexible fuel vehicle or dual fuel vehicle, the term "clean alternative fuel" means only a fuel with respect to which such vehicle was certified as a clean-fuel vehicle meeting the standards applicable to clean-fuel vehicles under section 7583(d)(2) of this title when operating on clean alternative fuel (or any CARB standards which replaces such standards pursuant to section 7583(e) of this title).

(3) NMOG

The term nonmethane organic gas ("NMOG") means the sum of nonoxygenated and oxygenated hydrocarbons contained in a gas sample, including, at a minimum, all oxygenated organic gases containing 5 or fewer carbon atoms (i.e., aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, ethers, etc.), and all known alkanes, alkenes, alkynes, and aromatics containing 12 or fewer carbon atoms. To demonstrate compliance with a NMOG standard, NMOG emissions shall be measured in accordance with the "California Non-Methane Organic Gas Test Procedures". In the case of vehicles using fuels other than base gasoline, the level of NMOG emissions shall be adjusted based on the reactivity of the emissions relative to vehicles using base gasoline.

(4) Base gasoline

The term "base gasoline" means gasoline which meets the following specifications:


 
  
Specifications of Base Gasoline Used as Basis for Reactivity Readjustment:
API gravity 57.8 
Sulfur, ppm 317   
Color Purple
Benzene, vol. % 1.35
Reid vapor pressure 8.7 
Drivability 1195   
Antiknock index 87.3 
Distillation, D–86 °F
IBP 92   
10% 126   
50% 219   
90% 327   
EP 414   
Hydrocarbon Type, Vol. % FIA:
Aromatics 30.9 
Olefins 8.2 
Saturates 60.9 

The Administrator shall modify the definitions of NMOG, base gasoline, and the methods for making reactivity adjustments, to conform to the definitions and method used in California under the Low-Emission Vehicle and Clean Fuel Regulations of the California Air Resources Board, so long as the California definitions are, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as the definitions in this section.

(5) Covered fleet

The term "covered fleet" means 10 or more motor vehicles which are owned or operated by a single person. In determining the number of vehicles owned or operated by a single person for purposes of this paragraph, all motor vehicles owned or operated, leased or otherwise controlled by such person, by any person who controls such person, by any person controlled by such person, and by any person under common control with such person shall be treated as owned by such person. The term "covered fleet" shall not include motor vehicles held for lease or rental to the general public, motor vehicles held for sale by motor vehicle dealers (including demonstration vehicles), motor vehicles used for motor vehicle manufacturer product evaluations or tests, law enforcement and other emergency vehicles, or nonroad vehicles (including farm and construction vehicles).

(6) Covered fleet vehicle

The term "covered fleet vehicle" means only a motor vehicle which is—

(i) in a vehicle class for which standards are applicable under this part; and

(ii) in a covered fleet which is centrally fueled (or capable of being centrally fueled).


No vehicle which under normal operations is garaged at a personal residence at night shall be considered to be a vehicle which is capable of being centrally fueled within the meaning of this paragraph.

(7) Clean-fuel vehicle

The term "clean-fuel vehicle" means a vehicle in a class or category of vehicles which has been certified to meet for any model year the clean-fuel vehicle standards applicable under this part for that model year to clean-fuel vehicles in that class or category.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §241, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2511.)

§7582. Requirements applicable to clean-fuel vehicles

(a) Promulgation of standards

Not later than 24 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations under this part containing clean-fuel vehicle standards for the clean-fuel vehicles specified in this part.

(b) Other requirements

Clean-fuel vehicles of up to 8,500 gvwr subject to standards set forth in this part shall comply with all motor vehicle requirements of this subchapter (such as requirements relating to on-board diagnostics, evaporative emissions, etc.) which are applicable to conventional gasoline-fueled vehicles of the same category and model year, except as provided in section 7584 of this title with respect to administration and enforcement, and except to the extent that any such requirement is in conflict with the provisions of this part. Clean-fuel vehicles of 8,500 gvwr or greater subject to standards set forth in this part shall comply with all requirements of this subchapter which are applicable in the case of conventional gasoline-fueled or diesel fueled vehicles of the same category and model year, except as provided in section 7584 of this title with respect to administration and enforcement, and except to the extent that any such requirement is in conflict with the provisions of this part.

(c) In-use useful life and testing

(1) In the case of light-duty vehicles and light-duty trucks up to 6,000 lbs gvwr, the useful life for purposes of determining in-use compliance with the standards under section 7583 of this title shall be—

(A) a period of 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs, in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 50,000 miles; and

(B) a period of 10 years or 100,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs, in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 100,000 miles, except that in-use testing shall not be done for a period beyond 7 years or 75,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs.


(2) In the case of light-duty trucks of more than 6,000 lbs gvwr, the useful life for purposes of determining in-use compliance with the standards under section 7583 of this title shall be—

(A) a period of 5 years or 50,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 50,000 miles; and

(B) a period of 11 years or 120,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs in the case of standards applicable for purposes of certification at 120,000 miles, except that in-use testing shall not be done for a period beyond 7 years or 90,000 miles (or the equivalent) whichever first occurs.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §242, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2513.)

§7583. Standards for light-duty clean-fuel vehicles

(a) Exhaust standards for light-duty vehicles and certain light-duty trucks

The standards set forth in this subsection shall apply in the case of clean-fuel vehicles which are light-duty trucks of up to 6,000 lbs. gross vehicle weight rating (gvwr) (but not including light-duty trucks of more than 3,750 lbs. loaded vehicle weight (lvw)) or light-duty vehicles:

(1) Phase I

Beginning with model year 1996, for the air pollutants specified in the following table, the clean-fuel vehicle standards under this section shall provide that vehicle exhaust emissions shall not exceed the levels specified in the following table:

Phase I Clean Fuel Vehicle Emission Standards for Light-Duty Trucks of up to 3,750 Lbs. LVW and up to 6,000 Lbs. GVWR and Light-Duty Vehicles
PollutantNMOGCONOxPMHCHO (formaldehyde)
50,000 mile standard 0.125 3.4 0.4 0.015
100,000 mile standard 0.156 4.2 0.6 0.08* 0.018

Standards are expressed in grams per mile (gpm).

*Standards for particulates (PM) shall apply only to diesel-fueled vehicles.

In the case of the 50,000 mile standards and the 100,000 mile standards, for purposes of certification, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles or 100,000 miles, respectively.

(2) Phase II

Beginning with model year 2001, for air pollutants specified in the following table, the clean-fuel vehicle standards under this section shall provide that vehicle exhaust emissions shall not exceed the levels specified in the following table.

Phase II Clean Fuel Vehicle Emission Standards for Light-Duty Trucks of up to 3,750 Lbs. LVW and up to 6,000 Lbs. GVWR and Light-Duty Vehicles
PollutantNMOGCONOxPM*HCHO (formaldehyde)
50,000 mile standard 0.075 3.4 0.2 0.015
100,000 mile standard 0.090 4.2 0.3 0.08 0.018

Standards are expressed in grams per mile (gpm).

*Standards for particulates (PM) shall apply only to diesel-fueled vehicles.

In the case of the 50,000 mile standards and the 100,000 mile standards, for purposes of certification, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles or 100,000 miles, respectively.

(b) Exhaust standards for light-duty trucks of more than 3,750 lbs. LVW and up to 5,750 lbs. LVW and up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR

The standards set forth in this paragraph 1 shall apply in the case of clean-fuel vehicles which are light-duty trucks of more than 3,750 lbs. loaded vehicle weight (lvw) but not more than 5,750 lbs. lvw and not more than 6,000 lbs. gross weight rating (GVWR):

(1) Phase I

Beginning with model year 1996, for the air pollutants specified in the following table, the clean-fuel vehicle standards under this section shall provide that vehicle exhaust emissions shall not exceed the levels specified in the following table.

Phase I Clean Fuel Vehicle Emission Standards for Light-Duty Trucks of More Than 3,750 Lbs. and up to 5,750 Lbs. LVW and up to 6,000 Lbs. GVWR
PollutantNMOGCONOxPM*HCHO (formaldehyde)
50,000 mile standard 0.160 4.4 0.7 0.018
100,000 mile standard 0.200 5.5 0.9 0.08 0.023

Standards are expressed in grams per mile (gpm).

*Standards for particulates (PM) shall apply only to diesel-fueled vehicles.

In the case of the 50,000 mile standards and the 100,000 mile standards, for purposes of certification, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles or 100,000 miles, respectively.

(2) Phase II

Beginning with model year 2001, for the air pollutants specified in the following table, the clean-fuel vehicle standards under this section shall provide that vehicle exhaust emissions shall not exceed the levels specified in the following table.

Phase II Clean Fuel Vehicle Emission Standards for Light-Duty Trucks of More Than 3,750 Lbs. LVW and up to 5,750 Lbs. LVW and up to 6,000 Lbs. GVWR
PollutantNMOGCONOxPM*HCHO (formaldehyde)
50,000 mile standard 0.100 4.4 0.4 0.018
100,000 mile standard 0.130 5.5 0.5 0.08 0.023

Standards are expressed in grams per mile (gpm).

*Standards for particulates (PM) shall apply only to diesel-fueled vehicles.

In the case of the 50,000 mile standards and the 100,000 mile standards, for purposes of certification, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles or 100,000 miles, respectively.

(c) Exhaust standards for light-duty trucks greater than 6,000 lbs. GVWR

The standards set forth in this subsection shall apply in the case of clean-fuel vehicles which are light-duty trucks of more than 6,000 lbs. gross weight rating (GVWR) and less than or equal to 8,500 lbs. GVWR, beginning with model year 1998. For the air pollutants specified in the following table, the clean-fuel vehicle standards under this section shall provide that vehicle exhaust emissions of vehicles within the test weight categories specified in the following table shall not exceed the levels specified in such table.

PollutantNMOGCONOxPM*HCHO (formaldehyde)
50,000 mile standard 0.125 3.4 0.4** 0.015
120,000 mile standard 0.180 5.0 0.6  0.08 0.022
Test Weight Category: Above 3,750 but not above 5,750 lbs. tw
PollutantNMOGCONOxPM*HCHO (formaldehyde)
50,000 mile standard 0.160 4.4 0.7** 0.018
120,000 mile standard 0.230 6.4 1.0  0.10 0.027
Test Weight Category: Above 5,750 tw but not above 8,500 lbs. gvwr
PollutantNMOGCONOxPM*HCHO (formaldehyde)
50,000 mile standard 0.195 5.0 1.1** 0.022
120,000 mile standard 0.280 7.3 1.5  0.12 0.032

Standards are expressed in grams per mile (gpm).

*Standards for particulates (PM) shall apply only to diesel-fueled vehicles.

**Standard not applicable to diesel-fueled vehicles.

For the 50,000 mile standards and the 120,000 mile standards set forth in the table, the applicable useful life for purposes of certification shall be 50,000 miles or 120,000 miles, respectively.

(d) Flexible and dual-fuel vehicles

(1) In general

The Administrator shall establish standards and requirements under this section for the model year 1996 and thereafter for vehicles weighing not more than 8,500 lbs. gvwr which are capable of operating on more than one fuel. Such standards shall require that such vehicles meet the exhaust standards applicable under subsection 2 (a), (b), and (c) for CO, NOx, and HCHO, and if appropriate, PM for single-fuel vehicles of the same vehicle category and model year.

(2) Exhaust NMOG standard for operation on clean alternative fuel

In addition to standards for the pollutants referred to in paragraph (1), the standards established under paragraph (1) shall require that vehicle exhaust emissions of NMOG not exceed the levels (expressed in grams per mile) specified in the tables below when the vehicle is operated on the clean alternative fuel for which such vehicle is certified:

Vehicle TypeColumn A (50,000 mi.) Standard (gpm)Column B (100,000 mi.) Standard (gpm)
Beginning MY 1996:
LDT's (0–3,750 lbs. LVW) and light-duty vehicles 0.125 0.156
LDT's (3,751–5,750 lbs. LVW) 0.160 0.20 
Beginning MY 2001:
LDT's (0–3,750 lbs. LVW) and light-duty vehicles 0.075 0.090
LDT's (3,751–5,750 lbs. LVW) 0.100 0.130

For standards under column A, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles.

For standards under column B, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 100,000 miles.

Light-duty Trucks More than 6,000 lbs. GVWR
Vehicle TypeColumn A (50,000 mi.) StandardColumn B (120,000 mi.) Standard
Beginning MY 1998:
LDT's (0–3,750 lbs. TW) 0.125 0.180
LDT's (3,751–5,750 lbs. TW) 0.160 0.230
LDT's (above 5,750 lbs. TW) 0.195 0.280

For standards under column A, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles.

For standards under column B, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 120,000 miles.

(3) NMOG standard for operation on conventional fuel

In addition to the standards referred to in paragraph (1), the standards established under paragraph (1) shall require that vehicle exhaust emissions of NMOG not exceed the levels (expressed in grams per mile) specified in the tables below:

Vehicle TypeColumn A (50,000 mi.) Standard (gpm)Column B (100,000 mi.) Standard (gpm)
Beginning MY 1996:
LDT's (0–3,750 lbs. LVW) and light-duty vehicles 0.25 0.31 
LDT's (3,751–5,750 lbs. LVW) 0.32 0.40 
Beginning MY 2001:
LDT's (0–3,750 lbs. LVW) and light-duty vehicles 0.125 0.156
LDT's (3,751–5,750 lbs. LVW) 0.160 0.200

For standards under column A, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles.

For standards under column B, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 100,000 miles.

Light-duty Trucks of up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR
Vehicle TypeColumn A (50,000 mi.) StandardColumn B (120,000 mi.) Standard
Beginning MY 1998:
LDT's (0–3,750 lbs. TW) 0.25 0.36
LDT's (3,751–5,750 lbs. TW) 0.32 0.46
LDT's (above 5,750 lbs. TW) 0.39 0.56

For standards under column A, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 50,000 miles.

For standards under column B, for purposes of certification under section 7525 of this title, the applicable useful life shall be 120,000 miles.

(e) Replacement by CARB standards

(1) Single set of CARB standards

If the State of California promulgates regulations establishing and implementing a single set of standards applicable in California pursuant to a waiver approved under section 7543 of this title to any category of vehicles referred to in subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section and such set of standards is, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as the otherwise applicable standards set forth in section 7582 of this title and subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section, such set of California standards shall apply to clean-fuel vehicles in such category in lieu of the standards otherwise applicable under section 7582 of this title and subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section, as the case may be.

(2) Multiple sets of CARB standards

If the State of California promulgates regulations establishing and implementing several different sets of standards applicable in California pursuant to a waiver approved under section 7543 of this title to any category of vehicles referred to in subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section and each of such sets of California standards is, in the aggregate, at least as protective of public health and welfare as the otherwise applicable standards set forth in section 7582 of this title and subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section, such standards shall be treated as "qualifying California standards" for purposes of this paragraph. Where more than one set of qualifying standards are established and administered by the State of California, the least stringent set of qualifying California standards shall apply to the clean-fuel vehicles concerned in lieu of the standards otherwise applicable to such vehicles under section 7582 of this title and this section.

(f) Less stringent CARB standards

If the Low-Emission Vehicle and Clean Fuels Regulations of the California Air Resources Board applicable to any category of vehicles referred to in subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) of this section are modified after November 15, 1990, to provide an emissions standard which is less stringent than the otherwise applicable standard set forth in subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d), or if any effective date contained in such regulations is delayed, such modified standards or such delay (or both, as the case may be) shall apply, for an interim period, in lieu of the standard or effective date otherwise applicable under subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) to any vehicles covered by such modified standard or delayed effective date. The interim period shall be a period of not more than 2 model years from the effective date otherwise applicable under subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d). After such interim period, the otherwise applicable standard set forth in subsection (a), (b), (c), or (d) shall take effect with respect to such vehicles (unless subsequently replaced under subsection (e)).

(g) Not applicable to heavy-duty vehicles

Notwithstanding any provision of the Low-Emission Vehicle and Clean Fuels Regulations of the California Air Resources Board nothing in this section shall apply to heavy-duty engines in vehicles of more than 8,500 lbs. GVWR.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §243, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2514.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection".

2 So in original. Probably should be "subsections".

§7584. Administration and enforcement as per California standards

Where the numerical clean-fuel vehicle standards applicable under this part to vehicles of not more than 8,500 lbs. GVWR are the same as numerical emission standards applicable in California under the Low-Emission Vehicle and Clean Fuels Regulations of the California Air Resources Board ("CARB"), such standards shall be administered and enforced by the Administrator—

(1) in the same manner and with the same flexibility as the State of California administers and enforces corresponding standards applicable under the Low-Emission Vehicle and Clean Fuels Regulations of the California Air Resources Board ("CARB"); and

(2) subject to the same requirements, and utilizing the same interpretations and policy judgments, as are applicable in the case of such CARB standards, including, but not limited to, requirements regarding certification, production-line testing, and in-use compliance,


unless the Administrator determines (in promulgating the rules establishing the clean fuel vehicle program under this section) that any such administration and enforcement would not meet the criteria for a waiver under section 7543 of this title. Nothing in this section shall apply in the case of standards under section 7585 of this title for heavy-duty vehicles.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §244, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2519.)

§7585. Standards for heavy-duty clean-fuel vehicles (GVWR above 8,500 up to 26,000 lbs.)

(a) Model years after 1997; combined NOx and NMHC standard

For classes or categories of heavy-duty vehicles or engines manufactured for the model year 1998 or thereafter and having a GVWR greater than 8,500 lbs. and up to 26,000 lbs. GVWR, the standards under this part for clean-fuel vehicles shall require that combined emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHC) shall not exceed 3.15 grams per brake horsepower hour (equivalent to 50 percent of the combined emission standards applicable under section 7521 of this title for such air pollutants in the case of a conventional model year 1994 heavy-duty diesel-fueled vehicle or engine). No standard shall be promulgated as provided in this section for any heavy-duty vehicle of more than 26,000 lbs. GVWR.

(b) Revised standards that are less stringent

(1) The Administrator may promulgate a revised less stringent standard for the vehicles or engines referred to in subsection (a) if the Administrator determines that the 50 percent reduction required under subsection (a) is not technologically feasible for clean diesel-fueled vehicles and engines, taking into account durability, costs, lead time, safety, and other relevant factors. To provide adequate lead time the Administrator shall make a determination with regard to the technological feasibility of such 50 percent reduction before December 31, 1993.

(2) Any person may at any time petition the Administrator to make a determination under paragraph (1). The Administrator shall act on such a petition within 6 months after the petition is filed.

(3) Any revised less stringent standards promulgated as provided in this subsection shall require at least a 30 percent reduction in lieu of the 50 percent reduction referred to in paragraph (1).

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §245, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2519.)

§7586. Centrally fueled fleets

(a) Fleet program required for certain nonattainment areas

(1) SIP revision

Each State in which there is located all or part of a covered area (as defined in paragraph (2)) shall submit, within 42 months after November 15, 1990, a State implementation plan revision under section 7410 of this title and part D of subchapter I to establish a clean-fuel vehicle program for fleets under this section.

(2) Covered areas

For purposes of this subsection, each of the following shall be a "covered area":

(A) Ozone nonattainment areas

Any ozone nonattainment area with a 1980 population of 250,000 or more classified under subpart 2 of part D of subchapter I of this chapter as Serious, Severe, or Extreme based on data for the calendar years 1987, 1988, and 1989. In determining the ozone nonattainment areas to be treated as covered areas pursuant to this subparagraph, the Administrator shall use the most recent interpretation methodology issued by the Administrator prior to November 15, 1990.

(B) Carbon monoxide nonattainment areas

Any carbon monoxide nonattainment area with a 1980 population of 250,000 or more and a carbon monoxide design value at or above 16.0 parts per million based on data for calendar years 1988 and 1989 (as calculated according to the most recent interpretation methodology issued prior to November 15, 1990, by the United States Environmental Protection Agency), excluding those carbon monoxide nonattainment areas in which mobile sources do not contribute significantly to carbon monoxide exceedances.

(3) Plan revisions for reclassified areas

In the case of ozone nonattainment areas reclassified as Serious, Severe, or Extreme under part D of subchapter I with a 1980 population of 250,000 or more, the State shall submit a plan revision meeting the requirements of this subsection within 1 year after reclassification. Such plan revision shall implement the requirements applicable under this subsection at the time of reclassification and thereafter, except that the Administrator may adjust for a limited period the deadlines for compliance where compliance with such deadlines would be infeasible.

(4) Consultation; consideration of factors

Each State required to submit an implementation plan revision under this subsection shall develop such revision in consultation with fleet operators, vehicle manufacturers, fuel producers and distributors, motor vehicle fuel, and other interested parties, taking into consideration operational range, specialty uses, vehicle and fuel availability, costs, safety, resale values of vehicles and equipment and other relevant factors.

(b) Phase-in of requirements

The plan revision required under this section shall contain provisions requiring that at least a specified percentage of all new covered fleet vehicles in model year 1998 and thereafter purchased by each covered fleet operator in each covered area shall be clean-fuel vehicles and shall use clean alternative fuels when operating in the covered area. For the applicable model years (MY) specified in the following table and thereafter, the specified percentage shall be as provided in the table for the vehicle types set forth in the table:

Clean Fuel Vehicle Phase-in Requirements for Fleets
Vehicle TypeMY1998MY1999MY2000
Light-duty trucks up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR and light-duty vehicles 30% 50% 70%
Heavy-duty trucks above 8,500 lbs. GVWR 50% 50% 50%

The term MY refers to model year.

(c) Accelerated standard for light-duty trucks up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR and light-duty vehicles

Notwithstanding the model years for which clean-fuel vehicle standards are applicable as provided in section 7583 of this title, for purposes of this section, light duty 1 trucks of up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR and light-duty vehicles manufactured in model years 1998 through model year 2000 shall be treated as clean-fuel vehicles only if such vehicles comply with the standards applicable under section 7583 of this title for vehicles in the same class for the model year 2001. The requirements of subsection (b) shall take effect on the earlier of the following:

(1) The first model year after model year 1997 in which new light-duty trucks up to 6,000 lbs. GVWR and light-duty vehicles which comply with the model year 2001 standards under section 7583 of this title are offered for sale in California.

(2) Model year 2001.


Whenever the effective date of subsection (b) is delayed pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subsection, the phase-in schedule under subsection (b) shall be modified to commence with the model year referred to in paragraph (1) in lieu of model year 1998.

(d) Choice of vehicles and fuel

The plan revision under this subsection shall provide that the choice of clean-fuel vehicles and clean alternative fuels shall be made by the covered fleet operator subject to the requirements of this subsection.

(e) Availability of clean alternative fuel

The plan revision shall require fuel providers to make clean alternative fuel available to covered fleet operators at locations at which covered fleet vehicles are centrally fueled.

(f) Credits

(1) Issuance of credits

The State plan revision required under this section shall provide for the issuance by the State of appropriate credits to a fleet operator for any of the following (or any combination thereof):

(A) The purchase of more clean-fuel vehicles than required under this section.

(B) The purchase of clean fuel 2 vehicles which meet more stringent standards established by the Administrator pursuant to paragraph (4).

(C) The purchase of vehicles in categories which are not covered by this section but which meet standards established for such vehicles under paragraph (4).

(2) Use of credits; limitations based on weight classes

(A) Use of credits

Credits under this subsection may be used by the person holding such credits to demonstrate compliance with this section or may be traded or sold for use by any other person to demonstrate compliance with other requirements applicable under this section in the same nonattainment area. Credits obtained at any time may be held or banked for use at any later time, and when so used, such credits shall maintain the same value as if used at an earlier date.

(B) Limitations based on weight classes

Credits issued with respect to the purchase of vehicles of up to 8,500 lbs. GVWR may not be used to demonstrate compliance by any person with the requirements applicable under this subsection to vehicles of more than 8,500 lbs. GVWR. Credits issued with respect to the purchase of vehicles of more than 8,500 lbs. GVWR may not be used to demonstrate compliance by any person with the requirements applicable under this subsection to vehicles weighing up to 8,500 lbs. GVWR.

(C) Weighting

Credits issued for purchase of a clean fuel 2 vehicle under this subsection shall be adjusted with appropriate weighting to reflect the level of emission reduction achieved by the vehicle.

(3) Regulations and administration

Within 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations for such credit program. The State shall administer the credit program established under this subsection.

(4) Standards for issuing credits for cleaner vehicles

Solely for purposes of issuing credits under paragraph (1)(B), the Administrator shall establish under this paragraph standards for Ultra-Low Emission Vehicles ("ULEV"s) and Zero Emissions Vehicles ("ZEV"s) which shall be more stringent than those otherwise applicable to clean-fuel vehicles under this part. The Administrator shall certify clean fuel 2 vehicles as complying with such more stringent standards, and administer and enforce such more stringent standards, in the same manner as in the case of the otherwise applicable clean-fuel vehicle standards established under this section. The standards established by the Administrator under this paragraph for vehicles under 8,500 lbs. GVWR or greater shall conform as closely as possible to standards which are established by the State of California for ULEV and ZEV vehicles in the same class. For vehicles of 8,500 lbs. GVWR or more, the Administrator shall promulgate comparable standards for purposes of this subsection.

(5) Early fleet credits

The State plan revision shall provide credits under this subsection to fleet operators that purchase vehicles certified to meet clean-fuel vehicle standards under this part during any period after approval of the plan revision and prior to the effective date of the fleet program under this section.

(g) Availability to public

At any facility owned or operated by a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States where vehicles subject to this subsection are supplied with clean alternative fuel, such fuel shall be offered for sale to the public for use in other vehicles during reasonable business times and subject to national security concerns, unless such fuel is commercially available for vehicles in the vicinity of such Federal facilities.

(h) Transportation control measures

The Administrator shall by rule, within 1 year after November 15, 1990, ensure that certain transportation control measures including time-of-day or day-of-week restrictions, and other similar measures that restrict vehicle usage, do not apply to any clean-fuel vehicle that meets the requirements of this section. This subsection shall apply notwithstanding subchapter I.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §246, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2520.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "light-duty".

2 So in original. Probably should be "clean-fuel".

§7587. Vehicle conversions

(a) Conversion of existing and new conventional vehicles to clean-fuel vehicles

The requirements of section 7586 of this title may be met through the conversion of existing or new gasoline or diesel-powered vehicles to clean-fuel vehicles which comply with the applicable requirements of that section. For purposes of such provisions the conversion of a vehicle to clean fuel 1 vehicle shall be treated as the purchase of a clean fuel 1 vehicle. Nothing in this part shall be construed to provide that any covered fleet operator subject to fleet vehicle purchase requirements under section 7586 of this title shall be required to convert existing or new gasoline or diesel-powered vehicles to clean-fuel vehicles or to purchase converted vehicles.

(b) Regulations

The Administrator shall, within 24 months after November 15, 1990, consistent with the requirements of this subchapter applicable to new vehicles, promulgate regulations governing conversions of conventional vehicles to clean-fuel vehicles. Such regulations shall establish criteria for such conversions which will ensure that a converted vehicle will comply with the standards applicable under this part to clean-fuel vehicles. Such regulations shall provide for the application to such conversions of the same provisions of this subchapter (including provisions relating to administration enforcement) as are applicable to standards under section 2 7582, 7583, 7584, and 7585 of this title, except that in the case of conversions the Administrator may modify the applicable regulations implementing such provisions as the Administrator deems necessary to implement this part.

(c) Enforcement

Any person who converts conventional vehicles to clean fuel 1 vehicles pursuant to subsection (b), shall be considered a manufacturer for purposes of sections 7525 and 7541 of this title and related enforcement provisions. Nothing in the preceding sentence shall require a person who performs such conversions to warrant any part or operation of a vehicle other than as required under this part. Nothing in this paragraph shall limit the applicability of any other warranty to unrelated parts or operations.

(d) Tampering

The conversion from a vehicle capable of operating on gasoline or diesel fuel only to a clean-fuel vehicle shall not be considered a violation of section 7522(a)(3) of this title if such conversion complies with the regulations promulgated under subsection (b).

(e) Safety

The Secretary of Transportation shall, if necessary, promulgate rules under applicable motor vehicle laws regarding the safety of vehicles converted from existing and new vehicles to clean-fuel vehicles.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §247, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2523.)

1 So in original. Probably should be "clean-fuel".

2 So in original. Probably should be "sections".

§7588. Federal agency fleets

(a) Additional provisions applicable

The provisions of this section shall apply, in addition to the other provisions of this part, in the case of covered fleet vehicles owned or operated by an agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States, except as otherwise provided in subsection (e).

(b) Cost of vehicles to Federal agency

Notwithstanding the provisions of sections 601–611 of title 40, the Administrator of General Services shall not include the incremental costs of clean-fuel vehicles in the amount to be reimbursed by Federal agencies if the Administrator of General Services determines that appropriations provided pursuant to this paragraph are sufficient to provide for the incremental cost of such vehicles over the cost of comparable conventional vehicles.

(c) Limitations on appropriations

Funds appropriated pursuant to the authorization under this paragraph shall be applicable only—

(1) to the portion of the cost of acquisition, maintenance and operation of vehicles acquired under this subparagraph which exceeds the cost of acquisition, maintenance and operation of comparable conventional vehicles;

(2) to the portion of the costs of fuel storage and dispensing equipment attributable to such vehicles which exceeds the costs for such purposes required for conventional vehicles; and

(3) to the portion of the costs of acquisition of clean-fuel vehicles which represents a reduction in revenue from the disposal of such vehicles as compared to revenue resulting from the disposal of comparable conventional vehicles.

(d) Vehicle costs

The incremental cost of vehicles acquired under this part over the cost of comparable conventional vehicles shall not be applied to any calculation with respect to a limitation under law on the maximum cost of individual vehicles which may be required by the United States.

(e) Exemptions

The requirements of this part shall not apply to vehicles with respect to which the Secretary of Defense has certified to the Administrator that an exemption is needed based on national security consideration.

(f) Acquisition requirement

Federal agencies, to the extent practicable, shall obtain clean-fuel vehicles from original equipment manufacturers.

(g) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be required to carry out the provisions of this section: Provided, That such sums as are appropriated for the Administrator of General Services pursuant to the authorization under this section shall be added to the General Supply Fund established in section 321 of title 40.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §248, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2524.)

Codification

In subsec. (b), "sections 601–611 of title 40" substituted for "section 211 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949", and, in subsec. (g), "the General Supply Fund established in section 321 of title 40" substituted for "the General Supply Fund established in section 109 of the Federal Property and Administrative Services Act of 1949", on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Abolition of General Supply Fund

The General Supply Fund, referred to in subsec. (g), was abolished and its capital assets and balances transferred to the Acquisition Services Fund by section 3(a)–(c) of Pub. L. 109–313, set out as an Acquisition Services Fund note under section 321 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

§7589. California pilot test program

(a) Establishment

The Administrator shall establish a pilot program in the State of California to demonstrate the effectiveness of clean-fuel vehicles in controlling air pollution in ozone nonattainment areas.

(b) Applicability

The provisions of this section shall only apply to light-duty trucks and light-duty vehicles, and such provisions shall apply only in the State of California, except as provided in subsection (f).

(c) Program requirements

Not later than 24 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing requirements under this section applicable in the State of California. The regulations shall provide the following:

(1) Clean-fuel vehicles

Clean-fuel vehicles shall be produced, sold, and distributed (in accordance with normal business practices and applicable franchise agreements) to ultimate purchasers in California (including owners of covered fleets referred to in section 7586 of this title) in numbers that meet or exceed the following schedule:


 
Model YearsNumber of Clean-Fuel

Vehicles

1996, 1997, 1998 150,000 vehicles
1999 and thereafter 300,000 vehicles

(2) Clean alternative fuels

(A) Within 2 years after November 15, 1990, the State of California shall submit a revision of the applicable implementation plan under part D of subchapter I and section 7410 of this title containing a clean fuel plan that requires that clean alternative fuels on which the clean-fuel vehicles required under this paragraph can operate shall be produced and distributed by fuel suppliers and made available in California. At a minimum, sufficient clean alternative fuels shall be produced, distributed and made available to assure that all clean-fuel vehicles required under this section can operate, to the maximum extent practicable, exclusively on such fuels in California. The State shall require that clean alternative fuels be made available and offered for sale at an adequate number of locations with sufficient geographic distribution to ensure convenient refueling with clean alternative fuels, considering the number of, and type of, such vehicles sold and the geographic distribution of such vehicles within the State. The State shall determine the clean alternative fuels to be produced, distributed, and made available based on motor vehicle manufacturers' projections of future sales of such vehicles and consultations with the affected local governments and fuel suppliers.

(B) The State may by regulation grant persons subject to the requirements prescribed under this paragraph an appropriate amount of credits for exceeding such requirements, and any person granted credits may transfer some or all of the credits for use by one or more persons in demonstrating compliance with such requirements. The State may make the credits available for use after consideration of enforceability, environmental, and economic factors and upon such terms and conditions as the State finds appropriate.

(C) The State may also by regulation establish specifications for any clean alternative fuel produced and made available under this paragraph as the State finds necessary to reduce or eliminate an unreasonable risk to public health, welfare, or safety associated with its use or to ensure acceptable vehicle maintenance and performance characteristics.

(D) If a retail gasoline dispensing facility would have to remove or replace one or more motor vehicle fuel underground storage tanks and accompanying piping in order to comply with the provisions of this section, and it had removed and replaced such tank or tanks and accompanying piping in order to comply with subtitle I of the Solid Waste Disposal Act [42 U.S.C. 6991 et seq.] prior to November 15, 1990, it shall not be required to comply with this subsection until a period of 7 years has passed from the date of the removal and replacement of such tank or tanks.

(E) Nothing in this section authorizes any State other than California to adopt provisions regarding clean alternative fuels.

(F) If the State of California fails to adopt a clean fuel program that meets the requirements of this paragraph, the Administrator shall, within 4 years after November 15, 1990, establish a clean fuel program for the State of California under this paragraph and section 7410(c) of this title that meets the requirements of this paragraph.

(d) Credits for motor vehicle manufacturers

(1) The Administrator may (by regulation) grant a motor vehicle manufacturer an appropriate amount of credits toward fulfillment of such manufacturer's share of the requirements of subsection (c)(1) of this section for any of the following (or any combination thereof):

(A) The sale of more clean-fuel vehicles than required under subsection (c)(1) of this section.

(B) The sale of clean fuel 1 vehicles which meet standards established by the Administrator as provided in paragraph (3) which are more stringent than the clean-fuel vehicle standards otherwise applicable to such clean-fuel vehicle. A manufacturer granted credits under this paragraph may transfer some or all of the credits for use by one or more other manufacturers in demonstrating compliance with the requirements prescribed under this paragraph. The Administrator may make the credits available for use after consideration of enforceability, environmental, and economic factors and upon such terms and conditions as he finds appropriate. The Administrator shall grant credits in accordance with this paragraph, notwithstanding any requirements of State law or any credits granted with respect to the same vehicles under any State law, rule, or regulation.


(2) Regulations and administration.—The Administrator shall administer the credit program established under this subsection. Within 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations for such credit program.

(3) Standards for issuing credits for cleaner vehicles.—The more stringent standards and other requirements (including requirements relating to the weighting of credits) established by the Administrator for purposes of the credit program under 7585(e) 2 of this title (relating to credits for clean fuel 1 vehicles in the fleets program) shall also apply for purposes of the credit program under this paragraph.

(e) Program evaluation

(1) Not later than June 30, 1994 and again in connection with the report under paragraph (2), the Administrator shall provide a report to the Congress on the status of the California Air Resources Board Low-Emissions Vehicles and Clean Fuels Program. Such report shall examine the capability, from a technological standpoint, of motor vehicle manufacturers and motor vehicle fuel suppliers to comply with the requirements of such program and with the requirements of the California Pilot Program under this section.

(2) Not later than June 30, 1998, the Administrator shall complete and submit a report to Congress on the effectiveness of the California pilot program under this section. The report shall evaluate the level of emission reductions achieved under the program, the costs of the program, the advantages and disadvantages of extending the program to other nonattainment areas, and desirability of continuing or expanding the program in California.

(3) The program under this section cannot be extended or terminated by the Administrator except by Act of Congress enacted after November 15, 1990. Section 7507 of this title does not apply to the program under this section.

(f) Voluntary opt-in for other States

(1) EPA regulations

Not later than 2 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing a voluntary opt-in program under this subsection pursuant to which—

(A) clean-fuel vehicles which are required to be produced, sold, and distributed in the State of California under this section, and

(B) clean alternative fuels required to be produced and distributed under this section by fuel suppliers and made available in California 3


may also be sold and used in other States which submit plan revisions under paragraph (2).

(2) Plan revisions

Any State in which there is located all or part of an ozone nonattainment area classified under subpart 4 D of subchapter I as Serious, Severe, or Extreme may submit a revision of the applicable implementation plan under part D of subchapter I and section 7410 of this title to provide incentives for the sale or use in such an area or State of clean-fuel vehicles which are required to be produced, sold, and distributed in the State of California, and for the use in such an area or State of clean alternative fuels required to be produced and distributed by fuel suppliers and made available in California. Such plan provisions shall not take effect until 1 year after the State has provided notice of such provisions to motor vehicle manufacturers and to fuel suppliers.

(3) Incentives

The incentives referred to in paragraph (2) may include any or all of the following:

(A) A State registration fee on new motor vehicles registered in the State which are not clean-fuel vehicles in the amount of at least 1 percent of the cost of the vehicle. The proceeds of such fee shall be used to provide financial incentives to purchasers of clean-fuel vehicles and to vehicle dealers who sell high volumes or high percentages of clean-fuel vehicles and to defray the administrative costs of the incentive program.

(B) Provisions to exempt clean-fuel vehicles from high occupancy vehicle or trip reduction requirements.

(C) Provisions to provide preference in the use of existing parking spaces for clean-fuel vehicles.


The incentives under this paragraph shall not apply in the case of covered fleet vehicles.

(4) No sales or production mandate

The regulations and plan revisions under paragraphs (1) and (2) shall not include any production or sales mandate for clean-fuel vehicles or clean alternative fuels. Such regulations and plan revisions shall also provide that vehicle manufacturers and fuel suppliers may not be subject to penalties or sanctions for failing to produce or sell clean-fuel vehicles or clean alternative fuels.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §249, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2525.)

References in Text

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(D), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795. Subtitle I of the Act is classified generally to subchapter IX (§6991 et seq.) of chapter 82 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of this title and Tables.

November 15, 1990, referred to in subsec. (e)(3), was in the original "the date of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990", which was translated as meaning the date of enactment of Pub. L. 101–549, which enacted this section, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1 So in original. Probably should be "clean-fuel".

2 So in original. Probably should be "section 7586(f)".

3 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

4 So in original. Probably should be "part".

§7590. General provisions

(a) State refueling facilities

If any State adopts enforceable provisions in an implementation plan applicable to a nonattainment area which provides that existing State refueling facilities will be made available to the public for the purchase of clean alternative fuels or that State-operated refueling facilities for such fuels will be constructed and operated by the State and made available to the public at reasonable times, taking into consideration safety, costs, and other relevant factors, in approving such plan under section 7410 of this title and part D,1 the Administrator may credit a State with the emission reductions for purposes of part D 1 attributable to such actions.

(b) No production mandate

The Administrator shall have no authority under this part to mandate the production of clean-fuel vehicles except as provided in the California pilot test program or to specify as applicable the models, lines, or types of, or marketing or price practices, policies, or strategies for, vehicles subject to this part. Nothing in this part shall be construed to give the Administrator authority to mandate marketing or pricing practices, policies, or strategies for fuels.

(c) Tank and fuel system safety

The Secretary of Transportation shall, in accordance with chapter 301 of title 49, promulgate applicable regulations regarding the safety and use of fuel storage cylinders and fuel systems, including appropriate testing and retesting, in conversions of motor vehicles.

(d) Consultation with Department of Energy and Department of Transportation

The Administrator shall coordinate with the Secretaries of the Department of Energy and the Department of Transportation in carrying out the Administrator's duties under this part.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title II, §250, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §229(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2528.)

Codification

In subsec. (c), "chapter 301 of title 49" substituted for "the National Motor Vehicle Traffic Safety Act of 1966 [15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.]", meaning "the National Traffic and Motor Vehicle Safety Act of 1966 [15 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.]", on authority of Pub. L. 103–272, §6(b), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, the first section of which enacted subtitles II, III, and V to X of Title 49, Transportation.

1 So in original. Probably should refer to part D of subchapter I.