[USC02] 47 USC Ch. 14: MAKING OPPORTUNITIES FOR BROADBAND INVESTMENT AND LIMITING EXCESSIVE AND NEEDLESS OBSTACLES TO WIRELESS
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47 USC Ch. 14: MAKING OPPORTUNITIES FOR BROADBAND INVESTMENT AND LIMITING EXCESSIVE AND NEEDLESS OBSTACLES TO WIRELESS
From Title 47—TELECOMMUNICATIONS

CHAPTER 14—MAKING OPPORTUNITIES FOR BROADBAND INVESTMENT AND LIMITING EXCESSIVE AND NEEDLESS OBSTACLES TO WIRELESS

Sec.
1501.
Definitions.
1502.
Identifying 255 megahertz.
1503.
Millimeter wave spectrum.
1504.
Broadband infrastructure deployment.
1505.
Unlicensed services in guard bands.
1506.
Rulemaking related to partitioning or disaggregating licenses.
1507.
Unlicensed spectrum policy.
1508.
National plan for unlicensed spectrum.
1509.
Spectrum Challenge Prize.
1510.
Wireless telecommunications tax and fee collection fairness.
1511.
Rules of construction.
1512.
Relationship to Middle Class tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012.
1513.
No additional funds authorized.

        

§1501. Definitions

In this chapter:

(1) Appropriate committees of Congress

The term "appropriate committees of Congress" means—

(A) the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate;

(B) the Committee on Energy and Commerce of the House of Representatives; and

(C) each committee of the Senate or of the House of Representatives with jurisdiction over a Federal entity affected by the applicable section in which the term appears.

(2) Commission

The term "Commission" means the Federal Communications Commission.

(3) Federal entity

The term "Federal entity" has the meaning given the term in section 923(l) of this title.

(4) NTIA

The term "NTIA" means the National Telecommunications and Information Administration of the Department of Commerce.

(5) OMB

The term "OMB" means the Office of Management and Budget.

(6) Secretary

The term "Secretary" means the Secretary of Commerce.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §602, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1097.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title VI of div. P of Pub. L. 115–141, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1097, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title VI to the Code, see Short Title note set out below and Tables.


Statutory Notes and Related Subsidiaries

Short Title

Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §601, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1097, provided that: "This title [enacting this chapter, amending sections 928 and 1455 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1455 of this title, and enacting and amending provisions set out as as notes under section 1303 of Title 40, Public Buildings, Property, and Works] may be cited as the 'Making Opportunities for Broadband Investment and Limiting Excessive and Needless Obstacles to Wireless Act' or the 'MOBILE NOW Act'."

§1502. Identifying 255 megahertz

(a) Requirements

(1) In general

Not later than December 31, 2022, the Secretary, working through the NTIA, and the Commission shall identify a total of at least 255 megahertz of Federal and non-Federal spectrum for mobile and fixed wireless broadband use.

(2) Unlicensed and licensed use

Of the spectrum identified under paragraph (1), not less than—

(A) 100 megahertz below the frequency of 8000 megahertz shall be identified for use on an unlicensed basis;

(B) 100 megahertz below the frequency of 6000 megahertz shall be identified for use on an exclusive, licensed basis for commercial mobile use, pursuant to the Commission's authority to implement such licensing in a flexible manner, and subject to potential continued use of such spectrum by incumbent Federal entities in designated geographic areas indefinitely or for such length of time stipulated in transition plans approved by the Technical Panel under section 923(h) of this title for those incumbent entities to be relocated to alternate spectrum; and

(C) 55 megahertz below the frequency of 8000 megahertz shall be identified for use on either a licensed or unlicensed basis, or a combination of licensed and unlicensed.

(3) Non-eligible spectrum

For purposes of satisfying the requirement under paragraph (1), the following spectrum shall not be counted:

(A) The frequencies between 1695 and 1710 megahertz.

(B) The frequencies between 1755 and 1780 megahertz.

(C) The frequencies between 2155 and 2180 megahertz.

(D) The frequencies between 3550 and 3700 megahertz.

(E) Spectrum that the Commission determines had more than de minimis mobile or fixed wireless broadband operations within the band on the day before March 23, 2018.

(4) Treatment of certain other spectrum

Spectrum identified pursuant to this section may include eligible spectrum, if any, identified after March 23, 2018, pursuant to title X of the Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015 (Public Law 114–74).

(5) Spectrum made available on and after February 11, 2016

Any spectrum that has been made available for licensed or unlicensed use on and after February 11, 2016, and that otherwise satisfies the requirements of this section may be counted towards the requirements of this subsection.

(6) Relocation prioritized over sharing

This section shall be carried out in accordance with section 923(j) of this title.

(7) Considerations

In identifying spectrum for use under this section, the Secretary, working through the NTIA, and Commission shall consider—

(A) the need to preserve critical existing and planned Federal Government capabilities;

(B) the impact on existing State, local, and tribal government capabilities;

(C) the international implications;

(D) the need for appropriate enforcement mechanisms and authorities; and

(E) the importance of the deployment of wireless broadband services in rural areas of the United States.

(b) Rules of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed—

(1) to impair or otherwise affect the functions of the Director of OMB relating to budgetary, administrative, or legislative proposals;

(2) to require the disclosure of classified information, law enforcement sensitive information, or other information that must be protected in the interest of national security; or

(3) to affect any requirement under section 156 of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration Organization Act (47 U.S.C. 921 note), as added by section 1062(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, or any other relevant statutory requirement applicable to the reallocation of Federal spectrum.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §603, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1098.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

The Bipartisan Budget Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is Pub. L. 114–74, Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 584. Title X of the Act, known as the Spectrum Pipeline Act of 2015, is title X of Pub. L. 114–74, Nov. 2, 2015, 129 Stat. 621. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2015 Amendment note set out under section 901 of this title and Tables.

Section 156 of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration Organization Act, as added by section 1062(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, referred to in subsec. (b)(3), is section 156 of title I of Pub. L. 102–538, as added by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1062(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 767, formerly set out as a note under section 921 of this title.

§1503. Millimeter wave spectrum

(a) FCC proceeding

Not later than 2 years after March 23, 2018, the Commission shall publish a notice of proposed rulemaking to consider service rules to authorize mobile or fixed terrestrial wireless operations, including for advanced mobile service operations, in the radio frequency band between 42000 and 42500 megahertz.

(b) Considerations

In conducting a rulemaking under subsection (a), the Commission shall—

(1) consider how the band described in subsection (a) may be used to provide commercial wireless broadband service, including whether—

(A) such spectrum may be best used for licensed or unlicensed services, or some combination thereof; and

(B) to permit additional licensed operations in such band on a shared basis; and


(2) include technical characteristics under which the band described in subsection (a) may be employed for mobile or fixed terrestrial wireless operations, including any appropriate coexistence requirements.

(c) Spectrum made available on and after February 11, 2016

Any spectrum that has been made available for licensed or unlicensed use on or after February 11, 2016, and that otherwise satisfies the requirements of section 1502 of this title may be counted towards the requirements of section 1502(a) of this title.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §604, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1099.)

§1504. Broadband infrastructure deployment

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Appropriate State agency

The term "appropriate State agency" means a State governmental agency that is recognized by the executive branch of the State as having the experience necessary to evaluate and carry out projects relating to the proper and effective installation and operation of broadband infrastructure.

(2) Broadband infrastructure

The term "broadband infrastructure" means any buried, underground, or aerial facility, and any wireless or wireline connection, that enables users to send and receive voice, video, data, graphics, or any combination thereof.

(3) Broadband infrastructure entity

The term "broadband infrastructure entity" means any entity that—

(A) installs, owns, or operates broadband infrastructure; and

(B) provides broadband services in a manner consistent with the public interest, convenience, and necessity, as determined by the State.

(4) State

The term "State" means—

(A) a State;

(B) the District of Columbia; and

(C) the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico.

(b) Broadband infrastructure deployment

To facilitate the installation of broadband infrastructure, the Secretary of Transportation shall promulgate regulations to ensure that each State that receives funds under chapter 1 of title 23 meets the following requirements:

(1) Broadband consultation

The State department of transportation, in consultation with appropriate State agencies, shall—

(A) identify a broadband utility coordinator, that may have additional responsibilities, whether in the State department of transportation or in another State agency, that is responsible for facilitating the broadband infrastructure right-of-way efforts within the State;

(B) establish a process for the registration of broadband infrastructure entities that seek to be included in those broadband infrastructure right-of-way facilitation efforts within the State;

(C) establish a process to electronically notify broadband infrastructure entities identified under subparagraph (B) of the State transportation improvement program on an annual basis and provide additional notifications as necessary to achieve the goals of this section; and

(D) coordinate initiatives carried out under this section with other statewide telecommunication and broadband plans and State and local transportation and land use plans, including strategies to minimize repeated excavations that involve the installation of broadband infrastructure in a right-of-way.

(2) Priority

If a State chooses to provide for the installation of broadband infrastructure in the right-of-way of an applicable Federal-aid highway project under this subsection, the State department of transportation shall carry out any appropriate measures to ensure that any existing broadband infrastructure entities are not disadvantaged, as compared to other broadband infrastructure entities, with respect to the program under this subsection.

(c) Effect of section

This section applies only to activities for which Federal obligations or expenditures are initially approved on or after the date regulations under subsection (b) become effective. Nothing in this section establishes a mandate or requirement that a State install or allow the installation of broadband infrastructure in a highway right-of-way. Nothing in this section authorizes the Secretary of Transportation to withhold or reserve funds or approval of a project under title 23.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §607, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1104.)

§1505. Unlicensed services in guard bands

(a) In general

After public notice and comment, and in consultation with the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information and the head of each affected Federal agency (or a designee thereof), with respect to frequencies allocated for Federal use, the Commission shall adopt rules that permit unlicensed services where feasible to use any frequencies that are designated as guard bands to protect frequencies allocated after March 23, 2018, by competitive bidding under section 309(j) of this title, including spectrum that acts as a duplex gap between transmit and receive frequencies.

(b) Limitation

The Commission may not permit any use of a guard band under this section that would cause harmful interference to a licensed service or a Federal service.

(c) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section shall be construed as limiting the Commission or the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information from otherwise making spectrum available for licensed or unlicensed use in any frequency band in addition to guard bands, including under section 1502 of this title, consistent with their statutory jurisdictions.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §611, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1109.)

§1506. Rulemaking related to partitioning or disaggregating licenses

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Covered small carrier

The term "covered small carrier" means a carrier (as defined in section 153 of this title) that—

(A) has not more than 1,500 employees (as determined under section 121.106 of title 13, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor thereto); and

(B) offers services using the facilities of the carrier.

(2) Rural area

The term "rural area" means any area other than—

(A) a city, town, or incorporated area that has a population of more than 20,000 inhabitants; or

(B) an urbanized area contiguous and adjacent to a city or town that has a population of more than 50,000 inhabitants.

(b) Rulemaking

(1) In general

Not later than 1 year after March 23, 2018, the Commission shall initiate a rulemaking proceeding to assess whether to establish a program, or modify existing programs, under which a licensee that receives a license for the exclusive use of spectrum in a specific geographic area under section 301 of this title may partition or disaggregate the license by sale or long-term lease—

(A) in order to—

(i) provide services consistent with the license; and

(ii) make unused spectrum available to—

(I) an unaffiliated covered small carrier; or

(II) an unaffiliated carrier to serve a rural area; and


(B) if the Commission finds that such a program would promote—

(i) the availability of advanced telecommunications services in rural areas; or

(ii) spectrum availability for covered small carriers.

(2) Considerations

In conducting the rulemaking proceeding under paragraph (1), the Commission shall consider, with respect to the program proposed to be established under that paragraph—

(A) whether reduced performance requirements with respect to spectrum obtained through the program would facilitate deployment of advanced telecommunications services in the areas covered by the program;

(B) what conditions may be needed on transfers of spectrum under the program to allow covered small carriers that obtain spectrum under the program to build out the spectrum in a reasonable period of time;

(C) what incentives may be appropriate to encourage licensees to lease or sell spectrum, including—

(i) extending the term of a license granted under section 301 of this title; or

(ii) modifying performance requirements of the license relating to the leased or sold spectrum; and


(D) the administrative feasibility of—

(i) the incentives described in subparagraph (C); and

(ii) other incentives considered by the Commission that further the goals of this section.

(3) Forfeiture of spectrum

If a party fails to meet any build out requirements set by the Commission for any spectrum sold or leased under this section, the right to the spectrum shall be forfeited to the Commission unless the Commission finds that there is good cause for the failure of the party.

(4) Requirement

The Commission may offer a licensee incentives or reduced performance requirements under this section only if the Commission finds that doing so would likely result in increased availability of advanced telecommunications services in a rural area.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §616, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1110.)

§1507. Unlicensed spectrum policy

(a) Statement of policy

It is the policy of the United States—

(1) to maximize the benefit to the people of the United States of the spectrum resources of the United States;

(2) to advance innovation and investment in wireless broadband services; and

(3) to promote spectrum policy that makes available on an unlicensed basis radio frequency bands to address consumer demand for unlicensed wireless broadband operations.

(b) Commission responsibilities

The Commission shall ensure that the efforts of the Commission related to spectrum allocation and assignment made available on an unlicensed basis radio frequency bands to address demand for unlicensed wireless broadband operations if doing so is, after taking into account the future needs of homeland security, national security, and other spectrum users—

(1) reasonable; and

(2) in the public interest.

(c) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section confers any additional rights on unlicensed users or users licensed by rule under part 96 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations, to protection from harmful interference.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §617, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1112.)

§1508. National plan for unlicensed spectrum

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Spectrum Relocation Fund

The term "Spectrum Relocation Fund" means the Fund established under section 928 of this title.

(2) Unlicensed or licensed by rule operations

The term "unlicensed or licensed by rule operations" means the use of spectrum on a non-exclusive basis under—

(A) part 15 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations; or

(B) licensing by rule under part 96 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations.

(b) National plan

Not later than 18 months after March 23, 2018, the Commission, in consultation with the NTIA, shall develop a national plan for making additional radio frequency bands available for unlicensed or licensed by rule operations.

(c) Requirements

The plan developed under this section shall—

(1) identify an approach that ensures that consumers have access to additional spectrum to conduct unlicensed or licensed by rule operations in a range of radio frequencies to meet consumer demand;

(2) recommend specific actions by the Commission and the NTIA to permit unlicensed or licensed by rule operations in additional radio frequency ranges that the Commission finds—

(A) are consistent with the statement of policy under section 1507(a) of this title;

(B) will—

(i) expand opportunities for unlicensed or licensed by rule operations in a spectrum band; or

(ii) otherwise improve spectrum utilization and intensity of use of bands where unlicensed or licensed by rule operations are already permitted;


(C) will not cause harmful interference to Federal or non-Federal users of such bands; and

(D) will not significantly impact homeland security or national security communications systems; and


(3) examine additional ways, with respect to existing and planned databases or spectrum access systems designed to promote spectrum sharing and access to spectrum for unlicensed or licensed by rule operations—

(A) to improve accuracy and efficacy;

(B) to reduce burdens on consumers, manufacturers, and service providers; and

(C) to protect sensitive Government information.

(d) Spectrum Relocation Fund

To be included as an appendix as part of the plan developed under this section, the NTIA, in consultation with the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, shall share with the Commission recommendations about how to reform the Spectrum Relocation Fund—

(1) to address costs incurred by Federal entities related to sharing radio frequency bands with radio technologies conducting unlicensed or licensed by rule operations; and

(2) to ensure the Spectrum Relocation Fund has sufficient funds to cover—

(A) the costs described in paragraph (1); and

(B) other expenditures allowed of the Spectrum Relocation Fund under section 928 of this title.

(e) Report required

(1) In general

Not later than 18 months after March 23, 2018, the Commission shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report that describes the plan developed under this section, including any recommendations for legislative change.

(2) Publication on commission website

Not later than the date on which the Commission submits the report under paragraph (1), the Commission shall make the report publicly available on the website of the Commission.

(f) Rule of construction

Nothing in this section confers any additional rights on unlicensed users or users licensed by rule under part 96 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations, to protection from harmful interference.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §618, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1112.)

§1509. Spectrum Challenge Prize

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "Spectrum Challenge Prize Act".

(b) Definition of prize competition

In this section, the term "prize competition" means a prize competition conducted by the Secretary under subsection (c)(1).

(c) Spectrum Challenge Prize

(1) In general

The Secretary, in consultation with the Assistant Secretary of Commerce for Communications and Information and the Under Secretary of Commerce for Standards and Technology, shall, subject to the availability of funds for prize competitions under this section—

(A) conduct prize competitions to dramatically accelerate the development and commercialization of technology that improves spectrum efficiency and is capable of cost-effective deployment; and

(B) define a measurable set of performance goals for participants in the prize competitions to demonstrate their solutions on a level playing field while making a significant advancement over the current state of the art.

(2) Authority of Secretary

In carrying out paragraph (1), the Secretary may—

(A) enter into a grant, contract, cooperative agreement, or other agreement with a private sector for-profit or nonprofit entity to administer the prize competitions;

(B) invite the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, the Commission, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Science Foundation, or any other Federal agency to provide advice and assistance in the design or administration of the prize competitions; and

(C) award not more than $5,000,000, in the aggregate, to the winner or winners of the prize competitions.

(d) Criteria

Not later than 180 days after the date on which funds for prize competitions are made available pursuant to this section, the Commission shall publish a technical paper on spectrum efficiency providing criteria that may be used for the design of the prize competitions.

(e) Authorization of appropriations

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §619, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1113.)

§1510. Wireless telecommunications tax and fee collection fairness

(a) Short title

This section may be cited as the "Wireless Telecommunications Tax and Fee Collection Fairness Act".

(b) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Financial transaction

The term "financial transaction" means a transaction in which the purchaser or user of a wireless telecommunications service upon whom a tax, fee, or surcharge is imposed gives cash, credit, or any other exchange of monetary value or consideration to the person who is required to collect or remit the tax, fee, or surcharge.

(2) Local jurisdiction

The term "local jurisdiction" means a political subdivision of a State.

(3) State

The term "State" means any of the several States, the District of Columbia, and any territory or possession of the United States.

(4) State or local jurisdiction

The term "State or local jurisdiction" includes any governmental entity or person acting on behalf of a State or local jurisdiction that has the authority to assess, impose, levy, or collect taxes or fees.

(5) Wireless telecommunications service

The term "wireless telecommunications service" means a commercial mobile radio service, as defined in section 20.3 of title 47, Code of Federal Regulations, or any successor thereto.

(c) Financial transaction requirement

(1) In general

A State, or a local jurisdiction of a State, may not require a person who is neither a resident of such State or local jurisdiction nor an entity having its principal place of business in such State or local jurisdiction to collect from, or remit on behalf of, any other person a State or local tax, fee, or surcharge imposed on a purchaser or user with respect to the purchase or use of any wireless telecommunications service within the State unless the collection or remittance is in connection with a financial transaction.

(2) Rule of construction

Nothing in this subsection shall be construed to affect the right of a State or local jurisdiction to require the collection of any tax, fee, or surcharge in connection with a financial transaction.

(d) Enforcement

(1) Private right of action

Any person aggrieved by a violation of subsection (c) may bring a civil action in an appropriate district court of the United States for equitable relief in accordance with paragraph (2) of this subsection.

(2) Jurisdiction of district courts

Notwithstanding section 1341 of title 28, or the constitution or laws of any State, the district courts of the United States shall have jurisdiction, without regard to the amount in controversy or citizenship of the parties, to grant such mandatory or prohibitive injunctive relief, interim equitable relief, and declaratory judgments as may be necessary to prevent, restrain, or terminate any acts in violation of subsection (c).

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §620, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1114.)

§1511. Rules of construction

(a) Ranges of frequencies

Each range of frequencies described in this chapter shall be construed to be inclusive of the upper and lower frequencies in the range.

(b) Assessment of electromagnetic spectrum reallocation

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to affect any requirement under section 156 of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration Organization Act (47 U.S.C. 921 note), as added by section 1062(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §621, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1115.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title VI of div. P of Pub. L. 115–141, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1097, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title VI to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1501 of this title and Tables.

Section 156 of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration Organization Act, as added by section 1062(a) of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2000, referred to in subsec. (b), is section 156 of title I of Pub. L. 102–538, as added by Pub. L. 106–65, div. A, title X, §1062(a), Oct. 5, 1999, 113 Stat. 767, formerly set out as a note under section 921 of this title.

§1512. Relationship to Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012

Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to limit, restrict, or circumvent in any way the implementation of the nationwide public safety broadband network defined in section 6001 of title VI of the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012 (47 U.S.C. 1401) or any rules implementing that network under title VI of that Act (47 U.S.C. 1401 et seq.).

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §622, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1115.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title VI of div. P of Pub. L. 115–141, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1097, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title VI to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1501 of this title and Tables.

The Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 112–96, Feb. 22, 2012, 126 Stat. 156. Title VI of the Act is classified principally to chapter 13 (§1401 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1(a) of Pub. L. 112–96, set out as a Short Title of 2012 Amendment note under section 1 of Title 26, Internal Revenue Code, and Tables.

§1513. No additional funds authorized

No additional funds are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this chapter. This chapter shall be carried out using amounts otherwise authorized.

(Pub. L. 115–141, div. P, title VI, §623, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1115.)


Editorial Notes

References in Text

This chapter, referred to in text, was in the original "this title", meaning title VI of div. P of Pub. L. 115–141, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1097, which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of title VI to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1501 of this title and Tables.