[USC02] 49 USC Ch. 109: LICENSING
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49 USC Ch. 109: LICENSING
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE IV—INTERSTATE TRANSPORTATIONPART A—RAIL

CHAPTER 109—LICENSING

Sec.
10901.
Authorizing construction and operation of railroad lines.
10902.
Short line purchases by Class II and Class III rail carriers.
10903.
Filing and procedure for application to abandon or discontinue.
10904.
Offers of financial assistance to avoid abandonment and discontinuance.
10905.
Offering abandoned rail properties for sale for public purposes.
10906.
Exception.
10907.
Railroad development.
10908.
Regulation of solid waste rail transfer facilities.
10909.
Solid waste rail transfer facility land-use exemption.
10910.
Effect on other statutes and authorities.

        

Amendments

2008Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title VI, §§603(b), 604(b), 605(b), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4903, 4905, added items 10908 to 10910.

§10901. Authorizing construction and operation of railroad lines

(a) A person may—

(1) construct an extension to any of its railroad lines;

(2) construct an additional railroad line;

(3) provide transportation over, or by means of, an extended or additional railroad line; or

(4) in the case of a person other than a rail carrier, acquire a railroad line or acquire or operate an extended or additional railroad line,


only if the Board issues a certificate authorizing such activity under subsection (c).

(b) A proceeding to grant authority under subsection (a) of this section begins when an application is filed. On receiving the application, the Board shall give reasonable public notice, including notice to the Governor of any affected State, of the beginning of such proceeding.

(c) The Board shall issue a certificate authorizing activities for which such authority is requested in an application filed under subsection (b) unless the Board finds that such activities are inconsistent with the public convenience and necessity. Such certificate may approve the application as filed, or with modifications, and may require compliance with conditions (other than labor protection conditions) the Board finds necessary in the public interest.

(d)(1) When a certificate has been issued by the Board under this section authorizing the construction or extension of a railroad line, no other rail carrier may block any construction or extension authorized by such certificate by refusing to permit the carrier to cross its property if—

(A) the construction does not unreasonably interfere with the operation of the crossed line;

(B) the operation does not materially interfere with the operation of the crossed line; and

(C) the owner of the crossing line compensates the owner of the crossed line.


(2) If the parties are unable to agree on the terms of operation or the amount of payment for purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection, either party may submit the matters in dispute to the Board for determination. The Board shall make a determination under this paragraph within 120 days after the dispute is submitted for determination.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 822.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 10901, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1402; Pub. L. 96–448, title II, §221, Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1928, related to authorizing construction and operation of railroad lines, prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a).

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.

§10902. Short line purchases by Class II and Class III rail carriers

(a) A Class II or Class III rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part may acquire or operate an extended or additional rail line under this section only if the Board issues a certificate authorizing such activity under subsection (c).

(b) A proceeding to grant authority under subsection (a) of this section begins when an application is filed. On receiving the application, the Board shall give reasonable public notice of the beginning of such proceeding.

(c) The Board shall issue a certificate authorizing activities for which such authority is requested in an application filed under subsection (b) unless the Board finds that such activities are inconsistent with the public convenience and necessity. Such certificate may approve the application as filed, or with modifications, and may require compliance with conditions (other than labor protection conditions) the Board finds necessary in the public interest.

(d) The Board shall require any Class II rail carrier which receives a certificate under subsection (c) of this section to provide a fair and equitable arrangement for the protection of the interests of employees who may be affected thereby. The arrangement shall consist exclusively of one year of severance pay, which shall not exceed the amount of earnings from railroad employment of the employee during the 12-month period immediately preceding the date on which the application for such certificate is filed with the Board. The amount of such severance pay shall be reduced by the amount of earnings from railroad employment of the employee with the acquiring carrier during the 12-month period immediately following the effective date of the transaction to which the certificate applies. The parties may agree to terms other than as provided in this subsection. The Board shall not require such an arrangement from a Class III rail carrier which receives a certificate under subsection (c) of this section.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 823.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 10902, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1403, related to authorizing action by rail carriers to provide adequate, efficient, and safe facilities.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.

§10903. Filing and procedure for application to abandon or discontinue

(a)(1) A rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part who intends to—

(A) abandon any part of its railroad lines; or

(B) discontinue the operation of all rail transportation over any part of its railroad lines,


must file an application relating thereto with the Board. An abandonment or discontinuance may be carried out only as authorized under this chapter.

(2) When a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part files an application, the application shall include—

(A) an accurate and understandable summary of the rail carrier's reasons for the proposed abandonment or discontinuance;

(B) a statement indicating that each interested person is entitled to make recommendations to the Board on the future of the rail line; and

(C)(i) a statement that the line is available for subsidy or sale in accordance with section 10904 of this title, (ii) a statement that the rail carrier will promptly provide to each interested party an estimate of the annual subsidy and minimum purchase price, calculated in accordance with section 10904 of this title, and (iii) the name and business address of the person who is authorized to discuss the subsidy or sale terms for the rail carrier.


(3) The rail carrier shall—

(A) send by certified mail notice of the application to the chief executive officer of each State that would be directly affected by the proposed abandonment or discontinuance;

(B) post a copy of the notice in each terminal and station on each portion of a railroad line proposed to be abandoned or over which all transportation is to be discontinued;

(C) publish a copy of the notice for 3 consecutive weeks in a newspaper of general circulation in each county in which each such portion is located;

(D) mail a copy of the notice, to the extent practicable, to all shippers that have made significant use (as designated by the Board) of the railroad line during the 12 months preceding the filing of the application; and

(E) attach to the application filed with the Board an affidavit certifying the manner in which subparagraphs (A) through (D) of this paragraph have been satisfied, and certifying that subparagraphs (A) through (D) have been satisfied within the most recent 30 days prior to the date the application is filed.


(b)(1) Except as provided in subsection (d), abandonment and discontinuance may occur as provided in section 10904.

(2) The Board shall require as a condition of any abandonment or discontinuance under this section provisions to protect the interests of employees. The provisions shall be at least as beneficial to those interests as the provisions established under sections 11326(a) and 24706(c) 1 of this title before May 31, 1998.

(c)(1) In this subsection, the term "potentially subject to abandonment" has the meaning given the term in regulations of the Board. The regulations may include standards that vary by region of the United States and by railroad or group of railroads.

(2) Each rail carrier shall maintain a complete diagram of the transportation system operated, directly or indirectly, by the rail carrier. The rail carrier shall submit to the Board and publish amendments to its diagram that are necessary to maintain the accuracy of the diagram. The diagram shall—

(A) include a detailed description of each of its railroad lines potentially subject to abandonment; and

(B) identify each railroad line for which the rail carrier plans to file an application to abandon or discontinue under subsection (a) of this section.


(d) A rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part may—

(1) abandon any part of its railroad lines; or

(2) discontinue the operation of all rail transportation over any part of its railroad lines;


only if the Board finds that the present or future public convenience and necessity require or permit the abandonment or discontinuance. In making the finding, the Board shall consider whether the abandonment or discontinuance will have a serious, adverse impact on rural and community development.

(e) Subject to this section and sections 10904 and 10905 of this title, if the Board—

(1) finds public convenience and necessity, it shall—

(A) approve the application as filed; or

(B) approve the application with modifications and require compliance with conditions that the Board finds are required by public convenience and necessity; or


(2) fails to find public convenience and necessity, it shall deny the application.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 823; amended Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title II, §32932(b), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 829.)

References in Text

Section 24706(c) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b)(2), was repealed by Pub. L. 105–134, title I, §142(a), Dec. 2, 1997, 111 Stat. 2576, effective 180 days after Dec. 2, 1997.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 10903, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1403; Pub. L. 96–448, title IV, §402(a), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1941; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(14), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(24), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, related to authorizing abandonment and discontinuance of railroad lines and rail transportation.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 112–141 substituted "24706(c) of this title before May 31, 1998" for "24706(c) of this title".

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.

Railroad Branchline Abandonments by Burlington Northern Railroad in North Dakota

Pub. L. 97–102, title IV, §402, Dec. 23, 1981, 95 Stat. 1465, as amended by Pub. L. 102–143, title III, §343, Oct. 28, 1991, 105 Stat. 948, provided that: "Notwithstanding any other provision of law or of this Act, none of the funds provided in this or any other Act shall hereafter be used by the Interstate Commerce Commission to approve railroad branchline abandonments in the State of North Dakota by the entity generally known as the Burlington Northern Railroad, or its agents or assignees, in excess of a total of 350 miles, except that exempt abandonments and discontinuances that are effectuated pursuant to section 1152.50 of title 49 of the Code of Federal Regulations after the date of enactment of the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1992 [Oct. 28, 1991], shall not apply toward such 350-mile limit: Provided, That this section shall be in lieu of section 311 (amendment numbered 93) as set forth in the conference report and the joint explanatory statement of the committee of conference on the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1982 (H.R. 4209), filed in the House of Representatives on November 13, 1981 (H. Rept. No. 97–331)." [Section 311 of H.R. 4209 is section 311 of Pub. L. 97–102, title III, Dec. 23, 1981, 95 Stat. 1460, which is not classified to the Code.] Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 97–92, title IV, §115, Dec. 15, 1981, 95 Stat. 1196.

[Interstate Commerce Commission abolished and functions of Commission transferred, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, to Surface Transportation Board effective Jan. 1, 1996, by section 1302 of this title, and section 101 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title. References to Interstate Commerce Commission deemed to refer to Surface Transportation Board, a member or employee of the Board, or Secretary of Transportation, as appropriate, see section 205 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.]

1 See References in Text note below.

§10904. Offers of financial assistance to avoid abandonment and discontinuance

(a) In this section—

(1) the term "avoidable cost" means all expenses that would be incurred by a rail carrier in providing transportation that would not be incurred if the railroad line over which the transportation was provided were abandoned or if the transportation were discontinued. Expenses include cash inflows foregone and cash outflows incurred by the rail carrier as a result of not abandoning or discontinuing the transportation. Cash inflows foregone and cash outflows incurred include—

(A) working capital and required capital expenditure;

(B) expenditures to eliminate deferred maintenance;

(C) the current cost of freight cars, locomotives, and other equipment; and

(D) the foregone tax benefits from not retiring properties from rail service and other effects of applicable Federal and State income taxes; and


(2) the term "reasonable return" means—

(A) if a rail carrier is not in reorganization, the cost of capital to the rail carrier, as determined by the Board; and

(B) if a rail carrier is in reorganization, the mean cost of capital of rail carriers not in reorganization, as determined by the Board.


(b) Any rail carrier which has filed an application for abandonment or discontinuance shall provide promptly to a party considering an offer of financial assistance and shall provide concurrently to the Board—

(1) an estimate of the annual subsidy and minimum purchase price required to keep the line or a portion of the line in operation;

(2) its most recent reports on the physical condition of that part of the railroad line involved in the proposed abandonment or discontinuance;

(3) traffic, revenue, and other data necessary to determine the amount of annual financial assistance which would be required to continue rail transportation over that part of the railroad line; and

(4) any other information that the Board considers necessary to allow a potential offeror to calculate an adequate subsidy or purchase offer.


(c) Within 4 months after an application is filed under section 10903, any person may offer to subsidize or purchase the railroad line that is the subject of such application. Such offer shall be filed concurrently with the Board. If the offer to subsidize or purchase is less than the carrier's estimate stated pursuant to subsection (b)(1), the offer shall explain the basis of the disparity, and the manner in which the offer is calculated.

(d)(1) Unless the Board, within 15 days after the expiration of the 4-month period described in subsection (c), finds that one or more financially responsible persons (including a governmental authority) have offered financial assistance regarding that part of the railroad line to be abandoned or over which all rail transportation is to be discontinued, abandonment or discontinuance may be carried out in accordance with section 10903.

(2) If the Board finds that such an offer or offers of financial assistance has been made within such period, abandonment or discontinuance shall be postponed until—

(A) the carrier and a financially responsible person have reached agreement on a transaction for subsidy or sale of the line; or

(B) the conditions and amount of compensation are established under subsection (f).


(e) Except as provided in subsection (f)(3), if the rail carrier and a financially responsible person (including a governmental authority) fail to agree on the amount or terms of the subsidy or purchase, either party may, within 30 days after the offer is made, request that the Board establish the conditions and amount of compensation.

(f)(1) Whenever the Board is requested to establish the conditions and amount of compensation under this section—

(A) the Board shall render its decision within 30 days;

(B) for proposed sales, the Board shall determine the price and other terms of sale, except that in no case shall the Board set a price which is below the fair market value of the line (including, unless otherwise mutually agreed, all facilities on the line or portion necessary to provide effective transportation services); and

(C) for proposed subsidies, the Board shall establish the compensation as the difference between the revenues attributable to that part of the railroad line and the avoidable cost of providing rail freight transportation on the line, plus a reasonable return on the value of the line.


(2) The decision of the Board shall be binding on both parties, except that the person who has offered to subsidize or purchase the line may withdraw his offer within 10 days of the Board's decision. In such a case, the abandonment or discontinuance may be carried out immediately, unless other offers are being considered pursuant to paragraph (3) of this subsection.

(3) If a rail carrier receives more than one offer to subsidize or purchase, it shall select the offeror with whom it wishes to transact business, and complete the subsidy or sale agreement, or request that the Board establish the conditions and amount of compensation before the 40th day after the expiration of the 4-month period described in subsection (c). If no agreement on subsidy or sale is reached within such 40-day period and the Board has not been requested to establish the conditions and amount of compensation, any other offeror whose offer was made within the 4-month period described in subsection (c) may request that the Board establish the conditions and amount of compensation. If the Board has established the conditions and amount of compensation, and the original offer has been withdrawn, any other offeror whose offer was made within the 4-month period described in subsection (c) may accept the Board's decision within 20 days after such decision, and the Board shall require the carrier to enter into a subsidy or sale agreement with such offeror, if such subsidy or sale agreement incorporates the Board's decision.

(4)(A) No purchaser of a line or portion of line sold under this section may transfer or discontinue service on such line prior to the end of the second year after consummation of the sale, nor may such purchaser transfer such line, except to the rail carrier from whom it was purchased, prior to the end of the fifth year after consummation of the sale.

(B) No subsidy arrangement approved under this section shall remain in effect for more than one year, unless otherwise mutually agreed by the parties.

(g) Upon abandonment of a railroad line under this chapter, the obligation of the rail carrier abandoning the line to provide transportation on that line, as required by section 11101(a), is extinguished.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 825.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 10905 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a).

A prior section 10904, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1404; Pub. L. 96–448, title IV, §402(b), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1941; Pub. L. 98–216, §2(4), Feb. 14, 1984, 98 Stat. 5, related to filing and procedure for applications to abandon or discontinue railroad lines or rail transportation, prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a). See section 10903 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.

§10905. Offering abandoned rail properties for sale for public purposes

When the Board approves an application to abandon or discontinue under section 10903, the Board shall find whether the rail properties that are involved in the proposed abandonment or discontinuance are appropriate for use for public purposes, including highways, other forms of mass transportation, conservation, energy production or transmission, or recreation. If the Board finds that the rail properties proposed to be abandoned are appropriate for public purposes and not required for continued rail operations, the properties may be sold, leased, exchanged, or otherwise disposed of only under conditions provided in the order of the Board. The conditions may include a prohibition on any such disposal for a period of not more than 180 days after the effective date of the order, unless the properties have first been offered, on reasonable terms, for sale for public purposes.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 827.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 10906 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a).

A prior section 10905, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1405; Pub. L. 96–448, title IV, §402(c), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1942; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(26), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1369, related to offers of financial assistance to avoid abandonment and discontinuance, prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a). See section 10904 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.

§10906. Exception

Notwithstanding section 10901 and subchapter II of chapter 113 of this title, and without the approval of the Board, a rail carrier providing transportation subject to the jurisdiction of the Board under this part may enter into arrangements for the joint ownership or joint use of spur, industrial, team, switching, or side tracks. The Board does not have authority under this chapter over construction, acquisition, operation, abandonment, or discontinuance of spur, industrial, team, switching, or side tracks.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 827.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 10907 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a).

A prior section 10906, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1406, related to offering abandoned rail properties for sale for public purposes, prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a). See section 10905 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.

§10907. Railroad development

(a) In this section, the term "financially responsible person" means a person who—

(1) is capable of paying the constitutional minimum value of the railroad line proposed to be acquired; and

(2) is able to assure that adequate transportation will be provided over such line for a period of not less than 3 years.


Such term includes a governmental authority but does not include a Class I or Class II rail carrier.

(b)(1) When the Board finds that—

(A)(i) the public convenience and necessity require or permit the sale of a particular railroad line under this section; or

(ii) a railroad line is on a system diagram map as required under section 10903 of this title, but the rail carrier owning such line has not filed an application to abandon such line under section 10903 of this title before an application to purchase such line, or any required preliminary filing with respect to such application, is filed under this section; and

(B) an application to purchase such line has been filed by a financially responsible person,


the Board shall require the rail carrier owning the railroad line to sell such line to such financially responsible person at a price not less than the constitutional minimum value.

(2) For purposes of this subsection, the constitutional minimum value of a particular railroad line shall be presumed to be not less than the net liquidation value of such line or the going concern value of such line, whichever is greater.

(c)(1) For purposes of this section, the Board may determine that the public convenience and necessity require or permit the sale of a railroad line if the Board determines, after a hearing on the record, that—

(A) the rail carrier operating such line refuses within a reasonable time to make the necessary efforts to provide adequate service to shippers who transport traffic over such line;

(B) the transportation over such line is inadequate for the majority of shippers who transport traffic over such line;

(C) the sale of such line will not have a significantly adverse financial effect on the rail carrier operating such line;

(D) the sale of such line will not have an adverse effect on the overall operational performance of the rail carrier operating such line; and

(E) the sale of such line will be likely to result in improved railroad transportation for shippers that transport traffic over such line.


(2) In a proceeding under this subsection, the burden of proving that the public convenience and necessity require or permit the sale of a particular railroad line is on the person filing the application to acquire such line. If the Board finds under this subsection that the public convenience and necessity require or permit the sale of a particular railroad line, the Board shall concurrently notify the parties of such finding and publish such finding in the Federal Register.

(d) In the case of any railroad line subject to sale under subsection (a) of this section, the Board shall, upon the request of the acquiring carrier, require the selling carrier to provide to the acquiring carrier trackage rights to allow a reasonable interchange with the selling carrier or to move power equipment or empty rolling stock between noncontiguous feeder lines operated by the acquiring carrier. The Board shall require the acquiring carrier to provide the selling carrier reasonable compensation for any such trackage rights.

(e) The Board shall require, to the maximum extent practicable, the use of the employees who would normally have performed work in connection with a railroad line subject to a sale under this section.

(f) In the case of a railroad line which carried less than 3,000,000 gross ton miles of traffic per mile in the preceding calendar year, whenever a purchasing carrier under this section petitions the Board for joint rates applicable to traffic moving over through routes in which the purchasing carrier may practicably participate, the Board shall, within 30 days after the date such petition is filed and pursuant to section 10705(a) of this title, require the establishment of reasonable joint rates and divisions over such route.

(g)(1) Any person operating a railroad line acquired under this section may elect to be exempt from any of the provisions of this part, except that such a person may not be exempt from the provisions of chapter 107 of this title with respect to transportation under a joint rate.

(2) The provisions of paragraph (1) of this subsection shall apply to any line of railroad which was abandoned during the 18-month period immediately prior to October 1, 1980, and was subsequently purchased by a financially responsible person.

(h) If a purchasing carrier under this section proposes to sell or abandon all or any portion of a purchased railroad line, such purchasing carrier shall offer the right of first refusal with respect to such line or portion thereof to the carrier which sold such line under this section. Such offer shall be made at a price equal to the sum of the price paid by such purchasing carrier to such selling carrier for such line or portion thereof and the fair market value (less deterioration) of any improvements made, as adjusted to reflect inflation.

(i) Any person operating a railroad line acquired under this section may determine preconditions, such as payment of a subsidy, which must be met by shippers in order to obtain service over such lines, but such operator must notify the shippers on the line of its intention to impose such preconditions.

(Added Pub. L. 104–88, title I, §102(a), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 828.)

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in section 10910 of this title prior to the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a).

Prior sections 10907 to 10910 and 10921 to 10936 were omitted in the general amendment of this subtitle by Pub. L. 104–88, §102(a).

Section 10907, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1407, related to rail carriers entering into arrangements for joint use or ownership of spur, industrial, team, switching, or side tracks, and deprived Interstate Commerce Commission of authority over such tracks when located in one State or over certain electric railways. See sections 10102, 10501, and 10906 of this title.

Section 10908, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1407, related to discontinuing or changing interstate train or ferry transportation subject to State law.

Section 10909, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1408, related to discontinuing or changing train or ferry transportation in one State.

Section 10910, added Pub. L. 96–448, title IV, §401(a), Oct. 14, 1980, 94 Stat. 1939; amended Pub. L. 97–468, title V, §506(a), Jan. 14, 1983, 96 Stat. 2553; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(27), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1369, related to railroad development. See section 10907 of this title.

Section 10921, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1409, related to requirement for certificate, permit, or license. See section 13901 of this title.

Section 10922, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1409; Pub. L. 96–296, §§5(a), 6, 34(a), July 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 794, 796, 825; Pub. L. 96–454, §10(a), Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2021; Pub. L. 97–261, §§6(a)–(c), (g), 7, 8, Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1103, 1107, 1108; Pub. L. 98–554, title II, §§225(a), (b), 226(b), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2847, 2848, 2850; Pub. L. 100–17, title III, §§339, 340(a), Apr. 2, 1987, 101 Stat. 243, 245; Pub. L. 100–690, title IX, §9111(g), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4533; Pub. L. 102–240, title III, §3003(b), Dec. 18, 1991, 105 Stat. 2088; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(25), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378; Pub. L. 103–311, title II, §207, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1686; Pub. L. 103–429, §7(a)(4)(D), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4389, related to certificates of motor and water common carriers. See section 13902 of this title.

Section 10923, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1410; Pub. L. 96–258, §1(9), June 3, 1980, 94 Stat. 426; Pub. L. 96–296, §§10(a)(2), (3), 34(b), July 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 799, 800, 825; Pub. L. 97–261, §13(a), Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1114; Pub. L. 99–521, §8(a)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2996; Pub. L. 103–311, title II, §208, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1687, related to permits of motor and water contract carriers and household goods freight forwarders. See section 13903 of this title.

Section 10924, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1412; Pub. L. 96–296, §17(a), July 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 810; Pub. L. 97–261, §14(a)–(c), Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1114; Pub. L. 103–272, §4(j)(28), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1370, related to licenses of motor carrier brokers. See section 13904 of this title.

Section 10925, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1412; Pub. L. 96–296, §§10(e), 17(b), July 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 801, 811; Pub. L. 97–261, §§13(b), 22, Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1114, 1123; Pub. L. 97–449, §5(g)(6), Jan. 12, 1983, 96 Stat. 2443; Pub. L. 99–521, §8(b), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2996; Pub. L. 103–311, title II, §209, Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1688, related to effective periods of certificates, permits, and licenses. See section 13905 of this title.

Section 10926, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 99–521, §8(c), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2996, related to transfers of certificates and permits.

Section 10927, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1413; Pub. L. 96–296, §29, July 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 97–261, §18(h), Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1121; Pub. L. 98–554, title II, §226(c)(2), (3), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2851; Pub. L. 99–521, §8(d), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2996; Pub. L. 100–690, title IX, §9111(h), Nov. 18, 1988, 102 Stat. 4534; Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(26), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, related to security of motor carriers, brokers, and freight forwarders. See section 13906 of this title.

Section 10928, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1414; Pub. L. 96–296, §23, July 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 814; Pub. L. 97–261, §15, Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1114, related to temporary authority for motor and water carriers.

Section 10929, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1415, related to temporary authority for previously exempt water transportation.

Section 10930, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1415; Pub. L. 96–296, §10(b), July 1, 1980, 94 Stat. 800; Pub. L. 99–521, §8(e), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2996, related to limitations on certificates and permits.

Section 10931, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1416, related to motor common carriers providing transportation entirely in one State.

Section 10932, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1417, related to motor carrier savings provisions.

Section 10933, Pub. L. 95–473, Oct. 17, 1978, 92 Stat. 1418; Pub. L. 99–521, §8(f)(1), (2), Oct. 22, 1986, 100 Stat. 2996, 2997, related to authorizing abandonment of household goods freight forwarder service.

Section 10934, added Pub. L. 96–454, §5(a)(1), Oct. 15, 1980, 94 Stat. 2013; amended Pub. L. 98–554, title II, §227(a)(2), Oct. 30, 1984, 98 Stat. 2852, related to household goods agents. See section 13907 of this title.

Section 10935, added Pub. L. 97–261, §16(a), Sept. 20, 1982, 96 Stat. 1115; amended Pub. L. 103–272, §5(m)(27), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1378, related to discontinuing bus transportation in one State.

Section 10936, added Pub. L. 103–311, title II, §211(a), Aug. 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 1689, related to limitation on State regulation of intrastate passengers by bus.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1996, except as otherwise provided in Pub. L. 104–88, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as a note under section 1301 of this title.

§10908. Regulation of solid waste rail transfer facilities

(a) In General.—Each solid waste rail transfer facility shall be subject to and shall comply with all applicable Federal and State requirements, both substantive and procedural, including judicial and administrative orders and fines, respecting the prevention and abatement of pollution, the protection and restoration of the environment, and the protection of public health and safety, including laws governing solid waste, to the same extent as required for any similar solid waste management facility, as defined in section 1004(29) of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6903(29)1 that is not owned or operated by or on behalf of a rail carrier, except as provided for in section 10909 of this chapter.

(b) Existing Facilities.—

(1) State laws and standards.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008, a solid waste rail transfer facility operating as of such date of enactment shall comply with all Federal and State requirements pursuant to subsection (a) other than those provisions requiring permits.

(2) Permit requirements.—

(A) State non-siting permits.—Any solid waste rail transfer facility operating as of the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008 that does not possess a permit required pursuant to subsection (a), other than a siting permit for the facility, as of the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008 shall not be required to possess any such permits in order to operate the facility—

(i) if, within 180 days after such date of enactment, the solid waste rail transfer facility has submitted, in good faith, a complete application for all permits, except siting permits, required pursuant to subsection (a) to the appropriate permitting agency authorized to grant such permits; and

(ii) until the permitting agency has either approved or denied the solid waste rail transfer facility's application for each permit.


(B) Siting permits and requirements.—A solid waste rail transfer facility operating as of the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008 that does not possess a State siting permit required pursuant to subsection (a) as of such date of enactment shall not be required to possess any siting permit to continue to operate or comply with any State land use requirements. The Governor of a State in which the facility is located, or his or her designee, may petition the Board to require the facility to apply for a land-use exemption pursuant to section 10909 of this chapter. The Board shall accept the petition, and the facility shall be required to have a Board-issued land-use exemption in order to continue to operate, pursuant to section 10909 of this chapter.


(c) Common Carrier Obligation.—No prospective or current rail carrier customer may demand solid waste rail transfer service from a rail carrier at a solid waste rail transfer facility that does not already possess the necessary Federal land-use exemption and State permits at the location where service is requested.

(d) Non-Waste Commodities.—Nothing in this section or section 10909 of this chapter shall affect a rail carrier's ability to conduct transportation-related activities with respect to commodities other than solid waste.

(e) Definitions.—

(1) In general.—In this section:

(A) Commercial and retail waste.—The term "commercial and retail waste" means material discarded by stores, offices, restaurants, warehouses, nonmanufacturing activities at industrial facilities, and other similar establishments or facilities.

(B) Construction and demolition debris.—The term "construction and demolition debris" means waste building materials, packaging, and rubble resulting from construction, remodeling, repair, and demolition operations on pavements, houses, commercial buildings, and other structures.

(C) Household waste.—The term "household waste" means material discarded by residential dwellings, hotels, motels, and other similar permanent or temporary housing establishments or facilities.

(D) Industrial waste.—The term "industrial waste" means the solid waste generated by manufacturing and industrial and research and development processes and operations, including contaminated soil, nonhazardous oil spill cleanup waste and dry nonhazardous pesticides and chemical waste, but does not include hazardous waste regulated under subtitle C of the Solid Waste Disposal Act (42 U.S.C. 6921 et seq.), mining or oil and gas waste.

(E) Institutional waste.—The term "institutional waste" means material discarded by schools, nonmedical waste discarded by hospitals, material discarded by nonmanufacturing activities at prisons and government facilities, and material discarded by other similar establishments or facilities.

(F) Municipal solid waste.—The term "municipal solid waste" means—

(i) household waste;

(ii) commercial and retail waste; and

(iii) institutional waste.


(G) Solid waste.—With the exception of waste generated by a rail carrier during track, track structure, or right-of-way construction, maintenance, or repair (including railroad ties and line-side poles) or waste generated as a result of a railroad accident, incident, or derailment, the term "solid waste" means—

(i) construction and demolition debris;

(ii) municipal solid waste;

(iii) household waste;

(iv) commercial and retail waste;

(v) institutional waste;

(vi) sludge;

(vii) industrial waste; and

(viii) other solid waste, as determined appropriate by the Board.


(H) Solid waste rail transfer facility.—The term "solid waste rail transfer facility"—

(i) means the portion of a facility owned or operated by or on behalf of a rail carrier (as defined in section 10102 of this title) where solid waste, as a commodity to be transported for a charge, is collected, stored, separated, processed, treated, managed, disposed of, or transferred, when the activity takes place outside of original shipping containers; but

(ii) does not include—

(I) the portion of a facility to the extent that activities taking place at such portion are comprised solely of the railroad transportation of solid waste after the solid waste is loaded for shipment on or in a rail car, including railroad transportation for the purpose of interchanging railroad cars containing solid waste shipments; or

(II) a facility where solid waste is solely transferred or transloaded from a tank truck directly to a rail tank car.


(I) Sludge.—The term "sludge" means any solid, semi-solid or liquid waste generated from a municipal, commercial, or industrial wastewater treatment plant, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility exclusive of the treated effluent from a wastewater treatment plant.


(2) Exceptions.—Notwithstanding paragraph (1), the terms "household waste", "commercial and retail waste", and "institutional waste" do not include—

(A) yard waste and refuse-derived fuel;

(B) used oil;

(C) wood pallets;

(D) clean wood;

(E) medical or infectious waste; or

(F) motor vehicles (including motor vehicle parts or vehicle fluff).


(3) State requirements.—In this section the term "State requirements" does not include the laws, regulations, ordinances, orders, or other requirements of a political subdivision of a State, including a locality or municipality, unless a State expressly delegates such authority to such political subdivision.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title VI, §603(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4900.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008, referred to in subsec. (b), is the date of enactment of title VI of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

The Solid Waste Disposal Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(D), is title II of Pub. L. 89–272, Oct. 20, 1965, 79 Stat. 997, as amended generally by Pub. L. 94–580, §2, Oct. 21, 1976, 90 Stat. 2795. Subtitle C of the Act is classified generally to subchapter III (§6921 et seq.) of chapter 82 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 6901 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

For prior section 10908, see note set out under section 10907 of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§10909. Solid waste rail transfer facility land-use exemption

(a) Authority.—The Board may issue a land-use exemption for a solid waste rail transfer facility that is or is proposed to be operated by or on behalf of a rail carrier if—

(1) the Board finds that a State, local, or municipal law, regulation, order, or other requirement affecting the siting of such facility unreasonably burdens the interstate transportation of solid waste by railroad, discriminates against the railroad transportation of solid waste and a solid waste rail transfer facility, or a rail carrier that owns or operates such a facility petitions the Board for such an exemption; or

(2) the Governor of a State in which a facility that is operating as of the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008 is located, or his or her designee, petitions the Board to initiate a permit proceeding for that particular facility.


(b) Land-Use Exemption Procedures.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008, the Board shall publish procedures governing the submission and review of applications for solid waste rail transfer facility land-use exemptions. At a minimum, the procedures shall address—

(1) the information that each application should contain to explain how the solid waste rail transfer facility will not pose an unreasonable risk to public health, safety, or the environment;

(2) the opportunity for public notice and comment including notification of the municipality, the State, and any relevant Federal or State regional planning entity in the jurisdiction of which the solid waste rail transfer facility is proposed to be located;

(3) the timeline for Board review, including a requirement that the Board approve or deny an exemption within 90 days after the full record for the application is developed;

(4) the expedited review timelines for petitions for modifications, amendments, or revocations of granted exemptions;

(5) the process for a State to petition the Board to require a solid waste transfer facility or a rail carrier that owns or operates such a facility to apply for a siting permit; and

(6) the process for a solid waste transfer facility or a rail carrier that owns or operates such a facility to petition the Board for a land-use exemption.


(c) Standard for Review.—

(1) The Board may only issue a land-use exemption if it determines that the facility at the existing or proposed location does not pose an unreasonable risk to public health, safety, or the environment. In deciding whether a solid waste rail transfer facility that is or proposed to be constructed or operated by or on behalf of a rail carrier poses an unreasonable risk to public health, safety, or the environment, the Board shall weigh the particular facility's potential benefits to and the adverse impacts on public health, public safety, the environment, interstate commerce, and transportation of solid waste by rail.

(2) The Board may not grant a land-use exemption for a solid waste rail transfer facility proposed to be located on land within any unit of or land affiliated with the National Park System, the National Wildlife Refuge System, the National Wilderness Preservation System, the National Trails System, the National Wild and Scenic Rivers System, a National Reserve, a National Monument, or lands referenced in Public Law 108–421 for which a State has implemented a conservation management plan, if operation of the facility would be inconsistent with restrictions placed on such land.


(d) Considerations.—When evaluating an application under this section, the Board shall consider and give due weight to the following, as applicable:

(1) the land-use, zoning, and siting regulations or solid waste planning requirements of the State or State subdivision in which the facility is or will be located that are applicable to solid waste transfer facilities, including those that are not owned or operated by or on behalf of a rail carrier;

(2) the land-use, zoning, and siting regulations or solid waste planning requirements applicable to the property where the solid waste rail transfer facility is proposed to be located;

(3) regional transportation planning requirements developed pursuant to Federal and State law;

(4) regional solid waste disposal plans developed pursuant to State or Federal law;

(5) any Federal and State environmental protection laws or regulations applicable to the site;

(6) any unreasonable burdens imposed on the interstate transportation of solid waste by railroad, or the potential for discrimination against the railroad transportation of solid waste, a solid waste rail transfer facility, or a rail carrier that owns or operates such a facility; and

(7) any other relevant factors, as determined by the Board.


(e) Existing Facilities.—Upon the granting of a petition from the State in which a solid waste rail transfer facility is operating as of the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008 by the Board, the facility shall submit a complete application for a siting permit to the Board pursuant to the procedures issued pursuant to subsection (b). No State may enforce a law, regulation, order, or other requirement affecting the siting of a facility that is operating as of the date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008 until the Board has approved or denied a permit pursuant to subsection (c).

(f) Effect of Land-Use Exemption.—If the Board grants a land-use exemption to a solid waste rail transfer facility, all State laws, regulations, orders, or other requirements affecting the siting of a facility are preempted with regard to that facility. An exemption may require compliance with such State laws, regulations, orders, or other requirements.

(g) Injunctive Relief.—Nothing in this section precludes a person from seeking an injunction to enjoin a solid waste rail transfer facility from being constructed or operated by or on behalf of a rail carrier if that facility has materially violated, or will materially violate, its land-use exemption or if it failed to receive a valid land-use exemption under this section.

(h) Fees.—The Board may charge permit applicants reasonable fees to implement this section, including the costs of third-party consultants.

(i) Definitions.—In this section the terms "solid waste", "solid waste rail transfer facility", and "State requirements" have the meaning given such terms in section 10908(e).

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title VI, §604(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4903; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. A, title XI, §11316(b), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1676.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Clean Railroads Act of 2008, referred to in subsecs. (a)(2), (b), and (e), is the date of enactment of title VI of div. A of Pub. L. 110–432, which was approved Oct. 16, 2008.

Public Law 108–421, referred to in subsec. (c)(2), is Pub. L. 108–421, Nov. 30, 2004, 118 Stat. 2375, known as the Highlands Conservation Act, which is not classified to the Code.

Prior Provisions

For prior section 10909, see note set out under section 10907 of this title.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(b)(1), substituted "Clean Railroads Act of 2008" for "Clean Railroad Act of 2008" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 114–94, §11316(b)(2), substituted "Upon the granting of a petition from the State" for "Upon the granting of petition from the State".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–94 effective Oct. 1, 2015, see section 1003 of Pub. L. 114–94, set out as a note under section 5313 of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§10910. Effect on other statutes and authorities

Nothing in section 10908 or 10909 is intended to affect the traditional police powers of the State to require a rail carrier to comply with State and local environmental, public health, and public safety standards that are not unreasonably burdensome to interstate commerce and do not discriminate against rail carriers.

(Added Pub. L. 110–432, div. A, title VI, §605(a), Oct. 16, 2008, 122 Stat. 4905.)

Prior Provisions

For prior section 10910, see note set out under section 10907 of this title.