[USC02] 42 USC CHAPTER 85, SUBCHAPTER VI: STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROTECTION
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42 USC CHAPTER 85, SUBCHAPTER VI: STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROTECTION
From Title 42—THE PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARECHAPTER 85—AIR POLLUTION PREVENTION AND CONTROL

SUBCHAPTER VI—STRATOSPHERIC OZONE PROTECTION

§7671. Definitions

As used in this subchapter—

(1) Appliance

The term "appliance" means any device which contains and uses a class I or class II substance as a refrigerant and which is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner, refrigerator, chiller, or freezer.

(2) Baseline year

The term "baseline year" means—

(A) the calendar year 1986, in the case of any class I substance listed in Group I or II under section 7671a(a) of this title,

(B) the calendar year 1989, in the case of any class I substance listed in Group III, IV, or V under section 7671a(a) of this title, and

(C) a representative calendar year selected by the Administrator, in the case of—

(i) any substance added to the list of class I substances after the publication of the initial list under section 7671a(a) of this title, and

(ii) any class II substance.

(3) Class I substance

The term "class I substance" means each of the substances listed as provided in section 7671a(a) of this title.

(4) Class II substance

The term "class II substance" means each of the substances listed as provided in section 7671a(b) of this title.

(5) Commissioner

The term "Commissioner" means the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration.

(6) Consumption

The term "consumption" means, with respect to any substance, the amount of that substance produced in the United States, plus the amount imported, minus the amount exported to Parties to the Montreal Protocol. Such term shall be construed in a manner consistent with the Montreal Protocol.

(7) Import

The term "import" means to land on, bring into, or introduce into, or attempt to land on, bring into, or introduce into, any place subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, whether or not such landing, bringing, or introduction constitutes an importation within the meaning of the customs laws of the United States.

(8) Medical device

The term "medical device" means any device (as defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (21 U.S.C. 321)), diagnostic product, drug (as defined in the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act), and drug delivery system—

(A) if such device, product, drug, or drug delivery system utilizes a class I or class II substance for which no safe and effective alternative has been developed, and where necessary, approved by the Commissioner; and

(B) if such device, product, drug, or drug delivery system, has, after notice and opportunity for public comment, been approved and determined to be essential by the Commissioner in consultation with the Administrator.

(9) Montreal Protocol

The terms "Montreal Protocol" and "the Protocol" mean the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer, including adjustments adopted by Parties thereto and amendments that have entered into force.

(10) Ozone-depletion potential

The term "ozone-depletion potential" means a factor established by the Administrator to reflect the ozone-depletion potential of a substance, on a mass per kilogram basis, as compared to chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC–11). Such factor shall be based upon the substance's atmospheric lifetime, the molecular weight of bromine and chlorine, and the substance's ability to be photolytically disassociated, and upon other factors determined to be an accurate measure of relative ozone-depletion potential.

(11) Produce, produced, and production

The terms "produce", "produced", and "production", refer to the manufacture of a substance from any raw material or feedstock chemical, but such terms do not include—

(A) the manufacture of a substance that is used and entirely consumed (except for trace quantities) in the manufacture of other chemicals, or

(B) the reuse or recycling of a substance.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §601, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2649.)

References in Text

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in par. (8), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§301 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of Title 21 and Tables.

§7671a. Listing of class I and class II substances

(a) List of class I substances

Within 60 days after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall publish an initial list of class I substances, which list shall contain the following substances:


Group I

chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC–11)

chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC–12)

chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC–113)

chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC–114)

chlorofluorocarbon-115 (CFC–115)


Group II

halon-1211

halon-1301

halon-2402


Group III

chlorofluorocarbon-13 (CFC–13)

chlorofluorocarbon-111 (CFC–111)

chlorofluorocarbon-112 (CFC–112)

chlorofluorocarbon-211 (CFC–211)

chlorofluorocarbon-212 (CFC–212)

chlorofluorocarbon-213 (CFC–213)

chlorofluorocarbon-214 (CFC–214)

chlorofluorocarbon-215 (CFC–215)

chlorofluorocarbon-216 (CFC–216)

chlorofluorocarbon-217 (CFC–217)


Group IV

carbon tetrachloride


Group V

methyl chloroform


The initial list under this subsection shall also include the isomers of the substances listed above, other than 1,1,2-trichloroethane (an isomer of methyl chloroform). Pursuant to subsection (c), the Administrator shall add to the list of class I substances any other substance that the Administrator finds causes or contributes significantly to harmful effects on the stratospheric ozone layer. The Administrator shall, pursuant to subsection (c), add to such list all substances that the Administrator determines have an ozone depletion potential of 0.2 or greater.

(b) List of class II substances

Simultaneously with publication of the initial list of class I substances, the Administrator shall publish an initial list of class II substances, which shall contain the following substances:


hydrochlorofluorocarbon-21 (HCFC–21)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC–22)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-31 (HCFC–31)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-121 (HCFC–121)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-122 (HCFC–122)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-123 (HCFC–123)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-124 (HCFC–124)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-131 (HCFC–131)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-132 (HCFC–132)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-133 (HCFC–133)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141 (HCFC–141)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-142 (HCFC–142)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-221 (HCFC–221)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-222 (HCFC–222)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-223 (HCFC–223)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-224 (HCFC–224)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-225 (HCFC–225)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-226 (HCFC–226)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-231 (HCFC–231)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-232 (HCFC–232)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-233 (HCFC–233)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-234 (HCFC–234)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-235 (HCFC–235)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-241 (HCFC–241)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-242 (HCFC–242)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-243 (HCFC–243)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-244 (HCFC–244)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-251 (HCFC–251)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-252 (HCFC–252)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-253 (HCFC–253)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-261 (HCFC–261)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-262 (HCFC–262)

hydrochlorofluorocarbon-271 (HCFC–271)


The initial list under this subsection shall also include the isomers of the substances listed above. Pursuant to subsection (c), the Administrator shall add to the list of class II substances any other substance that the Administrator finds is known or may reasonably be anticipated to cause or contribute to harmful effects on the stratospheric ozone layer.

(c) Additions to the lists

(1) The Administrator may add, by rule, in accordance with the criteria set forth in subsection (a) or (b), as the case may be, any substance to the list of class I or class II substances under subsection (a) or (b). For purposes of exchanges under section 7661f 1 of this title, whenever a substance is added to the list of class I substances the Administrator shall, to the extent consistent with the Montreal Protocol, assign such substance to existing Group I, II, III, IV, or V or place such substance in a new Group.

(2) Periodically, but not less frequently than every 3 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall list, by rule, as additional class I or class II substances those substances which the Administrator finds meet the criteria of subsection (a) or (b), as the case may be.

(3) At any time, any person may petition the Administrator to add a substance to the list of class I or class II substances. Pursuant to the criteria set forth in subsection (a) or (b) as the case may be, within 180 days after receiving such a petition, the Administrator shall either propose to add the substance to such list or publish an explanation of the petition denial. In any case where the Administrator proposes to add a substance to such list, the Administrator shall add, by rule, (or make a final determination not to add) such substance to such list within 1 year after receiving such petition. Any petition under this paragraph shall include a showing by the petitioner that there are data on the substance adequate to support the petition. If the Administrator determines that information on the substance is not sufficient to make a determination under this paragraph, the Administrator shall use any authority available to the Administrator, under any law administered by the Administrator, to acquire such information.

(4) Only a class II substance which is added to the list of class I substances may be removed from the list of class II substances. No substance referred to in subsection (a), including methyl chloroform, may be removed from the list of class I substances.

(d) New listed substances

In the case of any substance added to the list of class I or class II substances after publication of the initial list of such substances under this section, the Administrator may extend any schedule or compliance deadline contained in section 7671c or 7671d of this title to a later date than specified in such sections if such schedule or deadline is unattainable, considering when such substance is added to the list. No extension under this subsection may extend the date for termination of production of any class I substance to a date more than 7 years after January 1 of the year after the year in which the substance is added to the list of class I substances. No extension under this subsection may extend the date for termination of production of any class II substance to a date more than 10 years after January 1 of the year after the year in which the substance is added to the list of class II substances.

(e) Ozone-depletion and global warming potential

Simultaneously with publication of the lists under this section and simultaneously with any addition to either of such lists, the Administrator shall assign to each listed substance a numerical value representing the substance's ozone-depletion potential. In addition, the Administrator shall publish the chlorine and bromine loading potential and the atmospheric lifetime of each listed substance. One year after November 15, 1990 (one year after the addition of a substance to either of such lists in the case of a substance added after the publication of the initial lists of such substances), and after notice and opportunity for public comment, the Administrator shall publish the global warming potential of each listed substance. The preceding sentence shall not be construed to be the basis of any additional regulation under this chapter. In the case of the substances referred to in table 1, the ozone-depletion potential shall be as specified in table 1, unless the Administrator adjusts the substance's ozone-depletion potential based on criteria referred to in section 7671(10) of this title:

Table 1
SubstanceOzone- depletion potential
chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC–11)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC–12)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-13 (CFC–13)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-111 (CFC–111)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-112 (CFC–112)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-113 (CFC–113)  0.8 
chlorofluorocarbon-114 (CFC–114)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-115 (CFC–115)  0.6 
chlorofluorocarbon-211 (CFC–211)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-212 (CFC–212)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-213 (CFC–213)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-214 (CFC–214)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-215 (CFC–215)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-216 (CFC–216)  1.0 
chlorofluorocarbon-217 (CFC–217)  1.0 
halon-1211  3.0 
halon-1301 10.0 
halon-2402  6.0 
carbon tetrachloride  1.1 
methyl chloroform  0.1 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC–22)  0.05
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-123 (HCFC–123)  0.02
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-124 (HCFC–124)  0.02
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-141(b) (HCFC–141(b))  0.1 
hydrochlorofluorocarbon-142(b) (HCFC–142(b))  0.06

Where the ozone-depletion potential of a substance is specified in the Montreal Protocol, the ozone-depletion potential specified for that substance under this section shall be consistent with the Montreal Protocol.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §602, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2650.)

1 So in original. Probably should be section "7671f".

§7671b. Monitoring and reporting requirements

(a) Regulations

Within 270 days after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall amend the regulations of the Administrator in effect on such date regarding monitoring and reporting of class I and class II substances. Such amendments shall conform to the requirements of this section. The amended regulations shall include requirements with respect to the time and manner of monitoring and reporting as required under this section.

(b) Production, import, and export level reports

On a quarterly basis, or such other basis (not less than annually) as determined by the Administrator, each person who produced, imported, or exported a class I or class II substance shall file a report with the Administrator setting forth the amount of the substance that such person produced, imported, and exported during the preceding reporting period. Each such report shall be signed and attested by a responsible officer. No such report shall be required from a person after April 1 of the calendar year after such person permanently ceases production, importation, and exportation of the substance and so notifies the Administrator in writing.

(c) Baseline reports for class I substances

Unless such information has previously been reported to the Administrator, on the date on which the first report under subsection (b) is required to be filed, each person who produced, imported, or exported a class I substance (other than a substance added to the list of class I substances after the publication of the initial list of such substances under this section) shall file a report with the Administrator setting forth the amount of such substance that such person produced, imported, and exported during the baseline year. In the case of a substance added to the list of class I substances after publication of the initial list of such substances under this section, the regulations shall require that each person who produced, imported, or exported such substance shall file a report with the Administrator within 180 days after the date on which such substance is added to the list, setting forth the amount of the substance that such person produced, imported, and exported in the baseline year.

(d) Monitoring and reports to Congress

(1) The Administrator shall monitor and, not less often than every 3 years following November 15, 1990, submit a report to Congress on the production, use and consumption of class I and class II substances. Such report shall include data on domestic production, use and consumption, and an estimate of worldwide production, use and consumption of such substances. Not less frequently than every 6 years the Administrator shall report to Congress on the environmental and economic effects of any stratospheric ozone depletion.

(2) The Administrators of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration shall monitor, and not less often than every 3 years following November 15, 1990, submit a report to Congress on the current average tropospheric concentration of chlorine and bromine and on the level of stratospheric ozone depletion. Such reports shall include updated projections of—

(A) peak chlorine loading;

(B) the rate at which the atmospheric abundance of chlorine is projected to decrease after the year 2000; and

(C) the date by which the atmospheric abundance of chlorine is projected to return to a level of two parts per billion.


Such updated projections shall be made on the basis of current international and domestic controls on substances covered by this subchapter as well as on the basis of such controls supplemented by a year 2000 global phase out of all halocarbon emissions (the base case). It is the purpose of the Congress through the provisions of this section to monitor closely the production and consumption of class II substances to assure that the production and consumption of such substances will not:

(i) increase significantly the peak chlorine loading that is projected to occur under the base case established for purposes of this section;

(ii) reduce significantly the rate at which the atmospheric abundance of chlorine is projected to decrease under the base case; or

(iii) delay the date by which the average atmospheric concentration of chlorine is projected under the base case to return to a level of two parts per billion.

(e) Technology status report in 2015

The Administrator shall review, on a periodic basis, the progress being made in the development of alternative systems or products necessary to manufacture and operate appliances without class II substances. If the Administrator finds, after notice and opportunity for public comment, that as a result of technological development problems, the development of such alternative systems or products will not occur within the time necessary to provide for the manufacture of such equipment without such substances prior to the applicable deadlines under section 7671d of this title, the Administrator shall, not later than January 1, 2015, so inform the Congress.

(f) Emergency report

If, in consultation with the Administrators of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and after notice and opportunity for public comment, the Administrator determines that the global production, consumption, and use of class II substances are projected to contribute to an atmospheric chlorine loading in excess of the base case projections by more than 5/10ths parts per billion, the Administrator shall so inform the Congress immediately. The determination referred to in the preceding sentence shall be based on the monitoring under subsection (d) and updated not less often than every 3 years.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §603, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2653.)

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (d)(1) of this section relating to submittal of triennial report to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 12th item on page 162 of House Document No. 103–7.

Methane Studies

Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §603, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2670, provided that:

"(a) Economically Justified Actions.—Not later than 2 years after enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator shall prepare and submit a report to the Congress that identifies activities, substances, processes, or combinations thereof that could reduce methane emissions and that are economically and technologically justified with and without consideration of environmental benefit.

"(b) Domestic Methane Source Inventory and Control.—Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator, in consultation and coordination with the Secretary of Energy and the Secretary of Agriculture, shall prepare and submit to the Congress reports on each of the following:

"(1) Methane emissions associated with natural gas extraction, transportation, distribution, storage, and use. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with such activities within the United States. Such emissions include, but are not limited to, accidental and intentional releases from natural gas and oil wells, pipelines, processing facilities, and gas burners. The report shall also include an inventory of methane generation with such activities.

"(2) Methane emissions associated with coal extraction, transportation, distribution, storage, and use. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with such activities within the United States. Such emissions include, but are not limited to, accidental and intentional releases from mining shafts, degasification wells, gas recovery wells and equipment, and from the processing and use of coal. The report shall also include an inventory of methane generation with such activities.

"(3) Methane emissions associated with management of solid waste. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with all forms of waste management in the United States, including storage, treatment, and disposal.

"(4) Methane emissions associated with agriculture. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with rice and livestock production in the United States.

"(5) Methane emissions associated with biomass burning. Such report shall include an inventory of methane emissions associated with the intentional burning of agricultural wastes, wood, grasslands, and forests.

"(6) Other methane emissions associated with human activities. Such report shall identify and inventory other domestic sources of methane emissions that are deemed by the Administrator and other such agencies to be significant.

"(c) International Studies.—

"(1) Methane emissions.—Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report on methane emissions from countries other than the United States. Such report shall include inventories of methane emissions associated with the activities listed in subsection (b).

"(2) Preventing increases in methane concentrations.—Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report that analyzes the potential for preventing an increase in atmospheric concentrations of methane from activities and sources in other countries. Such report shall identify and evaluate the technical options for reducing methane emission from each of the activities listed in subsection (b), as well as other activities or sources that are deemed by the Administrator in consultation with other relevant Federal agencies and departments to be significant and shall include an evaluation of costs. The report shall identify the emissions reductions that would need to be achieved to prevent increasing atmospheric concentrations of methane. The report shall also identify technology transfer programs that could promote methane emissions reductions in lesser developed countries.

"(d) Natural Sources.—Not later than 2 years after the enactment of this Act [Nov. 15, 1990], the Administrator shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report on—

"(1) methane emissions from biogenic sources such as (A) tropical, temperate, and subarctic forests, (B) tundra, and (C) freshwater and saltwater wetlands; and

"(2) the changes in methane emissions from biogenic sources that may occur as a result of potential increases in temperatures and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide.

"(e) Study of Measures To Limit Growth in Methane Concentrations.—Not later than 2 years after the completion of the studies in subsections (b), (c), and (d), the Administrator shall prepare and submit to the Congress a report that presents options outlining measures that could be implemented to stop or reduce the growth in atmospheric concentrations of methane from sources within the United States referred to in paragraphs (1) through (6) of subsection (b). This study shall identify and evaluate the technical options for reducing methane emissions from each of the activities listed in subsection (b), as well as other activities or sources deemed by such agencies to be significant, and shall include an evaluation of costs, technology, safety, energy, and other factors. The study shall be based on the other studies under this section. The study shall also identify programs of the United States and international lending agencies that could be used to induce lesser developed countries to undertake measures that will reduce methane emissions and the resource needs of such programs.

"(f) Information Gathering.—In carrying out the studies under this section, the provisions and requirements of section 114 of the Clean Air Act [42 U.S.C. 7414] shall be available for purposes of obtaining information to carry out such studies.

"(g) Consultation and Coordination.—In preparing the studies under this section the Administrator shall consult and coordinate with the Secretary of Energy, the Administrators of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the heads of other relevant Federal agencies and departments. In the case of the studies under subsections (a), (b), and (e), such consultation and coordination shall include the Secretary of Agriculture."

§7671c. Phase-out of production and consumption of class I substances

(a) Production phase-out

Effective on January 1 of each year specified in Table 2, it shall be unlawful for any person to produce any class I substance in an annual quantity greater than the relevant percentage specified in Table 2. The percentages in Table 2 refer to a maximum allowable production as a percentage of the quantity of the substance produced by the person concerned in the baseline year.

Table 2
DateCarbon tetrachlorideMethyl chloroformOther class I substances
1991 100% 100% 85%
1992  90% 100% 80%
1993  80%  90% 75%
1994  70%  85% 65%
1995  15%  70% 50%
1996  15%  50% 40%
1997  15%  50% 15%
1998  15%  50% 15%
1999  15%  50% 15%
2000  20%  
2001  20%  

(b) Termination of production of class I substances

Effective January 1, 2000 (January 1, 2002 in the case of methyl chloroform), it shall be unlawful for any person to produce any amount of a class I substance.

(c) Regulations regarding production and consumption of class I substances

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations within 10 months after November 15, 1990, phasing out the production of class I substances in accordance with this section and other applicable provisions of this subchapter. The Administrator shall also promulgate regulations to insure that the consumption of class I substances in the United States is phased out and terminated in accordance with the same schedule (subject to the same exceptions and other provisions) as is applicable to the phase-out and termination of production of class I substances under this subchapter.

(d) Exceptions for essential uses of methyl chloroform, medical devices, and aviation safety

(1) Essential uses of methyl chloroform

Notwithstanding the termination of production required by subsection (b), during the period beginning on January 1, 2002, and ending on January 1, 2005, the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, may, to the extent such action is consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production of limited quantities of methyl chloroform solely for use in essential applications (such as nondestructive testing for metal fatigue and corrosion of existing airplane engines and airplane parts susceptible to metal fatigue) for which no safe and effective substitute is available. Notwithstanding this paragraph, the authority to produce methyl chloroform for use in medical devices shall be provided in accordance with paragraph (2).

(2) Medical devices

Notwithstanding the termination of production required by subsection (b), the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, shall, to the extent such action is consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production of limited quantities of class I substances solely for use in medical devices if such authorization is determined by the Commissioner, in consultation with the Administrator, to be necessary for use in medical devices.

(3) Aviation safety

(A) Notwithstanding the termination of production required by subsection (b), the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, may, to the extent such action is consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production of limited quantities of halon-1211 (bromochlorodifluoromethane), halon-1301 (bromotrifluoromethane), and halon-2402 (dibromotetrafluoroethane) solely for purposes of aviation safety if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, in consultation with the Administrator, determines that no safe and effective substitute has been developed and that such authorization is necessary for aviation safety purposes.

(B) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall, in consultation with the Administrator, examine whether safe and effective substitutes for methyl chloroform or alternative techniques will be available for nondestructive testing for metal fatigue and corrosion of existing airplane engines and airplane parts susceptible to metal fatigue and whether an exception for such uses of methyl chloroform under this paragraph will be necessary for purposes of airline safety after January 1, 2005 and provide a report to Congress in 1998.

(4) Cap on certain exceptions

Under no circumstances may the authority set forth in paragraphs (1), (2), and (3) of subsection (d) be applied to authorize any person to produce a class I substance in annual quantities greater than 10 percent of that produced by such person during the baseline year.

(5) Sanitation and food protection

To the extent consistent with the Montreal Protocol's quarantine and preshipment provisions, the Administrator shall exempt the production, importation, and consumption of methyl bromide to fumigate commodities entering or leaving the United States or any State (or political subdivision thereof) for purposes of compliance with Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service requirements or with any international, Federal, State, or local sanitation or food protection standard.

(6) Critical uses

To the extent consistent with the Montreal Protocol, the Administrator, after notice and the opportunity for public comment, and after consultation with other departments or instrumentalities of the Federal Government having regulatory authority related to methyl bromide, including the Secretary of Agriculture, may exempt the production, importation, and consumption of methyl bromide for critical uses.

(e) Developing countries

(1) Exception

Notwithstanding the phase-out and termination of production required under subsections (a) and (b), the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, may, consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production of limited quantities of a class I substance in excess of the amounts otherwise allowable under subsection (a) or (b), or both, solely for export to, and use in, developing countries that are Parties to the Montreal Protocol and are operating under article 5 of such Protocol. Any production authorized under this paragraph shall be solely for purposes of satisfying the basic domestic needs of such countries.

(2) Cap on exception

(A) Under no circumstances may the authority set forth in paragraph (1) be applied to authorize any person to produce a class I substance in any year for which a production percentage is specified in Table 2 of subsection (a) in an annual quantity greater than the specified percentage, plus an amount equal to 10 percent of the amount produced by such person in the baseline year.

(B) Under no circumstances may the authority set forth in paragraph (1) be applied to authorize any person to produce a class I substance in the applicable termination year referred to in subsection (b), or in any year thereafter, in an annual quantity greater than 15 percent of the baseline quantity of such substance produced by such person.

(C) An exception authorized under this subsection shall terminate no later than January 1, 2010 (2012 in the case of methyl chloroform).

(3) Methyl bromide

Notwithstanding the phaseout and termination of production of methyl bromide pursuant to subsection (h), the Administrator may, consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production of limited quantities of methyl bromide, solely for use in developing countries that are Parties to the Copenhagen Amendments to the Montreal Protocol.

(f) National security

The President may, to the extent such action is consistent with the Montreal Protocol, issue such orders regarding production and use of CFC–114 (chlorofluorocarbon-114), halon-1211, halon-1301, and halon-2402, at any specified site or facility or on any vessel as may be necessary to protect the national security interests of the United States if the President finds that adequate substitutes are not available and that the production and use of such substance are necessary to protect such national security interest. Such orders may include, where necessary to protect such interests, an exemption from any prohibition or requirement contained in this subchapter. The President shall notify the Congress within 30 days of the issuance of an order under this paragraph providing for any such exemption. Such notification shall include a statement of the reasons for the granting of the exemption. An exemption under this paragraph shall be for a specified period which may not exceed one year. Additional exemptions may be granted, each upon the President's issuance of a new order under this paragraph. Each such additional exemption shall be for a specified period which may not exceed one year. No exemption shall be granted under this paragraph due to lack of appropriation unless the President shall have specifically requested such appropriation as a part of the budgetary process and the Congress shall have failed to make available such requested appropriation.

(g) Fire suppression and explosion prevention

(1) Notwithstanding the production phase-out set forth in subsection (a), the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, may, to the extent such action is consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production of limited quantities of halon-1211, halon-1301, and halon-2402 in excess of the amount otherwise permitted pursuant to the schedule under subsection (a) solely for purposes of fire suppression or explosion prevention if the Administrator, in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration, determines that no safe and effective substitute has been developed and that such authorization is necessary for fire suppression or explosion prevention purposes. The Administrator shall not authorize production under this paragraph for purposes of fire safety or explosion prevention training or testing of fire suppression or explosion prevention equipment. In no event shall the Administrator grant an exception under this paragraph that permits production after December 31, 1999.

(2) The Administrator shall periodically monitor and assess the status of efforts to obtain substitutes for the substances referred to in paragraph (1) for purposes of fire suppression or explosion prevention and the probability of such substitutes being available by December 31, 1999. The Administrator, as part of such assessment, shall consider any relevant assessments under the Montreal Protocol and the actions of the Parties pursuant to Article 2B of the Montreal Protocol in identifying essential uses and in permitting a level of production or consumption that is necessary to satisfy such uses for which no adequate alternatives are available after December 31, 1999. The Administrator shall report to Congress the results of such assessment in 1994 and again in 1998.

(3) Notwithstanding the termination of production set forth in subsection (b), the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, may, to the extent consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production of limited quantities of halon-1211, halon-1301, and halon-2402 in the period after December 31, 1999, and before December 31, 2004, solely for purposes of fire suppression or explosion prevention in association with domestic production of crude oil and natural gas energy supplies on the North Slope of Alaska, if the Administrator, in consultation with the Administrator of the United States Fire Administration, determines that no safe and effective substitute has been developed and that such authorization is necessary for fire suppression and explosion prevention purposes. The Administrator shall not authorize production under the paragraph for purposes of fire safety or explosion prevention training or testing of fire suppression or explosion prevention equipment. In no event shall the Administrator authorize under this paragraph any person to produce any such halon in an amount greater than 3 percent of that produced by such person during the baseline year.

(h) Methyl bromide

Notwithstanding subsections (b) and (d), the Administrator shall not terminate production of methyl bromide prior to January 1, 2005. The Administrator shall promulgate rules for reductions in, and terminate the production, importation, and consumption of, methyl bromide under a schedule that is in accordance with, but not more stringent than, the phaseout schedule of the Montreal Protocol Treaty as in effect on October 21, 1998.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §604, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2655; amended Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(a) [title VII, §764], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681-36.)

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (d)(5), (6). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(a) [title VII, §764(b)], added pars. (5) and (6).

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(a) [title VII, §764(c)], added par. (3).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 105–277, §101(a) [title VII, §764(a)], added subsec. (h).

§7671d. Phase-out of production and consumption of class II substances

(a) Restriction of use of class II substances

Effective January 1, 2015, it shall be unlawful for any person to introduce into interstate commerce or use any class II substance unless such substance—

(1) has been used, recovered, and recycled;

(2) is used and entirely consumed (except for trace quantities) in the production of other chemicals;

(3) is used as a refrigerant in appliances manufactured prior to January 1, 2020; or

(4) is listed as acceptable for use as a fire suppression agent for nonresidential applications in accordance with section 7671k(c) of this title.


As used in this subsection, the term "refrigerant" means any class II substance used for heat transfer in a refrigerating system.

(b) Production phase-out

(1) Effective January 1, 2015, it shall be unlawful for any person to produce any class II substance in an annual quantity greater than the quantity of such substance produced by such person during the baseline year.

(2) Effective January 1, 2030, it shall be unlawful for any person to produce any class II substance.

(c) Regulations regarding production and consumption of class II substances

By December 31, 1999, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations phasing out the production, and restricting the use, of class II substances in accordance with this section, subject to any acceleration of the phase-out of production under section 7671e of this title. The Administrator shall also promulgate regulations to insure that the consumption of class II substances in the United States is phased out and terminated in accordance with the same schedule (subject to the same exceptions and other provisions) as is applicable to the phase-out and termination of production of class II substances under this subchapter.

(d) Exceptions

(1) Medical devices

(A) In general

Notwithstanding the termination of production required under subsection (b)(2) and the restriction on use referred to in subsection (a), the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, shall, to the extent such action is consistent with the Montreal Protocol, authorize the production and use of limited quantities of class II substances solely for purposes of use in medical devices if such authorization is determined by the Commissioner, in consultation with the Administrator, to be necessary for use in medical devices.

(B) Cap on exception

Under no circumstances may the authority set forth in subparagraph (A) be applied to authorize any person to produce a class II substance in annual quantities greater than 10 percent of that produced by such person during the baseline year.

(2) Developing countries

(A) In general

Notwithstanding the provisions of subsection (a) or (b), the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, may authorize the production of limited quantities of a class II substance in excess of the quantities otherwise permitted under such provisions solely for export to and use in developing countries that are Parties to the Montreal Protocol, as determined by the Administrator. Any production authorized under this subsection shall be solely for purposes of satisfying the basic domestic needs of such countries.

(B) Cap on exception

(i) Under no circumstances may the authority set forth in subparagraph (A) be applied to authorize any person to produce a class II substance in any year following the effective date of subsection (b)(1) and before the year 2030 in annual quantities greater than 110 percent of the quantity of such substance produced by such person during the baseline year.

(ii) Under no circumstances may the authority set forth in subparagraph (A) be applied to authorize any person to produce a class II substance in the year 2030, or any year thereafter, in an annual quantity greater than 15 percent of the quantity of such substance produced by such person during the baseline year.

(iii) Each exception authorized under this paragraph shall terminate no later than January 1, 2040.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §605, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2658; amended Pub. L. 112–81, div. A, title III, §320, Dec. 31, 2011, 125 Stat. 1361.)

Amendments

2011—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 112–81 added par. (4).

§7671e. Accelerated schedule

(a) In general

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations, after notice and opportunity for public comment, which establish a schedule for phasing out the production and consumption of class I and class II substances (or use of class II substances) that is more stringent than set forth in section 7671c or 7671d of this title, or both, if—

(1) based on an assessment of credible current scientific information (including any assessment under the Montreal Protocol) regarding harmful effects on the stratospheric ozone layer associated with a class I or class II substance, the Administrator determines that such more stringent schedule may be necessary to protect human health and the environment against such effects,

(2) based on the availability of substitutes for listed substances, the Administrator determines that such more stringent schedule is practicable, taking into account technological achievability, safety, and other relevant factors, or

(3) the Montreal Protocol is modified to include a schedule to control or reduce production, consumption, or use of any substance more rapidly than the applicable schedule under this subchapter.


In making any determination under paragraphs (1) and (2), the Administrator shall consider the status of the period remaining under the applicable schedule under this subchapter.

(b) Petition

Any person may petition the Administrator to promulgate regulations under this section. The Administrator shall grant or deny the petition within 180 days after receipt of any such petition. If the Administrator denies the petition, the Administrator shall publish an explanation of why the petition was denied. If the Administrator grants such petition, such final regulations shall be promulgated within 1 year. Any petition under this subsection shall include a showing by the petitioner that there are data adequate to support the petition. If the Administrator determines that information is not sufficient to make a determination under this subsection, the Administrator shall use any authority available to the Administrator, under any law administered by the Administrator, to acquire such information.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §606, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2660.)

§7671f. Exchange authority

(a) Transfers

The Administrator shall, within 10 months after November 15, 1990, promulgate rules under this subchapter providing for the issuance of allowances for the production of class I and II substances in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter and governing the transfer of such allowances. Such rules shall insure that the transactions under the authority of this section will result in greater total reductions in the production in each year of class I and class II substances than would occur in that year in the absence of such transactions.

(b) Interpollutant transfers

(1) The rules under this section shall permit a production allowance for a substance for any year to be transferred for a production allowance for another substance for the same year on an ozone depletion weighted basis.

(2) Allowances for substances in each group of class I substances (as listed pursuant to section 7671a of this title) may only be transferred for allowances for other substances in the same Group.

(3) The Administrator shall, as appropriate, establish groups of class II substances for trading purposes and assign class II substances to such groups. In the case of class II substances, allowances may only be transferred for allowances for other class II substances that are in the same Group.

(c) Trades with other persons

The rules under this section shall permit 2 or more persons to transfer production allowances (including interpollutant transfers which meet the requirements of subsections (a) and (b)) if the transferor of such allowances will be subject, under such rules, to an enforceable and quantifiable reduction in annual production which—

(1) exceeds the reduction otherwise applicable to the transferor under this subchapter,

(2) exceeds the production allowances transferred to the transferee, and

(3) would not have occurred in the absence of such transaction.

(d) Consumption

The rules under this section shall also provide for the issuance of consumption allowances in accordance with the requirements of this subchapter and for the trading of such allowances in the same manner as is applicable under this section to the trading of production allowances under this section.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §607, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2660.)

§7671g. National recycling and emission reduction program

(a) In general

(1) The Administrator shall, by not later than January 1, 1992, promulgate regulations establishing standards and requirements regarding the use and disposal of class I substances during the service, repair, or disposal of appliances and industrial process refrigeration. Such standards and requirements shall become effective not later than July 1, 1992.

(2) The Administrator shall, within 4 years after November 15, 1990, promulgate regulations establishing standards and requirements regarding use and disposal of class I and II substances not covered by paragraph (1), including the use and disposal of class II substances during service, repair, or disposal of appliances and industrial process refrigeration. Such standards and requirements shall become effective not later than 12 months after promulgation of the regulations.

(3) The regulations under this subsection shall include requirements that—

(A) reduce the use and emission of such substances to the lowest achievable level, and

(B) maximize the recapture and recycling of such substances.


Such regulations may include requirements to use alternative substances (including substances which are not class I or class II substances) or to minimize use of class I or class II substances, or to promote the use of safe alternatives pursuant to section 7671k of this title or any combination of the foregoing.

(b) Safe disposal

The regulations under subsection (a) shall establish standards and requirements for the safe disposal of class I and II substances. Such regulations shall include each of the following—

(1) Requirements that class I or class II substances contained in bulk in appliances, machines or other goods shall be removed from each such appliance, machine or other good prior to the disposal of such items or their delivery for recycling.

(2) Requirements that any appliance, machine or other good containing a class I or class II substance in bulk shall not be manufactured, sold, or distributed in interstate commerce or offered for sale or distribution in interstate commerce unless it is equipped with a servicing aperture or an equally effective design feature which will facilitate the recapture of such substance during service and repair or disposal of such item.

(3) Requirements that any product in which a class I or class II substance is incorporated so as to constitute an inherent element of such product shall be disposed of in a manner that reduces, to the maximum extent practicable, the release of such substance into the environment. If the Administrator determines that the application of this paragraph to any product would result in producing only insignificant environmental benefits, the Administrator shall include in such regulations an exception for such product.

(c) Prohibitions

(1) Effective July 1, 1992, it shall be unlawful for any person, in the course of maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of an appliance or industrial process refrigeration, to knowingly vent or otherwise knowingly release or dispose of any class I or class II substance used as a refrigerant in such appliance (or industrial process refrigeration) in a manner which permits such substance to enter the environment. De minimis releases associated with good faith attempts to recapture and recycle or safely dispose of any such substance shall not be subject to the prohibition set forth in the preceding sentence.

(2) Effective 5 years after November 15, 1990, paragraph (1) shall also apply to the venting, release, or disposal of any substitute substance for a class I or class II substance by any person maintaining, servicing, repairing, or disposing of an appliance or industrial process refrigeration which contains and uses as a refrigerant any such substance, unless the Administrator determines that venting, releasing, or disposing of such substance does not pose a threat to the environment. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "appliance" includes any device which contains and uses as a refrigerant a substitute substance and which is used for household or commercial purposes, including any air conditioner, refrigerator, chiller, or freezer.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §608, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2661.)

§7671h. Servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners

(a) Regulations

Within 1 year after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate regulations in accordance with this section establishing standards and requirements regarding the servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners.

(b) Definitions

As used in this section—

(1) The term "refrigerant" means any class I or class II substance used in a motor vehicle air conditioner. Effective 5 years after November 15, 1990, the term "refrigerant" shall also include any substitute substance.

(2)(A) The term "approved refrigerant recycling equipment" means equipment certified by the Administrator (or an independent standards testing organization approved by the Administrator) to meet the standards established by the Administrator and applicable to equipment for the extraction and reclamation of refrigerant from motor vehicle air conditioners. Such standards shall, at a minimum, be at least as stringent as the standards of the Society of Automotive Engineers in effect as of November 15, 1990, and applicable to such equipment (SAE standard J–1990).

(B) Equipment purchased before the proposal of regulations under this section shall be considered certified if it is substantially identical to equipment certified as provided in subparagraph (A).

(3) The term "properly using" means, with respect to approved refrigerant recycling equipment, using such equipment in conformity with standards established by the Administrator and applicable to the use of such equipment. Such standards shall, at a minimum, be at least as stringent as the standards of the Society of Automotive Engineers in effect as of November 15, 1990, and applicable to the use of such equipment (SAE standard J–1989).

(4) The term "properly trained and certified" means training and certification in the proper use of approved refrigerant recycling equipment for motor vehicle air conditioners in conformity with standards established by the Administrator and applicable to the performance of service on motor vehicle air conditioners. Such standards shall, at a minimum, be at least as stringent as specified, as of November 15, 1990, in SAE standard J–1989 under the certification program of the National Institute for Automotive Service Excellence (ASE) or under a similar program such as the training and certification program of the Mobile Air Conditioning Society (MACS).

(c) Servicing motor vehicle air conditioners

Effective January 1, 1992, no person repairing or servicing motor vehicles for consideration may perform any service on a motor vehicle air conditioner involving the refrigerant for such air conditioner without properly using approved refrigerant recycling equipment and no such person may perform such service unless such person has been properly trained and certified. The requirements of the previous sentence shall not apply until January 1, 1993 in the case of a person repairing or servicing motor vehicles for consideration at an entity which performed service on fewer than 100 motor vehicle air conditioners during calendar year 1990 and if such person so certifies, pursuant to subsection (d)(2), to the Administrator by January 1, 1992.

(d) Certification

(1) Effective 2 years after November 15, 1990, each person performing service on motor vehicle air conditioners for consideration shall certify to the Administrator either—

(A) that such person has acquired, and is properly using, approved refrigerant recycling equipment in service on motor vehicle air conditioners involving refrigerant and that each individual authorized by such person to perform such service is properly trained and certified; or

(B) that such person is performing such service at an entity which serviced fewer than 100 motor vehicle air conditioners in 1991.


(2) Effective January 1, 1993, each person who certified under paragraph (1)(B) shall submit a certification under paragraph (1)(A).

(3) Each certification under this subsection shall contain the name and address of the person certifying under this subsection and the serial number of each unit of approved recycling equipment acquired by such person and shall be signed and attested by the owner or another responsible officer. Certifications under paragraph (1)(A) may be made by submitting the required information to the Administrator on a standard form provided by the manufacturer of certified refrigerant recycling equipment.

(e) Small containers of class I or class II substances

Effective 2 years after November 15, 1990, it shall be unlawful for any person to sell or distribute, or offer for sale or distribution, in interstate commerce to any person (other than a person performing service for consideration on motor vehicle air-conditioning systems in compliance with this section) any class I or class II substance that is suitable for use as a refrigerant in a motor vehicle air-conditioning system and that is in a container which contains less than 20 pounds of such refrigerant.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §609, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2662.)

§7671i. Nonessential products containing chlorofluorocarbons

(a) Regulations

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations to carry out the requirements of this section within 1 year after November 15, 1990.

(b) Nonessential products

The regulations under this section shall identify nonessential products that release class I substances into the environment (including any release occurring during manufacture, use, storage, or disposal) and prohibit any person from selling or distributing any such product, or offering any such product for sale or distribution, in interstate commerce. At a minimum, such prohibition shall apply to—

(1) chlorofluorocarbon-propelled plastic party streamers and noise horns,

(2) chlorofluorocarbon-containing cleaning fluids for noncommercial electronic and photographic equipment, and

(3) other consumer products that are determined by the Administrator—

(A) to release class I substances into the environment (including any release occurring during manufacture, use, storage, or disposal), and

(B) to be nonessential.


In determining whether a product is nonessential, the Administrator shall consider the purpose or intended use of the product, the technological availability of substitutes for such product and for such class I substance, safety, health, and other relevant factors.

(c) Effective date

Effective 24 months after November 15, 1990, it shall be unlawful for any person to sell or distribute, or offer for sale or distribution, in interstate commerce any nonessential product to which regulations under subsection (a) implementing subsection (b) are applicable.

(d) Other products

(1) Effective January 1, 1994, it shall be unlawful for any person to sell or distribute, or offer for sale or distribution, in interstate commerce—

(A) any aerosol product or other pressurized dispenser which contains a class II substance; or

(B) any plastic foam product which contains, or is manufactured with, a class II substance.


(2) The Administrator is authorized to grant exceptions from the prohibition under subparagraph (A) of paragraph (1) where—

(A) the use of the aerosol product or pressurized dispenser is determined by the Administrator to be essential as a result of flammability or worker safety concerns, and

(B) the only available alternative to use of a class II substance is use of a class I substance which legally could be substituted for such class II substance.


(3) Subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1) shall not apply to—

(A) a foam insulation product, or

(B) an integral skin, rigid, or semi-rigid foam utilized to provide for motor vehicle safety in accordance with Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards where no adequate substitute substance (other than a class I or class II substance) is practicable for effectively meeting such Standards.

(e) Medical devices

Nothing in this section shall apply to any medical device as defined in section 7671(8) of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §610, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2664.)

§7671j. Labeling

(a) Regulations

The Administrator shall promulgate regulations to implement the labeling requirements of this section within 18 months after November 15, 1990, after notice and opportunity for public comment.

(b) Containers containing class I or class II substances and products containing class I substances

Effective 30 months after November 15, 1990, no container in which a class I or class II substance is stored or transported, and no product containing a class I substance, shall be introduced into interstate commerce unless it bears a clearly legible and conspicuous label stating:

"Warning: Contains [insert name of substance], a substance which harms public health and environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere".

(c) Products containing class II substances

(1) After 30 months after November 15, 1990, and before January 1, 2015, no product containing a class II substance shall be introduced into interstate commerce unless it bears the label referred to in subsection (b) if the Administrator determines, after notice and opportunity for public comment, that there are substitute products or manufacturing processes (A) that do not rely on the use of such class II substance, (B) that reduce the overall risk to human health and the environment, and (C) that are currently or potentially available.

(2) Effective January 1, 2015, the requirements of subsection (b) shall apply to all products containing a class II substance.

(d) Products manufactured with class I and class II substances

(1) In the case of a class II substance, after 30 months after November 15, 1990, and before January 1, 2015, if the Administrator, after notice and opportunity for public comment, makes the determination referred to in subsection (c) with respect to a product manufactured with a process that uses such class II substance, no such product shall be introduced into interstate commerce unless it bears a clearly legible and conspicuous label stating:

"Warning: Manufactured with [insert name of substance], a substance which harms public health and environment by destroying ozone in the upper atmosphere" 1


(2) In the case of a class I substance, effective 30 months after November 15, 1990, and before January 1, 2015, the labeling requirements of this subsection shall apply to all products manufactured with a process that uses such class I substance unless the Administrator determines that there are no substitute products or manufacturing processes that (A) do not rely on the use of such class I substance, (B) reduce the overall risk to human health and the environment, and (C) are currently or potentially available.

(e) Petitions

(1) Any person may, at any time after 18 months after November 15, 1990, petition the Administrator to apply the requirements of this section to a product containing a class II substance or a product manufactured with a class I or II substance which is not otherwise subject to such requirements. Within 180 days after receiving such petition, the Administrator shall, pursuant to the criteria set forth in subsection (c), either propose to apply the requirements of this section to such product or publish an explanation of the petition denial. If the Administrator proposes to apply such requirements to such product, the Administrator shall, by rule, render a final determination pursuant to such criteria within 1 year after receiving such petition.

(2) Any petition under this paragaph 2 shall include a showing by the petitioner that there are data on the product adequate to support the petition.

(3) If the Administrator determines that information on the product is not sufficient to make the required determination the Administrator shall use any authority available to the Administrator under any law administered by the Administrator to acquire such information.

(4) In the case of a product determined by the Administrator, upon petition or on the Administrator's own motion, to be subject to the requirements of this section, the Administrator shall establish an effective date for such requirements. The effective date shall be 1 year after such determination or 30 months after November 15, 1990, whichever is later.

(5) Effective January 1, 2015, the labeling requirements of this subsection 3 shall apply to all products manufactured with a process that uses a class I or class II substance.

(f) Relationship to other law

(1) The labeling requirements of this section shall not constitute, in whole or part, a defense to liability or a cause for reduction in damages in any suit, whether civil or criminal, brought under any law, whether Federal or State, other than a suit for failure to comply with the labeling requirements of this section.

(2) No other approval of such label by the Administrator under any other law administered by the Administrator shall be required with respect to the labeling requirements of this section.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §611, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2665.)

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a period.

2 So in original. Probably should be "paragraph".

3 So in original. Probably should be "section".

§7671k. Safe alternatives policy

(a) Policy

To the maximum extent practicable, class I and class II substances shall be replaced by chemicals, product substitutes, or alternative manufacturing processes that reduce overall risks to human health and the environment.

(b) Reviews and reports

The Administrator shall—

(1) in consultation and coordination with interested members of the public and the heads of relevant Federal agencies and departments, recommend Federal research programs and other activities to assist in identifying alternatives to the use of class I and class II substances as refrigerants, solvents, fire retardants, foam blowing agents, and other commercial applications and in achieving a transition to such alternatives, and, where appropriate, seek to maximize the use of Federal research facilities and resources to assist users of class I and class II substances in identifying and developing alternatives to the use of such substances as refrigerants, solvents, fire retardants, foam blowing agents, and other commercial applications;

(2) examine in consultation and coordination with the Secretary of Defense and the heads of other relevant Federal agencies and departments, including the General Services Administration, Federal procurement practices with respect to class I and class II substances and recommend measures to promote the transition by the Federal Government, as expeditiously as possible, to the use of safe substitutes;

(3) specify initiatives, including appropriate intergovernmental, international, and commercial information and technology transfers, to promote the development and use of safe substitutes for class I and class II substances, including alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes; and

(4) maintain a public clearinghouse of alternative chemicals, product substitutes, and alternative manufacturing processes that are available for products and manufacturing processes which use class I and class II substances.

(c) Alternatives for class I or II substances

Within 2 years after November 15, 1990, the Administrator shall promulgate rules under this section providing that it shall be unlawful to replace any class I or class II substance with any substitute substance which the Administrator determines may present adverse effects to human health or the environment, where the Administrator has identified an alternative to such replacement that—

(1) reduces the overall risk to human health and the environment; and

(2) is currently or potentially available.


The Administrator shall publish a list of (A) the substitutes prohibited under this subsection for specific uses and (B) the safe alternatives identified under this subsection for specific uses.

(d) Right to petition

Any person may petition the Administrator to add a substance to the lists under subsection (c) or to remove a substance from either of such lists. The Administrator shall grant or deny the petition within 90 days after receipt of any such petition. If the Administrator denies the petition, the Administrator shall publish an explanation of why the petition was denied. If the Administrator grants such petition the Administrator shall publish such revised list within 6 months thereafter. Any petition under this subsection shall include a showing by the petitioner that there are data on the substance adequate to support the petition. If the Administrator determines that information on the substance is not sufficient to make a determination under this subsection, the Administrator shall use any authority available to the Administrator, under any law administered by the Administrator, to acquire such information.

(e) Studies and notification

The Administrator shall require any person who produces a chemical substitute for a class I substance to provide the Administrator with such person's unpublished health and safety studies on such substitute and require producers to notify the Administrator not less than 90 days before new or existing chemicals are introduced into interstate commerce for significant new uses as substitutes for a class I substance. This subsection shall be subject to section 7414(c) of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §612, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2667.)

§7671l. Federal procurement

Not later than 18 months after November 15, 1990, the Administrator, in consultation with the Administrator of the General Services Administration and the Secretary of Defense, shall promulgate regulations requiring each department, agency, and instrumentality of the United States to conform its procurement regulations to the policies and requirements of this subchapter and to maximize the substitution of safe alternatives identified under section 7671k of this title for class I and class II substances. Not later than 30 months after November 15, 1990, each department, agency, and instrumentality of the United States shall so conform its procurement regulations and certify to the President that its regulations have been modified in accordance with this section.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §613, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2668.)

Executive Order No. 12843

Ex. Ord. No. 12843, Apr. 21, 1993, 58 F.R. 21881, which provided for Federal agencies to implement policies and programs to minimize procurement of ozone-depleting substances, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 13148, §901, Apr. 21, 2000, 65 F.R. 24604, formerly set out as a note under section 4321 of this title.

§7671m. Relationship to other laws

(a) State laws

Notwithstanding section 7416 of this title, during the 2-year period beginning on November 15, 1990, no State or local government may enforce any requirement concerning the design of any new or recalled appliance for the purpose of protecting the stratospheric ozone layer.

(b) Montreal Protocol

This subchapter as added by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 shall be construed, interpreted, and applied as a supplement to the terms and conditions of the Montreal Protocol, as provided in Article 2, paragraph 11 thereof, and shall not be construed, interpreted, or applied to abrogate the responsibilities or obligations of the United States to implement fully the provisions of the Montreal Protocol. In the case of conflict between any provision of this subchapter and any provision of the Montreal Protocol, the more stringent provision shall govern. Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed, interpreted, or applied to affect the authority or responsibility of the Administrator to implement Article 4 of the Montreal Protocol with other appropriate agencies.

(c) Technology export and overseas investment

Upon November 15, 1990, the President shall—

(1) prohibit the export of technologies used to produce a class I substance;

(2) prohibit direct or indirect investments by any person in facilities designed to produce a class I or class II substance in nations that are not parties to the Montreal Protocol; and

(3) direct that no agency of the government provide bilateral or multilateral subsidies, aids, credits, guarantees, or insurance programs, for the purpose of producing any class I substance.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §614, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2668.)

References in Text

The Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, referred to in subsec. (b), probably means Pub. L. 101–549, Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2399. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note set out under section 7401 of this title and Tables.

§7671n. Authority of Administrator

If, in the Administrator's judgment, any substance, practice, process, or activity may reasonably be anticipated to affect the stratosphere, especially ozone in the stratosphere, and such effect may reasonably be anticipated to endanger public health or welfare, the Administrator shall promptly promulgate regulations respecting the control of such substance, practice, process, or activity, and shall submit notice of the proposal and promulgation of such regulation to the Congress.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §615, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2669.)

§7671o. Transfers among Parties to Montreal Protocol

(a) In general

Consistent with the Montreal Protocol, the United States may engage in transfers with other Parties to the Protocol under the following conditions:

(1) The United States may transfer production allowances to another Party if, at the time of such transfer, the Administrator establishes revised production limits for the United States such that the aggregate national United States production permitted under the revised production limits equals the lesser of (A) the maximum production level permitted for the substance or substances concerned in the transfer year under the Protocol minus the production allowances transferred, (B) the maximum production level permitted for the substance or substances concerned in the transfer year under applicable domestic law minus the production allowances transferred, or (C) the average of the actual national production level of the substance or substances concerned for the 3 years prior to the transfer minus the production allowances transferred.

(2) The United States may acquire production allowances from another Party if, at the time of such transfer, the Administrator finds that the other Party has revised its domestic production limits in the same manner as provided with respect to transfers by the United States in this subsection.

(b) Effect of transfers on production limits

The Administrator is authorized to reduce the production limits established under this chapter as required as a prerequisite to transfers under paragraph (1) of subsection (a) or to increase production limits established under this chapter to reflect production allowances acquired under a transfer under paragraph (2) of subsection (a).

(c) Regulations

The Administrator shall promulgate, within 2 years after November 15, 1990, regulations to implement this section.

(d) "Applicable domestic law" defined

In the case of the United States, the term "applicable domestic law" means this chapter.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §616, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2669.)

§7671p. International cooperation

(a) In general

The President shall undertake to enter into international agreements to foster cooperative research which complements studies and research authorized by this subchapter, and to develop standards and regulations which protect the stratosphere consistent with regulations applicable within the United States. For these purposes the President through the Secretary of State and the Assistant Secretary of State for Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs, shall negotiate multilateral treaties, conventions, resolutions, or other agreements, and formulate, present, or support proposals at the United Nations and other appropriate international forums and shall report to the Congress periodically on efforts to arrive at such agreements.

(b) Assistance to developing countries

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary of State, shall support global participation in the Montreal Protocol by providing technical and financial assistance to developing countries that are Parties to the Montreal Protocol and operating under article 5 of the Protocol. There are authorized to be appropriated not more than $30,000,000 to carry out this section in fiscal years 1991, 1992 and 1993 and such sums as may be necessary in fiscal years 1994 and 1995. If China and India become Parties to the Montreal Protocol, there are authorized to be appropriated not more than an additional $30,000,000 to carry out this section in fiscal years 1991, 1992, and 1993.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §617, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2669.)

Authority of Secretary of State

Except as otherwise provided, Secretary of State to have and exercise any authority vested by law in any official or office of Department of State and references to such officials or offices deemed to refer to Secretary of State or Department of State, as appropriate, see section 2651a of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse, and section 161(d) of Pub. L. 103–236, set out as a note under section 2651a of Title 22.

§7671q. Miscellaneous provisions

For purposes of section 7416 of this title, requirements concerning the areas addressed by this subchapter for the protection of the stratosphere against ozone layer depletion shall be treated as requirements for the control and abatement of air pollution. For purposes of section 7418 of this title, the requirements of this subchapter and corresponding State, interstate, and local requirements, administrative authority, and process, and sanctions respecting the protection of the stratospheric ozone layer shall be treated as requirements for the control and abatement of air pollution within the meaning of section 7418 of this title.

(July 14, 1955, ch. 360, title VI, §618, as added Pub. L. 101–549, title VI, §602(a), Nov. 15, 1990, 104 Stat. 2670.)