[USC02] 49 USC Ch. 413: FOREIGN AIR TRANSPORTATION
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49 USC Ch. 413: FOREIGN AIR TRANSPORTATION
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VII—AVIATION PROGRAMSPART A—AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETYsubpart ii—economic regulation

CHAPTER 413—FOREIGN AIR TRANSPORTATION

Sec.
41301.
Requirement for a permit.
41302.
Permits of foreign air carriers.
41303.
Transfers of permits.
41304.
Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of permits.
41305.
Applications for permits.
41306.
Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, and suspend permits.
41307.
Presidential review of actions about foreign air transportation.
41308.
Exemption from the antitrust laws.
41309.
Cooperative agreements and requests.
41310.
Discriminatory practices.
41311.
Gambling restrictions.
41312.
Ending or suspending foreign air transportation.
41313.
Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in foreign air carrier accidents.

        

Amendments

1997Pub. L. 105–148, §1(b), Dec. 16, 1997, 111 Stat. 2683, added item 41313.

1994Pub. L. 103–429, §6(51)(B), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4385, added item 41312.

Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §205(a)(2), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1583, added item 41311.

§41301. Requirement for a permit

A foreign air carrier may provide foreign air transportation only if the foreign air carrier holds a permit issued under this chapter authorizing the foreign air transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1126.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41301 49 App.:1372(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(a), 72 Stat. 757.

The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. The word "holds" is substituted for "there is in force" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§41302. Permits of foreign air carriers

The Secretary of Transportation may issue a permit to a person (except a citizen of the United States) authorizing the person to provide foreign air transportation as a foreign air carrier if the Secretary finds that—

(1) the person is fit, willing, and able to provide the foreign air transportation to be authorized by the permit and to comply with this part and regulations of the Secretary; and

(2)(A) the person is qualified, and has been designated by the government of its country, to provide the foreign air transportation under an agreement with the United States Government; or

(B) the foreign air transportation to be provided under the permit will be in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1126.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41302 49 App.:1372(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(b), 72 Stat. 758; restated Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §7, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "person (except a citizen of the United States)" and "person" are substituted for "applicant" for clarity and consistency because only a person other than a United States citizen may be a "foreign air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title. In clauses (1) and (2), the word "provide" is substituted for "perform" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (1), the word "properly" is omitted as surplus. The word "comply" is substituted for "conform" for consistency in the revised title. The word "rules" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulations". The word "requirements" is omitted as surplus. In clause (2)(A), the words "government of its country" are substituted for "its government" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

§41303. Transfers of permits

A permit issued under section 41302 of this title may be transferred only when the Secretary of Transportation approves the transfer because the transfer is in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1127.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41303 49 App.:1372(g). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(g), 72 Stat. 758.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

§41304. Effective periods and amendments, modifications, suspensions, and revocations of permits

(a) General.—The Secretary of Transportation may prescribe the period during which a permit issued under section 41302 of this title is in effect. After notice and an opportunity for a hearing, the Secretary may amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the permit if the Secretary finds that action to be in the public interest.

(b) Suspensions and Restrictions.—Without a hearing, but subject to the approval of the President, the Secretary—

(1) may suspend summarily the permits of foreign air carriers of a foreign country, or amend, modify, or limit the operations of the foreign air carriers under the permits, when the Secretary finds—

(A) the action is in the public interest; and

(B) the government, an aeronautical authority, or a foreign air carrier of the foreign country, over the objection of the United States Government, has—

(i) limited or denied the operating rights of an air carrier; or

(ii) engaged in unfair, discriminatory, or restrictive practices that have a substantial adverse competitive impact on an air carrier related to air transportation to, from, through, or over the territory of the foreign country; and


(2) to make this subsection effective, may restrict operations between the United States and the foreign country by a foreign air carrier of a third country.


(c) Illegal Importation of Controlled Substances.—The Secretary—

(1) in consultation with appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government, shall reexamine immediately the fitness of a foreign air carrier that—

(A) violates the laws and regulations of the United States related to the illegal importation of a controlled substance; or

(B) does not adopt available measures to prevent the illegal importation of a controlled substance into the United States on its aircraft; and


(2) when appropriate, shall amend, modify, suspend, or revoke the permit of the carrier issued under this chapter.


(d) Responses.—An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the amendment, modification, suspension, or revocation of a permit under subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1127.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41304(a) 49 App.:1372(e) (related to duration of permits). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(e) (related to duration of permits), 72 Stat. 758.
  49 App.:1372(f)(1) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(f)(1), 72 Stat. 758; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §9, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41304(b) 49 App.:1372(f)(2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §402(f)(2); added Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §9, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41304(c) 49 App.:1371a (related to permit). Aug. 15, 1985, Pub. L. 99–88, §100 (1st complete par. related to permit on p. 352), 99 Stat. 352.
41304(d) 49 App.:1372(f)(1) (last sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the words "altered" and "cancelled" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), before clause (A), the words "alter" and "condition" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B)(i) and (ii), the words "United States" before "air carriers" and "carriers" are omitted as surplus and for consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title. In clause (B)(i), the word "impaired" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" are omitted as surplus. The words "on and after August 15, 1985" are omitted as executed. In clause (1), before subclause (A), the words "law enforcement and other" are omitted as surplus. The words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government" are substituted for "agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "a foreign air carrier" are substituted for "any carrier" for clarity. In clause (2), the words "of public convenience and necessity" are omitted as surplus. The word "amend" is added for consistency. The words "issued under this chapter" are added for clarity.

In subsection (d), the word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "alteration" and "cancellation" are omitted as surplus.

§41305. Applications for permits

(a) Form, Contents, Notice, Response, and Actions on Applications.—(1) A person must apply in writing to the Secretary of Transportation to be issued a permit under section 41302 of this title. The Secretary shall prescribe regulations to require that the application be—

(A) verified;

(B) in a certain form and contain certain information;

(C) served on interested persons; and

(D) accompanied by proof of service on those persons.


(2) When an application is filed, the Secretary shall post a notice of the application in the office of the Secretary and give notice of the application to other persons as required by regulations of the Secretary. An interested person may file a response with the Secretary opposing or supporting the issuance of the permit. The Secretary shall act on an application as expeditiously as possible.

(b) Terms.—The Secretary may impose terms for providing foreign air transportation under the permit that the Secretary finds may be required in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1127.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41305(a)(1) 49 App.:1372(c). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(c), (e) (related to terms, conditions, or limitations of permits), 72 Stat. 758.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41305(a)(2) 49 App.:1372(d). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §402(d), 72 Stat. 758; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §8, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41305(b) 49 App.:1372(e) (related to terms, conditions, or limitations of permits).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "A person must apply . . . to the Secretary of Transportation to be issued a permit under section 41302 of this title" are added for clarity. Clause (C) is added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "give due notice thereof to the public by" are omitted as surplus. The word "response" is substituted for "protest or memorandum" to eliminate unnecessary words. The word "expeditiously" is substituted for "speedily" for consistency in this chapter.

In subsection (b), the words "reasonable" and "conditions, or limitations" are omitted as surplus. The words "for providing foreign air transportation" are added for clarity.

§41306. Simplified procedure to apply for, amend, modify, and suspend permits

(a) Regulations.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations that simplify the procedure for—

(1) acting on an application for a permit to provide foreign air transportation under section 41302 of this title; and

(2) amending, modifying, or suspending any part of that permit under section 41304(a) or (b) of this title.


(b) Notice and Opportunity To Respond.—Regulations under this section shall provide for notice and an opportunity for each interested person to file appropriate written evidence and argument. An oral evidentiary hearing is not required to be provided under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1128.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41306(a) 49 App.:1372(h) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §402(h); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §21(b)(1), 92 Stat. 1723.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41306(b) 49 App.:1372(h) (last sentence).

In subsection (a)(1), the words "acting on" are substituted for "disposition of" for consistency. The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the word "alteration" is omitted as surplus. The word "transfer" is omitted because 49 App.:1372(f) does not cover transfer of a permit.

In subsection (b), the word "adequate" is omitted as surplus.

§41307. Presidential review of actions about foreign air transportation

The Secretary of Transportation shall submit to the President for review each decision of the Secretary to issue, deny, amend, modify, suspend, revoke, or transfer a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title authorizing an air carrier, or a permit issued under section 41302 of this title authorizing a foreign air carrier, to provide foreign air transportation. The President may disapprove the decision of the Secretary only if the reason for disapproval is based on foreign relations or national defense considerations that are under the jurisdiction of the President. The President may not disapprove a decision of the Secretary if the reason is economic or related to carrier selection. A decision of the Secretary—

(1) is void if the President disapproves the decision and publishes the reasons (to the extent allowed by national security) for disapproval not later than 60 days after it is submitted to the President; or

(2)(A) takes effect as a decision of the Secretary if the President does not disapprove the decision not later than 60 days after the decision is submitted to the President; and

(B) when effective, may be reviewed judicially under section 46110 of this title.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1128.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41307 49 App.:1461(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §801(a), 72 Stat. 782; Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §2, 86 Stat. 96; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §34, 92 Stat. 1740.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the word "cancellation" is omitted as surplus. The word "modify" is added for consistency. The words "and the terms, conditions, and limitations contained in" are omitted as surplus. The words "issued under section 41102 of this title" are added for clarity. The word "provide" is substituted for "engage in" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (1), the words "null and" are omitted as surplus. The word "publishes" is substituted for "issued in a public document" to eliminate unnecessary words. In clause (2)(A), the words "not the President" are omitted as surplus.

Executive Order No. 11920

Ex. Ord. No. 11920, June 10, 1976, 41 F.R. 23665, which provided for establishment of Executive branch procedures to facilitate review of submitted decisions, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12547, Feb. 6, 1986, 51 F.R. 5029.

Executive Order No. 12547

Ex. Ord. No. 12547, Feb. 6, 1986, 51 F.R. 5029, which provided for establishment of procedures to facilitate Presidential review of international aviation decisions submitted by Department of Transportation, was revoked by Ex. Ord. No. 12597, May 13, 1987, 52 F.R. 18335, set out below.

Ex. Ord. No. 12597. Establishing Procedures for Facilitating Presidential Review of International Aviation Decisions by the Department of Transportation

Ex. Ord. No. 12597, May 13, 1987, 52 F.R. 18335, provided:

By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and laws of the United States of America, including Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended (49 U.S.C. app. §1461) [see 49 U.S.C. 41307, 41509(f)], and in order to provide presidential guidance to department and agency heads and facilitate presidential review of decisions by the Department of Transportation pursuant to the Federal Aviation Act [see 49 U.S.C. 40101 et seq.], it is hereby ordered as follows:

Section 1. Executive Order No. 12547 of February 6, 1986, is revoked.

Sec. 2. The Secretary of Transportation is designated and empowered to receive on behalf of the President any decision of the Department of Transportation (hereinafter referred to as the "DOT") subject to Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended. The Secretary of Transportation is further designated and empowered to exercise, without the approval, ratification, or other action of the President, the authority of the President under Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended, to review and determine not to disapprove any such decision that is not the subject of any written recommendation for disapproval or for a statement of reasons submitted to the Department of Transportation in accordance with section 5(b) of this Order.

Sec. 3. (a) Except as otherwise provided in this section, decisions of the DOT subject to Section 801 of the Federal Aviation Act, as amended, may be made available by the DOT for public inspection and copying following transmission to Executive departments and agencies pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order.

(b) In the interests of national security, and in order to allow for consideration of appropriate action under [former] Executive Order No. 12356, decisions of the DOT transmitted to Executive departments and agencies pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order shall be withheld from public disclosure for a period not to exceed 5 days after said transmission.

(c) At the same time that decisions of the DOT are received by the Secretary of Transportation pursuant to section 2 of this Order, the DOT shall transmit copies thereof to the Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Secretary of the Treasury, the Attorney General, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, the Director of the Office of Management and Budget, and any other Executive department or agency that the DOT deems appropriate.

(d) The Secretary of State and the Secretary of Defense, or their designees, shall review the decisions of the DOT transmitted pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order and shall promptly advise the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs or his designee whether action pursuant to Executive Order No. 12356 is deemed appropriate. If, after considering these recommendations, the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs determines that classification under Executive Order No. 12356 is appropriate, he shall take such action and immediately so inform the DOT. Action pursuant to this subsection shall be completed by the persons designated herein within 5 days of the transmission of the decision.

(e) On and after the 6th day following transmission of a DOT decision pursuant to section 3(c) of this Order, or upon earlier notification by the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs or his designee, the DOT is authorized to disclose all unclassified portions of the text of such decision. Nothing in this section is intended to affect the ability to withhold material under any Executive order or statute other than Section 801.

Sec. 4. (a) Departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President shall raise only matters of national defense or foreign relations in the course of the presidential review established by this Order. All other matters, including those related to regulatory policy, shall be presented to the DOT in accordance with the procedures of the DOT.

(b) Departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President that identify matters of national defense or foreign relations while a decision is pending before the DOT shall, except as confidentiality is required for reasons of defense or foreign policy, make those matters known to the DOT in the course of its proceedings.

Sec. 5. (a) The DOT shall receive the recommendations, addressed to the President, of the departments and agencies referred to in section 3(c) of this Order.

(b) Departments or agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President making recommendations on matters of national defense or foreign relations with respect to any decision received by the Secretary of Transportation under section 2 of this Order shall submit their recommendations in writing to the DOT: (1) within 4 days of the DOT's issuance of a decision subject to a 10-day statutory review period under Section 801(b) [see 49 U.S.C. 41509(f)]; and (2) within 21 days of the DOT's issuance of a decision subject to a 60-day statutory review period under Section 801(a) [see 49 U.S.C. 41307]; or (3) in exceptional cases, within the period specified by the DOT in its letter of transmittal.

(c) The DOT shall, as soon as practical after the deadlines specified in section 5(b) of this Order: (1) if no recommendations for disapproval or for a statement of reasons are received from the departments and agencies specified in section 3(c) of this Order, issue its decision to become effective according to its terms; or (2) if recommendations for disapproval or for a statement of reasons are received, transmit them to the Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs, who, upon review, shall transmit a memorandum to the President with a recommendation as to whether or not the President should disapprove the proposed decision.

Sec. 6. (a) In advising the President with respect to his review of a decision pursuant to Section 801, departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President shall identify with particularity the defense or foreign policy implications of the DOT decision that are deemed appropriate for consideration.

(b) If any department or agency that made recommendations to the President pursuant to Section 801 believes that, if the President decides not to disapprove a decision, the letter so advising the DOT should include a statement that the decision not to disapprove was based on national defense or foreign relations reasons, it should so indicate separately and explain why.

Sec. 7. Individuals within the Executive Office of the President shall follow a policy of: (a) refusing to discuss matters relating to the disposition of a case subject to the review of the President under Section 801 with any interested private party, or an attorney or agent for any such party, prior to the decision by the President or his designee; and (b) referring any written communication from an interested private party, or an attorney or agent for any such party, to the appropriate department or agency outside of the Executive Office of the President. Exceptions to this policy may be made only when the head of an appropriate department or agency outside of the Executive Office of the President personally finds, on a nondelegable basis, that direct written or oral communication between a private party and a person within the Executive Office of the President is needed for reasons of defense or foreign policy.

Sec. 8. Departments and agencies outside of the Executive Office of the President that regularly make recommendations in connection with the presidential review pursuant to Section 801 shall, consistent with applicable law, including the provisions of Chapter 5 of Title 5 of the United States Code:

(a) establish public dockets for all written communications (other than those requiring confidential treatment for defense or foreign policy reasons) between their officers and employees and private parties in connection with the preparation of such recommendations; and

(b) prescribe such other procedures governing oral and written communications as they deem appropriate.

Sec. 9. This Order is intended solely for the internal guidance of the departments and agencies in order to facilitate the presidential review process. This Order does not confer rights on any private parties.

Sec. 10. None of the time deadlines specified in this Order shall be construed as a limitation on expedited presidential review of any decision under Section 801.

Sec. 11. The provisions of this Order shall become effective upon publication in the Federal Register and shall govern the review of any proposed decisions of the DOT that have not become final prior to that date under Executive Order No. 12547.

Sec. 12. References in any Executive order to any provision in Executive Order No. 12547 shall be deemed to refer to the corresponding provision in this Order.

Ronald Reagan.      

§41308. Exemption from the antitrust laws

(a) Definition.—In this section, "antitrust laws" has the same meaning given that term in the first section of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12).

(b) Exemption Authorized.—When the Secretary of Transportation decides it is required by the public interest, the Secretary, as part of an order under section 41309 or 42111 of this title, may exempt a person affected by the order from the antitrust laws to the extent necessary to allow the person to proceed with the transaction specifically approved by the order and with any transaction necessarily contemplated by the order.

(c) Exemption Required.—In an order under section 41309 of this title approving an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation, the Secretary, on the basis of the findings required under section 41309(b)(1), shall exempt a person affected by the order from the antitrust laws to the extent necessary to allow the person to proceed with the transaction specifically approved by the order and with any transaction necessarily contemplated by the order.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1128.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41308 49 App.:1384. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §414, 72 Stat. 770; restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §30(a), 92 Stat. 1731; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §27, 94 Stat. 47.
  49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1384). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(6) (related to §414); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1704.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49 App.:1384). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(C) (related to §414); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1745; Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §4(b), 96 Stat. 1454; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(a), 98 Stat. 1703.

Subsection (a) is substituted for "the 'anti-trust laws' set forth in subsection (a) of section 12 of title 15" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b), reference to 49 App.:1378 and 1379 is omitted as obsolete.

§41309. Cooperative agreements and requests

(a) Filing.—An air carrier or foreign air carrier may file with the Secretary of Transportation a true copy of or, if oral, a true and complete memorandum of, an agreement (except an agreement related to interstate air transportation), or a request for authority to discuss cooperative arrangements (except arrangements related to interstate air transportation), and any modification or cancellation of an agreement, between the air carrier or foreign air carrier and another air carrier, a foreign carrier, or another carrier.

(b) Approval.—The Secretary of Transportation shall approve an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation referred to in subsection (a) of this section when the Secretary finds it is not adverse to the public interest and is not in violation of this part. However, the Secretary shall disapprove—

(1) or, after periodic review, end approval of, an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation, that substantially reduces or eliminates competition unless the Secretary finds that—

(A) the agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is necessary to meet a serious transportation need or to achieve important public benefits (including international comity and foreign policy considerations); and

(B) the transportation need cannot be met or those benefits cannot be achieved by reasonably available alternatives that are materially less anticompetitive; or


(2) an agreement that—

(A) is between an air carrier not directly operating aircraft in foreign air transportation and a carrier subject to subtitle IV of this title; and

(B) governs the compensation the carrier may receive for the transportation.


(c) Notice and Opportunity To Respond or for Hearing.—(1) When an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is filed, the Secretary of Transportation shall give the Attorney General and the Secretary of State written notice of, and an opportunity to submit written comments about, the filing. On the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or on request of the Attorney General or Secretary of State, the Secretary of Transportation may conduct a hearing to decide whether an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation is consistent with this part whether or not it was approved previously.

(2) In a proceeding before the Secretary of Transportation applying standards under subsection (b)(1) of this section, a party opposing an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation has the burden of proving that it substantially reduces or eliminates competition and that less anticompetitive alternatives are available. The party defending the agreement, request, modification, or cancellation has the burden of proving the transportation need or public benefits.

(3) The Secretary of Transportation shall include the findings required by subsection (b)(1) of this section in an order of the Secretary approving or disapproving an agreement, request, modification, or cancellation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1129; Pub. L. 104–88, title III, §308(l), Dec. 29, 1995, 109 Stat. 948; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(71), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41309(a) 49 App.:1382(a)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §412(a), (b); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §28(c), 92 Stat. 1729; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §11, 94 Stat. 39.
  49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1382). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(6) (related to §412); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1704.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(C) (related to 49 App.:1382(a)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(C) (related to §412(a), (b)); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1745; Oct. 14, 1982, Pub. L. 97–309, §4(b), 96 Stat. 1454; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(a), 98 Stat. 1703.
41309(b) 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(A).
  49 App.:1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) (as 1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) relates to 49 App.:1382(a)).
41309(c)(1) 49 App.:1382(b).
  49 App.:1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) (as 1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) relates to 49 App.:1382(b)).
41309(c)(2) 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(B).
41309(c)(3) 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(C).
  49 App.:1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) (as 1551(a)(6), (b)(1)(C) relates to 49 App.:1382(a)).

In this section, the word "contract" is omitted as being included in "agreement".

In subsection (a), the words "(whether enforceable by provisions for liquidated damages, penalties, bonds, or otherwise)" are omitted as surplus. The words "(except an agreement related to interstate air transportation)" and "(except arrangements related to interstate air transportation)" are added because of 49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1382). The word "working" is omitted as surplus. The words "in force on October 24, 1978, or thereafter entered into" are omitted as executed. The words "and any modification or cancellation of an agreement" are substituted for "or any modification or cancellation thereof" for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "The Board shall by order disapprove any contract, agreement, or request . . . that it finds to be adverse to the public interest or in violation of this chapter" are omitted as surplus because of the language restated in this subsection that sets out the requirements for approval by the Secretary of Transportation before the antitrust exemption is effective. The words "whether or not previously approved by it" are omitted as surplus because of the language in clause (1) requiring periodic review and continuing approval. The words "by order" are omitted as unnecessary because of 5:ch. 5, subch. II. The text of 49 App.:1382(a)(2)(A)(iii) is omitted as obsolete because of 49 App.:1551(a)(6) (related to 49 App.:1382).

In subsection (c)(1), the words "in accordance with regulations which it prescribes" are omitted as surplus. The words "in accordance with regulations prescribed by the Board" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:41309(b)(2)(B) for consistency in the subsection.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (b)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "carrier" for "common carrier".

1995—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–88 substituted "a carrier" for "a common carrier".

Effective Date of 1995 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 104–88 effective Jan. 1, 1996, see section 2 of Pub. L. 104–88, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1301 of this title.

Air Transportation Arrangements in Certain States

Pub. L. 107–71, title I, §116, Nov. 19, 2001, 115 Stat. 624, which related to air transportation arrangements for flights that both originate and terminate at points within the same State, was repealed by Pub. L. 107–273, div. C, title IV, §14102(g), Nov. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 1922.

§41310. Discriminatory practices

(a) Prohibition.—An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not subject a person, place, port, or type of traffic in foreign air transportation to unreasonable discrimination.

(b) Review and Negotiation of Discriminatory Foreign Charges.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation shall survey charges imposed on an air carrier by the government of a foreign country or another foreign entity for the use of airport property or airway property in foreign air transportation. If the Secretary of Transportation decides that a charge is discriminatory, the Secretary promptly shall report the decision to the Secretary of State. The Secretaries of State and Transportation promptly shall begin negotiations with the appropriate government to end the discrimination. If the discrimination is not ended in a reasonable time through negotiation, the Secretary of Transportation shall establish a compensating charge equal to the discriminatory charge. With the approval of the Secretary of State, the Secretary of the Treasury shall impose the compensating charge on a foreign air carrier of that country as a condition to accepting the general declaration of the aircraft of the foreign air carrier when it lands or takes off.

(2) The Secretary of the Treasury shall maintain an account to credit money collected under paragraph (1) of this subsection. An air carrier shall be paid from the account an amount certified by the Secretary of Transportation to compensate the air carrier for the discriminatory charge paid to the government.

(c) Actions Against Discriminatory Activity.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation may take actions the Secretary considers are in the public interest to eliminate an activity of a government of a foreign country or another foreign entity, including a foreign air carrier, when the Secretary, on the initiative of the Secretary or on complaint, decides that the activity—

(A) is an unjustifiable or unreasonable discriminatory, predatory, or anticompetitive practice against an air carrier; or

(B) imposes an unjustifiable or unreasonable restriction on access of an air carrier to a foreign market.


(2) The Secretary of Transportation may deny, amend, modify, suspend, revoke, or transfer under paragraph (1) of this subsection a foreign air carrier permit or tariff under section 41302, 41303, 41304(a), 41504(c), 41507, or 41509 of this title.

(d) Filing of, and Acting on, Complaints.—(1) An air carrier, computer reservations system firm, or a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government may file a complaint under subsection (c) or (g) of this section with the Secretary of Transportation. The Secretary shall approve, deny, or dismiss the complaint, set the complaint for a hearing or investigation, or begin another proceeding proposing remedial action not later than 60 days after receiving the complaint. The Secretary may extend the period for acting for additional periods totaling not more than 30 days if the Secretary decides that with additional time it is likely that a complaint can be resolved satisfactorily through negotiations with the government of the foreign country or foreign entity. The Secretary must act not later than 90 days after receiving the complaint. However, the Secretary may extend this 90-day period for not more than an additional 90 days if, on the last day of the initial 90-day period, the Secretary finds that—

(A) negotiations with the government have progressed to a point that a satisfactory resolution of the complaint appears imminent;

(B) an air carrier or computer reservations system firm has not been subjected to economic injury by the government or entity as a result of filing the complaint; and

(C) the public interest requires additional time before the Secretary acts on the complaint.


(2) In carrying out paragraph (1) of this subsection and subsection (c) of this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall—

(A) solicit the views of the Secretaries of Commerce and State and the United States Trade Representative;

(B) give an affected air carrier or foreign air carrier reasonable notice and an opportunity to submit written evidence and arguments within the time limits of this subsection; and

(C) submit to the President under section 41307 or 41509(f) of this title actions proposed by the Secretary of Transportation.


(e) Review.—(1) The Secretaries of State, the Treasury, and Transportation and the heads of other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government shall keep under review, to the extent of each of their jurisdictions, each form of discrimination or unfair competitive practice to which an air carrier is subject when providing foreign air transportation or a computer reservations system firm is subject when providing services with respect to airline service. Each Secretary and head shall—

(A) take appropriate action to eliminate any discrimination or unfair competitive practice found to exist; and

(B) request Congress to enact legislation when the authority to eliminate the discrimination or unfair practice is inadequate.


(2) The Secretary of Transportation shall report to Congress annually on each action taken under paragraph (1) of this subsection and on the continuing program to eliminate discrimination and unfair competitive practices. The Secretaries of State and the Treasury each shall give the Secretary of Transportation information necessary to prepare the report.

(f) Reports.—Not later than 30 days after acting on a complaint under this section, the Secretary of Transportation shall report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on action taken under this section on the complaint.

(g) Actions Against Discriminatory Activity by Foreign CRS Systems.—The Secretary of Transportation may take such actions as the Secretary considers are in the public interest to eliminate an activity of a foreign air carrier that owns or markets a computer reservations system, or of a computer reservations system firm whose principal offices are located outside the United States, when the Secretary, on the initiative of the Secretary or on complaint, decides that the activity, with respect to airline service—

(1) is an unjustifiable or unreasonable discriminatory, predatory, or anticompetitive practice against a computer reservations system firm whose principal offices are located inside the United States; or

(2) imposes an unjustifiable or unreasonable restriction on access of such a computer reservations system to a foreign market.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1130; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §741, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 174.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41310(a) 49 App.:1374(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §404(b), 72 Stat. 760.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49 App.:1374(b)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(C) (related to §404(b)); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1703.
41310(b) 49 App.:1159a. June 16, 1948, ch. 473, 62 Stat. 450, §11; added Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §3, 88 Stat. 2103; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(c), 98 Stat. 1706.
41310(c) 49 App.:1159b(b)(1). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, 88 Stat. 2102, §2(b)(1), (2), (4); added Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §23, 94 Stat. 45; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(d)(2), (3), 98 Stat. 1707; Aug. 23, 1988, Pub. L. 100–418, §§10011, 10012(1), (2), 102 Stat. 1573.
41310(d)(1) 49 App.:1159b(b)(2), (4).
41310(d)(2) 49 App.:1159b(b)(3). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, 88 Stat. 2102, §2(b)(3), (e); added Aug. 23, 1988, Pub. L. 100–418, §§10012(3), 10013, 102 Stat. 1573.
41310(e)(1) 49 App.:1159b(a). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §2(a), 88 Stat. 2102; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(d)(1), 98 Stat. 1706.
  49 App.:1159b(c). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §2(c), 88 Stat. 2103; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §23, 94 Stat. 45.
41310(e)(2) 49 App.:1159b(d). Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §2(d), 88 Stat. 2103; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §23, 94 Stat. 45; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(d)(2), (4), 98 Stat. 1707.
41310(f) 49 App.:1159b(e).

In subsection (a), the words "may not subject . . . to unreasonable discrimination" are substituted for "No . . . shall make, give, or cause any undue or unreasonable preference or advantage . . . in any respect whatsoever or subject . . . to any unjust discrimination or any undue or unreasonable prejudice or disadvantage in any respect whatsoever" to eliminate unnecessary words. The words "foreign air transportation" are substituted for "air transportation" because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) provides that 49 App.:1374 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation except insofar as 49 App.:1374 requires air carriers to provide safe and adequate service.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "at any time", "unreasonably exceed comparable charges for furnishing such airport property or airway property in the United States or are otherwise" and "reduce such charges or" are omitted as surplus. The words "the Secretary of State shall promptly report such instances to" are omitted as surplus because the Secretary of Transportation is involved in the negotiations and aware of the failure to end the discrimination. The words "excessive or" are omitted as surplus. The words "or carriers" are omitted because of 1:1.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "in accordance with such regulations as he shall adopt" are omitted as surplus because of 49:322(a). The words "by them" are omitted as surplus.

In subsections (c)–(e), the words "United States" before "air carriers" and "air carrier" are omitted as surplus and for consistency because only a citizen of the United States may be an "air carrier" as defined in section 40102(a) of the revised title and because 49 App.:1301 applies to this section.

In subsections (c)(1) and (d)(1), before each clause (A), the words "foreign entity" and "entity" are substituted for "instrumentality" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (c)(2), the words "alteration", "cancellation", "limitation", and "pursuant to the powers of the Secretary" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), before clause (A), the words "department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government" are substituted for "agency of the Government of the United States" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "additional periods totaling not more than 30 days" are substituted for "an additional period or periods of up to 30 days each" for clarity because the amendment made by section 10111 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–418, 102 Stat. 1573) changed the additional period within which the Secretary had to act to only 30 days. The word "initial" is added for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2)(A), the words "the Secretaries of Commerce and State and the United States Trade Representative" are substituted for "the Department of State, the Department of Commerce, and the Office of the United States Trade Representative" because of 15:1501, 22:2651, and 19:2171, respectively.

In subsection (d)(2)(B), the words "as is consistent with acting on the complaint" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e)(1), before clause (A), the text of 49 App.:1159b(a) (1st, 2d sentences) is omitted as executed. The words "The Secretaries of State, the Treasury, and Transportation" are substituted for "The Department of State, the Department of the Treasury, the Department of Transportation" because of 22:2651, 31:301(b), and 49:102(b), respectively. The words "the heads of" and "instrumentalities of the Government" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The word "jurisdictions" is substituted for "respective functions" for clarity and consistency. In clause (A), the words "within its jurisdiction . . . such forms of" are omitted as surplus. Clause (B) is substituted for 49 App.:1159b(c) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (e)(2), the words "faced by United States carriers in foreign air transportation", "as may be", and "required by this subsection" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2000—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(b)(1)(A), (B), in first sentence of introductory provisions, substituted "air carrier, computer reservations system firm," for "air carrier" and "subsection (c) or (g)" for "subsection (c)".

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(b)(1)(C), substituted "air carrier or computer reservations system firm" for "air carrier".

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(b)(2), inserted "or a computer reservations system firm is subject when providing services with respect to airline service" before period at end of first sentence.

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 106–181, §741(a), added subsec. (g).

1996—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Termination of Reporting Requirements

For termination, effective May 15, 2000, of provisions in subsec. (e)(2) of this section relating to the requirement that the Secretary of Transportation report annually to Congress, see section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance, and the 21st item on page 132 of House Document No. 103–7.

§41311. Gambling restrictions

(a) In General.—An air carrier or foreign air carrier may not install, transport, or operate, or permit the use of, any gambling device on board an aircraft in foreign air transportation.

(b) Definition.—In this section, the term "gambling device" means any machine or mechanical device (including gambling applications on electronic interactive video systems installed on board aircraft for passenger use)—

(1) which when operated may deliver, as the result of the application of an element of chance, any money or property; or

(2) by the operation of which a person may become entitled to receive, as the result of the application of an element of chance, any money or property.

(Added Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §205(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1583.)

Study of Gambling on Commercial Aircraft

Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §205(b), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1583, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1994], the Secretary shall complete a study of—

"(1) the aviation safety effects of gambling applications on electronic interactive video systems installed on board aircraft for passenger use, including an evaluation of the effect of such systems on the navigational and other electronic equipment of the aircraft, on the passengers and crew of the aircraft, and on issues relating to the method of payment;

"(2) the competitive implications of permitting foreign air carriers only, but not United States air carriers, to install, transport, and operate gambling applications on electronic interactive video systems on board aircraft in the foreign commerce of the United States on flights over international waters, or in fifth freedom city-pair markets; and

"(3) whether gambling should be allowed on international flights, including proposed legislation to effectuate any recommended changes in existing law.

The Secretary shall, within 5 days after the completion of the study, submit a report to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Public Works and Transportation [now Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure] of the House of Representatives on the results of the study."

§41312. Ending or suspending foreign air transportation

(a) General.—An air carrier holding a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title to provide foreign air transportation—

(1) may end or suspend the transportation to a place under the certificate only when the carrier gives at least 90 days notice of its intention to end or suspend the transportation to the Secretary of Transportation, any community affected by that decision, and the State authority of the State in which a community is located; and

(2) if it is the only air carrier holding a certificate to provide non-stop or single-plane foreign air transportation between 2 places, may end or suspend the transportation between those places only when the carrier gives at least 60 days notice of its intention to end or suspend the transportation to the Secretary and each community directly affected by that decision.


(b) Temporary Suspension.—The Secretary may authorize the temporary suspension of foreign air transportation under subsection (a) of this section when the Secretary finds the suspension is in the public interest.

(Added Pub. L. 103–429, §6(51)(A), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4384; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(72), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–429
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41312(a) 49 App.:1371(j)(1) (1st sentence), (2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §401(j), 72 Stat. 756, as restated Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §19(a), 92 Stat. 1720.
  49 App.:1551(a)(1)(D). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1601(a)(1)(D), as added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §40(a), 92 Stat. 1744.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1601(b)(1)(E), as added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41312(b) 49 App.:1371(j)(1) (last sentence).

49 App.:1551(a)(1)(D), (b)(1)(E).

In the section, the text of 49 App.:1371(j) (related to interstate and overseas transportation of persons) is omitted because of 49 App.:1551(a)(1)(D). The text of 49 App.:1371(j) (related to other interstate and overseas air transportation and the domestic air transportation of mail) is omitted because a certificate of public convenience and necessity is no longer required. See H.R. Rept. 98–793, 98th Cong., 2d Sess., p. 10 (1984). The text of 49 App.:1371(j) (related to essential air transportation) is omitted as superseded by 49 App.:1389, restated as subchapter II of chapter 417 of title 49.

In subsection (a)(1) and (2), the word "place" is substituted for "point" for consistency in the revised title. The words "by that decision" are added for clarity.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "which it is providing" are omitted as surplus. The word "authority" is substituted for "agency" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "between those places" are substituted for "being provided by such air carrier under such certificate" to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (b), the words "by regulation or otherwise" are omitted as surplus. The words "when the Secretary finds the suspension is in" are substituted for "as may be" for clarity and consistency.

Pub. L. 104–287

This amends 49:41312(a)(1) to conform to the style of title 49.

Amendments

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Secretary of Transportation" for "Secretary".

Effective Date

Section effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as an Effective Date of 1994 Amendment note under section 321 of this title.

§41313. Plans to address needs of families of passengers involved in foreign air carrier accidents

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Aircraft accident.—The term "aircraft accident" means any aviation disaster, regardless of its cause or suspected cause, that occurs within the United States; and

(2) Passenger.—The term "passenger" has the meaning given such term by section 1136.


(b) Submission of Plans.—A foreign air carrier providing foreign air transportation under this chapter shall transmit to the Secretary of Transportation and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board a plan for addressing the needs of the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in any loss of life.

(c) Contents of Plans.—To the extent permitted by foreign law which was in effect on the date of the enactment of this section, a plan submitted by a foreign air carrier under subsection (b) shall include the following:

(1) Telephone number.—A plan for publicizing a reliable, toll-free telephone number and staff to take calls to such number from families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in any loss of life.

(2) Notification of families.—A process for notifying, in person to the extent practicable, the families of passengers involved in an aircraft accident that involves an aircraft under the control of the foreign air carrier and results in any loss of life before providing any public notice of the names of such passengers. Such notice shall be provided by using the services of—

(A) the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2); or

(B) other suitably trained individuals.


(3) Notice provided as soon as possible.—An assurance that the notice required by paragraph (2) shall be provided as soon as practicable after the foreign air carrier has verified the identity of a passenger on the foreign aircraft, whether or not the names of all of the passengers have been verified.

(4) List of passengers.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier shall provide, immediately upon request, and update a list (based on the best available information at the time of the request) of the names of the passengers aboard the aircraft (whether or not such names have been verified), to—

(A) the director of family support services designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(1); and

(B) the organization designated for the accident under section 1136(a)(2).


(5) Consultation regarding disposition of remains and effects.—An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about the disposition of any remains and personal effects of the passenger that are within the control of the foreign air carrier.

(6) Return of possessions.—An assurance that, if requested by the family of a passenger, any possession (regardless of its condition) of that passenger that is within the control of the foreign air carrier will be returned to the family unless the possession is needed for the accident investigation or a criminal investigation.

(7) Unclaimed possessions retained.—An assurance that any unclaimed possession of a passenger within the control of the foreign air carrier will be retained by the foreign air carrier for not less than 18 months after the date of the accident.

(8) Monuments.—An assurance that the family of each passenger will be consulted about construction by the foreign air carrier of any monument to the passengers built in the United States, including any inscription on the monument.

(9) Equal treatment of passengers.—An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers (and any other victim of the accident, including any victim on the ground) will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers.

(10) Service and assistance to families of passengers.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will work with any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) on an ongoing basis to ensure that families of passengers receive an appropriate level of services and assistance following an accident.

(11) Compensation to service organizations.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will provide reasonable compensation to any organization designated under section 1136(a)(2) for services and assistance provided by the organization.

(12) Travel and care expenses.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will assist the family of any passenger in traveling to the location of the accident and provide for the physical care of the family while the family is staying at such location.

(13) Resources for plan.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will commit sufficient resources to carry out the plan.

(14) Substitute measures.—If a foreign air carrier does not wish to comply with paragraph (10), (11), or (12), a description of proposed adequate substitute measures for the requirements of each paragraph with which the foreign air carrier does not wish to comply.

(15) Training of employees and agents.—An assurance that the foreign air carrier will provide adequate training to the employees and agents of the carrier to meet the needs of survivors and family members following an accident.

(16) Consultation on carrier response not covered by plan.—An assurance that, in the event that the foreign air carrier volunteers assistance to United States citizens within the United States with respect to an aircraft accident outside the United States involving any loss of life, will consult 1 with the Board and the Department of State on the provision of the assistance.

(17) Notice concerning liability for manmade structures.—

(A) In general.—An assurance that, in the case of an accident that results in any damage to a manmade structure or other property on the ground that is not government-owned, the foreign air carrier will promptly provide notice, in writing, to the extent practicable, directly to the owner of the structure or other property about liability for any property damage and means for obtaining compensation.

(B) Minimum contents.—At a minimum, the written notice shall advise an owner (i) to contact the insurer of the property as the authoritative source for information about coverage and compensation; (ii) to not rely on unofficial information offered by foreign air carrier representatives about compensation by the foreign air carrier for accident-site property damage; and (iii) to obtain photographic or other detailed evidence of property damage as soon as possible after the accident, consistent with restrictions on access to the accident site.


(18) Simultaneous electronic transmission of ntsb hearing.—An assurance that, in the case of an accident in which the National Transportation Safety Board conducts a public hearing or comparable proceeding at a location greater than 80 miles from the accident site, the foreign air carrier will ensure that the proceeding is made available simultaneously by electronic means at a location open to the public at both the origin city and destination city of the foreign air carrier's flight if that city is located in the United States.


(d) Permit and Exemption Requirement.—The Secretary shall not approve an application for a permit under section 41302 unless the applicant has included as part of the application or request for exemption a plan that meets the requirements of subsection (c).

(e) Limitation on Liability.—A foreign air carrier shall not be liable for damages in any action brought in a Federal or State court arising out of the performance of the foreign air carrier in preparing or providing a passenger list pursuant to a plan submitted by the foreign air carrier under subsection (c), unless the liability was caused by conduct of the foreign air carrier which was grossly negligent or which constituted intentional misconduct.

(Added Pub. L. 105–148, §1(a), Dec. 16, 1997, 111 Stat. 2681; amended Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §403(a)–(c)(1), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 130; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §809(b), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2589; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title V, §539(d), div. C, §1109(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3370, 3434.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (c), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–148, which was approved Dec. 16, 1997.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(1), substituted "any loss of life" for "a major loss of life".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(A), substituted "any loss of life" for "a significant loss of life".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(B), substituted "any loss of life" for "a significant loss of life" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (c)(9). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(C), amended par. (9) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "An assurance that the treatment of the families of nonrevenue passengers will be the same as the treatment of the families of revenue passengers."

Subsec. (c)(16). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(D), substituted "any loss of life" for "major loss of life" and "will consult" for "the foreign air carrier will consult".

Pub. L. 115–254, §539(d), substituted "An assurance that" for "An assurance that the foreign air carrier".

Subsec. (c)(17)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §1109(b)(2)(E), substituted "any damage" for "significant damage".

2003—Subsec. (c)(17), (18). Pub. L. 108–176 added pars. (17) and (18).

2000—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 106–181, §403(a), amended heading and text of par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The term 'passenger' includes an employee of a foreign air carrier or air carrier aboard an aircraft."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 106–181, §403(b), substituted "major" for "significant".

Subsec. (c)(15), (16). Pub. L. 106–181, §403(c)(1), added pars. (15) and (16).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by section 403(a) and (b) of Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Pub. L. 106–181, title IV, §403(c)(2), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 131, provided that: "The amendment made by paragraph (1) [amending this section] shall take effect on the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000]. On or before such 180th day, each foreign air carrier providing foreign air transportation under chapter 413 of title 49, United States Code, shall submit to the Secretary [of Transportation] and the Chairman of the National Transportation Safety Board an updated plan under section 41313 of such title that meets the requirements of the amendment made by paragraph (1)."

Effective Date

Pub. L. 105–148, §1(c), Dec. 16, 1997, 111 Stat. 2683, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section] shall take effect on the 180th day following the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 16, 1997]."

1 So in original. Probably should be "the foreign air carrier will consult".