[USC02] 49 USC Ch. 323: CONSUMER INFORMATION
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49 USC Ch. 323: CONSUMER INFORMATION
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VI—MOTOR VEHICLE AND DRIVER PROGRAMSPART C—INFORMATION, STANDARDS, AND REQUIREMENTS

CHAPTER 323—CONSUMER INFORMATION

Sec.
32301.
Definitions.
32302.
Passenger motor vehicle information.
32303.
Insurance information.
32304.
Passenger motor vehicle country of origin labeling.
32304A.
Consumer tire information.1

        

32305.
Information and assistance from other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities.
32306.
Personnel.
32307.
Investigative powers.
32308.
General prohibitions, civil penalty, and enforcement.
32309.
Civil penalty for labeling violations.

        

Amendments

2007Pub. L. 110–140, title I, §111(c), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1507, added item 32304A.

1994Pub. L. 103–429, §6(28), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4380, substituted "Civil" for "Criminal" in item 32309.

1 Section catchline amended by Pub. L. 114–94 without corresponding amendment of chapter analysis.

§32301. Definitions

In this chapter—

(1) "crash avoidance" means preventing or mitigating a crash;

(2) "crashworthiness" means the protection a passenger motor vehicle gives its passengers against personal injury or death from a motor vehicle accident; and

(3) "damage susceptibility" means the susceptibility of a passenger motor vehicle to damage in a motor vehicle accident.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1035; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, §31305(a), July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 765.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32301 15:1901(13), (14). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §2(13), (14), 86 Stat. 948; Dec. 22, 1975, Pub. L. 94–163, §301, 89 Stat. 901; Oct. 10, 1980, Pub. L. 96–425, §8(a)(2), 94 Stat. 1828; Oct. 25, 1984, Pub. L. 98–547, §101(b), 98 Stat. 2767.

Amendments

2012Pub. L. 112–141 added par. (1), redesignated former pars. (1) and (2) as (2) and (3), respectively, and, in par. (2), substituted "; and" for period at end.

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

§32302. Passenger motor vehicle information

(a) Information Program.—The Secretary of Transportation shall maintain a program for developing the following information on passenger motor vehicles:

(1) damage susceptibility.

(2) crashworthiness, crash avoidance, and any other areas the Secretary determines will improve the safety of passenger motor vehicles.

(3) the degree of difficulty of diagnosis and repair of damage to, or failure of, mechanical and electrical systems.


(b) Motor Vehicle Information.—To assist a consumer in buying a passenger motor vehicle, the Secretary shall provide to the public information developed under subsection (a) of this section. The information shall be in a simple and understandable form that allows comparison of the characteristics referred to in subsection (a)(1)–(3) of this section among the makes and models of passenger motor vehicles. The Secretary may require passenger motor vehicle dealers to distribute the information to prospective buyers. The Secretary, after providing an opportunity for public comment, shall study and report to Congress the most useful data, format, and method for providing simple and understandable damage susceptibility information to consumers.

(c) Crash Avoidance.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Safety Through Informed Consumers Act of 2015, the Secretary shall promulgate a rule to ensure that crash avoidance information is indicated next to crashworthiness information on stickers placed on motor vehicles by their manufacturers.

(d) Motor Vehicle Defect Reporting Information.—

(1) Rulemaking required.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the Motor Vehicle and Highway Safety Improvement Act of 2012, the Secretary shall prescribe regulations that require passenger motor vehicle manufacturers—

(A) to affix, in the glove compartment or in another readily accessible location on the vehicle, a sticker, decal, or other device that provides, in simple and understandable language, information about how to submit a safety-related motor vehicle defect complaint to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration;

(B) to prominently print the information described in subparagraph (A) within the owner's manual; and

(C) to not place such information on the label required under section 3 of the Automobile Information Disclosure Act (15 U.S.C. 1232).


(2) Application.—The requirements under paragraph (1) shall apply to passenger motor vehicles manufactured in any model year beginning more than 1 year after the date on which a final rule is published under paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1035; Pub. L. 112–141, div. C, title I, §§31305(b), 31306, July 6, 2012, 126 Stat. 765; Pub. L. 112–252, §§1, 2(a), Jan. 10, 2013, 126 Stat. 2406; Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, §24322, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1713.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32302(a) 15:1941(c) (19th–60th words). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §201(c), (e), 86 Stat. 956.
  15:1941(d) (1st–13th words). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §201(d), 86 Stat. 956; July 14, 1976, Pub. L. 94–364, §201, 90 Stat. 981.
32302(b) 15:1941(c) (1st–18th and 61st–last words), (d) (14th–last words).
32302(c) 15:1941(e).

In subsection (a), the words before clause (1) are substituted for "The Secretary shall compile the information described in subsection (c) of this section" and "existing information and information to be developed relating to" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words "After the study has been completed" are omitted as executed. The words "To assist a consumer in buying a passenger motor vehicle" are substituted for "so as to be of benefit in their passenger motor vehicle purchasing decisions", and the words "the Secretary shall provide to the public" are substituted for "the Secretary is authorized and directed to devise specific ways in which . . . can be communicated to consumers" and "furnish it to the public", to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "existing" is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (c), the words "not later than February 1, 1975" are omitted as executed. The words "prescribe regulations" are substituted for "by rule establish" for consistency in the revised title and because "rule" is synonymous with "regulation".

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Safety Through Informed Consumers Act of 2015, referred to in subsec. (c), is the date of enactment of part II of subtitle C of title XXIV of div. B of Pub. L. 114–94, which was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

The date of enactment of the Motor Vehicle and Highway Safety Improvement Act of 2012, referred to in subsec. (d)(1), is the date of enactment of title I of div. C of Pub. L. 112–141, which was approved July 6, 2012.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–94 added subsec. (c).

2013—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 112–252, §2(a), inserted at end "The Secretary, after providing an opportunity for public comment, shall study and report to Congress the most useful data, format, and method for providing simple and understandable damage susceptibility information to consumers."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–252, §1, struck out subsec. (c). Text read as follows: "The Secretary shall prescribe regulations that require passenger motor vehicle dealers to distribute to prospective buyers information the Secretary develops and provides to the dealers that compares insurance costs for different makes and models of passenger motor vehicles based on damage susceptibility and crashworthiness."

2012—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 112–141, §31305(b)(1), inserted ", crash avoidance, and any other areas the Secretary determines will improve the safety of passenger motor vehicles" after "crashworthiness".

Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 112–141, §31305(b)(2), struck out par. (4) which read as follows: "vehicle operating costs dependent on the characteristics referred to in clauses (1)–(3) of this subsection, including insurance information obtained under section 32303 of this title."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 112–141, §31306, added subsec. (d).

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 112–141 effective Oct. 1, 2012, see section 3(a) of Pub. L. 112–141, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 2012 Amendment note under section 101 of Title 23, Highways.

Regulations

Pub. L. 112–252, §1, Jan. 10, 2013, 126 Stat. 2406, provided in part that: "any regulations promulgated under such subsection [former subsec. (c) of this section] shall have no force or effect."

Consumer Guidance

Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, §24103(d), Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1703, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 4, 2015], the Secretary shall make available to the public on the Internet detailed guidance for consumers submitting safety complaints, including—

"(1) a detailed explanation of what information a consumer should include in a complaint; and

"(2) a detailed explanation of the possible actions the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration can take to address a complaint and respond to the consumer, including information on—

"(A) the consumer records, such as photographs and police reports, that could assist with an investigation; and

"(B) the length of time a consumer should retain the records described in subparagraph (A)."

Deadline for Report

Pub. L. 112–252, §2(b), Jan. 10, 2013, 126 Stat. 2406, provided that: "The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out the last sentence of section 32302(b) of title 49, United States Code, as added by subsection (a), not later than the date that is 2 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Jan. 10, 2013]."

§32303. Insurance information

(a) General Reports and Information Requirements.—(1) In carrying out this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation may require an insurer, or a designated agent of the insurer, to make reports and provide the Secretary with information. The reports and information may include accident claim information by make, model, and model year of passenger motor vehicle about the kind and extent of—

(A) physical damage and repair costs; and

(B) personal injury.


(2) In deciding which reports and information are to be provided under this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) consider the cost of preparing and providing the reports and information;

(B) consider the extent to which the reports and information will contribute to carrying out this chapter; and

(C) consult with State authorities and public and private agencies the Secretary considers appropriate.


(3) To the extent possible, the Secretary shall obtain reports and information under this subsection on a voluntary basis.

(b) Requested Information on Crashworthiness, Damage Susceptibility, and Repair and Personal Injury Cost.—When requested by the Secretary, an insurer shall give the Secretary information—

(1) about the extent to which the insurance premiums charged by the insurer are affected by damage susceptibility, crashworthiness, and the cost of repair and personal injury, for each make and model of passenger motor vehicle; and

(2) available to the insurer about the effect of damage susceptibility, crashworthiness, and the cost of repair and personal injury for each make and model of passenger motor vehicle on the risk incurred by the insurer in insuring that make and model.


(c) Disclosure.—In distributing information received under this section, the Secretary may disclose identifying information about a person that may be an insured, a claimant, a passenger, an owner, a witness, or an individual involved in a motor vehicle accident, only with the consent of the person.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1036.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32303(a) 15:1945(a)–(d), (g). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §205, 86 Stat. 958.
32303(b) 15:1945(e).
32303(c) 15:1945(f).

In subsection (a), the words "carrying out this chapter" are substituted for "to enable him to carry out the purposes of this subchapter" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "provide" is substituted for "furnish" for consistency.

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "the Secretary of Transportation may require . . . to . . . provide the Secretary with" are substituted for "shall, upon request by the Secretary . . . as the Secretary may reasonably require" to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 15:1945(g) is omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a). The word "information" is substituted for "data" for consistency in the section. In clause (A), the words "repair costs" are substituted for "the cost of remedying the damage" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(2)(C), the words "State authorities and public and private agencies" are substituted for "such State and insurance regulatory agencies and other agencies and associations, both public and private" for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the word "information" is substituted for "a description of" for consistency in the section. In clause (1), the word "premiums" is substituted for "rates or premiums" because it is inclusive. In clause (2), the words "by the insurer" are added for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "identifying information" are substituted for "the name of, or other identifying information", and the words "a witness, or an individual involved" are substituted for "a driver, an injured person, a witness, or otherwise involved" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "accident" is substituted for "crash or collision" for consistency in this section. The words "so named or otherwise identified" are omitted as surplus.

§32304. Passenger motor vehicle country of origin labeling

(a) Definitions.—In this section—

(1) "allied supplier" means a supplier of passenger motor vehicle equipment that is wholly owned by the manufacturer, or if a joint venture vehicle assembly arrangement, a supplier that is wholly owned by one member of the joint venture arrangement.

(2)(A) "carline"—

(i) means a name given a group of passenger motor vehicles that has a degree of commonality in construction such as body and chassis;

(ii) does not consider a level of decor or opulence; and

(iii) except for light duty trucks, is not generally distinguished by characteristics such as roof line, number of doors, seats, or windows; and


(B) light duty trucks are different carlines than passenger motor vehicles.

(3) "country of origin", when referring to the origin of an engine or transmission, means the country from which the largest share of the dollar value added to an engine or transmission has originated—

(A) with the United States and Canada treated as separate countries; and

(B) the estimate of the percentage of the dollar value shall be based on the purchase price of direct materials, as received at individual engine or transmission plants, of engines of the same displacement and transmissions of the same transmission type, plus the assembly and labor costs incurred for the final assembly of such engines and transmissions.


(4) "dealer" means a person residing or located in the United States, including the District of Columbia or a territory or possession of the United States, and engaged in selling or distributing new passenger motor vehicles to the ultimate purchaser.

(5) "final assembly place" means the plant, factory, or other place at which a new passenger motor vehicle is produced or assembled by a manufacturer, and from which the vehicle is delivered to a dealer or importer with all component parts necessary for the mechanical operation of the vehicle included with the vehicle, whether or not the component parts are permanently installed in or on the vehicle. Such term does not include facilities for engine and transmission fabrication and assembly and the facilities for fabrication of motor vehicle equipment component parts which are produced at the same final assembly place using forming processes such as stamping, machining, or molding processes.

(6) "foreign content" means passenger motor vehicle equipment that is not of United States/Canadian origin.

(7) "manufacturer" means a person—

(A) engaged in manufacturing or assembling new passenger motor vehicles;

(B) importing new passenger motor vehicles for resale; or

(C) acting for and under the control of such a manufacturer, assembler, or importer in connection with the distribution of new passenger motor vehicles.


(8) "new passenger motor vehicle" means a passenger motor vehicle for which a manufacturer, distributor, or dealer has never transferred the equitable or legal title to the vehicle to an ultimate purchaser.

(9) "of United States/Canadian origin", when referring to passenger motor vehicle equipment, means—

(A) for an outside supplier—

(i) the full purchase price of passenger motor vehicle equipment whose purchase price contains at least 70 percent value added in the United States and Canada; or

(ii) that portion of the purchase price of passenger motor vehicle equipment containing less than 70 percent value added in the United States and Canada that is attributable to the percent value added in the United States and Canada when such percent is expressed to the nearest 5 percent; and


(B) for an allied supplier, that part of the individual passenger motor vehicle equipment whose purchase price the manufacturer determines remains after subtracting the total of the purchase prices of all material of foreign content purchased from outside suppliers, with the determination of the United States/Canadian origin or of the foreign content from outside suppliers being consistent with subclause (A) of this clause.


(10) "outside supplier" means a supplier of passenger motor vehicle equipment to a manufacturer's allied supplier, or a person other than an allied supplier, who ships directly to the manufacturer's final assembly place.

(11) "passenger motor vehicle" has the same meaning given that term in section 32101(10) of this title, except that it includes any multi-purpose vehicle or light duty truck when that vehicle or truck is rated at not more than 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight.

(12) "passenger motor vehicle equipment"—

(A) means a system, subassembly, or component received at the final vehicle assembly place for installation on, or attachment to, a passenger motor vehicle at the time of its first shipment by the manufacturer to a dealer for sale to an ultimate purchaser; but

(B) does not include minor parts (including nuts, bolts, clips, screws, pins, braces, and other attachment hardware) and other similar items the Secretary of Transportation may prescribe by regulation after consulting with manufacturers and labor.


(13) "percentage (by value)", when referring to passenger motor vehicle equipment of United States/Canadian origin, means the percentage remaining after subtracting the percentage (by value) of passenger motor vehicle equipment that is not of United States/Canadian origin that will be installed or included on those vehicles produced in a carline, from 100 percent—

(A) with value being expressed in terms of the purchase price; and

(B) for outside suppliers and allied suppliers, the value used is the purchase price of the equipment paid at the final assembly place.


(14) "State" means a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, American Samoa, and the Virgin Islands.

(15) "value added in the United States and Canada" means a percentage determined by subtracting the total purchase price of foreign content from the total purchase price, and dividing the remainder by the total purchase price, excluding costs incurred or profits made at the final assembly place and beyond (including advertising, assembly, labor, interest payments, and profits), with the following groupings being used:

(A) engines of same displacement produced at the same plant.

(B) transmissions of the same type produced at the same plant.


(b) Manufacturer Requirement.—(1) Each manufacturer of a new passenger motor vehicle manufactured after September 30, 1994, and distributed in commerce for sale in the United States, shall establish each year for each model year and cause to be attached in a prominent place on each of those vehicles, at least one label. The label shall contain the following information:

(A) the percentage (by value) of passenger motor vehicle equipment of United States/Canadian origin installed on vehicles in the carline to which that vehicle belongs, identified by the words "U.S./Canadian content".

(B) the final assembly place for that vehicle by city, State (where appropriate) and country.

(C) if at least 15 percent (by value) of equipment installed on passenger motor vehicles in a carline originated in any country other than the United States and Canada, the names of at least the 2 countries in which the greatest amount (by value) of that equipment originated and the percentage (by value) of the equipment originating in each country.

(D) the country of origin of the engine and the transmission for each vehicle.


(2) At the beginning of each model year, each manufacturer shall establish the percentages required for each carline to be indicated on the label under this subsection. Those percentages are applicable to that carline for the entire model year. A manufacturer may round those percentages to the nearest 5 percent.

(3) A manufacturer complying with the requirement of paragraph (1)(B) of this subsection satisfies the disclosure requirement of section 3(b) of the Automobile Information Disclosure Act (15 U.S.C. 1232(b)).

(c) Vehicle Content Percentage by Assembly Plant.—A manufacturer may display separately on the label required by subsection (b) the domestic content of a vehicle based on the assembly plant. Such display shall occur after the matter required to be in the label by subsection (b)(1)(A).

(d) Value Added Determination.—If a manufacturer or allied supplier requests information in a timely manner from one or more of its outside suppliers concerning the United States/Canadian content of particular equipment, but does not receive that information despite a good faith effort to obtain it, the manufacturer or allied supplier may make its own good faith value added determinations, subject to the following:

(1) The manufacturer or allied supplier shall make the same value added determinations as would be made by the outside supplier, that is, whether 70 percent or more of the value of equipment is added in the United States and/or Canada.

(2) The manufacturer or allied supplier shall consider the amount of value added and the location in which the value was added for all of the stages that the outside supplier would be required to consider.

(3) The manufacturer or allied supplier may determine that the value added in the United States and/or Canada is 70 percent or more only if it has a good faith basis to make that determination.

(4) A manufacturer and its allied suppliers may, on a combined basis, make value added determinations for no more than 10 percent, by value, of a carline's total parts content from outside suppliers.

(5) Value added determinations made by a manufacturer or allied supplier under this paragraph shall have the same effect as if they were made by the outside supplier.

(6) This provision does not affect the obligation of outside suppliers to provide the requested information.


(e) Small Parts.—The country of origin of nuts, bolts, clips, screws, pins, braces, gasoline, oil, blackout, phosphate rinse, windshield washer fluid, fasteners, tire assembly fluid, rivets, adhesives, and grommets, of any system, subassembly, or component installed in a vehicle shall be considered to be the country in which such parts were included in the final assembly of such vehicle.

(f) Dealer Requirement.—Each dealer engaged in the sale or distribution of a new passenger motor vehicle manufactured after September 30, 1994, shall cause to be maintained on that vehicle the label required to be attached to that vehicle under subsection (b) of this section.

(g) Form and Content of Label.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe by regulation the form and content of the label required under subsection (b) of this section and the manner and location in which the label is attached. The Secretary shall permit a manufacturer to comply with this section by allowing the manufacturer to disclose the information required under subsection (b)(1) on the label required by section 3 of the Automobile Information Disclosure Act (15 U.S.C. 1232), on the label required by section 32908 of this title, or on a separate label that is readily visible. A manufacturer may add to the label required under subsection (b) a line stating the country in which vehicle assembly was completed.

(h) Regulations.—In consultation with the Secretaries of Commerce and the Treasury, the Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations necessary to carry out this section, including regulations establishing a procedure to verify the label information required under subsection (b)(1) of this section. Those regulations shall provide the ultimate purchaser of a new passenger motor vehicle with the best and most understandable information possible about the foreign content and United States/Canadian origin of the equipment of the vehicles without imposing costly and unnecessary burdens on the manufacturers. The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe the regulations promptly to provide adequate lead time for each manufacturer to comply with this section. The regulations shall include provisions applicable to outside suppliers and allied suppliers to require those suppliers to certify whether passenger motor vehicle equipment provided by those suppliers is of United States origin, of United States/Canadian origin, or of foreign content and to provide other information the Secretary of Transportation decides is necessary to allow each manufacturer to comply reasonably with this section and to rely on that certification and information.

(i) Preemption.—(1) When a label content requirement prescribed under this section is in effect, a State or a political subdivision of a State may not adopt or enforce a law or regulation related to the content of vehicles covered by a requirement under this section.

(2) A State or a political subdivision of a State may prescribe requirements related to the content of passenger motor vehicles obtained for its own use.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1036; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(29), (30), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4380; Pub. L. 105–178, title VII, §7106(d), June 9, 1998, 112 Stat. 467.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32304(a) 15:1950(f). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, 86 Stat. 947, §210(b)–(d), (f), (g), added Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–388, §355, 106 Stat. 1556, 1557.
32304(b)(1), (2) 15:1950(b)(1) (less words between 1st and 2d commas), (2).
32304(b)(3) 15:1950(b)(3).
32304(c) 15:1950(b)(1) (words between 1st and 2d commas).
32304(d) 15:1950(c).
32304(e) 15:1950(d).
32304(f) 15:1950(g).

In this section, the words "passenger motor vehicle" and "vehicle" are substituted for "automobile" because the defined terms used in the operative provisions of the law being restated are "passenger motor vehicle" and "new passenger motor vehicle". The words "final assembly place" are substituted for "final assembly point" for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(2)(A)(i), the word "given" is substituted for "denoting" for clarity. The words "passenger motor" are added for clarity and consistency in the revised section.

In section (a)(2)(A)(ii), the words "decor or opulence" are substituted for "decor of opulence" for clarity.

In subsection (a)(3), before subclause (A), the words "from which the largest share of the dollar value added to . . . has originated" are substituted for "in which 50 percent or more of the dollar value added of . . . originated. If no country accounts for 50 percent or more of the dollar value, then the country of origin is the country from which the largest share of the value added originated" for clarity and to eliminate unnecessary words. In subclause (A), the word "with" is substituted for "For the purpose of determining the country of origin for engines and transmissions" are omitted as unnecessary.

In subsection (a)(4), the word "possession" is added for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (a)(5), the words "in such a condition" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(6), the words "United States/Canadian origin" are substituted for "U.S./Canadian origin" for consistency with the defined term restated in the revised section. The word "foreign" is omitted as being included in "foreign content".

In subsection (a)(9), before subclause (A), the words "originated in the United States and Canada" and "U.S./Canadian origin" are omitted as unnecessary because of the defined term "of United States/Canadian origin". In subclause (A), the words "passenger motor vehicle equipment whose purchase price contains" are substituted for "the purchase price of automotive equipment which contains" for clarity. In subclause (B), the words "that part of the individual passenger motor vehicle equipment whose purchase price the manufacturer determines remains after subtracting the total of the purchase price of all material of foreign content purchased from outside suppliers" are substituted for "the manufacturer shall determine the foreign content of any passenger motor vehicle equipment supplied by the allied supplier by adding up the purchase price of all foreign material purchased from outside suppliers that comprise the individual passenger motor vehicle equipment and subtracting such purchase price from the total purchase price of such equipment" for clarity.

In subsection (a)(10), the word "person" is substituted for "anyone" for clarity and consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(11), the words "a motor vehicle with motive power, manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways, and designed to carry not more than 12 individuals . . . not including . . . a motorcycle; or . . . a truck not designed primarily to carry its operator or passengers" are substituted for "has the meaning provided in section 1901(1) of this title" for clarity.

In subsection (a)(13), before subclause (A), the words "the percentage remaining after subtracting" are substituted for "the resulting percentage when . . . is subtracted" for clarity.

In subsection (a)(15), before subclause (A), the words " 'Value added' equals" are omitted as unnecessary because of the restatement.

The text of 15:1950(f)(2) is omitted as unnecessary because of 1:1. The text of 15:1950(f)(8) is omitted because the complete title of the Secretary of Transportation is used the first time the term appears in a section.

In subsection (b)(1)(A), the words "to which that vehicle belongs" are added for clarity.

In subsection (b)(3), the text of 15:1950(b)(3) (1st sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because of the source provisions restated in this subsection.

Subsection (c) is substituted for "and each dealer shall cause to be maintained" for clarity and because of the restatement.

In subsection (e), the words "passenger motor vehicle equipment" are substituted for "a component" for clarity and for consistency with the defined term. The text of 15:1950(d) (last sentence) is omitted as unnecessary because of section 32308 of the revised title. The words "foreign content" are substituted for "foreign" for clarity and consistency with the defined term.

Pub. L. 103–429, §6(29)

This amends 32304(a)(11) to clarify the restatement of 15:1950(f)(3) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1038).

Pub. L. 103–429, §6(30)

This amends 49:32304(a)(14) to reflect the inclusion of the Northern Mariana Islands and the exclusion of the Canal Zone. The words "the Northern Mariana Islands" are added because of section 502(a)(2) of the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America, as enacted by the Act of March 24, 1976 (Public Law 94–241, 90 Stat. 268), and as proclaimed to be in effect by the President on January 9, 1978 (Proc. No. 4534, Oct. 24, 1977, 42 F.R. 56593). The words "the Canal Zone" are omitted because of the Panama Canal Treaty of 1977.

Amendments

1998—Subsec. (a)(3)(B). Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(1)(A), inserted before period at end ", plus the assembly and labor costs incurred for the final assembly of such engines and transmissions".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(1)(B), inserted at end "Such term does not include facilities for engine and transmission fabrication and assembly and the facilities for fabrication of motor vehicle equipment component parts which are produced at the same final assembly place using forming processes such as stamping, machining, or molding processes."

Subsec. (a)(9)(A). Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(1)(C), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "for an outside supplier, passenger motor vehicle equipment whose purchase price contains at least 70 percent value added in the United States and Canada; and".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(3), added subsec. (c). Former subsec. (c) redesignated (f).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(4), added subsec. (d). Former subsec. (d) redesignated (g).

Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(2), inserted at end "A manufacturer may add to the label required under subsection (b) a line stating the country in which vehicle assembly was completed."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(5), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (h).

Subsecs. (f) to (i). Pub. L. 105–178, §7106(d)(3), redesignated subsecs. (c) to (f) as (f) to (i), respectively.

1994—Subsec. (a)(11). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(29), amended par. (11) generally. Prior to amendment, par. (11) read as follows: " 'passenger motor vehicle' means a motor vehicle with motive power, manufactured primarily for use on public streets, roads, and highways, and designed to carry not more than 12 individuals—

"(A) including a multipurpose vehicle or light duty truck when the vehicle or truck is rated at not more than 8,500 pounds gross vehicle weight; but

"(B) not including—

"(i) a motorcycle;

"(ii) a truck not designed primarily to carry its operator or passengers; or

"(iii) a vehicle operated only on a rail line."

Subsec. (a)(14). Pub. L. 103–429, §6(30), inserted "the Northern Mariana Islands," after "Puerto Rico," and struck out "the Canal Zone," after "Guam,".

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

§32304A. Consumer tire information and standards

(a) Consumer Tire Information.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of the Ten-in-Ten Fuel Economy Act, the Secretary of Transportation (referred to in this section as the "Secretary") shall, after notice and opportunity for comment, promulgate rules establishing a national tire fuel efficiency consumer information program for replacement tires designed for use on motor vehicles to educate consumers about the effect of tires on automobile fuel efficiency, safety, and durability.

(2) Items included in rule.—The rulemaking shall include—

(A) a national tire fuel efficiency rating system for motor vehicle replacement tires to assist consumers in making more educated tire purchasing decisions;

(B) requirements for providing information to consumers, including information at the point of sale and other potential information dissemination methods, including the Internet;

(C) specifications for test methods for manufacturers to use in assessing and rating tires to avoid variation among test equipment and manufacturers; and

(D) a national tire maintenance consumer education program including,1 information on tire inflation pressure, alignment, rotation, and tread wear to maximize fuel efficiency, safety, and durability of replacement tires.


(3) Applicability.—This section shall apply only to replacement tires covered under section 575.104(c) of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations, in effect on the date of the enactment of the Ten-in-Ten Fuel Economy Act.


(b) Promulgation of Regulations for Tire Fuel Efficiency Minimum Performance Standards.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary, after consultation with the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency, shall promulgate regulations for tire fuel efficiency minimum performance standards for—

(A) passenger car tires with a maximum speed capability equal to or less than 149 miles per hour or 240 kilometers per hour; and

(B) passenger car tires with a maximum speed capability greater than 149 miles per hour or 240 kilometers per hour.


(2) Tire fuel efficiency minimum performance standards.—

(A) Standard basis and test procedures.—The minimum performance standards promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be expressed in terms of the rolling resistance coefficient measured using the test procedure specified in section 575.106 of title 49, Code of Federal Regulations (as in effect on the date of enactment of this Act).2

(B) No disparate effect on high performance tires.—The Secretary shall ensure that the minimum performance standards promulgated under paragraph (1) will not have a disproportionate effect on passenger car high performance tires with a maximum speed capability greater than 149 miles per hour or 240 kilometers per hour.

(C) Applicability.—

(i) In general.—This subsection applies to new pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars.

(ii) Exceptions.—This subsection does not apply to light truck tires, deep tread tires, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, or tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less.


(c) Promulgation of Regulations for Tire Wet Traction Minimum Performance Standards.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall promulgate regulations for tire wet traction minimum performance standards to ensure that passenger tire wet traction capability is not reduced to achieve improved tire fuel efficiency.

(2) Tire wet traction minimum performance standards.—

(A) Basis of standard.—The minimum performance standards promulgated under paragraph (1) shall be expressed in terms of peak coefficient of friction.

(B) Test procedures.—Any test procedure promulgated under this subsection shall be consistent with any test procedure promulgated under subsection (a).

(C) Benchmarking.—The Secretary shall conduct testing to benchmark the wet traction performance of tire models available for sale in the United States as of the date of enactment of this Act 2 to ensure that the minimum performance standards promulgated under paragraph (1) are tailored to—

(i) tires sold in the United States; and

(ii) the needs of consumers in the United States.


(D) Applicability.—

(i) In general.—This subsection applies to new pneumatic tires for use on passenger cars.

(ii) Exceptions.—This subsection does not apply to light truck tires, deep tread tires, winter-type snow tires, space-saver or temporary use spare tires, or tires with nominal rim diameters of 12 inches or less.


(d) Coordination Among Regulations.—

(1) Compatibility.—The Secretary shall ensure that the test procedures and requirements promulgated under subsections (a), (b), and (c) are compatible and consistent.

(2) Combined effect of rules.—The Secretary shall evaluate the regulations promulgated under subsections (b) and (c) to ensure that compliance with the minimum performance standards promulgated under subsection (b) will not diminish wet traction performance of affected tires.

(3) Rulemaking deadlines.—The Secretary shall promulgate—

(A) the regulations under subsections (b) and (c) not later than 24 months after the date of enactment of this Act; 2 and

(B) the regulations under subsection (c) not later than the date of promulgation of the regulations under subsection (b).


(e) Consultation.—The Secretary shall consult with the Secretary of Energy and the Administrator of the Environmental Protection Agency on the means of conveying tire fuel efficiency consumer information.

(f) Report to Congress.—The Secretary shall conduct periodic assessments of the rules promulgated under this section to determine the utility of such rules to consumers, the level of cooperation by industry, and the contribution to national goals pertaining to energy consumption. The Secretary shall transmit periodic reports detailing the findings of such assessments to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Energy and Commerce.

(g) Tire Marking.—The Secretary shall not require permanent labeling of any kind on a tire for the purpose of tire fuel efficiency information.

(h) Application With State and Local Laws and Regulations.—Nothing in this section prohibits a State or political subdivision thereof from enforcing a law or regulation on tire fuel efficiency consumer information that was in effect on January 1, 2006. After a requirement promulgated under this section is in effect, a State or political subdivision thereof may adopt or enforce a law or regulation on tire fuel efficiency consumer information enacted or promulgated after January 1, 2006, if the requirements of that law or regulation are identical to the requirement promulgated under this section. Nothing in this section shall be construed to preempt a State or political subdivision thereof from regulating the fuel efficiency of tires (including establishing testing methods for determining compliance with such standards) not otherwise preempted under this chapter.

(Added Pub. L. 110–140, title I, §111(a), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1506; amended Pub. L. 114–94, div. B, title XXIV, §24332, Dec. 4, 2015, 129 Stat. 1713.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the Ten-in-Ten Fuel Economy Act, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), (3), is the date of enactment of subtitle A (§§101–113) of title I of Pub. L. 110–140, which was approved Dec. 19, 2007.

The date of enactment of this Act, referred to in subsecs. (b)(2)(A), (c)(2)(C), and (d)(3)(A), probably means the date of enactment of Pub. L. 114–94, which added subsecs. (b) to (d) and was approved Dec. 4, 2015.

Amendments

2015Pub. L. 114–94, §24332(1), which directed insertion of "AND STANDARDS" after "CONSUMER TIRE INFORMATION" in section catchline, was executed by inserting "and standards" after "Consumer tire information", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 114–94, §24332(2)(A), substituted "Consumer Tire Information" for "Rulemaking" in heading.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 114–94, §24332(2)(B), inserted "(referred to in this section as the 'Secretary')" after "Secretary of Transportation".

Subsecs. (b) to (h). Pub. L. 114–94, §24332(3), (4), added subsecs. (b) to (d) and redesignated former subsecs. (b) to (e) as (e) to (h), respectively.

Effective Date

Section effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as a note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

1 So in original. Probably should be ", including".

2 See References in Text note below.

§32305. Information and assistance from other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities

(a) Authority To Request.—The Secretary of Transportation may request information necessary to carry out this chapter from a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government. The head of the department, agency, or instrumentality shall provide the information.

(b) Detailing Personnel.—The head of a department, agency, or instrumentality may detail, on a reimbursable basis, personnel to assist the Secretary in carrying out this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1040.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32305 15:1943. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §203, 86 Stat. 957.

In this section, the word "independent" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a), the words "he deems" and "his functions under" are omitted as surplus. The words "head of the" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. The words "cooperate with the Secretary and" and "to the Department of Transportation upon request made by the Secretary" are omitted as surplus.

§32306. Personnel

(a) General Authority.—In carrying out this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) appoint and fix the pay of employees without regard to the provisions of title 5 governing appointment in the competitive service and chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5; and

(2) make contracts with persons for research and preparation of reports.


(b) Status of Advisory Committee Members.—A member of an advisory committee appointed under section 325 of this title to carry out this chapter is a special United States Government employee under chapter 11 of title 18.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1040.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32306(a) 15:1942 (1st, 2d sentences). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §202, 86 Stat. 956.
32306(b) 15:1942 (last sentence).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "his functions under" are omitted as surplus. In clause (1), the words "as he deems necessary" are omitted as surplus. The words "chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of title 5" are substituted for "the provisions of chapter 51 and subchapter III of chapter 53 of such title relating to classification and General Schedule pay rates" to eliminate unnecessary words. The text of 15:1942 (1st sentence cl. (2)) is omitted as surplus because of 49:323(b). The text of 15:1942 (1st sentence cl. (4), 2d sentence) is omitted as surplus because of 49:325.

References in Text

The provisions of title 5 governing appointment in the competitive service, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), are classified generally to section 3301 et seq. of Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

§32307. Investigative powers

(a) General Authority.—In carrying out this chapter, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) inspect and copy records of any person at reasonable times;

(2) order a person to file written reports or answers to specific questions, including reports or answers under oath; and

(3) conduct hearings, administer oaths, take testimony, and require (by subpena or otherwise) the appearance and testimony of witnesses and the production of records the Secretary considers advisable.


(b) Witness Fees and Mileage.—A witness summoned under subsection (a) of this section is entitled to the same fee and mileage the witness would have been paid in a court of the United States.

(c) Civil Actions To Enforce.—A civil action to enforce a subpena or order of the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section may be brought in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the proceeding by the Secretary is conducted. The court may punish a failure to obey an order of the court to comply with the subpena or order of the Secretary as a contempt of court.

(d) Confidentiality of Information.—Information obtained by the Secretary under this section related to a confidential matter referred to in section 1905 of title 18 may be disclosed only to another officer or employee of the United States Government for use in carrying out this chapter. This subsection does not authorize information to be withheld from a committee of Congress authorized to have the information.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1040.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32307(a) 15:1944(a)–(c). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §204, 86 Stat. 957.
32307(b) 15:1944(e).
32307(c) 15:1944(d).
32307(d) 15:1944(f).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "In carrying out this chapter" are substituted for "For the purpose of carrying out the provisions of this subchapter", "In order to carry out the provisions of this subchapter", and "relating to any function of the Secretary under this subchapter" for consistency. The words "or on the authorization of the Secretary, any officer or employee of the Department of Transportation" and "or his duly authorized agent" are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(b). In clause (1), the words "inspect and copy" are substituted for "have access to, and for the purposes of examination the right to copy", and the word "records" is substituted for "documentary evidence" and "materials and information", for consistency and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "relevant to the study authorized by this subchapter" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the word "order" is substituted for "require, by general or special orders" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "in such form as the Secretary may prescribe" and "shall be filed with the Secretary within such reasonable period as the Secretary may prescribe" are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a). In clause (3), the words "sit and act at such times and places" are omitted as being included in "conduct hearings".

In subsection (c), the words "A civil action to enforce a subpena or order of the Secretary under subsection (a) of this section may be brought in the United States district court for the judicial district in which the proceeding by the Secretary is conducted" are substituted for 15:1944(d) (words before semicolon) for consistency in the revised title and to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (d), the words "reported to or otherwise" are omitted as surplus. The words "or such officer or employee" are omitted for consistency with subsection (a) of this section. The words "related to a confidential matter referred to" are substituted for "contains or relates to a trade secret or other matter referred to" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "a committee of Congress authorized to have the information" are substituted for "the duly authorized committees of the Congress" for clarity.

§32308. General prohibitions, civil penalty, and enforcement

(a) Prohibitions.—A person may not—

(1) fail to provide the Secretary of Transportation with information requested by the Secretary in carrying out this chapter; or

(2) fail to comply with applicable regulations prescribed by the Secretary in carrying out this chapter.


(b) Civil Penalty.—(1) A person that violates subsection (a) of this section is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each violation. Each failure to provide information or comply with a regulation in violation of subsection (a) is a separate violation. The maximum penalty under this subsection for a related series of violations is $400,000.

(2) The Secretary may compromise the amount of a civil penalty imposed under this section.

(3) In determining the amount of a penalty or compromise, the appropriateness of the penalty or compromise to the size of the business of the person charged and the gravity of the violation shall be considered.

(4) The Government may deduct the amount of a civil penalty imposed or compromised under this section from amounts it owes the person liable for the penalty.

(c) Section 32304A.—Any person who fails to comply with the national tire fuel efficiency information program under section 32304A is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $50,000 for each violation.

(d) Civil Actions To Enforce.—(1) The Attorney General may bring a civil action in a United States district court to enjoin a violation of subsection (a) of this section.

(2) When practicable, the Secretary shall—

(A) notify a person against whom an action under this subsection is planned;

(B) give the person an opportunity to present that person's views; and

(C) give the person a reasonable opportunity to comply.


(3) The failure of the Secretary to comply with paragraph (2) of this subsection does not prevent a court from granting appropriate relief.

(e) Venue and Service.—A civil action under this section may be brought in the judicial district in which the violation occurred or the defendant is found, resides, or does business. Process in the action may be served in any other judicial district in which the defendant resides or is found. A subpena for a witness in the action may be served in any judicial district.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1041; Pub. L. 110–140, title I, §111(b), Dec. 19, 2007, 121 Stat. 1507.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32308(a) 15:1946. Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, §§206–208, 86 Stat. 959.
32308(b)(1) 15:1948(a).
32308(b) (2)–(4) 15:1948(b).
32308(c) 15:1947 (1st–3d sentences).
32308(d) 15:1947 (last sentence).
  15:1948(c).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "data or" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "Each failure to provide information or comply with a regulation" are substituted for "with respect to each failure or refusal to comply with a requirement thereunder" for clarity.

In subsection (c), the words "The Attorney General may bring a civil action" are substituted for "Upon petition by the Attorney General on behalf of the United States" for consistency with rule 2 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure (28 App. U.S.C.) and to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "for cause shown" are omitted as surplus. The words "and subject to the provisions of rule 65(a) and (b) of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure" are omitted as surplus because the rules apply in the absence of an exception from them.

Subsection (d) is substituted for 15:1947 (last sentence) and 1948(c) for clarity and consistency in this part by restating 15:1917(c)(3) and (4).

Amendments

2007—Subsecs. (c) to (e). Pub. L. 110–140 added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) and (d) as (d) and (e), respectively.

Effective Date of 2007 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–140 effective on the date that is 1 day after Dec. 19, 2007, see section 1601 of Pub. L. 110–140, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1824 of Title 2, The Congress.

§32309. Civil penalty for labeling violations

(a) Definitions.—The definitions in section 32304 of this title apply to this section.

(b) Penalties.—A manufacturer of a passenger motor vehicle distributed in commerce for sale in the United States that willfully fails to attach the label required under section 32304 of this title to a new passenger motor vehicle that the manufacturer manufactures or imports, or a dealer that fails to maintain that label as required under section 32304, is liable to the United States Government for a civil penalty of not more than $1,000 for each violation. Each failure to attach or maintain that label for each vehicle is a separate violation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1042; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(31), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4380.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
32309(a) (no source).
32309(b) 15:1950(e). Oct. 20, 1972, Pub. L. 92–513, 86 Stat. 947, §210(e); added Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–388, §355, 106 Stat. 1557.

Subsection (a) is added to ensure that the definitions in 15:1950(f), restated in section 32304 of the revised title, apply to the source provision restated in this section.

In subsection (b), the words "Each failure to attach or maintain that label" are substituted for "Such failure" for clarity.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends the catchline for 49:32309 to correct an error in the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1042).

Amendments

1994Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "Civil" for "Criminal" in section catchline.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.