[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 85, SUBCHAPTER III: GENERAL PROVISIONS
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42 USC CHAPTER 85, SUBCHAPTER III: GENERAL PROVISIONS
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 85—AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL

SUBCHAPTER III—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§7601. Administration

(a) Regulations; delegation of powers and duties; regional officers and employees

(1) The Administrator is authorized to prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out his functions under this chapter. The Administrator may delegate to any officer or employee of the Environmental Protection Agency such of his powers and duties under this chapter, except the making of regulations subject to section 7607(d) of this title, as he may deem necessary or expedient.

(2) Not later than one year after August 7, 1977, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing general applicable procedures and policies for regional officers and employees (including the Regional Administrator) to follow in carrying out a delegation under paragraph (1), if any. Such regulations shall be designed—

(A) to assure fairness and uniformity in the criteria, procedures, and policies applied by the various regions in implementing and enforcing the chapter;

(B) to assure at least an adequate quality audit of each State's performance and adherence to the requirements of this chapter in implementing and enforcing the chapter, particularly in the review of new sources and in enforcement of the chapter; and

(C) to provide a mechanism for identifying and standardizing inconsistent or varying criteria, procedures, and policies being employed by such officers and employees in implementing and enforcing the chapter.

(b) Detail of Environmental Protection Agency personnel to air pollution control agencies

Upon the request of an air pollution control agency, personnel of the Environmental Protection Agency may be detailed to such agency for the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this chapter.

(c) Payments under grants; installments; advances or reimbursements

Payments under grants made under this chapter may be made in installments, and in advance or by way of reimbursement, as may be determined by the Administrator.

(d) Tribal authority

(1) Subject to the provisions of paragraph (2), the Administrator—

(A) is authorized to treat Indian tribes as States under this chapter, except for purposes of the requirement that makes available for application by each State no less than one-half of 1 percent of annual appropriations under section 7405 of this title; and

(B) may provide any such Indian tribe grant and contract assistance to carry out functions provided by this chapter.


(2) The Administrator shall promulgate regulations within 18 months after November 15, 1990, specifying those provisions of this chapter for which it is appropriate to treat Indian tribes as States. Such treatment shall be authorized only if—

(A) the Indian tribe has a governing body carrying out substantial governmental duties and powers;

(B) the functions to be exercised by the Indian tribe pertain to the management and protection of air resources within the exterior boundaries of the reservation or other areas within the tribe's jurisdiction; and

(C) the Indian tribe is reasonably expected to be capable, in the judgment of the Administrator, of carrying out the functions to be exercised in a manner consistent with the terms and purposes of this chapter and all applicable regulations.


(3) The Administrator may promulgate regulations which establish the elements of tribal implementation plans and procedures for approval or disapproval of tribal implementation plans and portions thereof.

(4) In any case in which the Administrator determines that the treatment of Indian tribes as identical to States is inappropriate or administratively infeasible, the Administrator may provide, by regulation, other means by which the Administrator will directly administer such provisions so as to achieve the appropriate purpose.

(5) Until such time as the Administrator promulgates regulations pursuant to this subsection, the Administrator may continue to provide financial assistance to eligible Indian tribes under section 7405 of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §301, formerly §8, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 400, renumbered Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 504; Pub. L. 91–604, §§3(b)(2), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1677, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §305(e), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 776; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §§107(d), 108(i), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2464, 2467.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857g of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(i), inserted "subject to section 7607(d) of this title" after "regulations".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–549, §107(d), added subsec. (d).

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–95 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" and "Environmental Protection Agency" for "Department of Health, Education, and Welfare".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–604, §3(b)(2), substituted "Environmental Protection Agency" for "Public Health Service" and struck out provisions covering the payment of salaries and allowances.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Disadvantaged Business Concerns; Use of Quotas Prohibited

Pub. L. 101–549, title X, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2708, provided that:

"SEC. 1001. DISADVANTAGED BUSINESS CONCERNS.

"(a) In General.—In providing for any research relating to the requirements of the amendments made by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Pub. L. 101–549, see Tables for classification] which uses funds of the Environmental Protection Agency, the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency shall, to the extent practicable, require that not less than 10 percent of total Federal funding for such research will be made available to disadvantaged business concerns.

"(b) Definition.—

"(1)(A) For purposes of subsection (a), the term 'disadvantaged business concern' means a concern—

"(i) which is at least 51 percent owned by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals or, in the case of a publicly traded company, at least 51 percent of the stock of which is owned by one or more socially and economically disadvantaged individuals; and

"(ii) the management and daily business operations of which are controlled by such individuals.

"(B)(i) A for-profit business concern is presumed to be a disadvantaged business concern for purposes of subsection (a) if it is at least 51 percent owned by, or in the case of a concern which is a publicly traded company at least 51 percent of the stock of the company is owned by, one or more individuals who are members of the following groups:

"(I) Black Americans.

"(II) Hispanic Americans.

"(III) Native Americans.

"(IV) Asian Americans.

"(V) Women.

"(VI) Disabled Americans.

"(ii) The presumption established by clause (i) may be rebutted with respect to a particular business concern if it is reasonably established that the individual or individuals referred to in that clause with respect to that business concern are not experiencing impediments to establishing or developing such concern as a result of the individual's identification as a member of a group specified in that clause.

"(C) The following institutions are presumed to be disadvantaged business concerns for purposes of subsection (a):

"(i) Historically black colleges and universities, and colleges and universities having a student body in which 40 percent of the students are Hispanic.

"(ii) Minority institutions (as that term is defined by the Secretary of Education pursuant to the General Education Provision Act (20 U.S.C. 1221 et seq.)).

"(iii) Private and voluntary organizations controlled by individuals who are socially and economically disadvantaged.

"(D) A joint venture may be considered to be a disadvantaged business concern under subsection (a), notwithstanding the size of such joint venture, if—

"(i) a party to the joint venture is a disadvantaged business concern; and

"(ii) that party owns at least 51 percent of the joint venture.

A person who is not an economically disadvantaged individual or a disadvantaged business concern, as a party to a joint venture, may not be a party to more than 2 awarded contracts in a fiscal year solely by reason of this subparagraph.

"(E) Nothing in this paragraph shall prohibit any member of a racial or ethnic group that is not listed in subparagraph (B)(i) from establishing that they have been impeded in establishing or developing a business concern as a result of racial or ethnic discrimination.

"Sec. 1002. Use of Quotas Prohibited.—Nothing in this title shall permit or require the use of quotas or a requirement that has the effect of a quota in determining eligibility under section 1001."

§7602. Definitions

When used in this chapter—

(a) The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(b) The term "air pollution control agency" means any of the following:

(1) A single State agency designated by the Governor of that State as the official State air pollution control agency for purposes of this chapter.

(2) An agency established by two or more States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution.

(3) A city, county, or other local government health authority, or, in the case of any city, county, or other local government in which there is an agency other than the health authority charged with responsibility for enforcing ordinances or laws relating to the prevention and control of air pollution, such other agency.

(4) An agency of two or more municipalities located in the same State or in different States and having substantial powers or duties pertaining to the prevention and control of air pollution.

(5) An agency of an Indian tribe.


(c) The term "interstate air pollution control agency" means—

(1) an air pollution control agency established by two or more States, or

(2) an air pollution control agency of two or more municipalities located in different States.


(d) The term "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, Guam, and American Samoa and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands.

(e) The term "person" includes an individual, corporation, partnership, association, State, municipality, political subdivision of a State, and any agency, department, or instrumentality of the United States and any officer, agent, or employee thereof.

(f) The term "municipality" means a city, town, borough, county, parish, district, or other public body created by or pursuant to State law.

(g) The term "air pollutant" means any air pollution agent or combination of such agents, including any physical, chemical, biological, radioactive (including source material, special nuclear material, and byproduct material) substance or matter which is emitted into or otherwise enters the ambient air. Such term includes any precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the Administrator has identified such precursor or precursors for the particular purpose for which the term "air pollutant" is used.

(h) All language referring to effects on welfare includes, but is not limited to, effects on soils, water, crops, vegetation, manmade materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility, and climate, damage to and deterioration of property, and hazards to transportation, as well as effects on economic values and on personal comfort and well-being, whether caused by transformation, conversion, or combination with other air pollutants.

(i) The term "Federal land manager" means, with respect to any lands in the United States, the Secretary of the department with authority over such lands.

(j) Except as otherwise expressly provided, the terms "major stationary source" and "major emitting facility" mean any stationary facility or source of air pollutants which directly emits, or has the potential to emit, one hundred tons per year or more of any air pollutant (including any major emitting facility or source of fugitive emissions of any such pollutant, as determined by rule by the Administrator).

(k) The terms "emission limitation" and "emission standard" mean a requirement established by the State or the Administrator which limits the quantity, rate, or concentration of emissions of air pollutants on a continuous basis, including any requirement relating to the operation or maintenance of a source to assure continuous emission reduction, and any design, equipment, work practice or operational standard promulgated under this chapter..1

(l) The term "standard of performance" means a requirement of continuous emission reduction, including any requirement relating to the operation or maintenance of a source to assure continuous emission reduction.

(m) The term "means of emission limitation" means a system of continuous emission reduction (including the use of specific technology or fuels with specified pollution characteristics).

(n) The term "primary standard attainment date" means the date specified in the applicable implementation plan for the attainment of a national primary ambient air quality standard for any air pollutant.

(o) The term "delayed compliance order" means an order issued by the State or by the Administrator to an existing stationary source, postponing the date required under an applicable implementation plan for compliance by such source with any requirement of such plan.

(p) The term "schedule and timetable of compliance" means a schedule of required measures including an enforceable sequence of actions or operations leading to compliance with an emission limitation, other limitation, prohibition, or standard.

(q) For purposes of this chapter, the term "applicable implementation plan" means the portion (or portions) of the implementation plan, or most recent revision thereof, which has been approved under section 7410 of this title, or promulgated under section 7410(c) of this title, or promulgated or approved pursuant to regulations promulgated under section 7601(d) of this title and which implements the relevant requirements of this chapter.

(r) Indian Tribe.—The term "Indian tribe" means any Indian tribe, band, nation, or other organized group or community, including any Alaska Native village, which is Federally recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians.

(s) VOC.—The term "VOC" means volatile organic compound, as defined by the Administrator.

(t) PM–10.—The term "PM–10" means particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to a nominal ten micrometers, as measured by such method as the Administrator may determine.

(u) NAAQS and CTG.—The term "NAAQS" means national ambient air quality standard. The term "CTG" means a Control Technique Guideline published by the Administrator under section 7408 of this title.

(v) NOx.—The term "NOx" means oxides of nitrogen.

(w) CO.—The term "CO" means carbon monoxide.

(x) Small Source.—The term "small source" means a source that emits less than 100 tons of regulated pollutants per year, or any class of persons that the Administrator determines, through regulation, generally lack technical ability or knowledge regarding control of air pollution.

(y) Federal Implementation Plan.—The term "Federal implementation plan" means a plan (or portion thereof) promulgated by the Administrator to fill all or a portion of a gap or otherwise correct all or a portion of an inadequacy in a State implementation plan, and which includes enforceable emission limitations or other control measures, means or techniques (including economic incentives, such as marketable permits or auctions of emissions allowances), and provides for attainment of the relevant national ambient air quality standard.

(z) Stationary Source.—The term "stationary source" means generally any source of an air pollutant except those emissions resulting directly from an internal combustion engine for transportation purposes or from a nonroad engine or nonroad vehicle as defined in section 7550 of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §302, formerly §9, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 400, renumbered Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 504; Pub. L. 91–604, §15(a)(1), (c)(1), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1710, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §218(c), title III, §301, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 761, 769; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(76), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §§101(d)(4), 107(a), (b), 108(j), 109(b), title III, §302(e), title VII, §709, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2409, 2464, 2468, 2470, 2574, 2684.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h of this title.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in subsecs. (b) and (d) of this section were contained in a section 1857e of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §6, 69 Stat. 323, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88–206.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (b)(1) to (3). Pub. L. 101–549, §107(a)(1), (2), struck out "or" at end of par. (3) and substituted periods for semicolons at end of pars. (1) to (3).

Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 101–549, §107(a)(3), added par. (5).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(j)(2), inserted at end "Such term includes any precursors to the formation of any air pollutant, to the extent the Administrator has identified such precursor or precursors for the particular purpose for which the term 'air pollutant' is used."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–549, §109(b), inserted before period at end ", whether caused by transformation, conversion, or combination with other air pollutants".

Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 101–549, §303(e), inserted before period at end ", and any design, equipment, work practice or operational standard promulgated under this chapter."

Subsec. (q). Pub. L. 101–549, §101(d)(4), added subsec. (q).

Subsec. (r). Pub. L. 101–549, §107(b), added subsec. (r).

Subsecs. (s) to (y). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(j)(1), added subsecs. (s) to (y).

Subsec. (z). Pub. L. 101–549, §709, added subsec. (z).

1977—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–95, §218(c), inserted "and includes the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands" after "American Samoa".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–190 substituted "individual, corporation" for "individual corporation".

Pub. L. 95–95, §301(b), expanded definition of "person" to include agencies, departments, and instrumentalities of the United States and officers, agents, and employees thereof.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–95, §301(c), expanded definition of "air pollutant" so as, expressly, to include physical, chemical, biological, and radioactive substances or matter emitted into or otherwise entering the ambient air.

Subsecs. (i) to (p). Pub. L. 95–95, §301(a), added subsecs. (i) to (p).

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(1), substituted definition of "Administrator" as meaning Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency for definition of "Secretary" as meaning Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(a)(1), added subsec. (g) defining "air pollutant", redesignated former subsec. (g) as (h) and substituted references to effects on soil, water, crops, vegetation, manmade materials, animals, wildlife, weather, visibility, and climate for references to injury to agricultural crops and livestock, and inserted references to effects on economic values and on personal comfort and well being.

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original.

§7603. Emergency powers

Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, the Administrator, upon receipt of evidence that a pollution source or combination of sources (including moving sources) is presenting an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health or welfare, or the environment, may bring suit on behalf of the United States in the appropriate United States district court to immediately restrain any person causing or contributing to the alleged pollution to stop the emission of air pollutants causing or contributing to such pollution or to take such other action as may be necessary. If it is not practicable to assure prompt protection of public health or welfare or the environment by commencement of such a civil action, the Administrator may issue such orders as may be necessary to protect public health or welfare or the environment. Prior to taking any action under this section, the Administrator shall consult with appropriate State and local authorities and attempt to confirm the accuracy of the information on which the action proposed to be taken is based. Any order issued by the Administrator under this section shall be effective upon issuance and shall remain in effect for a period of not more than 60 days, unless the Administrator brings an action pursuant to the first sentence of this section before the expiration of that period. Whenever the Administrator brings such an action within the 60-day period, such order shall remain in effect for an additional 14 days or for such longer period as may be authorized by the court in which such action is brought.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §303, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §302(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 770; Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §704, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2681.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–1 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 303 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 310 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7610 of this title.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–549, §704(2)–(5), struck out subsec. (a) designation before "Notwithstanding any other", struck out subsec. (b) which related to violation of or failure or refusal to comply with subsec. (a) orders, and substituted new provisions for provisions following first sentence which read as follows: "If it is not practicable to assure prompt protection of the health of persons solely by commencement of such a civil action, the Administrator may issue such orders as may be necessary to protect the health of persons who are, or may be, affected by such pollution source (or sources). Prior to taking any action under this section, the Administrator shall consult with the State and local authorities in order to confirm the correctness of the information on which the action proposed to be taken is based and to ascertain the action which such authorities are, or will be, taking. Such order shall be effective for a period of not more than twenty-four hours unless the Administrator brings an action under the first sentence of this subsection before the expiration of such period. Whenever the Administrator brings such an action within such period, such order shall be effective for a period of forty-eight hours or such longer period as may be authorized by the court pending litigation or thereafter."

Pub. L. 101–549, §704(1), which directed that "public health or welfare, or the environment" be substituted for "the health of persons and that appropriate State or local authorities have not acted to abate such sources", was executed by making the substitution for "the health of persons, and that appropriate State or local authorities have not acted to abate such sources" to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

1977Pub. L. 95–95 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted provisions that, if it is not practicable to assure prompt protection of the health of persons solely by commencement of a civil action, the Administrator may issue such orders as may be necessary to protect the health of persons who are, or may be, affected by such pollution source (or sources), that, prior to taking any action under this section, the Administrator consult with the State and local authorities in order to confirm the correctness of the information on which the action proposed to be taken is based and to ascertain the action which such authorities are, or will be, taking, that the order be effective for a period of not more than twenty-four hours unless the Administrator brings an action under the first sentence of this subsection before the expiration of such period, and that, whenever the Administrator brings such an action within such period, such order be effective for a period of forty-eight hours or such longer period as may be authorized by the court pending litigation or thereafter, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7604. Citizen suits

(a) Authority to bring civil action; jurisdiction

Except as provided in subsection (b), any person may commence a civil action on his own behalf—

(1) against any person (including (i) the United States, and (ii) any other governmental instrumentality or agency to the extent permitted by the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution) who is alleged to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or to be in violation of (A) an emission standard or limitation under this chapter or (B) an order issued by the Administrator or a State with respect to such a standard or limitation,

(2) against the Administrator where there is alleged a failure of the Administrator to perform any act or duty under this chapter which is not discretionary with the Administrator, or

(3) against any person who proposes to construct or constructs any new or modified major emitting facility without a permit required under part C of subchapter I (relating to significant deterioration of air quality) or part D of subchapter I (relating to nonattainment) or who is alleged to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or to be in violation of any condition of such permit.


The district courts shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce such an emission standard or limitation, or such an order, or to order the Administrator to perform such act or duty, as the case may be, and to apply any appropriate civil penalties (except for actions under paragraph (2)). The district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction to compel (consistent with paragraph (2) of this subsection) agency action unreasonably delayed, except that an action to compel agency action referred to in section 7607(b) of this title which is unreasonably delayed may only be filed in a United States District Court within the circuit in which such action would be reviewable under section 7607(b) of this title. In any such action for unreasonable delay, notice to the entities referred to in subsection (b)(1)(A) shall be provided 180 days before commencing such action.

(b) Notice

No action may be commenced—

(1) under subsection (a)(1)—

(A) prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of the violation (i) to the Administrator, (ii) to the State in which the violation occurs, and (iii) to any alleged violator of the standard, limitation, or order, or

(B) if the Administrator or State has commenced and is diligently prosecuting a civil action in a court of the United States or a State to require compliance with the standard, limitation, or order, but in any such action in a court of the United States any person may intervene as a matter of right.1


(2) under subsection (a)(2) prior to 60 days after the plaintiff has given notice of such action to the Administrator,


except that such action may be brought immediately after such notification in the case of an action under this section respecting a violation of section 7412(i)(3)(A) or (f)(4) of this title or an order issued by the Administrator pursuant to section 7413(a) of this title. Notice under this subsection shall be given in such manner as the Administrator shall prescribe by regulation.

(c) Venue; intervention by Administrator; service of complaint; consent judgment

(1) Any action respecting a violation by a stationary source of an emission standard or limitation or an order respecting such standard or limitation may be brought only in the judicial district in which such source is located.

(2) In any action under this section, the Administrator, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right at any time in the proceeding. A judgment in an action under this section to which the United States is not a party shall not, however, have any binding effect upon the United States.

(3) Whenever any action is brought under this section the plaintiff shall serve a copy of the complaint on the Attorney General of the United States and on the Administrator. No consent judgment shall be entered in an action brought under this section in which the United States is not a party prior to 45 days following the receipt of a copy of the proposed consent judgment by the Attorney General and the Administrator during which time the Government may submit its comments on the proposed consent judgment to the court and parties or may intervene as a matter of right.

(d) Award of costs; security

The court, in issuing any final order in any action brought pursuant to subsection (a) of this section, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party, whenever the court determines such award is appropriate. The court may, if a temporary restraining order or preliminary injunction is sought, require the filing of a bond or equivalent security in accordance with the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

(e) Nonrestriction of other rights

Nothing in this section shall restrict any right which any person (or class of persons) may have under any statute or common law to seek enforcement of any emission standard or limitation or to seek any other relief (including relief against the Administrator or a State agency). Nothing in this section or in any other law of the United States shall be construed to prohibit, exclude, or restrict any State, local, or interstate authority from—

(1) bringing any enforcement action or obtaining any judicial remedy or sanction in any State or local court, or

(2) bringing any administrative enforcement action or obtaining any administrative remedy or sanction in any State or local administrative agency, department or instrumentality,


against the United States, any department, agency, or instrumentality thereof, or any officer, agent, or employee thereof under State or local law respecting control and abatement of air pollution. For provisions requiring compliance by the United States, departments, agencies, instrumentalities, officers, agents, and employees in the same manner as nongovernmental entities, see section 7418 of this title.

(f) "Emission standard or limitation under this chapter" defined

For purposes of this section, the term "emission standard or limitation under this chapter" means—

(1) a schedule or timetable of compliance, emission limitation, standard of performance or emission standard,

(2) a control or prohibition respecting a motor vehicle fuel or fuel additive, or 2

(3) any condition or requirement of a permit under part C of subchapter I (relating to significant deterioration of air quality) or part D of subchapter I (relating to nonattainment),,3 section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelter orders), any condition or requirement under an applicable implementation plan relating to transportation control measures, air quality maintenance plans, vehicle inspection and maintenance programs or vapor recovery requirements, section 7545(e) and (f) of this title (relating to fuels and fuel additives), section 7491 of this title (relating to visibility protection), any condition or requirement under subchapter VI (relating to ozone protection), or any requirement under section 7411 or 7412 of this title (without regard to whether such requirement is expressed as an emission standard or otherwise); 4 or

(4) any other standard, limitation, or schedule established under any permit issued pursuant to subchapter V or under any applicable State implementation plan approved by the Administrator, any permit term or condition, and any requirement to obtain a permit as a condition of operations.5


which is in effect under this chapter (including a requirement applicable by reason of section 7418 of this title) or under an applicable implementation plan.

(g) Penalty fund

(1) Penalties received under subsection (a) shall be deposited in a special fund in the United States Treasury for licensing and other services. Amounts in such fund are authorized to be appropriated and shall remain available until expended, for use by the Administrator to finance air compliance and enforcement activities. The Administrator shall annually report to the Congress about the sums deposited into the fund, the sources thereof, and the actual and proposed uses thereof.

(2) Notwithstanding paragraph (1) the court in any action under this subsection 6 to apply civil penalties shall have discretion to order that such civil penalties, in lieu of being deposited in the fund referred to in paragraph (1), be used in beneficial mitigation projects which are consistent with this chapter and enhance the public health or the environment. The court shall obtain the view of the Administrator in exercising such discretion and selecting any such projects. The amount of any such payment in any such action shall not exceed $100,000.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §304, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1706; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §303(a)–(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 771, 772; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a) (77), (78), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 101–549, title III, §302(f), title VII, §707(a)–(g), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2574, 2682, 2683.)

References in Text

The Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, referred to in subsec. (d), are set out in the Appendix to Title 28, Judiciary and Judicial Procedure.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–2 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 304 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 311 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7611 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(a), (f), in closing provisions, inserted before period at end ", and to apply any appropriate civil penalties (except for actions under paragraph (2))" and inserted sentences at end giving courts jurisdiction to compel agency action unreasonably delayed and requiring 180 days notice prior to commencement of action.

Subsec. (a)(1), (3). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(g), inserted "to have violated (if there is evidence that the alleged violation has been repeated) or" before "to be in violation".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(f), substituted "section 7412(i)(3)(A) or (f)(4)" for "section 7412(c)(1)(B)" in closing provisions.

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(c), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (2) read as follows: "In such action under this section, the Administrator, if not a party, may intervene as a matter of right."

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(d), added subsec. (c)(3).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(e), struck out "any condition or requirement of section 7413(d) of this title (relating to certain enforcement orders)" before ", section 7419 of this title", substituted "subchapter VI" for "part B of subchapter I", and substituted "; or" for period at end.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(e), which directed that par. (4) be added at end of subsec. (f), was executed by adding par. (4) after par. (3), to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(b), added subsec. (g).

1977—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(77), inserted "or modified" after "new".

Pub. L. 95–95, §303(a), added subsec. (a)(3).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–95, §303(c), inserted provisions which prohibited any construction of this section or any other law of the United States which would prohibit, exclude, or restrict any State, local, or interstate authority from bringing any enforcement action or obtaining any judicial remedy or sanction in any State or local court against the United States or bringing any administrative enforcement action or obtaining any administrative remedy or sanction against the United States in any State or local administrative agency, department, or instrumentality under State or local law.

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(78), inserted ", or" after "(relating to ozone protection)", substituted "any condition or requirement under an" for "requirements under an", and struck out "or" before "section 7491".

Pub. L. 95–95, §303(b), added par. (3).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §707(g), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2683, provided that: "The amendment made by this subsection [amending this section] shall take effect with respect to actions brought after the date 2 years after the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990]."

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of reporting provisions in subsec. (g)(1) of this section, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 6th item on page 165 of House Document No. 103–7.

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be ", or".

2 So in original. The word "or" probably should not appear.

3 So in original.

4 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.

5 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

6 So in original. Probably should be "this section".

§7605. Representation in litigation

(a) Attorney General; attorneys appointed by Administrator

The Administrator shall request the Attorney General to appear and represent him in any civil action instituted under this chapter to which the Administrator is a party. Unless the Attorney General notifies the Administrator that he will appear in such action, within a reasonable time, attorneys appointed by the Administrator shall appear and represent him.

(b) Memorandum of understanding regarding legal representation

In the event the Attorney General agrees to appear and represent the Administrator in any such action, such representation shall be conducted in accordance with, and shall include participation by, attorneys appointed by the Administrator to the extent authorized by, the memorandum of understanding between the Department of Justice and the Environmental Protection Agency, dated June 13, 1977, respecting representation of the agency by the department in civil litigation.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §305, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1707; amended Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §304(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 772.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–3 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 305 of act July 14, 1955, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 505, was renumbered section 312 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7612 of this title.

Another prior section 305 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, formerly §12, as added Dec. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–206, §1, 77 Stat. 401, was renumbered section 305 by Pub. L. 89–272, renumbered section 308 by Pub. L. 90–148, and renumbered section 315 by Pub. L. 91–604, and is classified to section 7615 of this title.

Amendments

1977Pub. L. 95–95 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7606. Federal procurement

(a) Contracts with violators prohibited

No Federal agency may enter into any contract with any person who is convicted of any offense under section 7413(c) of this title for the procurement of goods, materials, and services to perform such contract at any facility at which the violation which gave rise to such conviction occurred if such facility is owned, leased, or supervised by such person. The prohibition in the preceding sentence shall continue until the Administrator certifies that the condition giving rise to such a conviction has been corrected. For convictions arising under section 7413(c)(2) of this title, the condition giving rise to the conviction also shall be considered to include any substantive violation of this chapter associated with the violation of 7413(c)(2) of this title. The Administrator may extend this prohibition to other facilities owned or operated by the convicted person.

(b) Notification procedures

The Administrator shall establish procedures to provide all Federal agencies with the notification necessary for the purposes of subsection (a).

(c) Federal agency contracts

In order to implement the purposes and policy of this chapter to protect and enhance the quality of the Nation's air, the President shall, not more than 180 days after December 31, 1970, cause to be issued an order (1) requiring each Federal agency authorized to enter into contracts and each Federal agency which is empowered to extend Federal assistance by way of grant, loan, or contract to effectuate the purpose and policy of this chapter in such contracting or assistance activities, and (2) setting forth procedures, sanctions, penalties, and such other provisions, as the President determines necessary to carry out such requirement.

(d) Exemptions; notification to Congress

The President may exempt any contract, loan, or grant from all or part of the provisions of this section where he determines such exemption is necessary in the paramount interest of the United States and he shall notify the Congress of such exemption.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §306, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1707; amended Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §705, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2682.)

Codification

Subsec. (e) of this section, which required the President to annually report to Congress on measures taken toward implementing the purpose and intent of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, the 14th item on page 20 of House Document No. 103–7.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–4 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 306 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 506, was renumbered section 313 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7613 of this title.

Another prior section 306 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, formerly §13, as added Dec. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–206, §1, 77 Stat. 401, renumbered §306, Oct. 20, 1965, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), 79 Stat. 992, renumbered §309, Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 506, renumbered §316, Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), 84 Stat. 1705, related to appropriations and was classified to section 1857l of this title, prior to repeal by section 306 of Pub. L. 95–95. See section 7626 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–549 substituted "section 7413(c)" for "section 7413(c)(1)" and inserted sentences at end relating to convictions arising under section 7413(c)(2) of this title and extension of prohibition to other facilities owned by convicted persons.

Federal Acquisition Regulation: Contractor Certification or Contract Clause for Acquisition of Commercial Items

Pub. L. 103–355, title VIII, §8301(g), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3397, as amended by Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(g)(8), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1874, provided that: "The Federal Acquisition Regulation may not contain a requirement for a certification by a contractor under a contract for the acquisition of commercial items, or a requirement that such a contract include a contract clause, in order to implement a prohibition or requirement of section 306 of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7606) or a prohibition or requirement issued in the implementation of that section, since there is nothing in such section 306 that requires such a certification or contract clause."

[Pub. L. 115–232, div. A, title VIII, §836(g)(8), (h), Aug. 13, 2018, 132 Stat. 1874, provided that, effective Jan. 1, 2020, subject to a savings provision, section 8301(g) of Pub. L. 103–355, set out above, is amended by striking "commercial items" and inserting "commercial products or commercial services".]

Executive Order No. 11602

Ex. Ord. No. 11602, June 29, 1971, 36 F.R. 12475, which related to the administration of the Clean Air Act with respect to Federal contracts, grants, or loans, was superseded by Ex. Ord. No. 11738, Sept. 10, 1973, 38 F.R. 25161, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 11738. Administration of the Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act With Respect to Federal Contracts, Grants, or Loans

Ex. Ord. No. 11738, Sept. 10, 1973, 38 F.R. 25161, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by the provisions of the Clean Air Act, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1857 et seq.) [42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.], particularly section 306 of that Act as added by the Clean Air Amendments of 1970 (Public Law 91–604) [this section], and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.), particularly section 508 of that Act as added by the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92–500) [33 U.S.C. 1368], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Policy. It is the policy of the Federal Government to improve and enhance environmental quality. In furtherance of that policy, the program prescribed in this Order is instituted to assure that each Federal agency empowered to enter into contracts for the procurement of goods, materials, or services and each Federal agency empowered to extend Federal assistance by way of grant, loan, or contract shall undertake such procurement and assistance activities in a manner that will result in effective enforcement of the Clean Air Act [this chapter] (hereinafter referred to as "the Air Act") and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act (hereinafter referred to as "the Water Act") [33 U.S.C. 1251 et seq.].

Sec. 2. Designation of Facilities. (a) The Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency (hereinafter referred to as "the Administrator") shall be responsible for the attainment of the purposes and objectives of this Order.

(b) In carrying out his responsibilities under this Order, the Administrator shall, in conformity with all applicable requirements of law, designate facilities which have given rise to a conviction for an offense under section 113(c)(1) of the Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7413(c)(1)] or section 309(c) of the Water Act [33 U.S.C. 1319(c)]. The Administrator shall, from time to time, publish and circulate to all Federal agencies lists of those facilities, together with the names and addresses of the persons who have been convicted of such offenses. Whenever the Administrator determines that the condition which gave rise to a conviction has been corrected, he shall promptly remove the facility and the name and address of the person concerned from the list.

Sec. 3. Contracts, Grants, or Loans. (a) Except as provided in section 8 of this Order, no Federal agency shall enter into any contract for the procurement of goods, materials, or services which is to be performed in whole or in part in a facility then designated by the Administrator pursuant to section 2.

(b) Except as provided in section 8 of this Order, no Federal agency authorized to extend Federal assistance by way of grant, loan, or contract shall extend such assistance in any case in which it is to be used to support any activity or program involving the use of a facility then designated by the Administrator pursuant to section 2.

Sec. 4. Procurement, Grant, and Loan Regulations. The Federal Procurement Regulations, the Armed Services Procurement Regulations, and to the extent necessary, any supplemental or comparable regulations issued by any agency of the Executive Branch shall, following consultation with the Administrator, be amended to require, as a condition of entering into, renewing, or extending any contract for the procurement of goods, materials, or services or extending any assistance by way of grant, loan, or contract, inclusion of a provision requiring compliance with the Air Act, the Water Act, and standards issued pursuant thereto in the facilities in which the contract is to be performed, or which are involved in the activity or program to receive assistance.

Sec. 5. Rules and Regulations. The Administrator shall issue such rules, regulations, standards, and guidelines as he may deem necessary or appropriate to carry out the purposes of this Order.

Sec. 6. Cooperation and Assistance. The head of each Federal agency shall take such steps as may be necessary to insure that all officers and employees of this agency whose duties entail compliance or comparable functions with respect to contracts, grants, and loans are familiar with the provisions of this Order. In addition to any other appropriate action, such officers and employees shall report promptly any condition in a facility which may involve noncompliance with the Air Act or the Water Act or any rules, regulations, standards, or guidelines issued pursuant to this Order to the head of the agency, who shall transmit such reports to the Administrator.

Sec. 7. Enforcement. The Administrator may recommend to the Department of Justice or other appropriate agency that legal proceedings be brought or other appropriate action be taken whenever he becomes aware of a breach of any provision required, under the amendments issued pursuant to section 4 of this Order, to be included in a contract or other agreement.

Sec. 8. Exemptions—Reports to Congress. (a) Upon a determination that the paramount interest of the United States so requires—

(1) The head of a Federal agency may exempt any contract, grant, or loan, and, following consultation with the Administrator, any class of contracts, grants or loans from the provisions of this Order. In any such case, the head of the Federal agency granting such exemption shall (A) promptly notify the Administrator of such exemption and the justification therefor; (B) review the necessity for each such exemption annually; and (C) report to the Administrator annually all such exemptions in effect. Exemptions granted pursuant to this section shall be for a period not to exceed one year. Additional exemptions may be granted for periods not to exceed one year upon the making of a new determination by the head of the Federal agency concerned.

(2) The Administrator may, by rule or regulation, exempt any or all Federal agencies from any or all of the provisions of this Order with respect to any class or classes of contracts, grants, or loans, which (A) involve less than specified dollar amounts, or (B) have a minimal potential impact upon the environment, or (C) involve persons who are not prime contractors or direct recipients of Federal assistance by way of contracts, grants, or loans.

(b) Federal agencies shall reconsider any exemption granted under subsection (a) whenever requested to do so by the Administrator.

(c) The Administrator shall annually notify the President and the Congress of all exemptions granted, or in effect, under this Order during the preceding year.

Sec. 9. Related Actions. The imposition of any sanction or penalty under or pursuant to this Order shall not relieve any person of any legal duty to comply with any provisions of the Air Act or the Water Act.

Sec. 10. Applicability. This Order shall not apply to contracts, grants, or loans involving the use of facilities located outside the United States.

Sec. 11. Uniformity. Rules, regulations, standards, and guidelines issued pursuant to this order and section 508 of the Water Act [33 U.S.C. 1368] shall, to the maximum extent feasible, be uniform with regulations issued pursuant to this order, Executive Order No. 11602 of June 29, 1971 [formerly set out above], and section 306 of the Air Act [this section].

Sec. 12. Order Superseded. Executive Order No. 11602 of June 29, 1971, is hereby superseded.

Richard Nixon.      

§7607. Administrative proceedings and judicial review

(a) Administrative subpenas; confidentiality; witnesses

In connection with any determination under section 7410(f) of this title, or for purposes of obtaining information under section 7521(b)(4) 1 or 7545(c)(3) of this title, any investigation, monitoring, reporting requirement, entry, compliance inspection, or administrative enforcement proceeding under the 2 chapter (including but not limited to section 7413, section 7414, section 7420, section 7429, section 7477, section 7524, section 7525, section 7542, section 7603, or section 7606 of this title),,3 the Administrator may issue subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books, and documents, and he may administer oaths. Except for emission data, upon a showing satisfactory to the Administrator by such owner or operator that such papers, books, documents, or information or particular part thereof, if made public, would divulge trade secrets or secret processes of such owner or operator, the Administrator shall consider such record, report, or information or particular portion thereof confidential in accordance with the purposes of section 1905 of title 18, except that such paper, book, document, or information may be disclosed to other officers, employees, or authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this chapter, to persons carrying out the National Academy of Sciences' study and investigation provided for in section 7521(c) of this title, or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. In case of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena served upon any person under this subparagraph,4 the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Administrator to appear and produce papers, books, and documents before the Administrator, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(b) Judicial review

(1) A petition for review of action of the Administrator in promulgating any national primary or secondary ambient air quality standard, any emission standard or requirement under section 7412 of this title, any standard of performance or requirement under section 7411 of this title,,3 any standard under section 7521 of this title (other than a standard required to be prescribed under section 7521(b)(1) of this title), any determination under section 7521(b)(5) 1 of this title, any control or prohibition under section 7545 of this title, any standard under section 7571 of this title, any rule issued under section 7413, 7419, or under section 7420 of this title, or any other nationally applicable regulations promulgated, or final action taken, by the Administrator under this chapter may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia. A petition for review of the Administrator's action in approving or promulgating any implementation plan under section 7410 of this title or section 7411(d) of this title, any order under section 7411(j) of this title, under section 7412 of this title, under section 7419 of this title, or under section 7420 of this title, or his action under section 1857c–10(c)(2)(A), (B), or (C) of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977) or under regulations thereunder, or revising regulations for enhanced monitoring and compliance certification programs under section 7414(a)(3) of this title, or any other final action of the Administrator under this chapter (including any denial or disapproval by the Administrator under subchapter I) which is locally or regionally applicable may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit. Notwithstanding the preceding sentence a petition for review of any action referred to in such sentence may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia if such action is based on a determination of nationwide scope or effect and if in taking such action the Administrator finds and publishes that such action is based on such a determination. Any petition for review under this subsection shall be filed within sixty days from the date notice of such promulgation, approval, or action appears in the Federal Register, except that if such petition is based solely on grounds arising after such sixtieth day, then any petition for review under this subsection shall be filed within sixty days after such grounds arise. The filing of a petition for reconsideration by the Administrator of any otherwise final rule or action shall not affect the finality of such rule or action for purposes of judicial review nor extend the time within which a petition for judicial review of such rule or action under this section may be filed, and shall not postpone the effectiveness of such rule or action.

(2) Action of the Administrator with respect to which review could have been obtained under paragraph (1) shall not be subject to judicial review in civil or criminal proceedings for enforcement. Where a final decision by the Administrator defers performance of any nondiscretionary statutory action to a later time, any person may challenge the deferral pursuant to paragraph (1).

(c) Additional evidence

In any judicial proceeding in which review is sought of a determination under this chapter required to be made on the record after notice and opportunity for hearing, if any party applies to the court for leave to adduce additional evidence, and shows to the satisfaction of the court that such additional evidence is material and that there were reasonable grounds for the failure to adduce such evidence in the proceeding before the Administrator, the court may order such additional evidence (and evidence in rebuttal thereof) to be taken before the Administrator, in such manner and upon such terms and conditions as to 5 the court may deem proper. The Administrator may modify his findings as to the facts, or make new findings, by reason of the additional evidence so taken and he shall file such modified or new findings, and his recommendation, if any, for the modification or setting aside of his original determination, with the return of such additional evidence.

(d) Rulemaking

(1) This subsection applies to—

(A) the promulgation or revision of any national ambient air quality standard under section 7409 of this title,

(B) the promulgation or revision of an implementation plan by the Administrator under section 7410(c) of this title,

(C) the promulgation or revision of any standard of performance under section 7411 of this title, or emission standard or limitation under section 7412(d) of this title, any standard under section 7412(f) of this title, or any regulation under section 7412(g)(1)(D) and (F) of this title, or any regulation under section 7412(m) or (n) of this title,

(D) the promulgation of any requirement for solid waste combustion under section 7429 of this title,

(E) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to any fuel or fuel additive under section 7545 of this title,

(F) the promulgation or revision of any aircraft emission standard under section 7571 of this title,

(G) the promulgation or revision of any regulation under subchapter IV–A (relating to control of acid deposition),

(H) promulgation or revision of regulations pertaining to primary nonferrous smelter orders under section 7419 of this title (but not including the granting or denying of any such order),

(I) promulgation or revision of regulations under subchapter VI (relating to stratosphere and ozone protection),

(J) promulgation or revision of regulations under part C of subchapter I (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality and protection of visibility),

(K) promulgation or revision of regulations under section 7521 of this title and test procedures for new motor vehicles or engines under section 7525 of this title, and the revision of a standard under section 7521(a)(3) of this title,

(L) promulgation or revision of regulations for noncompliance penalties under section 7420 of this title,

(M) promulgation or revision of any regulations promulgated under section 7541 of this title (relating to warranties and compliance by vehicles in actual use),

(N) action of the Administrator under section 7426 of this title (relating to interstate pollution abatement),

(O) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to consumer and commercial products under section 7511b(e) of this title,

(P) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to field citations under section 7413(d)(3) of this title,

(Q) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to urban buses or the clean-fuel vehicle, clean-fuel fleet, and clean fuel programs under part C of subchapter II,

(R) the promulgation or revision of any regulation pertaining to nonroad engines or nonroad vehicles under section 7547 of this title,

(S) the promulgation or revision of any regulation relating to motor vehicle compliance program fees under section 7552 of this title,

(T) the promulgation or revision of any regulation under subchapter IV–A (relating to acid deposition),

(U) the promulgation or revision of any regulation under section 7511b(f) of this title pertaining to marine vessels, and

(V) such other actions as the Administrator may determine.


The provisions of section 553 through 557 and section 706 of title 5 shall not, except as expressly provided in this subsection, apply to actions to which this subsection applies. This subsection shall not apply in the case of any rule or circumstance referred to in subparagraphs (A) or (B) of subsection 553(b) of title 5.

(2) Not later than the date of proposal of any action to which this subsection applies, the Administrator shall establish a rulemaking docket for such action (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as a "rule"). Whenever a rule applies only within a particular State, a second (identical) docket shall be simultaneously established in the appropriate regional office of the Environmental Protection Agency.

(3) In the case of any rule to which this subsection applies, notice of proposed rulemaking shall be published in the Federal Register, as provided under section 553(b) of title 5, shall be accompanied by a statement of its basis and purpose and shall specify the period available for public comment (hereinafter referred to as the "comment period"). The notice of proposed rulemaking shall also state the docket number, the location or locations of the docket, and the times it will be open to public inspection. The statement of basis and purpose shall include a summary of—

(A) the factual data on which the proposed rule is based;

(B) the methodology used in obtaining the data and in analyzing the data; and

(C) the major legal interpretations and policy considerations underlying the proposed rule.


The statement shall also set forth or summarize and provide a reference to any pertinent findings, recommendations, and comments by the Scientific Review Committee established under section 7409(d) of this title and the National Academy of Sciences, and, if the proposal differs in any important respect from any of these recommendations, an explanation of the reasons for such differences. All data, information, and documents referred to in this paragraph on which the proposed rule relies shall be included in the docket on the date of publication of the proposed rule.

(4)(A) The rulemaking docket required under paragraph (2) shall be open for inspection by the public at reasonable times specified in the notice of proposed rulemaking. Any person may copy documents contained in the docket. The Administrator shall provide copying facilities which may be used at the expense of the person seeking copies, but the Administrator may waive or reduce such expenses in such instances as the public interest requires. Any person may request copies by mail if the person pays the expenses, including personnel costs to do the copying.

(B)(i) Promptly upon receipt by the agency, all written comments and documentary information on the proposed rule received from any person for inclusion in the docket during the comment period shall be placed in the docket. The transcript of public hearings, if any, on the proposed rule shall also be included in the docket promptly upon receipt from the person who transcribed such hearings. All documents which become available after the proposed rule has been published and which the Administrator determines are of central relevance to the rulemaking shall be placed in the docket as soon as possible after their availability.

(ii) The drafts of proposed rules submitted by the Administrator to the Office of Management and Budget for any interagency review process prior to proposal of any such rule, all documents accompanying such drafts, and all written comments thereon by other agencies and all written responses to such written comments by the Administrator shall be placed in the docket no later than the date of proposal of the rule. The drafts of the final rule submitted for such review process prior to promulgation and all such written comments thereon, all documents accompanying such drafts, and written responses thereto shall be placed in the docket no later than the date of promulgation.

(5) In promulgating a rule to which this subsection applies (i) the Administrator shall allow any person to submit written comments, data, or documentary information; (ii) the Administrator shall give interested persons an opportunity for the oral presentation of data, views, or arguments, in addition to an opportunity to make written submissions; (iii) a transcript shall be kept of any oral presentation; and (iv) the Administrator shall keep the record of such proceeding open for thirty days after completion of the proceeding to provide an opportunity for submission of rebuttal and supplementary information.

(6)(A) The promulgated rule shall be accompanied by (i) a statement of basis and purpose like that referred to in paragraph (3) with respect to a proposed rule and (ii) an explanation of the reasons for any major changes in the promulgated rule from the proposed rule.

(B) The promulgated rule shall also be accompanied by a response to each of the significant comments, criticisms, and new data submitted in written or oral presentations during the comment period.

(C) The promulgated rule may not be based (in part or whole) on any information or data which has not been placed in the docket as of the date of such promulgation.

(7)(A) The record for judicial review shall consist exclusively of the material referred to in paragraph (3), clause (i) of paragraph (4)(B), and subparagraphs (A) and (B) of paragraph (6).

(B) Only an objection to a rule or procedure which was raised with reasonable specificity during the period for public comment (including any public hearing) may be raised during judicial review. If the person raising an objection can demonstrate to the Administrator that it was impracticable to raise such objection within such time or if the grounds for such objection arose after the period for public comment (but within the time specified for judicial review) and if such objection is of central relevance to the outcome of the rule, the Administrator shall convene a proceeding for reconsideration of the rule and provide the same procedural rights as would have been afforded had the information been available at the time the rule was proposed. If the Administrator refuses to convene such a proceeding, such person may seek review of such refusal in the United States court of appeals for the appropriate circuit (as provided in subsection (b)). Such reconsideration shall not postpone the effectiveness of the rule. The effectiveness of the rule may be stayed during such reconsideration, however, by the Administrator or the court for a period not to exceed three months.

(8) The sole forum for challenging procedural determinations made by the Administrator under this subsection shall be in the United States court of appeals for the appropriate circuit (as provided in subsection (b)) at the time of the substantive review of the rule. No interlocutory appeals shall be permitted with respect to such procedural determinations. In reviewing alleged procedural errors, the court may invalidate the rule only if the errors were so serious and related to matters of such central relevance to the rule that there is a substantial likelihood that the rule would have been significantly changed if such errors had not been made.

(9) In the case of review of any action of the Administrator to which this subsection applies, the court may reverse any such action found to be—

(A) arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law;

(B) contrary to constitutional right, power, privilege, or immunity;

(C) in excess of statutory jurisdiction, authority, or limitations, or short of statutory right; or

(D) without observance of procedure required by law, if (i) such failure to observe such procedure is arbitrary or capricious, (ii) the requirement of paragraph (7)(B) has been met, and (iii) the condition of the last sentence of paragraph (8) is met.


(10) Each statutory deadline for promulgation of rules to which this subsection applies which requires promulgation less than six months after date of proposal may be extended to not more than six months after date of proposal by the Administrator upon a determination that such extension is necessary to afford the public, and the agency, adequate opportunity to carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(11) The requirements of this subsection shall take effect with respect to any rule the proposal of which occurs after ninety days after August 7, 1977.

(e) Other methods of judicial review not authorized

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to authorize judicial review of regulations or orders of the Administrator under this chapter, except as provided in this section.

(f) Costs

In any judicial proceeding under this section, the court may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) whenever it determines that such award is appropriate.

(g) Stay, injunction, or similar relief in proceedings relating to noncompliance penalties

In any action respecting the promulgation of regulations under section 7420 of this title or the administration or enforcement of section 7420 of this title no court shall grant any stay, injunctive, or similar relief before final judgment by such court in such action.

(h) Public participation

It is the intent of Congress that, consistent with the policy of subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5, the Administrator in promulgating any regulation under this chapter, including a regulation subject to a deadline, shall ensure a reasonable period for public participation of at least 30 days, except as otherwise expressly provided in section 6 7407(d), 7502(a), 7511(a) and (b), and 7512(a) and (b) of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §307, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1707; amended Pub. L. 92–157, title III, §302(a), Nov. 18, 1971, 85 Stat. 464; Pub. L. 93–319, §6(c), June 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 259; Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §§303(d), 305(a), (c), (f)–(h), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 772, 776, 777; Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(79), (80), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §§108(p), 110(5), title III, §302(g), (h), title VII, §§702(c), 703, 706, 707(h), 710(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2469, 2470, 2574, 2681-2684.)

References in Text

Section 7521(b)(4) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §230(2), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2529.

Section 7521(b)(5) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–549, title II, §230(3), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2529.

Section 1857c–10(c)(2)(A), (B), or (C) of this title (as in effect before August 7, 1977), referred to in subsec. (b)(1), was in the original "section 119(c)(2)(A), (B), or (C) (as in effect before the date of enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1977)", meaning section 119 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, as added June 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–319, §3, 88 Stat. 248, (which was classified to section 1857c–10 of this title) as in effect prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 691, effective Aug. 7, 1977. Section 112(b)(1) of Pub. L. 95–95 repealed section 119 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title I, as added by Pub. L. 93–319, and provided that all references to such section 119 in any subsequent enactment which supersedes Pub. L. 93–319 shall be construed to refer to section 113(d) of the Clean Air Act and to paragraph (5) thereof in particular which is classified to subsec. (d)(5) of section 7413 of this title. Section 7413(d) of this title was subsequently amended generally by Pub. L. 101–549, title VII, §701, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2672, and, as so amended, no longer relates to final compliance orders. Section 117(b) of Pub. L. 95–95 added a new section 119 of act July 14, 1955, which is classified to section 7419 of this title.

Part C of subchapter I, referred to in subsec. (d)(1)(J), was in the original "subtitle C of title I", and was translated as reading "part C of title I" to reflect the probable intent of Congress, because title I does not contain subtitles.

Codification

In subsec. (h), "subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5" was substituted for "the Administrative Procedures Act" on authority of Pub. L. 89–554, §7(b), Sept. 6, 1966, 80 Stat. 631, the first section of which enacted Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–5 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 307 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 314 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7614 of this title.

Another prior section 307 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, formerly §14, as added Dec. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–206, §1, 77 Stat. 401, was renumbered section 307 by Pub. L. 89–272, renumbered section 310 by Pub. L. 90–148, and renumbered section 317 by Pub. L. 91–604, and is set out as a Short Title note under section 7401 of this title.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–549, §703, struck out par. (1) designation at beginning, inserted provisions authorizing issuance of subpoenas and administration of oaths for purposes of investigations, monitoring, reporting requirements, entries, compliance inspections, or administrative enforcement proceedings under this chapter, and struck out "or section 7521(b)(5)" after "section 7410(f)".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, §706(2), which directed amendment of second sentence by striking "under section 7413(d) of this title" immediately before "under section 7419 of this title", was executed by striking "under section 7413(d) of this title," before "under section 7419 of this title", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Pub. L. 101–549, §706(1), inserted at end: "The filing of a petition for reconsideration by the Administrator of any otherwise final rule or action shall not affect the finality of such rule or action for purposes of judicial review nor extend the time within which a petition for judicial review of such rule or action under this section may be filed, and shall not postpone the effectiveness of such rule or action."

Pub. L. 101–549, §702(c), inserted "or revising regulations for enhanced monitoring and compliance certification programs under section 7414(a)(3) of this title," before "or any other final action of the Administrator".

Pub. L. 101–549, §302(g), substituted "section 7412" for "section 7412(c)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 101–549, §707(h), inserted sentence at end authorizing challenge to deferrals of performance of nondiscretionary statutory actions.

Subsec. (d)(1)(C). Pub. L. 101–549, §110(5)(A), amended subpar. (C) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (C) read as follows: "the promulgation or revision of any standard of performance under section 7411 of this title or emission standard under section 7412 of this title,".

Subsec. (d)(1)(D), (E). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), added subpar. (D) and redesignated former subpar. (D) as (E). Former subpar. (E) redesignated (F).

Subsec. (d)(1)(F). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpar. (E) as (F). Former subpar. (F) redesignated (G).

Pub. L. 101–549, §110(5)(B), amended subpar. (F) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (F) read as follows: "promulgation or revision of regulations pertaining to orders for coal conversion under section 7413(d)(5) of this title (but not including orders granting or denying any such orders),".

Subsec. (d)(1)(G), (H). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpars. (F) and (G) as (G) and (H), respectively. Former subpar. (H) redesignated (I).

Subsec. (d)(1)(I). Pub. L. 101–549, §710(b), which directed that subpar. (H) be amended by substituting "subchapter VI" for "part B of subchapter I", was executed by making the substitution in subpar. (I), to reflect the probable intent of Congress and the intervening redesignation of subpar. (H) as (I) by Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), see below.

Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpar. (H) as (I). Former subpar. (I) redesignated (J).

Subsec. (d)(1)(J) to (M). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpars. (I) to (L) as (J) to (M), respectively. Former subpar. (M) redesignated (N).

Subsec. (d)(1)(N). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpar. (M) as (N). Former subpar. (N) redesignated (O).

Pub. L. 101–549, §110(5)(C), added subpar. (N) and redesignated former subpar. (N) as (U).

Subsec. (d)(1)(O) to (T). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpars. (N) to (S) as (O) to (T), respectively. Former subpar. (T) redesignated (U).

Pub. L. 101–549, §110(5)(C), added subpars. (O) to (T).

Subsec. (d)(1)(U). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpar. (T) as (U). Former subpar. (U) redesignated (V).

Pub. L. 101–549, §110(5)(C), redesignated former subpar. (N) as (U).

Subsec. (d)(1)(V). Pub. L. 101–549, §302(h), redesignated subpar. (U) as (V).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 101–549, §108(p), added subsec. (h).

1977—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 95–190 in text relating to filing of petitions for review in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia inserted provision respecting requirements under sections 7411 and 7412 of this title, and substituted provisions authorizing review of any rule issued under section 7413, 7419, or 7420 of this title, for provisions authorizing review of any rule or order issued under section 7420 of this title, relating to noncompliance penalties, and in text relating to filing of petitions for review in the United States Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit inserted provision respecting review under section 7411(j), 7412(c), 7413(d), or 7419 of this title, provision authorizing review under section 1857c–10(c)(2)(A), (B), or (C) to the period prior to Aug. 7, 1977, and provisions authorizing review of denials or disapprovals by the Administrator under subchapter I of this chapter.

Pub. L. 95–95, §305(c), (h), inserted rules or orders issued under section 7420 of this title (relating to noncompliance penalties) and any other nationally applicable regulations promulgated, or final action taken, by the Administrator under this chapter to the enumeration of actions of the Administrator for which a petition for review may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, added the approval or promulgation by the Administrator of orders under section 7420 of this title, or any other final action of the Administrator under this chapter which is locally or regionally applicable to the enumeration of actions by the Administrator for which a petition for review may be filed only in the United States Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit, inserted provision that petitions otherwise capable of being filed in the Court of Appeals for the appropriate circuit may be filed only in the Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia if the action is based on a determination of nationwide scope, and increased from 30 days to 60 days the period during which the petition must be filed.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–95, §305(a), added subsec. (d).

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 95–95, §303(d), added subsec. (e).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 95–95, §305(f), added subsec. (f).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 95–95, §305(g), added subsec. (g).

1974—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 93–319 inserted reference to the Administrator's action under section 1857c–10(c)(2)(A), (B), or (C) of this title or under regulations thereunder and substituted reference to the filing of a petition within 30 days from the date of promulgation, approval, or action for reference to the filing of a petition within 30 days from the date of promulgation or approval.

1971—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 92–157 substituted reference to section "7545(c)(3)" for "7545(c)(4)" of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Committees

Advisory committees established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a committee established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such committee is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a committee established by the Congress, its duration is otherwise provided for by law. See section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Pending Actions and Proceedings

Suits, actions, and other proceedings lawfully commenced by or against the Administrator or any other officer or employee of the United States in his official capacity or in relation to the discharge of his official duties under act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977], not to abate by reason of the taking effect of Pub. L. 95–95, see section 406(a) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should be "this".

3 So in original.

4 So in original. Probably should be "subsection,".

5 So in original. The word "to" probably should not appear.

6 So in original. Probably should be "sections".

§7608. Mandatory licensing

Whenever the Attorney General determines, upon application of the Administrator—

(1) that—

(A) in the implementation of the requirements of section 7411, 7412, or 7521 of this title, a right under any United States letters patent, which is being used or intended for public or commercial use and not otherwise reasonably available, is necessary to enable any person required to comply with such limitation to so comply, and

(B) there are no reasonable alternative methods to accomplish such purpose, and


(2) that the unavailability of such right may result in a substantial lessening of competition or tendency to create a monopoly in any line of commerce in any section of the country,


the Attorney General may so certify to a district court of the United States, which may issue an order requiring the person who owns such patent to license it on such reasonable terms and conditions as the court, after hearing, may determine. Such certification may be made to the district court for the district in which the person owning the patent resides, does business, or is found.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §308, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1708.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–6 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 308 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 315 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is classified to section 7615 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7609. Policy review

(a) Environmental impact

The Administrator shall review and comment in writing on the environmental impact of any matter relating to duties and responsibilities granted pursuant to this chapter or other provisions of the authority of the Administrator, contained in any (1) legislation proposed by any Federal department or agency, (2) newly authorized Federal projects for construction and any major Federal agency action (other than a project for construction) to which section 4332(2)(C) of this title applies, and (3) proposed regulations published by any department or agency of the Federal Government. Such written comment shall be made public at the conclusion of any such review.

(b) Unsatisfactory legislation, action, or regulation

In the event the Administrator determines that any such legislation, action, or regulation is unsatisfactory from the standpoint of public health or welfare or environmental quality, he shall publish his determination and the matter shall be referred to the Council on Environmental Quality.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §309, as added Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1709.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857h–7 of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 309 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, formerly §13, as added Dec. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–206, §1, 77 Stat. 401; renumbered §306, Oct. 20, 1965, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), 79 Stat. 992; renumbered §309, Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 506; renumbered §316, Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), 84 Stat. 1705, related to appropriations and was classified to section 1857l of this title, prior to repeal by section 306 of Pub. L. 95–95. See section 7626 of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7610. Other authority

(a) Authority and responsibilities under other laws not affected

Except as provided in subsection (b) of this section, this chapter shall not be construed as superseding or limiting the authorities and responsibilities, under any other provision of law, of the Administrator or any other Federal officer, department, or agency.

(b) Nonduplication of appropriations

No appropriation shall be authorized or made under section 241, 243, or 246 of this title for any fiscal year after the fiscal year ending June 30, 1964, for any purpose for which appropriations may be made under authority of this chapter.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §310, formerly §10, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 401; renumbered §303, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 505; renumbered §310 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§12(a), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705, 1713.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857i of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 310 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 317 by Pub. L. 91–604 and is set out as a Short Title note under section 7401 of this title.

Provisions similar to those in subsec. (a) of this section were contained in section 1857f of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, §7, 69 Stat. 323, prior to the general amendment of this chapter by Pub. L. 88–206.

Amendments

1970—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary".

1967—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–148 substituted reference to section 246 of this title for reference to section 246(c) of this title.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7611. Records and audit

(a) Recipients of assistance to keep prescribed records

Each recipient of assistance under this chapter shall keep such records as the Administrator shall prescribe, including records which fully disclose the amount and disposition by such recipient of the proceeds of such assistance, the total cost of the project or undertaking in connection with which such assistance is given or used, and the amount of that portion of the cost of the project or undertaking supplied by other sources, and such other records as will facilitate an effective audit.

(b) Audits

The Administrator and the Comptroller General of the United States, or any of their duly authorized representatives, shall have access for the purpose of audit and examinations to any books, documents, papers, and records of the recipients that are pertinent to the grants received under this chapter.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §311, formerly §11, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 401; renumbered §304, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; amended Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 505; renumbered §311 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§12(a), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705, 1713.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857j of this title.

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" and "Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare".

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

Modification or Rescission of Rules, Regulations, Orders, Determinations, Contracts, Certifications, Authorizations, Delegations, and Other Actions

All rules, regulations, orders, determinations, contracts, certifications, authorizations, delegations, or other actions duly issued, made, or taken by or pursuant to act July 14, 1955, the Clean Air Act, as in effect immediately prior to the date of enactment of Pub. L. 95–95 [Aug. 7, 1977] to continue in full force and effect until modified or rescinded in accordance with act July 14, 1955, as amended by Pub. L. 95–95 [this chapter], see section 406(b) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7612. Economic impact analyses

(a) Cost-benefit analysis

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, and the Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis (as established under subsection (f) of this section), shall conduct a comprehensive analysis of the impact of this chapter on the public health, economy, and environment of the United States. In performing such analysis, the Administrator should consider the costs, benefits and other effects associated with compliance with each standard issued for—

(1) a criteria air pollutant subject to a standard issued under section 7409 of this title;

(2) a hazardous air pollutant listed under section 7412 of this title, including any technology-based standard and any risk-based standard for such pollutant;

(3) emissions from mobile sources regulated under subchapter II of this chapter;

(4) a limitation under this chapter for emissions of sulfur dioxide or nitrogen oxides;

(5) a limitation under subchapter VI of this chapter on the production of any ozone-depleting substance; and

(6) any other section of this chapter.

(b) Benefits

In describing the benefits of a standard described in subsection (a), the Administrator shall consider all of the economic, public health, and environmental benefits of efforts to comply with such standard. In any case where numerical values are assigned to such benefits, a default assumption of zero value shall not be assigned to such benefits unless supported by specific data. The Administrator shall assess how benefits are measured in order to assure that damage to human health and the environment is more accurately measured and taken into account.

(c) Costs

In describing the costs of a standard described in subsection (a), the Administrator shall consider the effects of such standard on employment, productivity, cost of living, economic growth, and the overall economy of the United States.

(d) Initial report

Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, and the Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis, shall submit a report to the Congress that summarizes the results of the analysis described in subsection (a), which reports—

(1) all costs incurred previous to November 15, 1990, in the effort to comply with such standards; and

(2) all benefits that have accrued to the United States as a result of such costs.

(e) Omitted

(f) Appointment of Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis

Not later than 6 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce and the Secretary of Labor, shall appoint an Advisory Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis of not less than nine members (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Council"). In appointing such members, the Administrator shall appoint recognized experts in the fields of the health and environmental effects of air pollution, economic analysis, environmental sciences, and such other fields that the Administrator determines to be appropriate.

(g) Duties of Advisory Council

The Council shall—

(1) review the data to be used for any analysis required under this section and make recommendations to the Administrator on the use of such data;

(2) review the methodology used to analyze such data and make recommendations to the Administrator on the use of such methodology; and

(3) prior to the issuance of a report required under subsection (d) or (e), review the findings of such report, and make recommendations to the Administrator concerning the validity and utility of such findings.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §312, formerly §305, as added Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 505; renumbered §312 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§12(a), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705, 1713; Pub. L. 95–95, title II, §224(c), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 767; Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §812(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2691.)

Codification

Subsec. (e) of this section, which required the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of Commerce, the Secretary of Labor, and the Council on Clean Air Compliance Analysis, to submit a report to Congress that updates the report issued pursuant to subsec. (d) of this section, and which, in addition, makes projections into the future regarding expected costs, benefits, and other effects of compliance with standards pursuant to this chapter as listed in subsec. (a) of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, the 4th item on page 163 of House Document No. 103–7.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857j–1 of this title.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–549 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions which related to: in subsec. (a), detailed cost estimate, comprehensive cost and economic impact studies, and annual reevaluation; in subsec. (b), personnel study and report to President and Congress; and in subsec. (c), cost-effectiveness analyses.

1977—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 95–95 added subsec. (c).

1970Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" wherever appearing.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–95 effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as a note under section 7401 of this title.

Termination of Advisory Councils

Advisory councils established after Jan. 5, 1973, to terminate not later than the expiration of the 2-year period beginning on the date of their establishment, unless, in the case of a council established by the President or an officer of the Federal Government, such council is renewed by appropriate action prior to the expiration of such 2-year period, or in the case of a council established by Congress, its duration is otherwise provided by law. See sections 3(2) and 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, 776, set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Equivalent Air Quality Controls Among Trading Nations

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §811, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2690, provided that:

"(a) Findings.—The Congress finds that—

"(1) all nations have the responsibility to adopt and enforce effective air quality standards and requirements and the United States, in enacting this Act [see Tables for classification], is carrying out its responsibility in this regard;

"(2) as a result of complying with this Act, businesses in the United States will make significant capital investments and incur incremental costs in implementing control technology standards;

"(3) such compliance may impair the competitiveness of certain United States jobs, production, processes, and products if foreign goods are produced under less costly environmental standards and requirements than are United States goods; and

"(4) mechanisms should be sought through which the United States and its trading partners can agree to eliminate or reduce competitive disadvantages.

"(b) Action by the President.—

"(1) In general.—Within 18 months after the date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the President shall submit to the Congress a report—

"(A) identifying and evaluating the economic effects of—

"(i) the significant air quality standards and controls required under this Act, and

"(ii) the differences between the significant standards and controls required under this Act and similar standards and controls adopted and enforced by the major trading partners of the United States,

  on the international competitiveness of United States manufacturers; and

"(B) containing a strategy for addressing such economic effects through trade consultations and negotiations.

"(2) Additional reporting requirements.—(A) The evaluation required under paragraph (1)(A) shall examine the extent to which the significant air quality standards and controls required under this Act are comparable to existing internationally-agreed norms.

"(B) The strategy required to be developed under paragraph (1)(B) shall include recommended options (such as the harmonization of standards and trade adjustment measures) for reducing or eliminating competitive disadvantages caused by differences in standards and controls between the United States and each of its major trading partners.

"(3) Public comment.—Interested parties shall be given an opportunity to submit comments regarding the evaluations and strategy required in the report under paragraph (1). The President shall take any such comment into account in preparing the report.

"(4) Interim report.—Within 9 months after the date of the enactment of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 [Nov. 15, 1990], the President shall submit to the Congress an interim report on the progress being made in complying with paragraph (1)."

GAO Reports on Costs and Benefits

Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §812(b), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2693, which directed Comptroller General, commencing on second year after Nov. 15, 1990, and annually thereafter, in consultation with other agencies, to report to Congress on pollution control strategies and technologies required by Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, was repealed by Pub. L. 104–316, title I, §122(r), Oct. 19, 1996, 110 Stat. 3838.

§7613. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §803, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689

Section, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §313, formerly §306, as added Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 506; renumbered §313 and amended Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §§12(a), 15(c)(2), 84 Stat. 1705, 1713; Aug. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §302(b), 91 Stat. 771, required annual report to Congress on progress of programs under this chapter.

§7614. Labor standards

The Administrator shall take such action as may be necessary to insure that all laborers and mechanics employed by contractors or subcontractors on projects assisted under this chapter shall be paid wages at rates not less than those prevailing for the same type of work on similar construction in the locality as determined by the Secretary of Labor, in accordance with sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40. The Secretary of Labor shall have, with respect to the labor standards specified in this subsection,1 the authority and functions set forth in Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950 (15 F.R. 3176; 64 Stat. 1267) and section 3145 of title 40.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §314, formerly §307, as added Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 506; renumbered §314 and amended Pub. L. 91–604, §§12(a), 15(c)(2), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705, 1713.)

References in Text

Reorganization Plan Numbered 14 of 1950, referred to in text, is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Codification

In text, "sections 3141–3144, 3146, and 3147 of title 40" substituted for "the Act of March 3, 1931, as amended, known as the Davis-Bacon Act (46 Stat. 1494; 40 U.S.C. 276a—276a–5)" and "section 3145 of title 40" substituted for "section 2 of the Act of June 13, 1934, as amended (48 Stat. 948; 40 U.S.C. 276c)", on authority of Pub. L. 107–217, §5(c), Aug. 21, 2002, 116 Stat. 1303, the first section of which enacted Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works.

Section was formerly classified to section 1857j–3 of this title.

Amendments

1970Pub. L. 91–604, §15(c)(2), substituted "Administrator" for "Secretary" meaning the Secretary of Health, Education, and Welfare.

1 So in original. Probably should be "section,".

§7615. Separability

If any provision of this chapter, or the application of any provision of this chapter to any person or circumstance, is held invalid, the application of such provision to other persons or circumstances, and the remainder of this chapter shall not be affected thereby.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §315, formerly §12, as added Pub. L. 88–206, §1, Dec. 17, 1963, 77 Stat. 401; renumbered §305, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 992; renumbered §308 and amended, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, Nov. 21, 1967, 81 Stat. 506; renumbered §315, Pub. L. 91–604, §12(a), Dec. 31, 1970, 84 Stat. 1705.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 1857k of this title.

Amendments

1967Pub. L. 90–148 reenacted section without change.

§7616. Sewage treatment grants

(a) Construction

No grant which the Administrator is authorized to make to any applicant for construction of sewage treatment works in any area in any State may be withheld, conditioned, or restricted by the Administrator on the basis of any requirement of this chapter except as provided in subsection (b).

(b) Withholding, conditioning, or restriction of construction grants

The Administrator may withhold, condition, or restrict the making of any grant for construction referred to in subsection (a) only if he determines that—

(1) such treatment works will not comply with applicable standards under section 7411 or 7412 of this title,

(2) the State does not have in effect, or is not carrying out, a State implementation plan approved by the Administrator which expressly quantifies and provides for the increase in emissions of each air pollutant (from stationary and mobile sources in any area to which either part C or part D of subchapter I applies for such pollutant) which increase may reasonably be anticipated to result directly or indirectly from the new sewage treatment capacity which would be created by such construction.1

(3) the construction of such treatment works would create new sewage treatment capacity which—

(A) may reasonably be anticipated to cause or contribute to, directly or indirectly, an increase in emissions of any air pollutant in excess of the increase provided for under the provisions referred to in paragraph (2) for any such area, or

(B) would otherwise not be in conformity with the applicable implementation plan, or


(4) such increase in emissions would interfere with, or be inconsistent with, the applicable implementation plan for any other State.


In the case of construction of a treatment works which would result, directly or indirectly, in an increase in emissions of any air pollutant from stationary and mobile sources in an area to which part D of subchapter I applies, the quantification of emissions referred to in paragraph (2) shall include the emissions of any such pollutant resulting directly or indirectly from areawide and nonmajor stationary source growth (mobile and stationary) for each such area.

(c) National Environmental Policy Act

Nothing in this section shall be construed to amend or alter any provision of the National Environmental Policy Act [42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.] or to affect any determination as to whether or not the requirements of such Act have been met in the case of the construction of any sewage treatment works.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §316, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §306, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 777.)

References in Text

The National Environmental Policy Act, referred to in subsec. (c), probably means the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969, Pub. L. 91–190, Jan. 1, 1970, 83 Stat. 852, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 55 (§4321 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4321 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 316 of act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, formerly §13, as added Dec. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–206, §1, 77 Stat. 401; renumbered §306 and amended Oct. 20, 1965, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), (6), (7), 79 Stat. 992; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–675, §2(a), 80 Stat. 954; renumbered §309 and amended Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 506; renumbered §316 and amended Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §§12(a), 13(b), 84 Stat. 1705, 1709; Apr. 9, 1973, Pub. L. 93–15, §1(c), 87 Stat. 11; June 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–319, §13(c), 88 Stat. 265, authorized appropriations for air pollution control, prior to repeal by section 306 of Pub. L. 95–95. See section 7626 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. The period probably should be a comma.

§7617. Economic impact assessment

(a) Notice of proposed rulemaking; substantial revisions

This section applies to action of the Administrator in promulgating or revising—

(1) any new source standard of performance under section 7411 of this title,

(2) any regulation under section 7411(d) of this title,

(3) any regulation under part B 1 of subchapter I (relating to ozone and stratosphere protection),

(4) any regulation under part C of subchapter I (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality),

(5) any regulation establishing emission standards under section 7521 of this title and any other regulation promulgated under that section,

(6) any regulation controlling or prohibiting any fuel or fuel additive under section 7545(c) of this title, and

(7) any aircraft emission standard under section 7571 of this title.


Nothing in this section shall apply to any standard or regulation described in paragraphs (1) through (7) of this subsection unless the notice of proposed rulemaking in connection with such standard or regulation is published in the Federal Register after the date ninety days after August 7, 1977. In the case of revisions of such standards or regulations, this section shall apply only to revisions which the Administrator determines to be substantial revisions.

(b) Preparation of assessment by Administrator

Before publication of notice of proposed rulemaking with respect to any standard or regulation to which this section applies, the Administrator shall prepare an economic impact assessment respecting such standard or regulation. Such assessment shall be included in the docket required under section 7607(d)(2) of this title and shall be available to the public as provided in section 7607(d)(4) of this title. Notice of proposed rulemaking shall include notice of such availability together with an explanation of the extent and manner in which the Administrator has considered the analysis contained in such economic impact assessment in proposing the action. The Administrator shall also provide such an explanation in his notice of promulgation of any regulation or standard referred to in subsection (a). Each such explanation shall be part of the statements of basis and purpose required under sections 7607(d)(3) and 7607(d)(6) of this title.

(c) Analysis

Subject to subsection (d), the assessment required under this section with respect to any standard or regulation shall contain an analysis of—

(1) the costs of compliance with any such standard or regulation, including extent to which the costs of compliance will vary depending on (A) the effective date of the standard or regulation, and (B) the development of less expensive, more efficient means or methods of compliance with the standard or regulation;

(2) the potential inflationary or recessionary effects of the standard or regulation;

(3) the effects on competition of the standard or regulation with respect to small business;

(4) the effects of the standard or regulation on consumer costs; and

(5) the effects of the standard or regulation on energy use.


Nothing in this section shall be construed to provide that the analysis of the factors specified in this subsection affects or alters the factors which the Administrator is required to consider in taking any action referred to in subsection (a).

(d) Extensiveness of assessment

The assessment required under this section shall be as extensive as practicable, in the judgment of the Administrator taking into account the time and resources available to the Environmental Protection Agency and other duties and authorities which the Administrator is required to carry out under this chapter.

(e) Limitations on construction of section

Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to alter the basis on which a standard or regulation is promulgated under this chapter;

(2) to preclude the Administrator from carrying out his responsibility under this chapter to protect public health and welfare; or

(3) to authorize or require any judicial review of any such standard or regulation, or any stay or injunction of the proposal, promulgation, or effectiveness of such standard or regulation on the basis of failure to comply with this section.

(f) Citizen suits

The requirements imposed on the Administrator under this section shall be treated as nondiscretionary duties for purposes of section 7604(a)(2) of this title, relating to citizen suits. The sole method for enforcement of the Administrator's duty under this section shall be by bringing a citizen suit under such section 7604(a)(2) for a court order to compel the Administrator to perform such duty. Violation of any such order shall subject the Administrator to penalties for contempt of court.

(g) Costs

In the case of any provision of this chapter in which costs are expressly required to be taken into account, the adequacy or inadequacy of any assessment required under this section may be taken into consideration, but shall not be treated for purposes of judicial review of any such provision as conclusive with respect to compliance or noncompliance with the requirement of such provision to take cost into account.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §317, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §307, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 778; amended Pub. L. 95–623, §13(d), Nov. 9, 1978, 92 Stat. 3458.)

References in Text

Part B of subchapter I, referred to in subsec. (a)(3), was repealed by Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §601, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2648. See subchapter VI (§7671 et seq.) of this chapter.

Codification

Another section 317 of act July 14, 1955, is set out as a Short Title note under section 7401 of this title.

Amendments

1978—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 95–623 substituted "section 7411" for "section 7411(b)".

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§7618. Repealed. Pub. L. 101–549, title I, §108(q), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2469

Section, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §318, as added Aug. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §308, 91 Stat. 780, related to financial disclosure and conflicts of interest.

§7619. Air quality monitoring

(a) In general

After notice and opportunity for public hearing, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations establishing an air quality monitoring system throughout the United States which—

(1) utilizes uniform air quality monitoring criteria and methodology and measures such air quality according to a uniform air quality index,

(2) provides for air quality monitoring stations in major urban areas and other appropriate areas throughout the United States to provide monitoring such as will supplement (but not duplicate) air quality monitoring carried out by the States required under any applicable implementation plan,

(3) provides for daily analysis and reporting of air quality based upon such uniform air quality index, and

(4) provides for recordkeeping with respect to such monitoring data and for periodic analysis and reporting to the general public by the Administrator with respect to air quality based upon such data.


The operation of such air quality monitoring system may be carried out by the Administrator or by such other departments, agencies, or entities of the Federal Government (including the National Weather Service) as the President may deem appropriate. Any air quality monitoring system required under any applicable implementation plan under section 7410 of this title shall, as soon as practicable following promulgation of regulations under this section, utilize the standard criteria and methodology, and measure air quality according to the standard index, established under such regulations.

(b) Air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events

(1) Definition of exceptional event

In this section:

(A) In general

The term "exceptional event" means an event that—

(i) affects air quality;

(ii) is not reasonably controllable or preventable;

(iii) is an event caused by human activity that is unlikely to recur at a particular location or a natural event; and

(iv) is determined by the Administrator through the process established in the regulations promulgated under paragraph (2) to be an exceptional event.

(B) Exclusions

In this subsection, the term "exceptional event" does not include—

(i) stagnation of air masses or meteorological inversions;

(ii) a meteorological event involving high temperatures or lack of precipitation; or

(iii) air pollution relating to source noncompliance.

(2) Regulations

(A) Proposed regulations

Not later than March 1, 2006, after consultation with Federal land managers and State air pollution control agencies, the Administrator shall publish in the Federal Register proposed regulations governing the review and handling of air quality monitoring data influenced by exceptional events.

(B) Final regulations

Not later than 1 year after the date on which the Administrator publishes proposed regulations under subparagraph (A), and after providing an opportunity for interested persons to make oral presentations of views, data, and arguments regarding the proposed regulations, the Administrator shall promulgate final regulations governing the review and handling or 1 air quality monitoring data influenced by an exceptional event that are consistent with paragraph (3).

(3) Principles and requirements

(A) Principles

In promulgating regulations under this section, the Administrator shall follow—

(i) the principle that protection of public health is the highest priority;

(ii) the principle that timely information should be provided to the public in any case in which the air quality is unhealthy;

(iii) the principle that all ambient air quality data should be included in a timely manner,2 an appropriate Federal air quality database that is accessible to the public;

(iv) the principle that each State must take necessary measures to safeguard public health regardless of the source of the air pollution; and

(v) the principle that air quality data should be carefully screened to ensure that events not likely to recur are represented accurately in all monitoring data and analyses.

(B) Requirements

Regulations promulgated under this section shall, at a minimum, provide that—

(i) the occurrence of an exceptional event must be demonstrated by reliable, accurate data that is promptly produced and provided by Federal, State, or local government agencies;

(ii) a clear causal relationship must exist between the measured exceedances of a national ambient air quality standard and the exceptional event to demonstrate that the exceptional event caused a specific air pollution concentration at a particular air quality monitoring location;

(iii) there is a public process for determining whether an event is exceptional; and

(iv) there are criteria and procedures for the Governor of a State to petition the Administrator to exclude air quality monitoring data that is directly due to exceptional events from use in determinations by the Administrator with respect to exceedances or violations of the national ambient air quality standards.

(4) Interim provision

Until the effective date of a regulation promulgated under paragraph (2), the following guidance issued by the Administrator shall continue to apply:

(A) Guidance on the identification and use of air quality data affected by exceptional events (July 1986).

(B) Areas affected by PM–10 natural events, May 30, 1996.

(C) Appendices I, K, and N to part 50 of title 40, Code of Federal Regulations.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §319, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §309, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 781; amended Pub. L. 109–59, title VI, §6013(a), Aug. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 1882.)

Amendments

2005Pub. L. 109–59 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted "After notice and opportunity for public hearing" for "Not later than one year after August 7, 1977, and after notice and opportunity for public hearing", and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be "of".

2 So in original. Probably should be followed by "in".

§7620. Standardized air quality modeling

(a) Conferences

Not later than six months after August 7, 1977, and at least every three years thereafter, the Administrator shall conduct a conference on air quality modeling. In conducting such conference, special attention shall be given to appropriate modeling necessary for carrying out part C of subchapter I (relating to prevention of significant deterioration of air quality).

(b) Conferees

The conference conducted under this section shall provide for participation by the National Academy of Sciences, representatives of State and local air pollution control agencies, and appropriate Federal agencies, including the National Science Foundation; 1 the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the National Institute of Standards and Technology.

(c) Comments; transcripts

Interested persons shall be permitted to submit written comments and a verbatim transcript of the conference proceedings shall be maintained.

(d) Promulgation and revision of regulations relating to air quality modeling

The comments submitted and the transcript maintained pursuant to subsection (c) shall be included in the docket required to be established for purposes of promulgating or revising any regulation relating to air quality modeling under part C of subchapter I.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §320, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §310, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 782; amended Pub. L. 100–418, title V, §5115(c), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1433.)

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–418 substituted "National Institute of Standards and Technology" for "National Bureau of Standards".

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original. The semicolon probably should be a comma.

§7621. Employment effects

(a) Continuous evaluation of potential loss or shifts of employment

The Administrator shall conduct continuing evaluations of potential loss or shifts of employment which may result from the administration or enforcement of the provision of this chapter and applicable implementation plans, including where appropriate, investigating threatened plant closures or reductions in employment allegedly resulting from such administration or enforcement.

(b) Request for investigation; hearings; record; report

Any employee, or any representative of such employee, who is discharged or laid off, threatened with discharge or layoff, or whose employment is otherwise adversely affected or threatened to be adversely affected because of the alleged results of any requirement imposed or proposed to be imposed under this chapter, including any requirement applicable to Federal facilities and any requirement imposed by a State or political subdivision thereof, may request the Administrator to conduct a full investigation of the matter. Any such request shall be reduced to writing, shall set forth with reasonable particularity the grounds for the request, and shall be signed by the employee, or representative of such employee, making the request. The Administrator shall thereupon investigate the matter and, at the request of any party, shall hold public hearings on not less than five days' notice. At such hearings, the Administrator shall require the parties, including the employer involved, to present information relating to the actual or potential effect of such requirements on employment and the detailed reasons or justification therefor. If the Administrator determines that there are no reasonable grounds for conducting a public hearing he shall notify (in writing) the party requesting such hearing of such a determination and the reasons therefor. If the Administrator does convene such a hearing, the hearing shall be on the record. Upon receiving the report of such investigation, the Administrator shall make findings of fact as to the effect of such requirements on employment and on the alleged actual or potential discharge, layoff, or other adverse effect on employment, and shall make such recommendations as he deems appropriate. Such report, findings, and recommendations shall be available to the public.

(c) Subpenas; confidential information; witnesses; penalty

In connection with any investigation or public hearing conducted under subsection (b) of this section or as authorized in section 7419 of this title (relating to primary nonferrous smelter orders), the Administrator may issue subpenas for the attendance and testimony of witnesses and the production of relevant papers, books and documents, and he may administer oaths. Except for emission data, upon a showing satisfactory to the Administrator by such owner or operator that such papers, books, documents, or information or particular part thereof, if made public, would divulge trade secrets or secret processes of such owner, or operator, the Administrator shall consider such record, report, or information or particular portion thereof confidential in accordance with the purposes of section 1905 of title 18, except that such paper, book, document, or information may be disclosed to other officers, employees, or authorized representatives of the United States concerned with carrying out this chapter, or when relevant in any proceeding under this chapter. Witnesses summoned shall be paid the same fees and mileage that are paid witnesses in the courts of the United States. In cases of contumacy or refusal to obey a subpena served upon any person under this subparagraph,1 the district court of the United States for any district in which such person is found or resides or transacts business, upon application by the United States and after notice to such person, shall have jurisdiction to issue an order requiring such person to appear and give testimony before the Administrator, to appear and produce papers, books, and documents before the Administrator, or both, and any failure to obey such order of the court may be punished by such court as a contempt thereof.

(d) Limitations on construction of section

Nothing in this section shall be construed to require or authorize the Administrator, the States, or political subdivisions thereof, to modify or withdraw any requirement imposed or proposed to be imposed under this chapter.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §321, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §311, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 782.)

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

Study of Potential Dislocation of Employees

Pub. L. 95–95, title IV, §403(e), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 793, provided that the Secretary of Labor, in consultation with the Administrator, conduct a study of potential dislocation of employees due to implementation of laws administered by the Administrator and that the Secretary submit to Congress the results of the study not more than one year after Aug. 7, 1977.

1 So in original. Probably should be "subsection,"

§7622. Employee protection

(a) Discharge or discrimination prohibited

No employer may discharge any employee or otherwise discriminate against any employee with respect to his compensation, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment because the employee (or any person acting pursuant to a request of the employee)—

(1) commenced, caused to be commenced, or is about to commence or cause to be commenced a proceeding under this chapter or a proceeding for the administration or enforcement of any requirement imposed under this chapter or under any applicable implementation plan,

(2) testified or is about to testify in any such proceeding, or

(3) assisted or participated or is about to assist or participate in any manner in such a proceeding or in any other action to carry out the purposes of this chapter.

(b) Complaint charging unlawful discharge or discrimination; investigation; order

(1) Any employee who believes that he has been discharged or otherwise discriminated against by any person in violation of subsection (a) may, within thirty days after such violation occurs, file (or have any person file on his behalf) a complaint with the Secretary of Labor (hereinafter in this subsection referred to as the "Secretary") alleging such discharge or discrimination. Upon receipt of such a complaint, the Secretary shall notify the person named in the complaint of the filing of the complaint.

(2)(A) Upon receipt of a complaint filed under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall conduct an investigation of the violation alleged in the complaint. Within thirty days of the receipt of such complaint, the Secretary shall complete such investigation and shall notify in writing the complainant (and any person acting in his behalf) and the person alleged to have committed such violation of the results of the investigation conducted pursuant to this subparagraph. Within ninety days of the receipt of such complaint the Secretary shall, unless the proceeding on the complaint is terminated by the Secretary on the basis of a settlement entered into by the Secretary and the person alleged to have committed such violation, issue an order either providing the relief prescribed by subparagraph (B) or denying the complaint. An order of the Secretary shall be made on the record after notice and opportunity for public hearing. The Secretary may not enter into a settlement terminating a proceeding on a complaint without the participation and consent of the complainant.

(B) If, in response to a complaint filed under paragraph (1), the Secretary determines that a violation of subsection (a) has occurred, the Secretary shall order the person who committed such violation to (i) take affirmative action to abate the violation, and (ii) reinstate the complainant to his former position together with the compensation (including back pay), terms, conditions, and privileges of his employment, and the Secretary may order such person to provide compensatory damages to the complainant. If an order is issued under this paragraph, the Secretary, at the request of the complainant, shall assess against the person against whom the order is issued a sum equal to the aggregate amount of all costs and expenses (including attorneys' and expert witness fees) reasonably incurred, as determined by the Secretary, by the complainant for, or in connection with, the bringing of the complaint upon which the order was issued.

(c) Review

(1) Any person adversely affected or aggrieved by an order issued under subsection (b) may obtain review of the order in the United States court of appeals for the circuit in which the violation, with respect to which the order was issued, allegedly occurred. The petition for review must be filed within sixty days from the issuance of the Secretary's order. Review shall conform to chapter 7 of title 5. The commencement of proceedings under this subparagraph 1 shall not, unless ordered by the court, operate as a stay of the Secretary's order.

(2) An order of the Secretary with respect to which review could have been obtained under paragraph (1) shall not be subject to judicial review in any criminal or other civil proceeding.

(d) Enforcement of order by Secretary

Whenever a person has failed to comply with an order issued under subsection (b)(2), the Secretary may file a civil action in the United States district court for the district in which the violation was found to occur to enforce such order. In actions brought under this subsection, the district courts shall have jurisdiction to grant all appropriate relief including, but not limited to, injunctive relief, compensatory, and exemplary damages.

(e) Enforcement of order by person on whose behalf order was issued

(1) Any person on whose behalf an order was issued under paragraph (2) of subsection (b) may commence a civil action against the person to whom such order was issued to require compliance with such order. The appropriate United States district court shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or the citizenship of the parties, to enforce such order.

(2) The court, in issuing any final order under this subsection, may award costs of litigation (including reasonable attorney and expert witness fees) to any party whenever the court determines such award is appropriate.

(f) Mandamus

Any nondiscretionary duty imposed by this section shall be enforceable in a mandamus proceeding brought under section 1361 of title 28.

(g) Deliberate violation by employee

Subsection (a) shall not apply with respect to any employee who, acting without direction from his employer (or the employer's agent), deliberately causes a violation of any requirement of this chapter.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §322, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §312, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 783.)

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 So in original.

§7623. Repealed. Pub. L. 96–300, §1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831

Section, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §323, as added Aug. 7, 1977, Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §313, 91 Stat. 785; amended Nov. 16, 1977, Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(81), 91 Stat. 1404; S. Res. 4, Feb. 4, 1977; H. Res. 549, Mar. 25, 1980; July 2, 1980, Pub. L. 96–300, §1(a), 94 Stat. 831, established a National Commission on Air Quality, prescribed numerous subjects for study and report to Congress, enumerated specific questions for study and investigation, required specific identification of loss or irretrievable commitment of resources, and provided for appointment and confirmation of its membership, cooperation of Federal executive agencies, submission of a National Academy of Sciences study to Congress, compensation and travel expenses, termination of Commission, appointment and compensation of staff, and public participation.

Effective Date of Repeal

Pub. L. 96–300, §1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831, provided that this section is repealed on date on which National Commission on Air Quality ceases to exist pursuant to provisions of former subsec. (g) of this section, which provided that not later than Mar. 1, 1981, a report be submitted containing results of all Commission studies and investigations and that Commission cease to exist on Mar. 1, 1981, if report is not submitted on Mar. 1, 1981, or Commission would cease to exist on such date, but not later than May 1, 1981, as determined and ordered by Commission if report is submitted on Mar. 1, 1981.

National Commission on Air Quality; Extension Prohibition

Pub. L. 96–300, §1(d), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831, provided that nothing in any other authority of law shall be construed to authorize or permit the extension of the National Commission on Air Quality pursuant to any Executive order or other Executive or agency action.

§7624. Cost of vapor recovery equipment

(a) Costs to be borne by owner of retail outlet

The regulations under this chapter applicable to vapor recovery with respect to mobile source fuels at retail outlets of such fuels shall provide that the cost of procurement and installation of such vapor recovery shall be borne by the owner of such outlet (as determined under such regulations). Except as provided in subsection (b), such regulations shall provide that no lease of a retail outlet by the owner thereof which is entered into or renewed after August 7, 1977, may provide for a payment by the lessee of the cost of procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment. Such regulations shall also provide that the cost of procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment may be recovered by the owner of such outlet by means of price increases in the cost of any product sold by such owner, notwithstanding any provision of law.

(b) Payment by lessee

The regulations of the Administrator referred to in subsection (a) shall permit a lease of a retail outlet to provide for payment by the lessee of the cost of procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment over a reasonable period (as determined in accordance with such regulations), if the owner of such outlet does not sell, trade in, or otherwise dispense any product at wholesale or retail at such outlet.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §323, formerly §324, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §314(a), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 788; amended Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(82), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; renumbered §323 and amended Pub. L. 96–300, §1(b), (c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 323 of act July 14, 1955, was classified to section 7623 of this title prior to repeal by Pub. L. 96–300, §1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831.

Amendments

1980Pub. L. 96–300, §1(b), which directed that last sentence of this section be struck out was probably intended to strike sentence purportedly added by Pub. L. 95–190. See 1977 Amendment note below and section 7623(i) of this title.

1977Pub. L. 95–190 which purported to amend subsec. (j) of this section by inserting "The Commission may appoint and fix the pay of such staff as it deems necessary." after "(j)" was not executed to this section because it did not contain a subsec. (j). See 1980 Amendment note above.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7625. Vapor recovery for small business marketers of petroleum products

(a) Marketers of gasoline

The regulations under this chapter applicable to vapor recovery from fueling of motor vehicles at retail outlets of gasoline shall not apply to any outlet owned by an independent small business marketer of gasoline having monthly sales of less than 50,000 gallons. In the case of any other outlet owned by an independent small business marketer, such regulations shall provide, with respect to independent small business marketers of gasoline, for a three-year phase-in period for the installation of such vapor recovery equipment at such outlets under which such marketers shall have—

(1) 33 percent of such outlets in compliance at the end of the first year during which such regulations apply to such marketers,

(2) 66 percent at the end of such second year, and

(3) 100 percent at the end of the third year.

(b) State requirements

Nothing in subsection (a) shall be construed to prohibit any State from adopting or enforcing, with respect to independent small business marketers of gasoline having monthly sales of less than 50,000 gallons, any vapor recovery requirements for mobile source fuels at retail outlets. Any vapor recovery requirement which is adopted by a State and submitted to the Administrator as part of its implementation plan may be approved and enforced by the Administrator as part of the applicable implementation plan for that State.

(c) Refiners

For purposes of this section, an independent small business marketer of gasoline is a person engaged in the marketing of gasoline who would be required to pay for procurement and installation of vapor recovery equipment under section 7624 1 of this title or under regulations of the Administrator, unless such person—

(1)(A) is a refiner, or 2

(B) controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, a refiner,

(C) is otherwise directly or indirectly affiliated (as determined under the regulations of the Administrator) with a refiner or with a person who controls, is controlled by, or is under a common control with a refiner (unless the sole affiliation referred to herein is by means of a supply contract or an agreement or contract to use a trademark, trade name, service mark, or other identifying symbol or name owned by such refiner or any such person), or

(2) receives less than 50 percent of his annual income from refining or marketing of gasoline.


For the purpose of this section, the term "refiner" shall not include any refiner whose total refinery capacity (including the refinery capacity of any person who controls, is controlled by, or is under common control with, such refiner) does not exceed 65,000 barrels per day. For purposes of this section, "control" of a corporation means ownership of more than 50 percent of its stock.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §324, formerly §325, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §314(b), Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 789; renumbered §324, Pub. L. 96–300, §1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831.)

References in Text

Section 7624 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c), was in the original "section 324 of this Act", meaning section 324 of the Act July 14, 1955. Sections 324 and 325 of that Act, were renumbered sections 323 and 324, respectively, by Pub. L. 96–300, §1(b), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831, and are classified to sections 7624 and 7625, respectively, of this title.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 324 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 323 by Pub. L. 96–300 and is classified to section 7624 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. The word "or" probably should appear at the end of subpar. (B).

§7625–1. Exemptions for certain territories

(a)(1) Upon petition by the governor 1 of Guam, American Samoa, the Virgin Islands, or the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, the Administrator is authorized to exempt any person or source or class of persons or sources in such territory from any requirement under this chapter other than section 7412 of this title or any requirement under section 7410 of this title or part D 2 necessary to attain or maintain a national primary ambient air quality standard. Such exemption may be granted if the Administrator finds that compliance with such requirement is not feasible or is unreasonable due to unique geographical, meteorological, or economic factors of such territory, or such other local factors as the Administrator deems significant. Any such petition shall be considered in accordance with section 7607(d) of this title and any exemption under this subsection shall be considered final action by the Administrator for the purposes of section 7607(b) of this title.

(2) The Administrator shall promptly notify the Committees on Energy and Commerce and on Natural Resources of the House of Representatives and the Committees on Environment and Public Works and on Energy and Natural Resources of the Senate upon receipt of any petition under this subsection and of the approval or rejection of such petition and the basis for such action.

(b) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, any fossil fuel fired steam electric power plant operating within Guam as of December 8, 1983, is hereby exempted from:

(1) any requirement of the new source performance standards relating to sulfur dioxide promulgated under section 7411 of this title as of December 8, 1983; and

(2) any regulation relating to sulfur dioxide standards or limitations contained in a State implementation plan approved under section 7410 of this title as of December 8, 1983: Provided, That such exemption shall expire eighteen months after December 8, 1983, unless the Administrator determines that such plant is making all emissions reductions practicable to prevent exceedances of the national ambient air quality standards for sulfur dioxide.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §325, as added Pub. L. 98–213, §11, Dec. 8, 1983, 97 Stat. 1461; amended Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §806, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2689; Pub. L. 103–437, §15(s), Nov. 2, 1994, 108 Stat. 4594.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 325 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 326 by Pub. L. 98–213 and is classified to section 7625a of this title.

Another prior section 325 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 324 by Pub. L. 96–300 and is classified to section 7625 of this title.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 103–437 substituted "Natural Resources" for "Interior and Insular Affairs" before "of the House".

1990—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 101–549, which directed the insertion of "the Virgin Islands," after "American Samoa," in "[s]ection 324(a)(1) of the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7625–1(a)(1))", was executed by making the insertion in subsec. (a)(1) of this section to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Change of Name

Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives treated as referring to Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives by section 1(a) of Pub. L. 104–14, set out as a note preceding section 21 of Title 2, The Congress. Committee on Commerce of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Energy and Commerce of House of Representatives, and jurisdiction over matters relating to securities and exchanges and insurance generally transferred to Committee on Financial Services of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Seventh Congress, Jan. 3, 2001.

1 So in original. Probably should be capitalized.

2 So in original. Probably should refer to part D of subchapter I.

§7625a. Statutory construction

The parenthetical cross references in any provision of this chapter to other provisions of the chapter, or other provisions of law, where the words "relating to" or "pertaining to" are used, are made only for convenience, and shall be given no legal effect.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §326, as added Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(84), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; renumbered §325, Pub. L. 96–300, §1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831; renumbered §326, Pub. L. 98–213, §11, Dec. 8, 1983, 97 Stat. 1461.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 326 of act July 14, 1955, was renumbered section 327 by Pub. L. 98–213 and is classified to section 7626 of this title.

§7626. Authorization of appropriations

(a) In general

There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter such sums as may be necessary for the 7 fiscal years commencing after November 15, 1990.

(b) Grants for planning

There are authorized to be appropriated (1) not more than $50,000,000 to carry out section 7505 of this title beginning in fiscal year 1991, to be available until expended, to develop plan revisions required by subpart 2, 3, or 4 of part D of subchapter I, and (2) not more than $15,000,000 for each of the 7 fiscal years commencing after November 15, 1990, to make grants to the States to prepare implementation plans as required by subpart 2, 3, or 4 of part D of subchapter I.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §327, formerly §325, as added Pub. L. 95–95, title III, §315, Aug. 7, 1977, 91 Stat. 790; renumbered §327 and amended Pub. L. 95–190, §14(a)(83), Nov. 16, 1977, 91 Stat. 1404; renumbered §326, Pub. L. 96–300, §1(c), July 2, 1980, 94 Stat. 831; renumbered §327, Pub. L. 98–213, §11, Dec. 8, 1983, 97 Stat. 1461; Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §822, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2699.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 1857l of this title, act July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §316, formerly §13, as added Dec. 17, 1963, Pub. L. 88–206, §1, 77 Stat. 401; renumbered §306 and amended Oct. 20, 1965, Pub. L. 89–272, title I, §101(4), (6), (7), 79 Stat. 992; Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–675, §2(a), 80 Stat. 954; renumbered §309 and amended Nov. 21, 1967, Pub. L. 90–148, §2, 81 Stat. 506; renumbered §316 and amended Dec. 31, 1970, Pub. L. 91–604, §§12(a), 13(b), 84 Stat. 1705, 1709; Apr. 9, 1973, Pub. L. 93–15, §1(c), 87 Stat. 11; June 22, 1974, Pub. L. 93–319, §13(c), 88 Stat. 265, prior to repeal by section 306 of Pub. L. 95–95.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–549 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions authorizing specific appropriations for certain programs and periods and appropriations of $200,000,000 for fiscal years 1978 through 1981 to carry out the other programs under this chapter.

1977—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 95–190 substituted "section 7403(a)(5)" for "section 7403(b)(5)".

Effective Date

Section effective Aug. 7, 1977, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 406(d) of Pub. L. 95–95, set out as an Effective Date of 1977 Amendment note under section 7401 of this title.

§7627. Air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf activities

(a) Applicable requirements for certain areas

(1) In general

Not later than 12 months after November 15, 1990, following consultation with the Secretary of the Interior and the Commandant of the United States Coast Guard, the Administrator, by rule, shall establish requirements to control air pollution from Outer Continental Shelf sources located offshore of the States along the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic Coasts (other than Outer Continental Shelf sources located offshore of the North Slope Borough of the State of Alaska), and along the United States Gulf Coast off the State of Florida eastward of longitude 87 degrees and 30 minutes ("OCS sources") to attain and maintain Federal and State ambient air quality standards and to comply with the provisions of part C of subchapter I. For such sources located within 25 miles of the seaward boundary of such States, such requirements shall be the same as would be applicable if the source were located in the corresponding onshore area, and shall include, but not be limited to, State and local requirements for emission controls, emission limitations, offsets, permitting, monitoring, testing, and reporting. New OCS sources shall comply with such requirements on the date of promulgation and existing OCS sources shall comply on the date 24 months thereafter. The Administrator shall update such requirements as necessary to maintain consistency with onshore regulations and this chapter. The authority of this subsection shall supersede section 5(a)(8) of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act [43 U.S.C. 1334(a)(8)] but shall not repeal or modify any other Federal, State, or local authorities with respect to air quality. Each requirement established under this section shall be treated, for purposes of sections 7413, 7414, 7416, 7420, and 7604 of this title, as a standard under section 7411 of this title and a violation of any such requirement shall be considered a violation of section 7411(e) of this title.

(2) Exemptions

The Administrator may exempt an OCS source from a specific requirement in effect under regulations under this subsection if the Administrator finds that compliance with a pollution control technology requirement is technically infeasible or will cause an unreasonable threat to health and safety. The Administrator shall make written findings explaining the basis of any exemption issued pursuant to this subsection and shall impose another requirement equal to or as close in stringency to the original requirement as possible. The Administrator shall ensure that any increase in emissions due to the granting of an exemption is offset by reductions in actual emissions, not otherwise required by this chapter, from the same source or other sources in the area or in the corresponding onshore area. The Administrator shall establish procedures to provide for public notice and comment on exemptions proposed pursuant to this subsection.

(3) State procedures

Each State adjacent to an OCS source included under this subsection may promulgate and submit to the Administrator regulations for implementing and enforcing the requirements of this subsection. If the Administrator finds that the State regulations are adequate, the Administrator shall delegate to that State any authority the Administrator has under this chapter to implement and enforce such requirements. Nothing in this subsection shall prohibit the Administrator from enforcing any requirement of this section.

(4) Definitions

For purposes of subsections (a) and (b)—

(A) Outer Continental Shelf

The term "Outer Continental Shelf" has the meaning provided by section 2 of the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (43 U.S.C. 1331).

(B) Corresponding onshore area

The term "corresponding onshore area" means, with respect to any OCS source, the onshore attainment or nonattainment area that is closest to the source, unless the Administrator determines that another area with more stringent requirements with respect to the control and abatement of air pollution may reasonably be expected to be affected by such emissions. Such determination shall be based on the potential for air pollutants from the OCS source to reach the other onshore area and the potential of such air pollutants to affect the efforts of the other onshore area to attain or maintain any Federal or State ambient air quality standard or to comply with the provisions of part C of subchapter I.

(C) Outer Continental Shelf source

The terms "Outer Continental Shelf source" and "OCS source" include any equipment, activity, or facility which—

(i) emits or has the potential to emit any air pollutant,

(ii) is regulated or authorized under the Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act [43 U.S.C. 1331 et seq.], and

(iii) is located on the Outer Continental Shelf or in or on waters above the Outer Continental Shelf.


Such activities include, but are not limited to, platform and drill ship exploration, construction, development, production, processing, and transportation. For purposes of this subsection, emissions from any vessel servicing or associated with an OCS source, including emissions while at the OCS source or en route to or from the OCS source within 25 miles of the OCS source, shall be considered direct emissions from the OCS source.

(D) New and existing OCS sources

The term "new OCS source" means an OCS source which is a new source within the meaning of section 7411(a) of this title. The term "existing OCS source" means any OCS source other than a new OCS source.

(b) Requirements for other offshore areas

For portions of the United States Outer Continental Shelf that are adjacent to the States not covered by subsection (a) which are Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama or are adjacent to the North Slope Borough of the State of Alaska, the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator to assure coordination of air pollution control regulation for Outer Continental Shelf emissions and emissions in adjacent onshore areas. Concurrently with this obligation, the Secretary shall complete within 3 years of November 15, 1990, a research study examining the impacts of emissions from Outer Continental Shelf activities in such areas that fail to meet the national ambient air quality standards for either ozone or nitrogen dioxide. Based on the results of this study, the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator and determine if any additional actions are necessary. There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to provide funding for the study required under this section.

(c) Coastal waters

(1) The study report of section 7412(n) 1 of this title shall apply to the coastal waters of the United States to the same extent and in the same manner as such requirements apply to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and their tributary waters.

(2) The regulatory requirements of section 7412(n) 1 of this title shall apply to the coastal waters of the States which are subject to subsection (a) of this section, to the same extent and in the same manner as such requirements apply to the Great Lakes, the Chesapeake Bay, and their tributary waters.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §328, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VIII, §801, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2685; amended Pub. L. 112–74, div. E, title IV, §432(b), (c), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1048, 1049.)

References in Text

The Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(4)(C)(ii), is act Aug. 7, 1953, ch. 345, 67 Stat. 462, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter III (§1331 et seq.) of chapter 29 of Title 43, Public Lands. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1301 of Title 43 and Tables.

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–74, §432(b), inserted "(other than Outer Continental Shelf sources located offshore of the North Slope Borough of the State of Alaska)" after "Outer Continental Shelf sources located offshore of the States along the Pacific, Arctic and Atlantic Coasts" and "and this chapter" after "regulations".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–74, §432(c), struck out "Gulf Coast" after "United States" and inserted "or are adjacent to the North Slope Borough of the State of Alaska" after "Alabama".

Transfer of Functions

For transfer of authorities, functions, personnel, and assets of the Coast Guard, including the authorities and functions of the Secretary of Transportation relating thereto, to the Department of Homeland Security, and for treatment of related references, see sections 468(b), 551(d), 552(d), and 557 of Title 6, Domestic Security, and the Department of Homeland Security Reorganization Plan of November 25, 2002, as modified, set out as a note under section 542 of Title 6.

Congressional Statement of Purpose

Pub. L. 112–74, div. E, title IV, §432(a), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1048, provided that: "It is the purpose of this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] to ensure that the energy policy of the United States focuses on the expeditious and orderly development of domestic energy resources in a manner that protects human health and the environment."

Effect of Transfer of Air Quality Permitting Authority

Pub. L. 112–74, div. E, title IV, §432(d), Dec. 23, 2011, 125 Stat. 1049, provided that: "The transfer of air quality permitting authority pursuant to this section [amending this section and enacting provisions set out as a note under this section] shall not invalidate or stay—

"(1) any air quality permit pending or existing as of the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 23, 2011]; or

"(2) any proceeding related thereto."

1 So in original. Probably should be section "7412(m)".

§7628. Demonstration grant program for local governments

(a) Grant program

(1) In general

The Administrator shall establish a demonstration program under which the Administrator shall provide competitive grants to assist local governments (such as municipalities and counties), with respect to local government buildings—

(A) to deploy cost-effective technologies and practices; and

(B) to achieve operational cost savings, through the application of cost-effective technologies and practices, as verified by the Administrator.

(2) Cost sharing

(A) In general

The Federal share of the cost of an activity carried out using a grant provided under this section shall be 40 percent.

(B) Waiver of non-Federal share

The Administrator may waive up to 100 percent of the local share of the cost of any grant under this section should the Administrator determine that the community is economically distressed, pursuant to objective economic criteria established by the Administrator in published guidelines.

(3) Maximum amount

The amount of a grant provided under this subsection shall not exceed $1,000,000.

(b) Guidelines

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after December 19, 2007, the Administrator shall issue guidelines to implement the grant program established under subsection (a).

(2) Requirements

The guidelines under paragraph (1) shall establish—

(A) standards for monitoring and verification of operational cost savings through the application of cost-effective technologies and practices reported by grantees under this section;

(B) standards for grantees to implement training programs, and to provide technical assistance and education, relating to the retrofit of buildings using cost-effective technologies and practices; and

(C) a requirement that each local government that receives a grant under this section shall achieve facility-wide cost savings, through renovation of existing local government buildings using cost-effective technologies and practices, of at least 40 percent as compared to the baseline operational costs of the buildings before the renovation (as calculated assuming a 3-year, weather-normalized average).

(c) Compliance with State and local law

Nothing in this section or any program carried out using a grant provided under this section supersedes or otherwise affects any State or local law, to the extent that the State or local law contains a requirement that is more stringent than the relevant requirement of this section.

(d) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $20,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2007 through 2012.

(e) Reports

(1) In general

The Administrator shall provide annual reports to Congress on cost savings achieved and actions taken and recommendations made under this section, and any recommendations for further action.

(2) Final report

The Administrator shall issue a final report at the conclusion of the program, including findings, a summary of total cost savings achieved, and recommendations for further action.

(f) Termination

The program under this section shall terminate on September 30, 2012.

(g) Definitions

In this section, the terms "cost-effective technologies and practices" and "operating 1 cost savings" shall have the meanings defined in section 17061 of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title III, §329, as added Pub. L. 110–140, title IV, §493, Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1652.)

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original. Probably should be "operational".