[USC02] 49 USC SUBTITLE VII, PART A, subpart ii, CHAPTER 417, SUBCHAPTER I: REQUIREMENTS
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49 USC SUBTITLE VII, PART A, subpart ii, CHAPTER 417, SUBCHAPTER I: REQUIREMENTS
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VII—AVIATION PROGRAMSPART A—AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETYsubpart ii—economic regulationCHAPTER 417—OPERATIONS OF CARRIERS

SUBCHAPTER I—REQUIREMENTS

§41701. Classification of air carriers

The Secretary of Transportation may establish—

(1) reasonable classifications for air carriers when required because of the nature of the transportation provided by them; and

(2) reasonable requirements for each class when the Secretary decides those requirements are necessary in the public interest.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1140.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41701 49 App.:1386(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §416(a), 72 Stat. 771.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "from time to time" are omitted as unnecessary. In clauses (1) and (2), the word "just" is omitted as being included in "reasonable". In clause (1), the word "groups" is omitted as being included in "classifications". The words "transportation provided" are substituted for "services performed" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (2), the word "requirements" is substituted for "rules and regulations pursuant to and consistent with the provisions of this subchapter" as being more appropriate and for consistency in the revised title.

§41702. Interstate air transportation

An air carrier shall provide safe and adequate interstate air transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1140.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41702 49 App.:1374(a)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §404(a)(1), 72 Stat. 760; Mar. 22, 1972, Pub. L. 92–259, §1, 86 Stat. 95; Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §23, 92 Stat. 1724.
  49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) (related to 49 App.:1374(a)(1)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(a)(4)(C) (related to §404(a)(1)); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(c), 98 Stat. 1703.

This section is substituted for 49 App.:1374(a)(1) because 49 App.:1551(a)(4)(C) provides that 49 App.:1374 no longer applies to interstate or overseas air transportation except insofar as 49 App.:1374 requires air carriers to provide safe and adequate service.

§41703. Navigation of foreign civil aircraft

(a) Permitted Navigation.—A foreign aircraft, not part of the armed forces of a foreign country, may be navigated in the United States only—

(1) if the country of registry grants a similar privilege to aircraft of the United States;

(2) by an airman holding a certificate or license issued or made valid by the United States Government or the country of registry;

(3) if the Secretary of Transportation authorizes the navigation; and

(4) if the navigation is consistent with terms the Secretary may prescribe.


(b) Requirements for Authorizing Navigation.—The Secretary may authorize navigation under this section only if the Secretary decides the authorization is—

(1) in the public interest; and

(2) consistent with any agreement between the Government and the government of a foreign country.


(c) Providing Air Commerce.—The Secretary may authorize an aircraft permitted to navigate in the United States under this section to provide air commerce in the United States. However, the aircraft may take on for compensation, at a place in the United States, passengers or cargo destined for another place in the United States only if—

(1) specifically authorized under section 40109(g) of this title; or

(2) under regulations the Secretary prescribes authorizing air carriers to provide otherwise authorized air transportation with foreign registered aircraft under lease or charter to them without crew.


(d) Permit Requirements Not Affected.—This section does not affect section 41301 or 41302 of this title. However, a foreign air carrier holding a permit under section 41302 does not need to obtain additional authorization under this section for an operation authorized by the permit.

(e) Cargo in Alaska.—

(1) In general.—For the purposes of subsection (c), eligible cargo taken on or off any aircraft at a place in Alaska in the course of transportation of that cargo by any combination of 2 or more air carriers or foreign air carriers in either direction between a place in the United States and a place outside the United States shall not be deemed to have broken its international journey in, be taken on in, or be destined for Alaska.

(2) Eligible cargo.—For purposes of paragraph (1), the term "eligible cargo" means cargo transported between Alaska and any other place in the United States on a foreign air carrier (having been transported from, or thereafter being transported to, a place outside the United States on a different air carrier or foreign air carrier) that is carried—

(A) under the code of a United States air carrier providing air transportation to Alaska;

(B) on an air carrier way bill of an air carrier providing air transportation to Alaska;

(C) under a term arrangement or block space agreement with an air carrier; or

(D) under the code of a United States air carrier for purposes of transportation within the United States.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1140; Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §808, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2588.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41703(a) 49 App.:1508(b) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1108(b) (1st, 2d, last sentences), 72 Stat. 798, 799.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41703(b) 49 App.:1508(b) (2d sentence).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41703(c) 49 App.:1508(b) (3d sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §1108(b) (3d sentence), 72 Stat. 799; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §20, 94 Stat. 43.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41703(d) 49 App.:1508(b) (last sentence).

In subsection (a), the word "country" is substituted for "nation" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code. In clause (3), the words "permit, order, or regulation issued" are omitted as surplus. In clause (4), the words "conditions, and limitations" are omitted as being included in "terms".

In subsection (b)(2), the word "agreement" is substituted for "treaty, convention, or agreement" for clarity and consistency in the revised title. The words "which may be in force" are omitted as surplus. The words "or countries" are omitted because of 1:1.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the word "place" is substituted for "point", and the word "passengers" is substituted for "persons", for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (d), the word "affect" is substituted for "limit, modify, or amend" to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–176 added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§41704. Transporting property not to be transported in aircraft cabins

Under regulations or orders of the Secretary of Transportation, an air carrier shall transport as baggage the property of a passenger traveling in air transportation that may not be carried in an aircraft cabin because of a law or regulation of the United States. The carrier is liable to pay an amount not more than the amount declared to the carrier by that passenger for actual loss of, or damage to, the property caused by the carrier. The carrier may impose reasonable charges and conditions for its liability.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1141.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41704 49 App.:1516. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1116; added Aug. 5, 1974, Pub. L. 93–366, §205, 88 Stat. 418.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

The words "as may be necessary", "which . . . lawfully", and "by such person" are omitted as surplus. The words "The carrier is liable to pay an amount not more than" are substituted for "shall assume liability . . . within" for clarity. The words "to such person" are omitted as surplus. The words "The carrier may impose" are added for clarity. The words "terms and" are omitted as covered by "conditions".

Refunds for Delayed Baggage

Pub. L. 114–190, title II, §2305, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 640, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Secretary of Transportation shall issue final regulations to require an air carrier or foreign air carrier to promptly provide to a passenger an automated refund for any ancillary fees paid by the passenger for checked baggage if—

"(1) the air carrier or foreign air carrier fails to deliver the checked baggage to the passenger—

"(A) not later than 12 hours after the arrival of a domestic flight; or

"(B) not later than 15 hours after the arrival of an international flight; and

"(2) the passenger has notified the air carrier or foreign air carrier of the lost or delayed checked baggage.

"(b) Exception.—If, as part of the rulemaking, the Secretary makes a determination on the record that a requirement under subsection (a) is not feasible and would adversely affect consumers in certain cases, the Secretary may modify 1 or both of the deadlines specified in subsection (a)(1) for such cases, except that—

"(1) the deadline relating to a domestic flight may not exceed 18 hours after the arrival of the domestic flight; and

"(2) the deadline relating to an international flight may not exceed 30 hours after the arrival of the international flight."

§41705. Discrimination against handicapped individuals

(a) In General.—In providing air transportation, an air carrier, including (subject to section 40105(b)) any foreign air carrier, may not discriminate against an otherwise qualified individual on the following grounds:

(1) the individual has a physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one or more major life activities.

(2) the individual has a record of such an impairment.

(3) the individual is regarded as having such an impairment.


(b) Each Act Constitutes Separate Offense.—For purposes of section 46301, a separate violation occurs under this section for each individual act of discrimination prohibited by subsection (a).

(c) Investigation of Complaints.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall investigate each complaint of a violation of subsection (a).

(2) Publication of data.—The Secretary shall publish disability-related complaint data in a manner comparable to other consumer complaint data.

(3) Review and report.—The Secretary shall regularly review all complaints received by air carriers alleging discrimination on the basis of disability and shall report annually to Congress on the results of such review.

(4) Technical assistance.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this subsection, the Secretary shall—

(A) implement a plan, in consultation with the Department of Justice, the United States Architectural and Transportation Barriers Compliance Board, and the National Council on Disability, to provide technical assistance to air carriers and individuals with disabilities in understanding the rights and responsibilities set forth in this section; and

(B) ensure the availability and provision of appropriate technical assistance manuals to individuals and entities with rights or responsibilities under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1141; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §707(a), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 158; Pub. L. 108–176, title V, §503(d)(1), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2559.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41705 49 App.:1374(c). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §404(c); added Oct. 2, 1986, Pub. L. 99–435, §2(a), 100 Stat. 1080.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "on the following grounds" are substituted for "by reason of such handicap" and "For purposes of paragraph (1) of this subsection the term 'handicapped individual' means any individual who" because of the restatement.

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (c)(4), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–176 substituted "section 46301" for "section 46301(a)(3)(E)".

2000Pub. L. 106–181 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, substituted "carrier, including (subject to section 40105(b)) any foreign air carrier," for "carrier" in introductory provisions, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Regulations Ensuring Assistance for Passengers With Disabilities in Air Transportation

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §440, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3347, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Secretary of Transportation shall—

"(1) review, and if necessary revise, applicable regulations to ensure that passengers with disabilities who request assistance while traveling in air transportation receive dignified, timely, and effective assistance at airports and on aircraft from trained personnel; and

"(2) review, and if necessary revise, applicable regulations related to covered air carrier training programs for air carrier personnel, including contractors, who provide physical assistance to passengers with disabilities to ensure that training under such programs—

"(A) occurs on an annual schedule for all new and continuing personnel charged with providing physical assistance; and

"(B) includes, as appropriate, instruction by personnel, with hands-on training for employees who physically lift or otherwise physically assist passengers with disabilities, including the use of relevant equipment.

"(b) Types of Assistance.—The assistance referred to [in] subsection (a)(1) may include requests for assistance in boarding or deplaning an aircraft, requests for assistance in connecting between flights, and other similar or related requests, as appropriate."

[For definition of "covered air carrier" as used in section 440 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 401 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 115–254 note under section 40101 of this title.]

Airline Passengers With Disabilities Bill of Rights

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §434, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3343, provided that:

"(a) Airline Passengers With Disabilities Bill of Rights.—The Secretary of Transportation shall develop a document, to be known as the 'Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights', using plain language to describe the basic protections and responsibilities of covered air carriers, their employees and contractors, and people with disabilities under the [sic] section 41705 of title 49, United States Code.

"(b) Content.—In developing the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights under subsection (a), the Secretary shall include, at a minimum, plain language descriptions of protections and responsibilities provided in law related to the following:

"(1) The right of passengers with disabilities to be treated with dignity and respect.

"(2) The right of passengers with disabilities to receive timely assistance, if requested, from properly trained covered air carrier and contractor personnel.

"(3) The right of passengers with disabilities to travel with wheelchairs, mobility aids, and other assistive devices, including necessary medications and medical supplies, including stowage of such wheelchairs, aids, and devices.

"(4) The right of passengers with disabilities to receive seating accommodations, if requested, to accommodate a disability.

"(5) The right of passengers with disabilities to receive announcements in an accessible format.

"(6) The right of passengers with disabilities to speak with a complaint resolution officer or to file a complaint with a covered air carrier or the Department of Transportation.

"(c) Rule of Construction.—The development of the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights under subsections (a) and (b) shall not be construed as expanding or restricting the rights available to passengers with disabilities on the day before the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018] pursuant to any statute or regulation.

"(d) Consultations.—In developing the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights under subsection (a), the Secretary of Transportation shall consult with stakeholders, including disability organizations and covered air carriers and their contractors.

"(e) Display.—Each covered air carrier shall include the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights—

"(1) on a publicly available internet website of the covered air carrier; and

"(2) in any pre-flight notifications or communications provided to passengers who alert the covered air carrier in advance of the need for accommodations relating to a disability.

"(f) Training.—Covered air carriers and contractors of covered air carriers shall submit to the Secretary of Transportation plans that ensure employees of covered air carriers and their contractors receive training on the protections and responsibilities described in the Airline Passengers with Disabilities Bill of Rights. The Secretary shall review such plans to ensure the plans address the matters described in subsection (b)."

[For definition of "covered air carrier" as used in section 434 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out above, see section 401 of Pub. L. 115–254, set out as a Definitions of Terms in Pub. L. 115–254 note under section 40101 of this title.]

Harmonization of Service Animal Standards

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §437, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3344, provided that:

"(a) Rulemaking.—The Secretary of Transportation shall conduct a rulemaking proceeding—

"(1) to define the term 'service animal' for purposes of air transportation; and

"(2) to develop minimum standards for what is required for service and emotional support animals carried in aircraft cabins.

"(b) Considerations.—In conducting the rulemaking under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider, at a minimum—

"(1) whether to align the definition of 'service animal' with the definition of that term in regulations of the Department of Justice implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–336) [42 U.S.C. 12101 et seq.];

"(2) reasonable measures to ensure pets are not claimed as service animals, such as—

"(A) whether to require photo identification for a service animal identifying the type of animal, the breed of animal, and the service the animal provides to the passenger;

"(B) whether to require documentation indicating whether or not a service animal was trained by the owner or an approved training organization;

"(C) whether to require, from a licensed physician, documentation indicating the mitigating task or tasks a service animal provides to its owner; and

"(D) whether to allow a passenger to be accompanied by more than 1 service animal;

"(3) reasonable measures to ensure the safety of all passengers, such as—

"(A) whether to require health and vaccination records for a service animal; and

"(B) whether to require third-party proof of behavioral training for a service animal;

"(4) the impact additional requirements on service animals could have on access to air transportation for passengers with disabilities; and

"(5) if impacts on access to air transportation for passengers with disabilities are found, ways to eliminate or mitigate those impacts.

"(c) Final Rule.—Not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Secretary shall issue a final rule pursuant to the rulemaking conducted under this section."

Advisory Committee on the Air Travel Needs of Passengers With Disabilities

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §439, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3345, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall establish an advisory committee on issues related to the air travel needs of passengers with disabilities (referred to in this section as the 'Advisory Committee').

"(b) Duties.—The Advisory Committee shall—

"(1) identify and assess the disability-related access barriers encountered by passengers with disabilities;

"(2) determine the extent to which the programs and activities of the Department of Transportation are addressing the barriers identified in paragraph (1);

"(3) recommend consumer protection improvements to the air travel experience of passengers with disabilities;

"(4) advise the Secretary with regard to the implementation of section 41705 of title 49, United States Code; and

"(5) conduct such activities as the Secretary considers necessary to carry out this section.

"(c) Membership.—

"(1) In general.—The Advisory Committee shall be composed of at least 1 representative of each of the following groups:

"(A) Passengers with disabilities.

"(B) National disability organizations.

"(C) Air carriers.

"(D) Airport operators.

"(E) Contractor service providers.

"(F) Aircraft manufacturers.

"(G) Wheelchair manufacturers.

"(H) National veterans organizations representing disabled veterans.

"(2) Appointment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall appoint each member of the Advisory Committee.

"(3) Vacancies.—A vacancy in the Advisory Committee shall be filled in the manner in which the original appointment was made.

"(d) Chairperson.—The Secretary of Transportation shall designate, from among the members appointed under subsection (c), an individual to serve as chairperson of the Advisory Committee.

"(e) Travel Expenses.—Members of the Advisory Committee shall serve without pay, but shall receive travel expenses, including per diem in lieu of subsistence, in accordance with subchapter I of chapter 57 of title 5, United States Code.

"(f) Reports.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 14 months after the date of establishment of the Advisory Committee, and annually thereafter, the Advisory Committee shall submit to the Secretary of Transportation a report on the needs of passengers with disabilities in air travel, including—

"(A) an assessment of existing disability-related access barriers, and any emerging disability-related access barriers that will likely be an issue in the next 5 calendar years;

"(B) an evaluation of the extent to which the Department of Transportation's programs and activities are eliminating disability-related access barriers;

"(C) a description of the Advisory Committee's actions;

"(D) a description of improvements related to the air travel experience of passengers with disabilities; and

"(E) any recommendations for legislation, administrative action, or other action that the Advisory Committee considers appropriate.

"(2) Report to congress.—Not later than 60 days after the date the Secretary receives the report under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives] a copy of the report, including any additional findings or recommendations that the Secretary considers appropriate.

"(g) Termination.—The Advisory Committee established under this section shall terminate on September 30, 2023.

"(h) Termination of the Next Generation Air Transportation System Senior Policy Committee.—The Next Generation Air Transportation System Senior Policy Committee established by the Secretary of Transportation shall terminate on the date of the initial appointment of the members of the Advisory Committee."

Training Policies Regarding Assistance for Persons With Disabilities

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §433, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3342, provided that: "Following the receipt of the report required under section 2107 of the FAA Extension, Safety, and Security Act of 2016 (Public Law 114–190; 130 Stat. 622) [set out below], the Secretary of Transportation shall develop, if appropriate, specific recommendations regarding improvements to wheelchair assistance provided by air carriers and recommendations on how training programs by air carriers can address consumer complaints regarding wheelchair assistance."

Pub. L. 114–190, title II, §2107, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 622, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Comptroller General of the United States shall submit to Congress a report assessing required air carrier personnel and contractor training programs regarding the assistance of persons with disabilities, including—

"(1) variations in training programs between air carriers;

"(2) instances since 2005 where the Department of Transportation has requested that an air carrier take corrective action following a review of the air carrier's training programs; and

"(3) actions taken by air carriers following requests described in paragraph (2).

"(b) Best Practices.—After the date the report is submitted under subsection (a), the Secretary of Transportation, based on the findings of the report, shall develop, make publicly available, and appropriately disseminate to air carriers such best practices as the Secretary considers necessary to improve the reviewed training programs."

Establishment of Higher International Standards

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §707(c), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 158, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] shall work with appropriate international organizations and the aviation authorities of other nations to bring about the establishment of higher standards for accommodating handicapped passengers in air transportation, particularly with respect to foreign air carriers that code-share with air carriers."

Restrictions on Air Transportation of Peanuts; Scientific Study on Effect of Airborne Particles on Passengers

Pub. L. 106–69, title III, §346, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1023, provided that: "Hereafter, none of the funds made available under this Act or any other Act, may be used to implement, carry out, or enforce any regulation issued under section 41705 of title 49, United States Code, including any regulation contained in part 382 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, or any other provision of law (including any Act of Congress, regulation, or Executive order or any official guidance or correspondence thereto), that requires or encourages an air carrier (as that term is defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code) to, on intrastate or interstate air transportation (as those terms are defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code)—

"(1) provide a peanut-free buffer zone or any other related peanut-restricted area; or

"(2) restrict the distribution of peanuts,

until 90 days after submission to the Congress and the Secretary of a peer-reviewed scientific study that determines that there are severe reactions by passengers to peanuts as a result of contact with very small airborne peanut particles of the kind that passengers might encounter in an aircraft."

Similar provisions were contained in Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §372], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681-479.

§41706. Prohibitions against smoking on passenger flights

(a) Smoking Prohibition in Interstate and Intrastate Air Transportation.—An individual may not smoke—

(1) in an aircraft in scheduled passenger interstate or intrastate air transportation; or

(2) in an aircraft in nonscheduled passenger interstate or intrastate air transportation, if a flight attendant is a required crewmember on the aircraft (as determined by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration).


(b) Smoking Prohibition in Foreign Air Transportation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall require all air carriers and foreign air carriers to prohibit smoking—

(1) in an aircraft in scheduled passenger foreign air transportation; and

(2) in an aircraft in nonscheduled passenger foreign air transportation, if a flight attendant is a required crewmember on the aircraft (as determined by the Administrator or a foreign government).


(c) Limitation on Applicability.—

(1) In general.—If a foreign government objects to the application of subsection (b) on the basis that subsection (b) provides for an extraterritorial application of the laws of the United States, the Secretary shall waive the application of subsection (b) to a foreign air carrier licensed by that foreign government at such time as an alternative prohibition negotiated under paragraph (2) becomes effective and is enforced by the Secretary.

(2) Alternative prohibition.—If, pursuant to paragraph (1), a foreign government objects to the prohibition under subsection (b), the Secretary shall enter into bilateral negotiations with the objecting foreign government to provide for an alternative smoking prohibition.


(d) Electronic Cigarettes.—

(1) Inclusion.—The use of an electronic cigarette shall be treated as smoking for purposes of this section.

(2) Electronic cigarette defined.—In this section, the term "electronic cigarette" means a device that delivers nicotine to a user of the device in the form of a vapor that is inhaled to simulate the experience of smoking.


(e) Regulations.—The Secretary shall prescribe such regulations as are necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1141; Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §708(a), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 159; Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §401(a), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 83; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §409, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3331.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41706 49 App.:1374(d)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §404(d)(1); added Dec. 22, 1987, Pub. L. 100–202, §328(a), 101 Stat. 1329–382; Nov. 21, 1989, Pub. L. 101–164, §335 (less effective date), 103 Stat. 1098, 1099.
  49 App.:1374 (note). Nov. 21, 1989, Pub. L. 101–164, §335 (related to effective date), 103 Stat. 1099.

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "On and after the date of expiration of the 4-month period following December 22, 1987" are omitted as executed. The words "of an aircraft" are added for clarity. The text of 49 App.:1374 (note) is omitted as executed.

Amendments

2018—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 115–254 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

2012Pub. L. 112–95, §401(a)(1), substituted "passenger" for "scheduled" in section catchline.

Subsecs. (a), (b). Pub. L. 112–95, §401(a)(2), added subsecs. (a) and (b) and struck out former subsecs. (a) and (b) which read as follows:

"(a) Smoking Prohibition in Intrastate and Interstate Air Transportation.—An individual may not smoke in an aircraft in scheduled passenger interstate air transportation or scheduled passenger intrastate air transportation.

"(b) Smoking Prohibition in Foreign Air Transportation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall require all air carriers and foreign air carriers to prohibit smoking in any aircraft in scheduled passenger foreign air transportation."

2000Pub. L. 106–181 amended section catchline and text generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(a) General.—An individual may not smoke in the passenger cabin or lavatory of an aircraft on a scheduled airline flight segment in air transportation or intrastate air transportation that is—

"(1) between places in a State of the United States, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, or the Virgin Islands;

"(2) between a place in any jurisdiction referred to in clause (1) of this subsection (except Alaska and Hawaii) and a place in any other of those jurisdictions; or

"(3)(A) scheduled for not more than 6 hours' duration; and

"(B)(i) between a place referred to in clause (1) of this subsection (except Alaska and Hawaii) and Alaska or Hawaii; or

"(ii) between Alaska and Hawaii.

"(b) Regulations.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe regulations necessary to carry out this section."

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §708(b), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 159, provided that: "The amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section] shall take effect on the date that is 60 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000]."

§41707. Incorporating contract terms into written instrument

To the extent the Secretary of Transportation prescribes by regulation, an air carrier may incorporate by reference in a ticket or written instrument any term of the contract for providing interstate air transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1141.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41707 49 App.:1381(b). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §411(b); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §7(a), 98 Stat. 1706.

§41708. Reports

(a) Application.—To the extent the Secretary of Transportation finds necessary to carry out this subpart, this section and section 41709 of this title apply to a person controlling an air carrier or affiliated (within the meaning of section 11343(c) of this title) with a carrier.

(b) Requirements.—The Secretary may require an air carrier or foreign air carrier—

(1)(A) to file annual, monthly, periodical, and special reports with the Secretary in the form and way prescribed by the Secretary; and

(B) to file the reports under oath;

(2) to provide specific answers to questions on which the Secretary considers information to be necessary; and

(3) to file with the Secretary a copy of each agreement, arrangement, contract, or understanding between the carrier and another carrier or person related to transportation affected by this subpart.


(c) Diverted and Cancelled Flights.—

(1) Monthly reports.—The Secretary shall require an air carrier referred to in paragraph (2) to file with the Secretary a monthly report on each flight of the air carrier that is diverted from its scheduled destination to another airport and each flight of the air carrier that departs the gate at the airport at which the flight originates but is cancelled before wheels-off time.

(2) Applicability.—An air carrier that is required to file a monthly airline service quality performance report pursuant to part 234 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, shall be subject to the requirement of paragraph (1).

(3) Contents.—A monthly report filed by an air carrier under paragraph (1) shall include, at a minimum, the following information:

(A) For a diverted flight—

(i) the flight number of the diverted flight;

(ii) the scheduled destination of the flight;

(iii) the date and time of the flight;

(iv) the airport to which the flight was diverted;

(v) wheels-on time at the diverted airport;

(vi) the time, if any, passengers deplaned the aircraft at the diverted airport; and

(vii) if the flight arrives at the scheduled destination airport—

(I) the gate-departure time at the diverted airport;

(II) the wheels-off time at the diverted airport;

(III) the wheels-on time at the scheduled arrival airport; and

(IV) the gate-arrival time at the scheduled arrival airport.


(B) For flights cancelled after gate departure—

(i) the flight number of the cancelled flight;

(ii) the scheduled origin and destination airports of the cancelled flight;

(iii) the date and time of the cancelled flight;

(iv) the gate-departure time of the cancelled flight; and

(v) the time the aircraft returned to the gate.


(4) Publication.—The Secretary shall compile the information provided in the monthly reports filed pursuant to paragraph (1) in a single monthly report and publish such report on the Internet Web site of the Department of Transportation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1141; Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §402(a), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 83.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41708(a) 49 App.:1377(e) (last sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §407(e) (last sentence), 72 Stat. 766.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41708(b) 49 App.:1377(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §407(a), 72 Stat. 766; Feb. 15, 1980, Pub. L. 96–192, §10, 94 Stat. 38.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the word "reasonably" is omitted as surplus. The words "carry out" are substituted for "administration" for consistency in the revised title. The words "section 11343(c) of this title" are substituted for "section 5(8) of the Interstate Commerce Act, as amended" in section 407(e) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 766), to cite the corresponding section of the revised title and correct the inaccurate reference to the definition of "affiliate".

In subsection (b)(3), the word "copy" is substituted for "true copy" to eliminate an unnecessary word. The word "transportation" is substituted for "traffic" for consistency in the revised title.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 112–95 added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2012 Amendment

Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §402(b), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 84, provided that: "Beginning not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Secretary of Transportation shall require monthly reports pursuant to the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section]."

§41709. Records of air carriers

(a) Requirements.—The Secretary of Transportation shall prescribe the form of records to be kept by an air carrier, including records on the movement of traffic, receipts and expenditures of money, and the time period during which the records shall be kept. A carrier may keep only records prescribed or approved by the Secretary. However, a carrier may keep additional records if the additional records do not impair the integrity of the records prescribed or approved by the Secretary and are not an unreasonable financial burden on the carrier.

(b) Inspection.—(1) The Secretary at any time may—

(A) inspect the land, buildings, and equipment of an air carrier or foreign air carrier when necessary to decide under subchapter II of this chapter or section 41102, 41103, or 41302 of this title whether a carrier is fit, willing, and able; and

(B) inspect records kept or required to be kept by an air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent.


(2) The Secretary may employ special agents or auditors to carry out this subsection.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1142.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41709(a) 49 App.:1377(d). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §407(d), 72 Stat. 766.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41709(b) 49 App.:1377(e) (1st–3d sentences). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §407(e) (1st–3d sentences), 72 Stat. 766; Jan. 3, 1975, Pub. L. 93–623, §7(b), 88 Stat. 2105; restated Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(t), 98 Stat. 1708.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the word "unreasonable" is substituted for "undue" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b)(1)(A) and (B), the word "inspect" is substituted for "have access to" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "to carry out this subsection" are substituted for "who shall have authority under the orders of the Board to inspect and examine lands, buildings, equipment, accounts, records, and memorandums to which the Board has access under this subsection" to eliminate unnecessary words.

§41710. Time requirements

When a matter requiring action of the Secretary of Transportation is submitted under section 40109(a) or (c)–(h), 41309, or 42111 of this title and an evidentiary hearing—

(1) is ordered, the Secretary shall make a final decision on the matter not later than the last day of the 12th month that begins after the date the matter is submitted; or

(2) is not ordered, the Secretary shall make a final decision on the matter not later than the last day of the 6th month that begins after the date the matter is submitted.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1142.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41710 49 App.:1490. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1010; added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §38(a), 92 Stat. 1743.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

In this section, before clause (1), the words "matter requiring action of the Secretary" are substituted for "application or other written document" for clarity. The reference to 49 App.:1378 and 1379 is omitted as obsolete because under 49 App.:1551(a)(7), those sections ceased to be in effect on January 1, 1989. The words "on or after the one-hundred-eightieth day after October 24, 1978" are omitted as executed. In clauses (1) and (2), the words "order or" are omitted as surplus.

§41711. Air carrier management inquiry and cooperation with other authorities

In carrying out this subpart, the Secretary of Transportation may—

(1) inquire into the management of the business of an air carrier and obtain from the air carrier, and a person controlling, controlled by, or under common control with the carrier, information the Secretary decides reasonably is necessary to carry out the inquiry;

(2) confer and hold a joint hearing with a State authority; and

(3) exchange information related to aeronautics with a government of a foreign country through appropriate departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1142.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41711(1) 49 App.:1385. Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§204(b), (c), 415, 72 Stat. 743, 770.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41711(2) 49 App.:1324(b).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).
41711(3) 49 App.:1324(c)
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In this section, before clause (1), the words "In carrying out" are substituted for "in connection with any matter arising under this chapter within its jurisdiction" and "in the administration and enforcement of this chapter" in 49 App.:1324(b) and "For the purpose of exercising and performing its powers and duties under this chapter" in 49 App.:1385, and added (as the words relate to 49 App.:1324(c)), for clarity and consistency in this section. In clause (1), the words "full and complete reports and other" are omitted as surplus. In clause (2), the words "State aeronautical agency, or other" are omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:1324(b) (words after 3d comma) is omitted as surplus because of 49:322(c)(3). In clause (3), the words "government of a foreign country" are substituted for "foreign governments" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

§41712. Unfair and deceptive practices and unfair methods of competition

(a) In General.—On the initiative of the Secretary of Transportation or the complaint of an air carrier, foreign air carrier, air ambulance consumer (as defined by the Secretary of Transportation), or ticket agent, and if the Secretary considers it is in the public interest, the Secretary may investigate and decide whether an air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent has been or is engaged in an unfair or deceptive practice or an unfair method of competition in air transportation or the sale of air transportation. If the Secretary, after notice and an opportunity for a hearing, finds that an air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent is engaged in an unfair or deceptive practice or unfair method of competition, the Secretary shall order the air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent to stop the practice or method.

(b) E-Ticket Expiration Notice.—It shall be an unfair or deceptive practice under subsection (a) for any air carrier, foreign air carrier, or ticket agent utilizing electronically transmitted tickets for air transportation to fail to notify the purchaser of such a ticket of its expiration date, if any.

(c) Disclosure Requirement for Sellers of Tickets for Flights.—

(1) In general.—It shall be an unfair or deceptive practice under subsection (a) for any ticket agent, air carrier, foreign air carrier, or other person offering to sell tickets for air transportation on a flight of an air carrier to fail to disclose, whether verbally in oral communication or in writing in written or electronic communication, prior to the purchase of a ticket—

(A) the name of the air carrier providing the air transportation; and

(B) if the flight has more than one flight segment, the name of each air carrier providing the air transportation for each such flight segment.


(2) Internet offers.—In the case of an offer to sell tickets described in paragraph (1) on an Internet Web site, disclosure of the information required by paragraph (1) shall be provided on the first display of the Web site following a search of a requested itinerary in a format that is easily visible to a viewer.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1143; Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §221, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 102; Pub. L. 111–216, title II, §210, Aug. 1, 2010, 124 Stat. 2362; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §419(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3336.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41712 49 App.:1381(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §411(a), 72 Stat. 769; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §7(a), 98 Stat. 1706.
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.

The words "such action by" are omitted as surplus. The words "opportunity for a" are added for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–254 inserted "air ambulance consumer (as defined by the Secretary of Transportation)," after "of an air carrier, foreign air carrier,".

2010—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 111–216 added subsec. (c).

2000Pub. L. 106–181 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§41713. Preemption of authority over prices, routes, and service

(a) Definition.—In this section, "State" means a State, the District of Columbia, and a territory or possession of the United States.

(b) Preemption.—(1) Except as provided in this subsection, a State, political subdivision of a State, or political authority of at least 2 States may not enact or enforce a law, regulation, or other provision having the force and effect of law related to a price, route, or service of an air carrier that may provide air transportation under this subpart.

(2) Paragraphs (1) and (4) of this subsection do not apply to air transportation provided entirely in Alaska unless the transportation is air transportation (except charter air transportation) provided under a certificate issued under section 41102 of this title.

(3) This subsection does not limit a State, political subdivision of a State, or political authority of at least 2 States that owns or operates an airport served by an air carrier holding a certificate issued by the Secretary of Transportation from carrying out its proprietary powers and rights.

(4) Transportation by air carrier or carrier affiliated with a direct air carrier.—

(A) General rule.—Except as provided in subparagraph (B), a State, political subdivision of a State, or political authority of 2 or more States may not enact or enforce a law, regulation, or other provision having the force and effect of law related to a price, route, or service of an air carrier or carrier affiliated with a direct air carrier through common controlling ownership when such carrier is transporting property by aircraft or by motor vehicle (whether or not such property has had or will have a prior or subsequent air movement).

(B) Matters not covered.—Subparagraph (A)—

(i) shall not restrict the safety regulatory authority of a State with respect to motor vehicles, the authority of a State to impose highway route controls or limitations based on the size or weight of the motor vehicle or the hazardous nature of the cargo, or the authority of a State to regulate motor carriers with regard to minimum amounts of financial responsibility relating to insurance requirements and self-insurance authorization; and

(ii) does not apply to the transportation of household goods, as defined in section 13102 of this title.


(C) Applicability of paragraph (1).—This paragraph shall not limit the applicability of paragraph (1).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1143; Pub. L. 103–305, title VI, §601(b)(1), (2)(A), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1605, 1606; Pub. L. 105–102, §2(23), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2205.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
41713(a) 49 App.:1305(c), (d) (related to (a), (b)(1), (c)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §105(a)(2), (b)(1), (c), (d) (related to (a), (b)(1), (c)); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §4(a), 92 Stat. 1708.
41713(b)(1) 49 App.:1305(a)(1). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §105(a)(1); added Oct. 24, 1978, Pub. L. 95–504, §4(a), 92 Stat. 1707; Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §9(u), 98 Stat. 1709.
41713(b)(2) 49 App.:1305(a)(2).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §1601(b)(1)(E); added Oct. 4, 1984, Pub. L. 98–443, §3(e), 98 Stat. 1704.
41713(b)(3) 49 App.:1305(b)(1).
  49 App.:1551(b)(1)(E).

In subsection (a), the words "the term" are omitted as surplus. The words "the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Guam, the Virgin Islands, and" are omitted as surplus because of the definition of "territory or possession of the United States" in section 40102(a) of the revised title, 48:734, and section 502 of the Covenant to Establish a Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands in Political Union with the United States of America. The text of 49 App.:1305(c) is omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (b)(1) and (3), the words "interstate agency or other" are omitted as surplus. The word "authority" is substituted for "agency" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b)(1), the word "rule" is omitted as being synonymous with "regulation". The words "standard" and "having authority" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(2), the words "pursuant to a certificate issued by the Board", "by air of persons, property, or mail", and "the State of" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 105–102

This amends 49:41713(b)(4)(B)(ii) to correct a cross-reference necessary because of the restatement of subtitle IV of title 49 by the ICC Termination Act (Public Law 104–88, 109 Stat. 803).

Amendments

1997—Subsec. (b)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 105–102 substituted "13102" for "10102".

1994—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 103–305, §601(b)(2)(A), substituted "Paragraphs (1) and (4) of this subsection do" for "Paragraph (1) of this subsection does".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 103–305, §601(b)(1), added par. (4).

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–305 effective Jan. 1, 1995, see section 601(d) of Pub. L. 103–305, set out as a note under section 10521 of this title.

§41714. Availability of slots

(a) Making Slots Available for Essential Air Service.—

(1) Operational authority.—If basic essential air service under subchapter II of this chapter is to be provided from an eligible point to a high density airport (other than Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport), the Secretary of Transportation shall ensure that the air carrier providing or selected to provide such service has sufficient operational authority at the high density airport to provide such service. The operational authority shall allow flights at reasonable times taking into account the needs of passengers with connecting flights.

(2) Exemptions.—If necessary to carry out the objectives of paragraph (1), the Secretary shall by order grant exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to air carriers using Stage 3 aircraft or to commuter air carriers, unless such an exemption would significantly increase operational delays.

(3) Assurance of access.—If the Secretary finds that an exemption under paragraph (2) would significantly increase operational delays, the Secretary shall take such action as may be necessary to ensure that an air carrier providing or selected to provide basic essential air service is able to obtain access to a high density airport.

(4) Action by the secretary.—The Secretary shall issue a final order under this subsection on or before the 60th day after receiving a request from an air carrier for operational authority under this subsection.


(b) Slots for Foreign Air Transportation.—

(1) Exemptions.—If the Secretary finds it to be in the public interest at a high density airport (other than Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport), the Secretary may grant by order exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to enable air carriers and foreign air carriers to provide foreign air transportation using Stage 3 aircraft.

(2) Slot withdrawals.—The Secretary may not withdraw a slot at Chicago O'Hare International Airport from an air carrier in order to allocate that slot to a carrier to provide foreign air transportation.

(3) Equivalent rights of access.—The Secretary shall not take a slot at a high density airport from an air carrier and award such slot to a foreign air carrier if the Secretary determines that air carriers are not provided equivalent rights of access to airports in the country of which such foreign air carrier is a citizen.

(4) Conversions of slots.—Effective May 1, 2000, slots at Chicago O'Hare International Airport allocated to an air carrier as of November 1, 1999, to provide foreign air transportation shall be made available to such carrier to provide interstate or intrastate air transportation.


(c) Slots for New Entrants.—If the Secretary finds it to be in the public interest, the Secretary may by order grant exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to enable new entrant air carriers to provide air transportation at high density airports (other than Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport).

(d) Special Rules for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.—

(1) In general.—Notwithstanding sections 49104(a)(5) and 49111(e) of this title, or any provision of this section, the Secretary may, only under circumstances determined by the Secretary to be exceptional, grant by order to an air carrier currently holding or operating a slot at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport an exemption from requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport), to enable that carrier to provide air transportation with Stage 3 aircraft at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport; except that such exemption shall not—

(A) result in an increase in the total number of slots per day at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport;

(B) result in an increase in the total number of slots at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport from 7:00 ante meridiem to 9:59 post meridiem;

(C) increase the number of operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in any 1-hour period by more than 2 operations;

(D) result in the withdrawal or reduction of slots operated by an air carrier;

(E) result in a net increase in noise impact on surrounding communities resulting from changes in timing of operations permitted under this subsection; and

(F) continue in effect on or after the date on which the final rules issued under subsection (f) become effective.


(2) Limitation on applicability.—Nothing in this subsection shall adversely affect Exemption No. 5133, as from time-to-time amended and extended.


(e) Study.—

(1) Matters to be considered.—The Secretary shall continue the Secretary's current examination of slot regulations and shall ensure that the examination includes consideration of—

(A) whether improvements in technology and procedures of the air traffic control system and the use of quieter aircraft make it possible to eliminate the limitations on hourly operations imposed by the high density rule contained in part 93 of title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations or to increase the number of operations permitted under such rule;

(B) the effects of the elimination of limitations or an increase in the number of operations allowed on each of the following:

(i) congestion and delay in any part of the national aviation system;

(ii) the impact of noise on persons living near the airport;

(iii) competition in the air transportation system;

(iv) the profitability of operations of airlines serving the airport; and

(v) aviation safety;


(C) the impact of the current slot allocation process upon the ability of air carriers to provide essential air service under subchapter II of this chapter;

(D) the impact of such allocation process upon the ability of new entrant air carriers to obtain slots in time periods that enable them to provide service;

(E) the impact of such allocation process on the ability of foreign air carriers to obtain slots;

(F) the fairness of such process to air carriers and the extent to which air carriers are provided equivalent rights of access to the air transportation market in the countries of which foreign air carriers holding slots are citizens;

(G) the impact, on the ability of air carriers to provide domestic and international air service, of the withdrawal of slots from air carriers in order to provide slots for foreign air carriers; and

(H) the impact of the prohibition on slot withdrawals in subsections (b)(2) and (b)(3) of this section on the aviation relationship between the United States Government and foreign governments, including whether the prohibition in such subsections will require the withdrawal of slots from general and military aviation in order to meet the needs of air carriers and foreign air carriers providing foreign air transportation (and the impact of such withdrawal on general aviation and military aviation) and whether slots will become available to meet the needs of air carriers and foreign air carriers to provide foreign air transportation as a result of the planned relocation of Air Force Reserve units and the Air National Guard at O'Hare International Airport.


(2) Report.—Not later than January 31, 1995, the Secretary shall complete the current examination of slot regulations and shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report containing the results of such examination.


(f) Rulemaking.—The Secretary shall conduct a rulemaking proceeding based on the results of the study described in subsection (e). In the course of such proceeding, the Secretary shall issue a notice of proposed rulemaking not later than August 1, 1995, and shall issue a final rule not later than 90 days after public comments are due on the notice of proposed rulemaking.

(g) Weekend Operations.—The Secretary shall consider the advisability of revising section 93.227 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, so as to eliminate weekend schedules from the determination of whether the 80 percent standard of subsection (a)(1) of that section has been met.

(h) Definitions.—In this section and sections 41715–41718 and 41734(h), the following definitions apply:

(1) Commuter air carrier.—The term "commuter air carrier" means a commuter operator as defined or applied in subpart K or S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.

(2) High density airport.—The term "high density airport" means an airport at which the Administrator limits the number of instrument flight rule takeoffs and landings of aircraft.

(3) New entrant air carrier.—The term "new entrant air carrier" means an air carrier that does not hold a slot at the airport concerned and has never sold or given up a slot at that airport after December 16, 1985, and a limited incumbent carrier.

(4) Slot.—The term "slot" means a reservation for an instrument flight rule takeoff or landing by an air carrier of an aircraft in air transportation.

(5) Limited incumbent air carrier.—The term "limited incumbent air carrier" has the meaning given that term in subpart S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations; except that—

(A) "40" shall be substituted for "12" in sections 93.213(a)(5), 93.223(c)(3), and 93.225(h);

(B) for purposes of such sections, the term "slot" shall not include—

(i) "slot exemptions";

(ii) slots operated by an air carrier under a fee-for-service arrangement for another air carrier, if the air carrier operating such slots does not sell flights in its own name, and is under common ownership with an air carrier that seeks to qualify as a limited incumbent and that sells flights in its own name; or

(iii) slots held under a sale and license-back financing arrangement with another air carrier, where the slots are under the marketing control of the other air carrier; and


(C) for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, the Administrator shall not count, for the purposes of section 93.213(a)(5), slots currently held by an air carrier but leased out on a long-term basis by that carrier for use in foreign air transportation and renounced by the carrier for return to the Department of Transportation or the Federal Aviation Administration.


(6) Regional jet.—The term "regional jet" means a passenger, turbofan-powered aircraft with a certificated maximum passenger seating capacity of less than 71.

(7) Nonhub airport.—The term "nonhub airport" means an airport that had less than .05 percent of the total annual boardings in the United States as determined under the Federal Aviation Administration's Primary Airport Enplanement Activity Summary for Calendar Year 1997.

(8) Small hub airport.—The term "small hub airport" means an airport that had at least .05 percent, but less than .25 percent, of the total annual boardings in the United States as determined under the summary referred to in paragraph (7).

(9) Medium hub airport.—The term "medium hub airport" means an airport that each year has at least .25 percent, but less than 1.0 percent, of the total annual boardings in the United States as determined under the summary referred to in paragraph (7).


(i) 60-Day Application Process.—

(1) Request for slot exemptions.—Any slot exemption request filed with the Secretary under this section or section 41716 or 41717 (other than subsection (c)) shall include—

(A) the names of the airports to be served;

(B) the times requested; and

(C) such additional information as the Secretary may require.


(2) Action on request; failure to act.—Within 60 days after a slot exemption request under this section or section 41716 or 41717 (other than subsection (c)) is received by the Secretary, the Secretary shall—

(A) approve the request if the Secretary determines that the requirements of the section under which the request is made are met;

(B) return the request to the applicant for additional information relating to the request to provide air transportation; or

(C) deny the request and state the reasons for its denial.


(3) 60-day period tolled for timely request for more information.—If the Secretary returns under paragraph (2)(B) the request for additional information during the first 20 days after the request is filed, then the 60-day period under paragraph (2) shall be tolled until the date on which the additional information is filed with the Secretary.

(4) Failure to determine deemed approval.—If the Secretary neither approves the request under paragraph (2)(A) nor denies the request under paragraph (2)(C) within the 60-day period beginning on the date the request is received, excepting any days during which the 60-day period is tolled under paragraph (3), then the request is deemed to have been approved on the 61st day, after the request was filed with the Secretary.


(j) Exemptions May Not Be Transferred.—No exemption from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, granted under this section or section 41716, 41717, or 41718 may be bought, sold, leased, or otherwise transferred by the carrier to which it is granted, except through an air carrier merger or acquisition.

(k) Affiliated Carriers.—For purposes of this section and sections 41716, 41717, and 41718, an air carrier that operates under the same designator code, or has or enters into a code-share agreement, with any other air carrier shall not qualify for a new slot or slot exemption as a new entrant or limited incumbent air carrier at an airport if the total number of slots and slot exemptions held by the two carriers at the airport exceed 20 slots and slot exemptions.

(Added Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §206(a)(1), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1584; amended Pub. L. 104–287, §5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 105–66, title III, §345, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1449; Pub. L. 105–102, §2(24), Nov. 20, 1997, 111 Stat. 2205; Pub. L. 105–154, §2(a)(1)(C), (2), Feb. 6, 1998, 112 Stat. 3; Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(a), (d)(2)–(4), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 106, 112; Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §414(c), (d), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 92.)

Historical and Revision Notes

Pub. L. 105–102

This amends 49:41714(d)(1) to make a conforming cross-reference necessary because of the restatement of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986 (Public Law 99–500, 100 Stat. 1783–373, Public Law 99–591, 100 Stat. 3341–376) by section 2(26) of this Act as chapter 491 of title 49.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (h)(5)(A). Pub. L. 112–95, §414(c)(1), substituted "40" for "20".

Subsec. (h)(5)(B). Pub. L. 112–95, §414(c)(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "for purposes of such sections, the term 'slot' shall include 'slot exemptions'; and".

Subsec. (j). Pub. L. 112–95, §414(d), substituted ", except through an air carrier merger or acquisition." for period at end.

2000—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(d)(2), struck out before period at end "; except that the Secretary shall not be required to make slots available at O'Hare International Airport in Chicago, Illinois, if the number of slots available for basic essential air service (including slots specifically designated as essential air service slots and slots used for such purposes) to and from such airport is at least 132 slots".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(d)(3), inserted "at Chicago O'Hare International Airport" after "a slot" and struck out before period at end "if the withdrawal of that slot would result in the withdrawal of slots from an air carrier at O'Hare International Airport under section 93.223 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, in excess of the total withdrawn from that air carrier as of October 31, 1993".

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(d)(4), amended heading and text of par. (4) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "This subsection and exemptions issued under this subsection shall cease to be in effect when the final rules issued under subsection (f) become effective."

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(a)(4), reenacted subsec. heading and struck out "(1) In general.—" before "If the Secretary finds", "and the circumstances to be exceptional" before ", the Secretary may by", and par. (2) heading and text. Text of par. (2) read as follows: "Exemptions issued under this subsection shall cease to be in effect on or after the date on which the final rules issued under subsection (f) become effective."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(a)(5)(A), in introductory provisions, substituted "and sections 41715–41718 and 41734(h)" for "and section 41734(h)".

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(a)(5)(B), struck out "as defined in subpart S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations" before period at end.

Subsec. (h)(5) to (9). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(a)(5)(C), added pars. (5) to (9).

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(a)(1), amended heading and text of subsec. (i) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Within 120 days after receiving an application for an exemption under subsection (a)(2) to improve air service between a nonhub airport (as defined in section 41731(a)(4)) and a high density airport subject to the exemption authority under subsection (a), the Secretary shall grant or deny the exemption. The Secretary shall notify the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the grant or denial within 14 calendar days after the determination and state the reasons for the determination."

Subsecs. (j), (k). Pub. L. 106–181, §231(a)(2), (3), added subsecs. (j) and (k).

1998—Subsecs. (a)(1), (b)(1), (c)(1), (d). Pub. L. 105–154 substituted "Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport" for "Washington National Airport" wherever appearing in text and in subsec. (d) heading.

1997—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 105–102 substituted "sections 49104(a)(5) and 49111(e) of this title" for "sections 6005(c)(5) and 6009(e) of the Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986".

Subsec. (i). Pub. L. 105–66 added subsec. (i).

1996—Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Return of Withdrawn Slots

Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(d)(5), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 112, provided that: "The Secretary [of Transportation] shall return any slot withdrawn from an air carrier under section 41714(b) of title 49, United States Code, before the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], to that carrier on April 30, 2000."

§41715. Phase-out of slot rules at certain airports

(a) Termination.—The rules contained in subparts S and K of part 93, title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, shall not apply—

(1) after July 1, 2002, at Chicago O'Hare International Airport; and

(2) after January 1, 2007, at LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport.


(b) Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section and sections 41714 and 41716–41718 shall be construed—

(1) as affecting the Federal Aviation Administration's authority for safety and the movement of air traffic; and

(2) as affecting any other authority of the Secretary to grant exemptions under section 41714.


(c) Factors To Consider.—

(1) In general.—Before the award of slot exemptions under sections 41714 and 41716–41718, the Secretary of Transportation may consider, among other determining factors, whether the petitioning air carrier's proposal provides the maximum benefit to the United States economy, including the number of United States jobs created by the air carrier, its suppliers, and related activities. The Secretary should give equal consideration to the consumer benefits associated with the award of such exemptions.

(2) Applicability.—Paragraph (1) does not apply in any case in which the air carrier requesting the slot exemption is proposing to use under the exemption a type of aircraft for which there is not a competing United States manufacturer.

(Added Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(b)(2), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 108.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 41715 was renumbered section 41719 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendments note under section 106 of this title.

§41716. Interim slot rules at New York airports

(a) Exemptions for Air Service to Small and Nonhub Airports.—Subject to section 41714(i), the Secretary of Transportation shall grant, by order, exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports) to any air carrier to provide nonstop air transportation, using an aircraft with a certificated maximum seating capacity of less than 71, between LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport and a small hub airport or nonhub airport—

(1) if the air carrier was not providing such air transportation during the week of November 1, 1999;

(2) if the number of flights to be provided between such airports by the air carrier during any week will exceed the number of flights provided by the air carrier between such airports during the week of November 1, 1999; or

(3) if the air transportation to be provided under the exemption will be provided with a regional jet as replacement of turboprop air transportation that was being provided during the week of November 1, 1999.


(b) Exemptions for New Entrant and Limited Incumbent Air Carriers.—Subject to section 41714(i), the Secretary shall grant, by order, exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to any new entrant air carrier or limited incumbent air carrier to provide air transportation to or from LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport if the number of slot exemptions granted under this subsection to such air carrier with respect to such airport when added to the slots and slot exemptions held by such air carrier with respect to such airport does not exceed 20; except that the Secretary may grant not to exceed 4 additional slot exemptions at LaGuardia Airport to an incumbent air carrier operating at least 20 but not more than 28 slots at such airport as of October 1, 2004, to provide air transportation between LaGuardia Airport and a small hub airport or nonhub airport.

(c) Stage 3 Aircraft Required.—An exemption may not be granted under this section with respect to any aircraft that is not a Stage 3 aircraft (as defined by the Secretary).

(d) Preservation of Certain Existing Slot-Related Air Service.—An air carrier that provides air transportation of passengers from LaGuardia Airport or John F. Kennedy International Airport to a small hub airport or nonhub airport, or to an airport that is smaller than a nonhub airport, on or before the date of the enactment of this subsection pursuant to an exemption from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), or where slots were issued to an air carrier conditioned on a specific airport being served, may not terminate air transportation for that route before July 1, 2003, unless—

(1) before October 1, 1999, the Secretary received a written air service termination notice for that route; or

(2) after September 30, 1999, the air carrier submits an air service termination notice under section 41719 for that route and the Secretary determines that the carrier suffered excessive losses, including substantial losses on operations on that route during any three quarters of the year immediately preceding the date of submission of the notice.

(Added Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(c), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 109; amended Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title I, §199, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3235.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (d), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 41716 was renumbered section 41720 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–447 inserted before period at end "; except that the Secretary may grant not to exceed 4 additional slot exemptions at LaGuardia Airport to an incumbent air carrier operating at least 20 but not more than 28 slots at such airport as of October 1, 2004, to provide air transportation between LaGuardia Airport and a small hub airport or nonhub airport".

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendments note under section 106 of this title.

§41717. Interim application of slot rules at Chicago O'Hare International Airport

(a) Slot Operating Window Narrowed.—Effective July 1, 2001, the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, do not apply with respect to aircraft operating before 2:45 post meridiem and after 8:14 post meridiem at Chicago O'Hare International Airport.

(b) Exemptions for Air Service to Small and Nonhub Airports.—Effective May 1, 2000, subject to section 41714(i), the Secretary of Transportation shall grant, by order, exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), to any air carrier to provide nonstop air transportation, using an aircraft with a certificated maximum seating capacity of less than 71, between Chicago O'Hare International Airport and a small hub or nonhub airport—

(1) if the air carrier was not providing such air transportation during the week of November 1, 1999;

(2) if the number of flights to be provided between such airports by the air carrier during any week will exceed the number of flights provided by the air carrier between such airports during the week of November 1, 1999; or

(3) if the air transportation to be provided under the exemption will be provided with a regional jet as replacement of turboprop air transportation that was being provided during the week of November 1, 1999.


(c) Exemptions for New Entrant and Limited Incumbent Air Carriers.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary shall grant, by order, 30 exemptions from the requirements under subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to any new entrant air carrier or limited incumbent air carrier to provide air transportation to or from Chicago O'Hare International Airport.

(2) Deadline for granting exemptions.—The Secretary shall grant an exemption under paragraph (1) within 45 days of the date of the request for such exemption if the person making the request qualifies as a new entrant air carrier or limited incumbent air carrier.


(d) Slots Used To Provide Turboprop Service.—

(1) In general.—Except as provided in paragraph (2), a slot used to provide turboprop air transportation that is replaced with regional jet air transportation under subsection (b)(3) may not be used, sold, leased, or otherwise transferred after the date the slot exemption is granted to replace the turboprop air transportation.

(2) Two-for-one exception.—An air carrier that otherwise could not use 2 slots as a result of paragraph (1) may use 1 of such slots to provide air transportation.

(3) Withdrawal of slot.—If the Secretary determines that an air carrier that is using a slot under paragraph (2) is no longer providing the air transportation that replaced the turboprop air transportation, the Secretary shall withdraw the slot that is being used under paragraph (2).

(4) Continuation.—If the Secretary determines that an air carrier that is using a slot under paragraph (2) is no longer providing the air transportation that replaced the turboprop air transportation with a regional jet, the Secretary shall withdraw the slot being used by the air carrier under paragraph (2) but shall allow the air carrier to continue to hold the exemption granted to the air carrier under subsection (b)(3).


(e) International Service at O'Hare Airport.—

(1) Termination of requirements.—Subject to paragraph (2), the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, shall be of no force and effect at Chicago O'Hare International Airport after May 1, 2000, with respect to any aircraft providing foreign air transportation.

(2) Exception relating to reciprocity.—The Secretary may limit access to Chicago O'Hare International Airport with respect to foreign air transportation being provided by a foreign air carrier domiciled in a country to which an air carrier provides nonstop air transportation from the United States if the country in which that carrier is domiciled does not provide reciprocal airport access for air carriers.


(f) Stage 3 Aircraft Required.—An exemption may not be granted under this section with respect to any aircraft that is not a Stage 3 aircraft (as defined by the Secretary).

(g) Preservation of Certain Existing Slot-Related Air Service.—An air carrier that provides air transportation of passengers from Chicago O'Hare International Airport to a small hub airport or nonhub airport, or to an airport that is smaller than a nonhub airport, on or before the date of the enactment of this subsection pursuant to an exemption from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (pertaining to slots at high density airports), or where slots were issued to an air carrier conditioned on a specific airport being served, may not terminate air transportation service for that route for a period of 1 year after the date on which those requirements cease to apply to such airport unless—

(1) before October 1, 1999, the Secretary received a written air service termination notice for that route; or

(2) after September 30, 1999, the air carrier submits an air service termination notice under section 41719 for that route and the Secretary determines that the carrier suffered excessive losses, including substantial losses on operations on that route during the calendar quarters immediately preceding submission of the notice.

(Added Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(d)(1), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 110.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this subsection, referred to in subsec. (g), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendments note under section 106 of this title.

§41718. Special rules for Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

(a) Beyond-Perimeter Exemptions.—The Secretary shall grant, by order, 24 exemptions from the application of sections 49104(a)(5), 49109, 49111(e), and 41714 of this title to air carriers to operate limited frequencies and aircraft on select routes between Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and domestic hub airports and exemptions from the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93, Code of Federal Regulations, if the Secretary finds that the exemptions will—

(1) provide air transportation with domestic network benefits in areas beyond the perimeter described in that section;

(2) increase competition by new entrant air carriers or in multiple markets;

(3) not reduce travel options for communities served by small hub airports and medium hub airports within the perimeter described in section 49109; and

(4) not result in meaningfully increased travel delays.


(b) Within-Perimeter Exemptions.—The Secretary shall grant, by order, 20 exemptions from the requirements of sections 49104(a)(5), 49111(e), and 41714 of this title and subparts K and S of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to air carriers for providing air transportation to airports within the perimeter established for civil aircraft operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport under section 49109. The Secretary shall develop criteria for distributing slot exemptions for flights within the perimeter to such airports under this paragraph in a manner that promotes air transportation—

(1) by new entrant air carriers and limited incumbent air carriers;

(2) to communities without existing nonstop air transportation to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport;

(3) to small communities;

(4) that will provide competitive nonstop air transportation on a monopoly nonstop route to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport; or

(5) that will produce the maximum competitive benefits, including low fares.


(c) Limitations.—

(1) Stage 3 aircraft required.—An exemption may not be granted under this section with respect to any aircraft that is not a Stage 3 aircraft (as defined by the Secretary).

(2) General exemptions.—

(A) Hourly limitation.—The exemptions granted—

(i) under subsections (a) and (b) and departures authorized under subsection (g)(2) may not be for operations between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m.; and

(ii) under subsections (a), (b), and (g) may not increase the number of operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in any 1-hour period during the hours between 7:00 a.m. and 9:59 p.m. by more than 5 operations.


(B) Use of existing slots.—A non-limited incumbent air carrier utilizing an exemption authorized under subsection (g)(3) for an arrival permitted between the hours of 10:01 p.m. and 11:00 p.m. under this section shall discontinue use of an existing slot during the same time period the arrival exemption is operated.


(3) Allocation of within-perimeter exemptions.—Of the exemptions granted under subsection (b)—

(A) without regard to the criteria contained in subsection (b)(1), six shall be for air transportation to small hub airports and nonhub airports;

(B) ten shall be for air transportation to medium hub and smaller airports; and

(C) four shall be for air transportation to airports without regard to their size.


(4) Applicability to exemption no. 5133.—Nothing in this section affects Exemption No. 5133, as from time-to-time amended and extended.


(d) Application Procedures.—The Secretary shall establish procedures to ensure that all requests for exemptions under this section are granted or denied within 90 days after the date on which the request is made.

(e) Applicability of Certain Laws.—Neither the request for, nor the granting of an exemption, under this section shall be considered for purposes of any Federal law a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment.

(f) Commuters Defined.—For purposes of aircraft operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport under subpart K of part 93 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, the term "commuters" means aircraft operations using aircraft having a certificated maximum seating capacity of 76 or less.

(g) Additional Slot Exemptions.—

(1) Increase in slot exemptions.—Not later than 90 days after the date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, the Secretary shall grant, by order 16 exemptions from—

(A) the application of sections 49104(a)(5), 49109, and 41714 to air carriers to operate limited frequencies and aircraft on routes between Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and airports located beyond the perimeter described in section 49109; and

(B) the requirements of subparts K and S of part 93, Code of Federal Regulations.


(2) New entrants and limited incumbents.—Of the slot exemptions made available under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall make 8 available to limited incumbent air carriers or new entrant air carriers (as such terms are defined in section 41714(h)). Such exemptions shall be allocated pursuant to the application process established by the Secretary under subsection (d). The Secretary shall consider the extent to which the exemptions will—

(A) provide air transportation with domestic network benefits in areas beyond the perimeter described in section 49109;

(B) increase competition in multiple markets;

(C) not reduce travel options for communities served by small hub airports and medium hub airports within the perimeter described in section 49109;

(D) not result in meaningfully increased travel delays;

(E) enhance options for nonstop travel to and from the beyond-perimeter airports that will be served as a result of those exemptions;

(F) have a positive impact on the overall level of competition in the markets that will be served as a result of those exemptions; or

(G) produce public benefits, including the likelihood that the service to airports located beyond the perimeter described in section 49109 will result in lower fares, higher capacity, and a variety of service options.


(3) Improved network slots.—Of the slot exemptions made available under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall make 8 available to incumbent air carriers qualifying for status as a non-limited incumbent carrier at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport as of the date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012. Each such non-limited incumbent air carrier—

(A) may operate up to a maximum of 2 of the newly authorized slot exemptions;

(B) prior to exercising an exemption made available under paragraph (1), shall discontinue the use of a slot for service between Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and a large hub airport within the perimeter as described in section 49109, and operate, in place of such service, service between Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport and an airport located beyond the perimeter described in section 49109;

(C) shall be entitled to return of the slot by the Secretary if use of the exemption made available to the carrier under paragraph (1) is discontinued;

(D) shall have sole discretion concerning the use of an exemption made available under paragraph (1), including the initial or any subsequent beyond perimeter destinations to be served; and

(E) shall file a notice of intent with the Secretary and subsequent notices of intent, when appropriate, to inform the Secretary of any change in circumstances concerning the use of any exemption made available under paragraph (1).


(4) Notices of intent.—Notices of intent under paragraph (3)(E) shall specify the beyond perimeter destination to be served and the slots the carrier shall discontinue using to serve a large hub airport located within the perimeter.

(5) Conditions.—Beyond-perimeter flight operations carried out by an air carrier using an exemption granted under this subsection shall be subject to the following conditions:

(A) An air carrier may not operate a multi-aisle or widebody aircraft in conducting such operations.

(B) An air carrier granted an exemption under this subsection is prohibited from transferring the rights to its beyond-perimeter exemptions pursuant to section 41714(j).


(h) Scheduling Priority.—In administering this section, the Secretary shall—

(1) afford a scheduling priority to operations conducted by new entrant air carriers and limited incumbent air carriers over operations conducted by other air carriers granted additional slot exemptions under subsection (g) for service to airports located beyond the perimeter described in section 49109;

(2) afford a scheduling priority to slot exemptions currently held by new entrant air carriers and limited incumbent air carriers for service to airports located beyond the perimeter described in section 49109, to the extent necessary to protect viability of such service; and

(3) consider applications from foreign air carriers that are certificated by the government of Canada if such consideration is required by the bilateral aviation agreement between the United States and Canada and so long as the conditions and limitations under this section apply to such foreign air carriers.

(Added Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(e)(1), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 112; amended Pub. L. 108–176, title IV, §§425, 426(a), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2555; Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §414(a), (b), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 90, 92.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, referred to in subsec. (g)(1), (3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–95, which was approved Feb. 14, 2012.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 112–95, §414(b), amended par. (2) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The exemptions granted under subsections (a) and (b) may not be for operations between the hours of 10:00 p.m. and 7:00 a.m. and may not increase the number of operations at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport in any 1-hour period during the hours between 7:00 a.m. and 9:59 p.m. by more than 3 operations."

Subsecs. (g), (h). Pub. L. 112–95, §414(a), added subsecs. (g) and (h).

2003—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–176, §425(a), substituted "24 exemptions" for "12 exemptions" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–176, §425(b), in introductory provisions, substituted "20 exemptions" for "12 exemptions" and struck out "that were designated as medium hub or smaller airports" before "within the perimeter established".

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 108–176, §425(c)(1), substituted "3 operations" for "two operations".

Subsec. (c)(3)(A). Pub. L. 108–176, §425(c)(2)(A), substituted "without regard to the criteria contained in subsection (b)(1), six" for "four" and struck out "and" at end.

Subsec. (c)(3)(B). Pub. L. 108–176, §425(c)(2)(B), substituted "ten" for "eight" and "; and" for period at end.

Subsec. (c)(3)(C). Pub. L. 108–176, §425(c)(2)(C), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–176, §425(d), amended heading and text of subsec. (d) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows:

"(1) Deadline for submission.—All requests for exemptions under this section must be submitted to the Secretary not later than the 30th day following the date of the enactment of this subsection.

"(2) Deadline for comments.—All comments with respect to any request for an exemption under this section must be submitted to the Secretary not later than the 45th day following the date of the enactment of this subsection.

"(3) Deadline for final decision.—Not later than the 90th day following the date of the enactment of this Act, the Secretary shall make a decision regarding whether to approve or deny any request that is submitted to the Secretary in accordance with paragraph (1)."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–176, §426(a), added subsec. (f).

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendments note under section 106 of this title.

Regulations

Pub. L. 108–176, title IV, §426(b), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2556, provided that: "The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall revise regulations to take into account the amendment made by subsection (a) [amending this section]."

General Aviation Flights at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport

Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §823, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2595, provided that:

"(a) Security Plan.—The Secretary of Homeland Security shall develop and implement a security plan to permit general aviation aircraft to land and take off at Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport.

"(b) Landings and Takeoffs.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall allow general aviation aircraft that comply with the requirements of the security plan to land and take off at the Airport except during any period that the President suspends the plan developed under subsection (a) due to national security concerns.

"(c) Report.—If the President suspends the security plan developed under subsection (a), the President shall submit to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure a report on the reasons for the suspension not later than 30 days following the first day of the suspension. The report may be submitted in classified form."

§41719. Air service termination notice

(a) In General.—An air carrier may not terminate interstate air transportation from a nonhub airport included on the Secretary of Transportation's latest published list of such airports, unless such air carrier has given the Secretary at least 45 days' notice before such termination.

(b) Exceptions.—The requirements of subsection (a) shall not apply when—

(1) the carrier involved is experiencing a sudden or unforeseen financial emergency, including natural weather related emergencies, equipment-related emergencies, and strikes;

(2) the termination of transportation is made for seasonal purposes only;

(3) the carrier involved has operated at the affected nonhub airport for 180 days or less;

(4) the carrier involved provides other transportation by jet from another airport serving the same community as the affected nonhub airport; or

(5) the carrier involved makes alternative arrangements, such as a change of aircraft size, or other types of arrangements with a part 121 or part 135 air carrier, that continues uninterrupted service from the affected nonhub airport.


(c) Waivers for Regional/Commuter Carriers.—Before January 1, 1995, the Secretary shall establish terms and conditions under which regional/commuter carriers can be excluded from the termination notice requirement.

(d) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Part 121 air carrier.—The term "part 121 air carrier" means an air carrier to which part 121 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, applies.

(2) Part 135 air carrier.—The term "part 135 air carrier" means an air carrier to which part 135 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, applies.

(3) Regional/commuter carriers.—The term "regional/commuter carrier" means—

(A) a part 135 air carrier; or

(B) a part 121 air carrier that provides air transportation exclusively with aircraft having a seating capacity of no more than 70 passengers.


(4) Termination.—The term "termination" means the cessation of all service at an airport by an air carrier.

(Added Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §207(a), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1587, §41715; amended Pub. L. 103–429, §6(53), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4385; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(73), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396; renumbered §41719, Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(b)(1), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 108; Pub. L. 108–176, title II, §225(b)(1), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2528.)

Historical and Revision Notes

This amends 49:41715(a) to conform to the style of title 49.

Amendments

2003—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 108–176 redesignated pars. (2) to (5) as (1) to (4), respectively, and struck out former par. (1) which defined "nonhub airport".

2000Pub. L. 106–181 renumbered section 41715 of this title as this section.

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Secretary of Transportation's" for "Secretary's".

1994—Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 103–429 substituted "41731(a)(4)" for "41731(a)(3)".

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 103–305, title II, §207(d), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1588, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [enacting this section and amending section 46301 of this title] shall take effect on February 1, 1995."

§41720. Joint venture agreements

(a) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Joint venture agreement.—The term "joint venture agreement" means an agreement between two or more major air carriers on or after January 1, 1998, with regard to (A) code-sharing, blocked-space arrangements, long-term wet leases (as defined in section 207.1 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations) of a substantial number (as defined by the Secretary by regulation) of aircraft, or frequent flyer programs, or (B) any other cooperative working arrangement (as defined by the Secretary by regulation) between 2 or more major air carriers that affects more than 15 percent of the total number of available seat miles offered by the major air carriers.

(2) Major air carrier.—The term "major air carrier" means a passenger air carrier that is certificated under chapter 411 of this title and included in Carrier Group III under criteria contained in section 04 of part 241 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.


(b) Submission of Joint Venture Agreement.—At least 30 days before a joint venture agreement may take effect, each of the major air carriers that entered into the agreement shall submit to the Secretary—

(1) a complete copy of the joint venture agreement and all related agreements; and

(2) other information and documentary material that the Secretary may require by regulation.


(c) Extension of Waiting Period.—

(1) In general.—The Secretary may extend the 30-day period referred to in subsection (b) until—

(A) in the case of a joint venture agreement with regard to code-sharing, the 150th day following the last day of such period; and

(B) in the case of any other joint venture agreement, the 60th day following the last day of such period.


(2) Publication of reasons for extension.—If the Secretary extends the 30-day period referred to in subsection (b), the Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register the Secretary's reasons for making the extension.


(d) Termination of Waiting Period.—At any time after the date of submission of a joint venture agreement under subsection (b), the Secretary may terminate the waiting periods referred to in subsections (b) and (c) with respect to the agreement.

(e) Regulations.—The effectiveness of a joint venture agreement may not be delayed due to any failure of the Secretary to issue regulations to carry out this section.

(f) Memorandum To Prevent Duplicative Reviews.—Promptly after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall consult with the Assistant Attorney General of the Antitrust Division of the Department of Justice in order to establish, through a written memorandum of understanding, preclearance procedures to prevent unnecessary duplication of effort by the Secretary and the Assistant Attorney General under this section and the antitrust laws of the United States, respectively.

(g) Prior Agreements.—With respect to a joint venture agreement entered into before the date of enactment of this section as to which the Secretary finds that—

(1) the parties submitted the agreement to the Secretary before such date of enactment; and

(2) the parties submitted all information on the agreement requested by the Secretary,


the waiting period described in paragraphs (2) and (3) shall begin on the date, as determined by the Secretary, on which all such information was submitted and end on the last day to which the period could be extended under this section.

(h) Limitation on Statutory Construction.—The authority granted to the Secretary under this section shall not in any way limit the authority of the Attorney General to enforce the antitrust laws as defined in the first section of the Clayton Act (15 U.S.C. 12).

(Added Pub. L. 105–277, div. C, title I, §110(f)(1), Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–588, §41716; renumbered §41720 and amended Pub. L. 106–181, title II, §231(b)(1), title VII, §709, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 108, 159.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsecs. (f) and (g), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 105–277, which was approved Oct. 21, 1998.

Codification

Pub. L. 105–277, §110(f)(1), which directed amendment of subchapter I of chapter 417 by adding this section at the end, without specifying a Code title or Act, was executed by adding this section at the end of this subchapter to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

2000Pub. L. 106–181, §231(b)(1), renumbered section 41716 of this title as this section.

Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 106–181, §709, substituted "an agreement between two or more major air carriers" for "an agreement entered into by a major air carrier".

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§41721. Reports by carriers on incidents involving animals during air transport

(a) In General.—An air carrier that provides scheduled passenger air transportation shall submit monthly to the Secretary a report on any incidents involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal (as defined by the Secretary of Transportation) during air transport provided by the air carrier. The report shall be in such form and contain such information as the Secretary determines appropriate.

(b) Training of Air Carrier Employees.—The Secretary shall work with air carriers to improve the training of employees with respect to the air transport of animals and the notification of passengers of the conditions under which the air transport of animals is conducted.

(c) Sharing of Information.—The Secretary and the Secretary of Agriculture shall enter into a memorandum of understanding to ensure the sharing of information that the Secretary receives under subsection (a).

(d) Publication of Data.—The Secretary shall publish data on incidents and complaints involving the loss, injury, or death of an animal during air transport in a manner comparable to other consumer complaint and incident data.

(e) Air Transport.—For purposes of this section, the air transport of an animal includes the entire period during which an animal is in the custody of an air carrier, from check-in of the animal prior to departure until the animal is returned to the owner or guardian of the animal at the final destination of the animal.

(Added Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §710(a), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 159.)

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendments note under section 106 of this title.

§41722. Delay reduction actions

(a) Scheduling Reduction Meetings.—The Secretary of Transportation may request that air carriers meet with the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to discuss flight reductions at severely congested airports to reduce overscheduling and flight delays during hours of peak operation if—

(1) the Administrator determines that it is necessary to convene such a meeting; and

(2) the Secretary determines that the meeting is necessary to meet a serious transportation need or achieve an important public benefit.


(b) Meeting Conditions.—Any meeting under subsection (a)—

(1) shall be chaired by the Administrator;

(2) shall be open to all scheduled air carriers; and

(3) shall be limited to discussions involving the airports and time periods described in the Administrator's determination.


(c) Flight Reduction Targets.—Before any such meeting is held, the Administrator shall establish flight reduction targets for the meeting and notify the attending air carriers of those targets not less than 48 hours before the meeting.

(d) Delay Reduction Offers.—An air carrier attending the meeting shall make any offer to meet a flight reduction target to the Administrator rather than to another carrier.

(e) Transcript.—The Administrator shall ensure that a transcript of the meeting is kept and made available to the public not later than 3 business days after the conclusion of the meeting.

(Added Pub. L. 108–176, title IV, §422(a), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2552.)

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as an Effective Date of 2003 Amendment note under section 106 of this title.

Schedule Reduction

Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §413, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 89, provided that:

"(a) In General.—If the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration determines that—

"(1) the aircraft operations of air carriers during any hour at an airport exceed the hourly maximum departure and arrival rate established by the Administrator for such operations; and

"(2) the operations in excess of the maximum departure and arrival rate for such hour at such airport are likely to have a significant adverse effect on the safe and efficient use of navigable airspace,

the Administrator shall convene a meeting of such carriers to reduce pursuant to section 41722 of title 49, United States Code, on a voluntary basis, the number of such operations so as not to exceed the maximum departure and arrival rate.

"(b) No Agreement.—If the air carriers participating in a meeting with respect to an airport under subsection (a) are not able to agree to a reduction in the number of flights to and from the airport so as not to exceed the maximum departure and arrival rate, the Administrator shall take such action as is necessary to ensure such reduction is implemented.

"(c) Subsequent Schedule Increases.—Subsequent to any reduction in operations under subsection (a) or (b) at an airport, if the Administrator determines that the hourly number of aircraft operations at that airport is less than the amount that can be handled safely and efficiently, the Administrator shall ensure that priority is given to United States air carriers in permitting additional aircraft operations with respect to that hour."

§41723. Notice concerning aircraft assembly

The Secretary of Transportation shall require, beginning after the last day of the 18-month period following the date of enactment of this section, an air carrier using an aircraft to provide scheduled passenger air transportation to display a notice, on an information placard available to each passenger on the aircraft, that informs the passengers of the nation in which the aircraft was finally assembled.

(Added Pub. L. 108–176, title VIII, §810(a), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2590.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in text, is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 108–176, which was approved Dec. 12, 2003.

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as an Effective Date of 2003 Amendment note under section 106 of this title.

§41724. Musical instruments

(a) In General.—

(1) Small instruments as carry-on baggage.—An air carrier providing air transportation shall permit a passenger to carry a violin, guitar, or other musical instrument in the aircraft cabin, without charging the passenger a fee in addition to any standard fee that carrier may require for comparable carry-on baggage, if—

(A) the instrument can be stowed safely in a suitable baggage compartment in the aircraft cabin or under a passenger seat, in accordance with the requirements for carriage of carry-on baggage or cargo established by the Administrator; and

(B) there is space for such stowage at the time the passenger boards the aircraft.


(2) Larger instruments as carry-on baggage.—An air carrier providing air transportation shall permit a passenger to carry a musical instrument that is too large to meet the requirements of paragraph (1) in the aircraft cabin, without charging the passenger a fee in addition to the cost of the additional ticket described in subparagraph (E), if—

(A) the instrument is contained in a case or covered so as to avoid injury to other passengers;

(B) the weight of the instrument, including the case or covering, does not exceed 165 pounds or the applicable weight restrictions for the aircraft;

(C) the instrument can be stowed in accordance with the requirements for carriage of carry-on baggage or cargo established by the Administrator;

(D) neither the instrument nor the case contains any object not otherwise permitted to be carried in an aircraft cabin because of a law or regulation of the United States; and

(E) the passenger wishing to carry the instrument in the aircraft cabin has purchased an additional seat to accommodate the instrument.


(3) Large instruments as checked baggage.—An air carrier shall transport as baggage a musical instrument that is the property of a passenger traveling in air transportation that may not be carried in the aircraft cabin if—

(A) the sum of the length, width, and height measured in inches of the outside linear dimensions of the instrument (including the case) does not exceed 150 inches or the applicable size restrictions for the aircraft;

(B) the weight of the instrument does not exceed 165 pounds or the applicable weight restrictions for the aircraft; and

(C) the instrument can be stowed in accordance with the requirements for carriage of carry-on baggage or cargo established by the Administrator.


(b) Regulations.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of this section, the Secretary shall issue final regulations to carry out subsection (a).

(c) Effective Date.—The requirements of this section shall become effective on the date of issuance of the final regulations under subsection (b).

(Added Pub. L. 112–95, title IV, §403(a), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 84.)

References in Text

The date of enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (b), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–95, which was approved Feb. 14, 2012.

Final regulations, referred to in subsecs. (b) and (c), were issued Dec. 29, 2014, effective Mar. 6, 2015. See 80 F.R. 161.

§41725. Prohibition on certain cell phone voice communications

(a) Prohibition.—The Secretary of Transportation shall issue regulations—

(1) to prohibit an individual on an aircraft from engaging in voice communications using a mobile communications device during a flight of that aircraft in scheduled passenger interstate or intrastate air transportation; and

(2) that exempt from the prohibition described in paragraph (1) any—

(A) member of the flight crew on duty on an aircraft;

(B) flight attendant on duty on an aircraft; and

(C) Federal law enforcement officer acting in an official capacity.


(b) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Flight.—The term "flight" means, with respect to an aircraft, the period beginning when the aircraft takes off and ending when the aircraft lands.

(2) Mobile communications device.—

(A) In general.—The term "mobile communications device" means any portable wireless telecommunications equipment utilized for the transmission or reception of voice data.

(B) Limitation.—The term "mobile communications device" does not include a phone installed on an aircraft.

(Added Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §403(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3328.)

§41726. Strollers

(a) In General.—Except as provided in subsection (b), a covered air carrier shall not deny a passenger the ability to check a stroller at the departure gate if the stroller is being used by a passenger to transport a child traveling on the same flight as the passenger.

(b) Exception.—Subsection (a) shall not apply in instances where the size or weight of the stroller poses a safety or security risk.

(c) Covered Air Carrier Defined.—In this section, the term "covered air carrier" means an air carrier or a foreign air carrier as those terms are defined in section 40102 of title 49, United States Code.

(Added Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title IV, §412(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3331.)