[USC02] 49 USC Ch. 445: FACILITIES, PERSONNEL, AND RESEARCH
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49 USC Ch. 445: FACILITIES, PERSONNEL, AND RESEARCH
From Title 49—TRANSPORTATIONSUBTITLE VII—AVIATION PROGRAMSPART A—AIR COMMERCE AND SAFETYsubpart iii—safety

CHAPTER 445—FACILITIES, PERSONNEL, AND RESEARCH

Sec.
44501.
Plans and policy.
44502.
General facilities and personnel authority.
44503.
Reducing nonessential expenditures.
44504.
Improved aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances.
44505.
Systems, procedures, facilities, and devices.
44506.
Air traffic controllers.
44507.
Regions and centers.
44508.
Research advisory committee.
44509.
Demonstration projects.
44510.
Airway science curriculum grants.
44511.
Aviation research grants.
44512.
Catastrophic failure prevention research grants.
44513.
Regional centers of air transportation excellence.
44514.
Flight service stations.
44515.
Advanced training facilities for maintenance technicians for air carrier aircraft.
44516.
Human factors program.
44517.
Program to permit cost sharing of air traffic modernization projects.
44518.
Advanced Materials Center of Excellence.

        

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title V, §524(b), title VII, §762(b), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3364, 3428, substituted "Regions and centers" for "Civil aeromedical research" in item 44507 and added item 44518.

2003Pub. L. 108–176, title I, §183(b), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2517, added item 44517.

2000Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §713(c), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 161, added item 44516.

§44501. Plans and policy

(a) Long Range Plans and Policy Requirements.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall make long range plans and policy for the orderly development and use of the navigable airspace, and the orderly development and location of air navigation facilities, that will best meet the needs of, and serve the interests of, civil aeronautics and the national defense, except for needs of the armed forces that are peculiar to air warfare and primarily of military concern.

(b) Airway Capital Investment Plan.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall review, revise, and publish a national airways system plan, known as the Airway Capital Investment Plan, before the beginning of each fiscal year. The plan shall set forth—

(1) for a 10-year period, the research, engineering, and development programs and the facilities and equipment that the Administrator considers necessary for a system of airways, air traffic services, and navigation aids that will—

(A) meet the forecasted needs of civil aeronautics;

(B) meet the requirements that the Secretary of Defense establishes for the support of the national defense; and

(C) provide the highest degree of safety in air commerce;


(2) for the first and 2d years of the plan, detailed annual estimates of—

(A) the number, type, location, and cost of acquiring, operating, and maintaining required facilities and services;

(B) the cost of research, engineering, and development required to improve safety, system capacity, and efficiency; and

(C) personnel levels required for the activities described in subclauses (A) and (B) of this clause;


(3) for the 3d, 4th, and 5th years of the plan, estimates of the total cost of each major program for the 3-year period, and additional major research programs, acquisition of systems and facilities, and changes in personnel levels that may be required to meet long range objectives and that may have significant impact on future funding requirements;

(4) a 10-year investment plan that considers long range objectives that the Administrator considers necessary to—

(A) ensure that safety is given the highest priority in providing for a safe and efficient airway system; and

(B) meet the current and projected growth of aviation and the requirements of interstate commerce, the United States Postal Service, and the national defense; and


(5) a list of capital projects that are part of the Next Generation Air Transportation System and funded by amounts appropriated under section 48101(a).


(c) National Aviation Research Plan.—(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall prepare and publish annually a national aviation research plan and submit the plan to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives. The plan shall be submitted not later than the date of submission of the President's budget to Congress.

(2)(A) The plan shall describe, for a 5-year period, the research, engineering, and development that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration considers necessary—

(i) to ensure the continued capacity, safety, and efficiency of aviation in the United States, considering emerging technologies and forecasted needs of civil aeronautics; and

(ii) to provide the highest degree of safety in air travel.


(B) The plan shall—

(i) provide estimates by year of the schedule, cost, and work force levels for each active and planned major research and development project under sections 40119,1 44504, 44505, 44507, 44509, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title, including activities carried out under cooperative agreements with other Federal departments and agencies;

(ii) specify the goals and the priorities for allocation of resources among the major categories of research and development activities, including the rationale for the priorities identified;

(iii) identify the allocation of resources among long-term research, near-term research, and development activities;

(iv) identify the individual research and development projects in each funding category that are described in the annual budget request;

(v) highlight the research and development activities that address specific recommendations of the research advisory committee established under section 44508 of this title, and document the recommendations of the committee that are not accepted, specifying the reasons for nonacceptance; and

(vi) highlight the research and development technology transfer activities that promote technology sharing among government, industry, and academia through the Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980.


(3) Subject to section 40119(b) 1 of this title and regulations prescribed under section 40119(b),1 the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall submit to the committees named in paragraph (1) of this subsection an annual report on the accomplishments of the research completed during the prior fiscal year, including a description of the dissemination to the private sector of research results and a description of any new technologies developed. The report shall be submitted with the plan required under paragraph (1) and be organized to allow comparison with the plan in effect for the prior fiscal year. The report shall be prepared in accordance with requirements of section 1116 of title 31.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1173; Pub. L. 104–264, title XI, §1105, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(74), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 106–181, title IX, §902(a), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 195; Pub. L. 112–95, title I, §105, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 17.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44501(a) 49 App.:1353(a). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §312(a), 72 Stat. 752.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
44501(b) 49 App.:2203(b). Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §504(b), 96 Stat. 675; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9105(a), 104 Stat. 1388–355; Oct. 31, 1992, Pub. L. 102–581, §114, 106 Stat. 4881.
44501(c) 49 App.:1353(d). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(d); added Nov. 3, 1988, Pub. L. 100–591, §4(a), 102 Stat. 3011.

In subsection (a), the word "Administrator" in section 312(a) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 752) is retained on authority of 49:106(g). The words "air navigation facilities" are substituted for "landing areas, Federal airways, radar installations and all other aids and facilities for air navigation" because of the definition of "air navigation facility" in section 40102(a) of the revised title. The words "the armed forces" are substituted for "military agencies" because of 10:101.

In subsection (b), before clause (1), the words "the requirements of" are omitted as surplus. The text of 49 App.:2203(b) (1st sentence) is omitted as executed. The words "thereafter" and "For fiscal year 1991 and thereafter" are omitted as obsolete. In clauses (2)(C) and (3), the word "personnel" is substituted for "manpower" for consistency in the revised title. In clause (2)(C), the word "all" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (c), before clause (1), the word "completed" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "review, revise" are omitted as surplus. The word "annually" is substituted for "for fiscal year 1990, and for each fiscal year thereafter" to eliminate obsolete language.

In subsection (d)(2)(B), before clause (i), the words "an appropriation" are substituted for "funding", and in clause (ii), the word "appropriations" is substituted for "funding", for clarity and consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (d)(3), the words "beginning with the date of transmission of the first aviation research plan as required by paragraph (1)" are omitted as obsolete.

References in Text

Section 40119 of this title, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B)(i), (3), was repealed by Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, §1991(c)(3), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3627.

The Stevenson-Wydler Technology Innovation Act of 1980, referred to in subsec. (c)(2)(B)(vi), is Pub. L. 96–480, Oct. 21, 1980, 94 Stat. 2311, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 63 (§3701 et seq.) of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3701 of Title 15 and Tables.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 112–95 added par. (5).

2000—Subsec. (c)(2)(B)(iv) to (vi). Pub. L. 106–181, §902(a)(1), added cls. (iv) and (vi) and redesignated former cl. (iv) as (v).

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 106–181, §902(a)(2), inserted at end "The report shall be prepared in accordance with requirements of section 1116 of title 31."

1996—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Committee on Science" for "Committee on Science, Space, and Technology".

Subsec. (c)(2)(A). Pub. L. 104–264, §1105(1), substituted "5-year period" for "15-year period".

Subsec. (c)(2)(B). Pub. L. 104–264, §1105(2), amended subpar. (B) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) set out the requirements for research plans including specific requirements for the first two years of the plan, for the 3rd, 4th, and 5th years, and for the 6th and subsequent years.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 104–264, §1105(3), inserted ", including a description of the dissemination to the private sector of research results and a description of any new technologies developed" after "during the prior fiscal year".

Change of Name

Committee on Science of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Science and Technology of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007. Committee on Science and Technology of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Jan. 5, 2011.

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Consolidation and Realignment of FAA Services and Facilities

Pub. L. 112–95, title VIII, §804, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 119, as amended by Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title V, §§510, 545(b)(2), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3355, 3376, provided that:

"(a) National Facilities Realignment and Consolidation Report.—

"(1) In general.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall develop a report, to be known as the National Facilities Realignment and Consolidation Report, in accordance with the requirements of this subsection.

"(2) Purpose.—The purpose of the report shall be to reduce capital, operating, maintenance, and administrative costs of the FAA where such cost reductions can be implemented without adversely affecting safety.

"(3) Contents.—The report shall include—

"(A) recommendations of the Administrator on realignment and consolidation of services and facilities (including regional offices) of the FAA; and

"(B) for each of the recommendations, a description of—

"(i) the Administrator's justification;

"(ii) the projected costs and savings; and

"(iii) the proposed timing for implementation.

"(4) Input.—The report shall be prepared by the Administrator (or the Administrator's designee) with the participation of—

"(A) representatives of labor organizations representing air traffic control system employees of the FAA; and

"(B) industry stakeholders.

"(5) Submission to congress.—Not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator shall submit the report to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.

"(6) Public notice and comment.—The Administrator shall publish the report in the Federal Register and allow 45 days for the submission of public comments.

"(b) Report to Congress Containing Recommendations of Administrator.—Not later than 60 days after the last day of the period for public comment under subsection (a)(6), the Administrator shall submit to the committees specified in subsection (a)(5)—

"(1) a report containing the recommendations of the Administrator on realignment and consolidation of services and facilities (including regional offices) of the FAA; and

"(2) copies of any public comments received by the Administrator under subsection (a)(6).

"(c) Realignment and Consolidation of FAA Services and Facilities.—Except as provided in subsection (d), the Administrator shall realign and consolidate the services and facilities of the FAA in accordance with the recommendations included in the report submitted under subsection (b).

"(d) Congressional Disapproval.—

"(1) In general.—The Administrator may not carry out a recommendation for realignment or consolidation of services or facilities of the FAA that is included in the report submitted under subsection (b) if a joint resolution of disapproval is enacted disapproving such recommendation before the earlier of—

"(A) the last day of the 30-day period beginning on the date of submission of the report; or

"(B) the adjournment of Congress sine die for the session during which the report is transmitted.

"(2) Computation of 30-day period.—For purposes of paragraph (1)(A), the days on which either House of Congress is not in session because of an adjournment of more than 3 days to a day certain shall be excluded in computation of the 30-day period.

"(e) Military Operations Exclusion.—

"(1) In general.—The Administrator may not realign or consolidate a combined TRACON and tower with radar facility of the FAA under this section if, in 2015, the total annual military operations at the facility comprised at least 40 percent of the total annual TRACON operations at the facility.

"(2) TRACON defined.—In this subsection, the term 'TRACON' means terminal radar approach control.

"(f) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

"(1) FAA.—The term 'FAA' means the Federal Aviation Administration.

"(2) Realignment; consolidation.—

"(A) In general.—The terms 'realignment' and 'consolidation' include any action that—

"(i) relocates functions, services, or personnel positions;

"(ii) discontinues or severs existing facility functions or services; or

"(iii) combines the results described in clauses (i) and (ii).

"(B) Exclusion.—The terms do not include a reduction in personnel resulting from workload adjustments."

[Section 545(b)(2) of Pub. L. 115–254, which directed amendment of section 804 of Pub. L. 112–95, set out above, by substituting "Chief Technology Officer" for "Chief NextGen Officer" in subsec. (a)(4)(A), could not be executed because the words "Chief NextGen Officer" did not appear after the intervening amendment of subsec. (a)(4) by section 510(a)(2) of Pub. L. 115–254.]

Program Authorizations

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §901(c), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 137, provided that: "From the other accounts described in the national aviation research plan required under section 44501(c) of title 49, United States Code, the following research and development activities are authorized:

"(1) Runway Incursion Reduction.

"(2) System Capacity, Planning, and Improvement.

"(3) Operations Concept Validation.

"(4) NAS Weather Requirements.

"(5) Airspace Management Program.

"(6) NextGen—Air Traffic Control/Technical Operations Human Factors.

"(7) NextGen—Environment and Energy—Environmental Management System and Advanced Noise and Emissions Reduction.

"(8) NextGen—New Air Traffic Management Requirements.

"(9) NextGen—Operations Concept Validation—Validation Modeling.

"(10) NextGen—System Safety Management Transformation.

"(11) NextGen—Wake Turbulence—Recategorization.

"(12) NextGen—Operational Assessments.

"(13) NextGen—Staffed NextGen Towers.

"(14) Center for Advanced Aviation System Development.

"(15) Airports Technology Research Program—Capacity.

"(16) Airports Technology Research Program—Safety.

"(17) Airports Technology Research Program—Environment.

"(18) Airport Cooperative Research—Capacity.

"(19) Airport Cooperative Research—Environment.

"(20) Airport Cooperative Research—Safety."

1 See References in Text note below.

§44502. General facilities and personnel authority

(a) General Authority.—(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may—

(A) acquire, establish, improve, operate, and maintain air navigation facilities; and

(B) provide facilities and personnel to regulate and protect air traffic.


(2) The cost of site preparation work associated with acquiring, establishing, or improving an air navigation facility under paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection shall be charged to amounts available for that purpose appropriated under section 48101(a) of this title. The Secretary of Transportation may make an agreement with an airport owner or sponsor (as defined in section 47102 of this title) so that the owner or sponsor will provide the work and be paid or reimbursed by the Secretary from the appropriated amounts.

(3) The Secretary of Transportation may authorize a department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government to carry out any duty or power under this subsection with the consent of the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality.

(4) Purchase of instrument landing system.—

(A) Establishment of program.—The Secretary shall purchase precision approach instrument landing system equipment for installation at airports on an expedited basis.

(B) Authorization.—No less than $30,000,000 of the amounts appropriated under section 48101(a) for each of fiscal years 2000 through 2002 shall be used for the purpose of carrying out this paragraph, including acquisition under new or existing contracts, site preparation work, installation, and related expenditures.


(5) Improvements on leased properties.—The Administrator may make improvements to real property leased for no or nominal consideration for an air navigation facility, regardless of whether the cost of making the improvements exceeds the cost of leasing the real property, if—

(A) the improvements primarily benefit the Government;

(B) the improvements are essential for accomplishment of the mission of the Federal Aviation Administration; and

(C) the interest of the United States Government in the improvements is protected.


(b) Certification of Necessity.—Except for Government money expended under this part or for a military purpose, Government money may be expended to acquire, establish, construct, operate, repair, alter, or maintain an air navigation facility only if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration certifies in writing that the facility is reasonably necessary for use in air commerce or for the national defense. An interested person may apply for a certificate for a facility to be acquired, established, constructed, operated, repaired, altered, or maintained by or for the person.

(c) Ensuring Conformity With Plans and Policies.—(1) To ensure conformity with plans and policies for, and allocation of, airspace by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration under section 40103(b)(1) of this title, a military airport, military landing area, or missile or rocket site may be acquired, established, or constructed, or a runway may be altered substantially, only if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration is given reasonable prior notice so that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may advise the appropriate committees of Congress and interested departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the Government on the effect of the acquisition, establishment, construction, or alteration on the use of airspace by aircraft. A disagreement between the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and the Secretary of Defense or the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration may be appealed to the President for a final decision.

(2) To ensure conformity, an airport or landing area not involving the expenditure of Government money may be established or constructed, or a runway may be altered substantially, only if the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration is given reasonable prior notice so that the Administrator may provide advice on the effects of the establishment, construction, or alteration on the use of airspace by aircraft.

(d) Public Use and Emergency Assistance.—(1) The head of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government having jurisdiction over an air navigation facility owned or operated by the Government may provide, under regulations the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality prescribes, for public use of the facility.

(2) The head of a department, agency, or instrumentality of the Government having jurisdiction over an airport or emergency landing field owned or operated by the Government may provide, under regulations the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality prescribes, for assistance, and the sale of fuel, oil, equipment, and supplies, to an aircraft, but only when necessary, because of an emergency, to allow the aircraft to continue to the nearest airport operated by private enterprise. The head of the department, agency, or instrumentality shall provide for the assistance and sale at the prevailing local fair market value as determined by the head of the department, agency, or instrumentality. An amount that the head decides is equal to the cost of the assistance provided and the fuel, oil, equipment, and supplies sold shall be credited to the appropriation from which the cost was paid. The balance shall be credited to miscellaneous receipts.

(e) Transfers of Air Traffic Systems.—

(1) In general.—An airport may transfer, without consideration, to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, an eligible air traffic system or equipment that conforms to performance specifications of the Administrator if a Government airport aid program, airport development aid program, or airport improvement project grant was used to assist in purchasing the system or equipment.

(2) Acceptance.—The Administrator shall accept the eligible air traffic system or equipment and operate and maintain it under criteria of the Administrator.

(3) Definition.—In this subsection, the term "eligible air traffic system or equipment" means—

(A) an instrument landing system consisting of a glide slope and localizer (if the Administrator has determined that a satellite navigation system cannot provide a suitable approach to an airport);

(B) an Automated Weather Observing System weather observation system; or

(C) a Remote Communication Air/Ground and Remote Communication Outlet communications facility.


(f) Airport Space.—

(1) Restriction.—The Administrator may not require an airport owner or sponsor (as defined in section 47102) to provide to the Federal Aviation Administration without cost any of the following:

(A) Building construction, maintenance, utilities, or expenses for services relating to air traffic control, air navigation, or weather reporting.

(B) Space in a facility owned by the airport owner or sponsor for services relating to air traffic control, air navigation, or weather reporting.


(2) Rule of construction.—Nothing in this subsection may be construed to affect—

(A) any agreement the Secretary may have or make with an airport owner or sponsor for the airport owner or sponsor to provide any of the items described in paragraph (1)(A) or (1)(B) at below-market rates; or

(B) any grant assurance that requires an airport owner or sponsor to provide land to the Administration without cost for an air traffic control facility.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1175; Pub. L. 103–305, title I, §120(a), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1581; Pub. L. 103–429, §6(54), Oct. 31, 1994, 108 Stat. 4385; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(75), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §153, title VII, §712, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 87, 160; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title I, §147, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3213.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Pub. L. 103–272
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44502(a)(1) 49 App.:1348(b) (1st sentence less cl. (3)). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §307(b) (1st sentence less cl. (3), 2d sentence), 72 Stat. 750; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §4(c), 96 Stat. 2442.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
44502(a)(2) 49 App.:2205(a)(3). Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §506(a)(3), 96 Stat. 677; Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §105(a)(1), (g)(1), 101 Stat. 1489, 1494.
44502(a)(3) 49 App.:1348(b) (2d sentence).
44502(b) 49 App.:1349(a) (1st, 2d sentences). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §§308(a) (1st, 2d sentences), (b), 309, 1107, 72 Stat. 750, 751, 798.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44502(c)(1) 49 App.:1349(b).
  49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44502(c)(2) 49 App.:1350.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44502(d) 49 App.:1507.
44502(e) 49 App.:1743. Aug. 11, 1959, Pub. L. 86–154, 73 Stat. 333.
44502(f) 49 App.:2205 (notes). Nov. 21, 1989, Pub. L. 101–164, §331, 103 Stat. 1097.
  Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–516, §324, 104 Stat. 2182.
  Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, §324, 105 Stat. 943.
  Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–388, §324, 106 Stat. 1547.

In this section, the words "department, agency, or instrumentality of the United States Government" are substituted for "Federal department or agency" in 49 App.:1348(b), "agencies" in 49 App.:1349(b), and "department or other agency" and "Government department or other agency" in 49 App.:1507 for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsections (a)(1), (b), and (c), the word "Administrator" in sections 303(c) (1st sentence), 307(b), 308(a) (1st and 2d sentences) and (b), and 309 of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 750, 751) is retained on authority of 49:106(g).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "within the limits of available appropriations made by the Congress" are omitted as surplus. In clause (A), the words "wherever necessary" are omitted as surplus. In clause (B), the word "necessary" is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "by the Secretary" and "to the Secretary" are omitted as surplus. The last sentence is substituted for 49 App.:2205(a)(3) (last sentence) to eliminate unnecessary words.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "subject to such regulations, supervision, and review as he may prescribe" are omitted because of 49:322(a). The words "from time to time make such provision as he shall deem appropriate" are omitted as surplus. The words "duty or power" are substituted for "function" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the Code. The words "the head of" are added for clarity and consistency.

In subsection (b), the words "(whether or not in cooperation with State or other local governmental agencies)" and "thereon" are omitted as surplus. The words "landing area" are omitted as being included in the definition of "air navigation facility" in section 40102(a) of the revised title. The words "recommendation and" are omitted as surplus. The words "under regulations prescribed by him" are omitted because of 49:322(a). The word "proposed" is omitted as surplus. The word "acquired" is added for consistency in this subsection.

In subsection (c)(1), the words "In order", "layout", and "In case of . . . the matter" are omitted as surplus. The words "Secretary of Defense" are substituted for "Department of Defense" because of 10:133(a). The words "the Administrator of" are added because of 42:2472(a).

In subsection (c)(2), the word "layout" is omitted as surplus. The words "pursuant to regulations prescribed by him" are omitted because of 49:322(a). The words "the establishment, building, or alteration" are substituted for "such construction" for clarity and consistency in this section.

In subsection (d)(1), the words "under such conditions and to such extent as . . . deems advisable and" are omitted as surplus. The word "provide" is substituted for "be made available", and the words "of the facility" are added, for clarity.

In subsection (d)(2), the words "All amounts received under this subsection shall be covered into the Treasury" are omitted because of 31:3302(b). The words "services, shelter . . . other" and "if any" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words "or compact" are omitted as surplus. The words "or States" are omitted because of 1:1. The text of 49 App.:1743 (last sentence) is omitted as surplus.

In subsection (f), the words "Notwithstanding any other provision of law" and "thereafter" are omitted as surplus.

Pub. L. 103–429

This amends 49:44502(b) to clarify the restatement of 49 App.:1349(a) (1st, 2d sentences) by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1175).

Pub. L. 104–287, §5(75)(A)

This amends 49:44502(c)(1) to correct an error in the codification enacted by section 1 of the Act of July 5, 1994 (Public Law 103–272, 108 Stat. 1175).

Pub. L. 104–287, §5(75)(B)

This strikes 49:44502(e) and redesignates 49:44502(f) as 49:44502(e) because of the restatement of former 49:44502(e) as 49:40121.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 115–254, §147(1), added subsec. (e) and struck out former subsec. (e). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "An airport may transfer, without consideration, to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration an instrument landing system (and associated approach lighting equipment and runway visual range equipment) that conforms to performance specifications of the Administrator if a Government airport aid program, airport development aid program, or airport improvement project grant was used to assist in purchasing the system. The Administrator shall accept the system and operate and maintain it under criteria of the Administrator."

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–254, §147(2), added subsec. (f).

2000—Subsec. (a)(4)(B). Pub. L. 106–181, §153, substituted "each of fiscal years 2000 through 2002" for "each of fiscal years 1995 and 1996" and inserted "under new or existing contracts" after "including acquisition".

Subsec. (a)(5). Pub. L. 106–181, §712, added par. (5).

1996—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(75)(A), substituted "To ensure" for "To ensure that".

Subsecs. (e), (f). Pub. L. 104–287, §5(75)(B), redesignated subsec. (f) as (e) and struck out former subsec. (e) which read as follows:

"(e) Consent of Congress.—Congress consents to a State making an agreement, not in conflict with a law of the United States, with another State to develop or operate an airport facility."

1994—Subsec. (a)(4). Pub. L. 103–305 added par. (4).

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 103–429 inserted "Government" before "money may be expended".

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 103–429 effective July 5, 1994, see section 9 of Pub. L. 103–429, set out as a note under section 321 of this title.

High Performance, Sustainable, and Cost-Effective Air Traffic Control Facilities

Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §508, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 106, provided that: "The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may implement, to the extent practicable, sustainable practices for the incorporation of energy-efficient design, equipment, systems, and other measures in the construction and major renovation of air traffic control facilities of the Administration in order to reduce energy consumption at, improve the environmental performance of, and reduce the cost of maintenance for such facilities."

Strategy for Staffing, Hiring, and Training Flight Standards and Aircraft Certification Staff

Pub. L. 116–6, div. G, title I, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 401, provided in part: "That not later than March 31 of each fiscal year hereafter, the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall transmit to Congress a companion report that describes a comprehensive strategy for staffing, hiring, and training flight standards and aircraft certification staff in a format similar to the one utilized for the controller staffing plan, including stated attrition estimates and numerical hiring goals by fiscal year".

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 115–141, div. L, title I, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 977.

Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title I, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 730.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. L, title I, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2839.

Pub. L. 113–235, div. K, title I, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2700.

Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title I, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 578.

Pub. L. 112–55, div. C, title I, Nov. 18, 2011, 125 Stat. 646.

Pub. L. 111–117, div. A, title I, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3040.

Pilot Program for Innovative Financing of Air Traffic Control Equipment

Pub. L. 108–176, title I, §182, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2515, as amended by Pub. L. 113–188, title XV, §1501(d), Nov. 26, 2014, 128 Stat. 2024, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In order to test the cost effectiveness and feasibility of long-term financing of modernization of major air traffic control systems, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may establish a pilot program to test innovative financing techniques through amending, subject to section 1341 of title 31, United States Code, a contract for more than one, but not more than 20, fiscal years to purchase and install air traffic control equipment for the Administration. Such amendments may be for more than one, but not more than 10, fiscal years.

"(b) Cancellation.—A contract described in subsection (a) may include a cancellation provision if the Administrator determines that such a provision is necessary and in the best interest of the United States. Any such provision shall include a cancellation liability schedule that covers reasonable and allocable costs incurred by the contractor through the date of cancellation plus reasonable profit, if any, on those costs. Any such provision shall not apply if the contract is terminated by default of the contractor.

"(c) Contract Provisions.—If feasible and practicable for the pilot program, the Administrator may make an advance contract provision to achieve economic-lot purchases and more efficient production rates.

"(d) Limitation.—The Administrator may not amend a contract under this section until the program for the terminal automation replacement systems has been rebaselined in accordance with the acquisition management system of the Administration.

"(e) Funding.—Out of amounts appropriated under section 48101 [probably means section 48101 of title 49, United States Code] for fiscal year 2004, such sums as may be necessary shall be available to carry out this section."

Enhanced Vision Technologies

Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §124, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 75, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall enter into a cooperative research and development agreement to study the benefits of utilizing enhanced vision technologies to replace, enhance, or add to conventional airport approach and runway lighting systems.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a progress report on the work accomplished under the cooperative agreements detailing the evaluations performed to determine the potential of enhanced vision technology to meet the operational requirements of the intended application.

"(c) Certification.—Not later than 180 days after the conclusion of work under the research agreements, the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report on the potential of enhanced vision technology to satisfy the operational requirements of the Federal Aviation Administration and a schedule for the development of performance standards for certification appropriate to the application of the enhanced vision technologies. If the Administrator certifies an enhanced vision technology as meeting such performance standards, the technology shall be treated as a navigation aid or other aid for purposes of section 47102(3)(B)(i) of title 49, United States Code."

Transfer by Airports of Instrument Landing Systems and Associated Equipment to Federal Aviation Administration

Pub. L. 109–115, div. A, title I, §101, Nov. 30, 2005, 119 Stat. 2401, which provided that airports may transfer to the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) instrument landing systems (along with associated approach lighting equipment and runway visual range equipment) which conform to FAA design and performance specifications, the purchase of which was assisted by a Federal airport-aid program, airport development aid program or airport improvement program grant, provided that the FAA accept such equipment and operate and maintain it in accordance with agency criteria, was from the Transportation, Treasury, Housing and Urban Development, the Judiciary, and Independent Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006, and was not repeated in subsequent appropriation acts. Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 108–447, div. H, title I, §101, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 3203.

Pub. L. 108–199, div. F, title I, §101, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 284.

Pub. L. 108–7, div. I, title III, §313, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 410.

Pub. L. 107–87, title III, §313, Dec. 18, 2001, 115 Stat. 858.

Pub. L. 106–346, §101(a) [title III, §314], Oct. 23, 2000, 114 Stat. 1356, 1356A-27.

Pub. L. 106–69, title III, §314, Oct. 9, 1999, 113 Stat. 1018.

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(g) [title III, §314], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681–439, 2681-468.

Pub. L. 105–66, title III, §314, Oct. 27, 1997, 111 Stat. 1443.

Pub. L. 104–205, title III, §314, Sept. 30, 1996, 110 Stat. 2971.

Pub. L. 104–50, title III, §317, Nov. 15, 1995, 109 Stat. 455.

Pub. L. 103–331, title III, §317, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2491, repealed by Pub. L. 104–287, §7(4), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3400.

Cost Savings Associated With Purchase

Pub. L. 103–305, title I, §120(b), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1581, provided that: "Notwithstanding other provisions of law or regulations to the contrary, the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall establish, within 120 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 23, 1994], a process through which airport sponsors may take advantage of cost savings associated with the purchase and installation of instrument landing systems, along with associated equipment, under existing or future Federal Aviation Administration contracts. The process established by the Administrator may provide for the direct reimbursement (including administrative costs) of the Administrator by an airport sponsor using grants funds under subchapter I of chapter 471 of subtitle VII of title 49, United States Code, relating to airport improvement, for the ordering of such equipment and installation or for the direct ordering of such equipment and installation by an airport sponsor, using such grant funds, from the suppliers with which the Administrator has contracted."

Grandfather Provision for FAA Demonstration Project

Pub. L. 103–260, title IV, §401, May 26, 1994, 108 Stat. 702, provided that:

"(a) In general.—Notwithstanding the termination of the personnel demonstration project for certain Federal Aviation Administration employees on June 17, 1994, pursuant to section 4703 of title 5, United States Code, the Federal Aviation Administration, subject to subsection (d), shall continue to pay quarterly retention allowance payments in accordance with subsection (b) to those employees who are entitled to quarterly retention allowance payments under the demonstration project as of June 16, 1994.

"(b) Computation Rules.—

"(1) In general.—The amount of each quarterly retention allowance payment to which an employee is entitled under subsection (a) shall be the amount of the last quarterly retention allowance payment paid to such employee under the personnel demonstration project prior to June 17, 1994, reduced by that portion of the amount of any increase in the employee's annual rate of basic pay subsequent to June 17, 1994, from any source, which is allocable to the quarter for which the allowance is to be paid (or, if applicable, to that portion of the quarter for which the allowance is to be paid). For purposes of the preceding sentence, the increase in an employee's annual rate of basic pay includes—

"(A) any increase under section 5303 of title 5, United States Code;

"(B) any increase in locality-based comparability payments under section 5304 of such title 5 (except if, or to the extent that, such increase is offset by a reduction of an interim geographic adjustment under section 302 of the Federal Employees Pay Comparability Act of 1990 (5 U.S.C. 5304 note));

"(C) any establishment or increase in a special rate of pay under section 5305 of such title 5;

"(D) any increase in basic pay pursuant to a promotion under section 5334 of such title 5;

"(E) any periodic step-increase under section 5335 of such title 5;

"(F) any additional step-increase under section 5336 of such title 5; and

"(G) any other increase in annual rate of basic pay under any other provision of law.

"(2) Section rule.—In the case of an employee on leave without pay or other similar status for any part of the quarter prior to June 17, 1994, based on which the amount of the allowance payments for such employee under subsection (a) are computed, the 'amount of the last quarterly retention allowance payment paid to such employee under the personnel demonstration project prior to June 17, 1994' shall, for purposes of paragraph (1), be deemed to be the amount of the allowance which would have been payable to such employee for such quarter under such project had such employee been in pay status throughout such quarter.

"(c) Termination.—An employee's entitlement to quarterly retention allowance payments under this section shall cease when—

"(1) the amount of such allowance is reduced to zero under subsection (b), or

"(2) the employee separates or moves to a position in which the employee would not, prior to June 17, 1994, have been entitled to receive an allowance under the demonstration project,

whichever is earlier.

"(d) Special Payment Rule.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make payment for the costs incurred under the program established by subsection (a) for the period between June 18, 1994, and September 30, 1994, following the end of the first full pay period that begins on or after October 1, 1994, subject to appropriations made available in fiscal year 1995.

"(e) Study of Recruitment and Retention Incentives.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct a study of impediments that may exist to achieving appropriate air traffic controller staffing levels at hard-to-staff facilities. In conducting such study, the Administrator shall identify and evaluate the extent to which special incentives, of a financial or non-financial nature, could be useful in recruiting or retaining air traffic controllers at such facilities. The Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Public Works and Transportation of the House of Representatives not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [May 26, 1994] a report on (1) the results of such study, (2) planned administrative actions, and (3) any recommended legislation."

§44503. Reducing nonessential expenditures

The Secretary of Transportation shall attempt to reduce the capital, operating, maintenance, and administrative costs of the national airport and airway system to the maximum extent practicable consistent with the highest degree of aviation safety. At least annually, the Secretary shall consult with and consider the recommendations of users of the system on ways to reduce nonessential expenditures of the United States Government for aviation. The Secretary shall give particular attention to a recommendation that may reduce, with no adverse effect on safety, future personnel requirements and costs to the Government required to be recovered from user charges.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1176.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44503 49 App.:1704. July 12, 1976, Pub. L. 94–353, §25, 90 Stat. 885.

The words "in accordance with this section" and "due" are omitted as surplus. The word "personnel" is substituted for "manpower" for consistency in the revised title.

§44504. Improved aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances

(a) Developmental Work and Service Testing.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may conduct or supervise developmental work and service testing to improve aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances.

(b) Research.—The Administrator shall conduct or supervise research—

(1) to develop technologies and analyze information to predict the effects of aircraft design, maintenance, testing, wear, and fatigue on the life of aircraft, including nonstructural aircraft systems, and air safety;

(2) to develop methods of analyzing and improving aircraft maintenance technology and practices, including nondestructive evaluation of aircraft structures;

(3) to assess the fire and smoke resistance of aircraft material;

(4) to develop improved fire and smoke resistant material for aircraft interiors;

(5) to develop and improve fire and smoke containment systems for inflight aircraft fires;

(6) to develop advanced aircraft fuels with low flammability and technologies that will contain aircraft fuels to minimize post-crash fire hazards;

(7) to develop technologies and methods to assess the risk of and prevent defects, failures, and malfunctions of products, parts, processes, and articles manufactured for use in aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances that could result in a catastrophic failure of an aircraft; and

(8) in conjunction with other Federal agencies, as appropriate, to develop technologies and methods to assess the risk of and prevent defects, failures, and malfunctions of products, parts, and processes for use in all classes of unmanned aircraft systems that could result in a catastrophic failure of the unmanned aircraft that would endanger other aircraft in the national airspace system.


(c) Authority To Buy Items Offering Special Advantages.—In carrying out this section, the Administrator, by negotiation or otherwise, may buy or exchange experimental aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances that the Administrator decides may offer special advantages to aeronautics.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1176; Pub. L. 106–181, title IX, §904, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 196; Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §903(a), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 138.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44504(a) 49 App.:1353(b) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §312(b) (1st, last sentences), 72 Stat. 752.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
44504(b) 49 App.:1353(b) (2d sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(b) (2d sentence); added Nov. 3, 1988, Pub. L. 100–591, §2, 102 Stat. 3011; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9208(a), 104 Stat. 1388–376.
44504(c) 49 App.:1353(b) (last sentence)
  49 App.:1655(c)(1).

In this section, the word "Administrator" in section 312(b) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 752) is retained on authority of 49:106(g).

In subsection (a), the words "to improve" are substituted for "such . . . as tends to the creation of improved" to eliminate unnecessary words.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 112–95 added par. (8).

2000—Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 106–181 inserted ", including nonstructural aircraft systems," after "life of aircraft".

Effective Date of 2000 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 106–181 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

Crash-Resistant Fuel Systems

Pub. L. 114–190, title II, §2105, July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 620, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [July 15, 2016], the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall evaluate and update, as necessary, standards for crash-resistant fuel systems for civilian rotorcraft."

Aviation Fuel Research and Development Program

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §910, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 141, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Using amounts made available under section 48102(a) of title 49, United States Code, the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration], in coordination with the Administrator of NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration], shall continue research and development activities into the qualification of an unleaded aviation fuel and safe transition to this fuel for the fleet of piston engine aircraft.

"(b) Requirements.—In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Administrator shall, at a minimum—

"(1) not later than 120 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], develop a research and development plan containing the specific research and development objectives, including consideration of aviation safety, technical feasibility, and other relevant factors, and the anticipated timetable for achieving the objectives;

"(2) assess the methods and processes by which the FAA and industry may expeditiously certify and approve new aircraft and recertify existing aircraft with respect to unleaded aviation fuel;

"(3) assess technologies that modify existing piston engine aircraft to enable safe operation of the aircraft using unleaded aviation fuel and determine the resources necessary to certify those technologies; and

"(4) develop recommendations for appropriate policies and guidelines to facilitate a transition to unleaded aviation fuel for piston engine aircraft.

"(c) Collaboration.—In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Administrator shall collaborate with—

"(1) industry groups representing aviation consumers, manufacturers, and fuel producers and distributors; and

"(2) other appropriate Federal agencies.

"(d) Report.—Not later than 270 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator shall provide to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report on the plan, information obtained, and policies and guidelines developed pursuant to subsection (b)."

Research Program on Alternative Jet Fuel Technology for Civil Aircraft

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §911, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 142, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Using amounts made available under section 48102(a) of title 49, United States Code, the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)] shall establish a research program to assist in the development and qualification of jet fuel from alternative sources (such as natural gas, biomass, ethanol, butanol, and hydrogen) and other renewable sources.

"(b) Authority To Make Grants.—The Administrator shall carry out the program through the use of grants or other measures authorized under section 106(l)(6) of such title, including reimbursable agreements with other Federal agencies.

"(c) Participation in Program.—

"(1) Participation of educational and research institutions.—In carrying out the program, the Administrator shall include participation by—

"(A) educational and research institutions that have existing facilities and leverage private sector partnerships; and

"(B) consortia with experience across the supply chain, including with research, feedstock development and production, small-scale development, testing, and technology evaluation related to the creation, processing, production, and transportation of alternative aviation fuel.

"(2) Use of nasa facilities.—In carrying out the program, the Administrator shall consider utilizing the existing capacity in aeronautics research at Langley Research Center, Glenn Research Center, and other appropriate facilities of NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration].

"(d) Designation of Institution as a Center of Excellence.—

"(1) In general.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator may designate an institution described in subsection (c)(1)(A) as a Center of Excellence for Alternative Jet-Fuel Research in Civil Aircraft.

"(2) Effect of designation.—The center designated under paragraph (1) shall become, upon its designation—

"(A) a member of the Consortium for Continuous Low Energy, Emissions, and Noise of the FAA; and

"(B) part of a Joint Center of Excellence with the Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emission Reduction FAA Center of Excellence."

Production of Clean Coal Fuel Technology for Civilian Aircraft

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §914, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 144, provided that:

"(a) Establishment of Research Program.—Using amounts made available under section 48102(a) of title 49, United States Code, the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall establish a research program related to developing jet fuel from clean coal.

"(b) Authority To Make Grants.—The Administrator shall carry out the program through grants or other measures authorized under section 106(l)(6) of such title, including reimbursable agreements with other Federal agencies.

"(c) Participation in Program.—In carrying out the program, the Administrator shall include participation by educational and research institutions that have existing facilities and experience in the development and deployment of technology that processes coal into aviation fuel.

"(d) Designation of Institution as a Center of Excellence.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator may designate an institution described in subsection (c) as a Center of Excellence for Coal-to-Jet-Fuel Research."

Research and Development of Equipment To Clean and Monitor the Engine and APU Bleed Air Supplied on Pressurized Aircraft

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §917, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 145, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration], to the extent practicable, shall implement a research program for the identification or development of appropriate and effective air cleaning technology and sensor technology for the engine and auxiliary power unit bleed air supplied to the passenger cabin and flight deck of a pressurized aircraft.

"(b) Technology Requirements.—The technology referred to in subsection (a) shall have the capacity, at a minimum—

"(1) to remove oil-based contaminants from the bleed air supplied to the passenger cabin and flight deck; and

"(2) to detect and record oil-based contaminants in the portion of the total air supplied to the passenger cabin and flight deck from bleed air.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives a report on the results of the research and development work carried out under this section."

FAA Center for Excellence for Applied Research and Training in the Use of Advanced Materials in Transport Aircraft

Pub. L. 108–176, title VII, §708, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2582, as amended by Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §916, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 145, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall develop a Center for Excellence focused on applied research and training on the durability and maintainability of advanced materials in transport airframe structures. The Center shall—

"(1) promote and facilitate collaboration among academia, the Federal Aviation Administration's Transportation Division, and the commercial aircraft industry, including manufacturers, commercial air carriers, and suppliers; and

"(2) establish goals set to advance technology, improve engineering practices, and facilitate continuing education in relevant areas of study.

"(b) Authorization of Appropriations.—There is authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator $500,000 for each of fiscal years 2012 through 2015 to carry out this section."

Rotorcraft Research and Development Initiative

Pub. L. 108–176, title VII, §711, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2585, provided that:

"(a) Objective.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a rotorcraft initiative with the objective of developing, and demonstrating in a relevant environment, within 10 years after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003], technologies to enable rotorcraft with the following improvements relative to rotorcraft existing as of the date of the enactment of this Act:

"(1) 80 percent reduction in noise levels on takeoff and on approach and landing as perceived by a human observer.

"(2) Factor of 10 reduction in vibration.

"(3) 30 percent reduction in empty weight.

"(4) Predicted accident rate equivalent to that of fixed-wing aircraft in commercial service within 10 years after the date of the enactment of this Act.

"(5) Capability for zero-ceiling, zero-visibility operations.

"(b) Implementation.—Within 180 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003], the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration, in cooperation with the Administrator of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, shall provide a plan to the Committee on Science [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology] of the House of Representatives and to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate for the implementation of the initiative described in subsection (a)."

Specialty Metals Consortium

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §742, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 175, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] may work with a consortium of domestic metal producers and aircraft engine manufacturers to improve the quality of turbine engine materials and to address melting technology enhancements.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 6 months after entering into an agreement with a consortium described in subsection (a), the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report on the goals and efforts of the consortium."

§44505. Systems, procedures, facilities, and devices

(a) General Requirements.—(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall—

(A) develop, alter, test, and evaluate systems, procedures, facilities, and devices, and define their performance characteristics, to meet the needs for safe and efficient navigation and traffic control of civil and military aviation, except for needs of the armed forces that are peculiar to air warfare and primarily of military concern; and

(B) select systems, procedures, facilities, and devices that will best serve those needs and promote maximum coordination of air traffic control and air defense systems.


(2) The Administrator may make contracts to carry out this subsection without regard to section 3324(a) and (b) of title 31.

(3) When a substantial question exists under paragraph (1) of this subsection about whether a matter is of primary concern to the armed forces, the Administrator shall decide whether the Administrator or the Secretary of the appropriate military department has responsibility. The Administrator shall be given technical information related to each research and development project of the armed forces that potentially applies to, or potentially conflicts with, the common system to ensure that potential application to the common system is considered properly and that potential conflicts with the system are eliminated.

(b) Research on Human Factors and Simulation Models.—The Administrator shall conduct or supervise research—

(1) to develop a better understanding of the relationship between human factors and aviation accidents and between human factors and air safety;

(2) to enhance air traffic controller, mechanic, and flight crew performance;

(3) to develop a human-factor analysis of the hazards associated with new technologies to be used by air traffic controllers, mechanics, and flight crews;

(4) to identify innovative and effective corrective measures for human errors that adversely affect air safety;

(5) to develop dynamic simulation models of the air traffic control system and airport design and operating procedures that will provide analytical technology—

(A) to predict airport and air traffic control safety and capacity problems;

(B) to evaluate planned research projects; and

(C) to test proposed revisions in airport and air traffic control operations programs;


(6) to develop a better understanding of the relationship between human factors and unmanned aircraft system safety; and

(7) to develop dynamic simulation models for integrating all classes of unmanned aircraft systems into the national airspace system without any degradation of existing levels of safety for all national airspace system users.


(c) Research on Developing and Maintaining a Safe and Efficient System.—The Administrator shall conduct or supervise research on—

(1) airspace and airport planning and design;

(2) airport capacity enhancement techniques;

(3) human performance in the air transportation environment;

(4) aviation safety and security;

(5) the supply of trained air transportation personnel, including pilots and mechanics; and

(6) other aviation issues related to developing and maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation system.


(d) Research on Design for Certification.—

(1) Research.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, the Administrator shall conduct research on methods and procedures to improve both confidence in and the timeliness of certification of new technologies for their introduction into the national airspace system.

(2) Research plan.—Not later than 6 months after the date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, the Administrator shall develop a plan for the research under paragraph (1) that contains objectives, proposed tasks, milestones, and a 5-year budgetary profile.

(3) Review.—The Administrator shall enter into an arrangement with the National Research Council to conduct an independent review of the plan developed under paragraph (2) and shall provide the results of that review to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate not later than 18 months after the date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012.


(e) Cooperative Agreements.—The Administrator may enter into cooperative agreements on a cost-shared basis with Federal and non-Federal entities that the Administrator may select in order to conduct, encourage, and promote aviation research, engineering, and development, including the development of prototypes and demonstration models.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1177; Pub. L. 103–305, title III, §307, Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1593; Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §§903(b), 905, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 138, 139.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44505(a)(1) 49 App.:1353(c) (1st sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, §312(c) (1st, 5th–last sentences), 72 Stat. 752.
  49 App.:1655(c)(1). Oct. 15, 1966, Pub. L. 89–670, §6(c)(1), 80 Stat. 938; Jan. 12, 1983, Pub. L. 97–449, §7(b), 96 Stat. 2444.
44505(a)(2) 49 App.:1353(c) (5th sentence).
  49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44505(a)(3) 49 App.:1353(c) (6th, last sentences).
  49 App.:1655(c)(1).
44505(b) 49 App.:1353(c) (2d, 3d sentences). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(c) (2d, 3d sentences); added Nov. 3, 1988, Pub. L. 100–591, §3, 102 Stat. 3011.
44505(c) 49 App.:1353(c) (4th sentence). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(c) (4th sentence); added Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9209(c), 104 Stat. 1388–378.

In this section, the word "Administrator" in section 312(c) of the Federal Aviation Act of 1958 (Public Law 85–726, 72 Stat. 752) is retained on authority of 49:106(g).

In subsection (a)(1) and (3), the words "the armed forces" are substituted for "military agencies" and "the military" because of the definition of "armed forces" in 10:101.

In subsection (a)(3), the words "military department" are substituted for "military agency" because of the definition of "military department" in 10:101. The words "the needs of" and "to the maximum extent necessary" are omitted as surplus.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, referred to in subsec. (d), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–95, which was approved Feb. 14, 2012.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (b)(6), (7). Pub. L. 112–95, §903(b), added pars. (6) and (7).

Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 112–95, §905, added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–305 added subsec. (d).

Research and Deployment of Certain Airfield Pavement Technologies

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title VII, §744, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3413, provided that: "Using amounts made available under section 48102(a) of title 49, United States Code, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may carry out a program for the research and development of aircraft pavement technologies under which the Administrator makes grants to, and enters into cooperative agreements with, institutions of higher education and nonprofit organizations that—

"(1) research concrete and asphalt airfield pavement technologies that extend the life of airfield pavements;

"(2) develop and conduct training;

"(3) provide for demonstration projects; and

"(4) promote the latest airfield pavement technologies to aid in the development of safer, more cost effective, and more durable airfield pavements."

Aircraft Departure Queue Management Pilot Program

Pub. L. 112–95, title V, §507, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 106, as amended by Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title V, §539(t), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3372, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Secretary of Transportation shall carry out a pilot program at not more than 5 public-use airports under which the Federal Aviation Administration shall use funds made available under section 48101(a) of title 49, United States Code, to test air traffic flow management tools, methodologies, and procedures that will allow air traffic controllers of the Administration to better manage the flow of aircraft on the ground and reduce the length of ground holds and idling time for aircraft.

"(b) Selection Criteria.—In selecting from among airports at which to conduct the pilot program, the Secretary shall give priority consideration to airports at which improvements in ground control efficiencies are likely to achieve the greatest fuel savings or air quality or other environmental benefits, as measured by the amount of reduced fuel, reduced emissions, or other environmental benefits per dollar of funds expended under the pilot program.

"(c) Maximum Amount.—Not more than a total of $2,500,000 may be expended under the pilot program at any single public-use airport."

Research Program on Runways

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §904, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 139, provided that: "Using amounts made available under section 48102(a) of title 49, United States Code, the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall continue to carry out a research program under which the Administrator may make grants to and enter into cooperative agreements with institutions of higher education and pavement research organizations for research and technology demonstrations related to—

"(1) the design, construction, rehabilitation, and repair of airfield pavements to aid in the development of safer, more cost effective, and more durable airfield pavements; and

"(2) engineered material restraining systems for runways at both general aviation airports and airports with commercial air carrier operations."

Wake Turbulence, Volcanic Ash, and Weather Research

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §915, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 144, provided that: "Not later than 60 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall—

"(1) initiate an evaluation of proposals related to research on the nature of wake vortexes that would increase national airspace system capacity by reducing existing spacing requirements between aircraft of all sizes;

"(2) begin implementation of a system to improve volcanic ash avoidance options for aircraft, including the development of a volcanic ash warning and notification system for aviation; and

"(3) coordinate with NOAA [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration], NASA [National Aeronautics and Space Administration], and other appropriate Federal agencies to conduct research to reduce the hazards presented to commercial aviation related to—

"(A) ground de-icing and anti-icing, ice pellets, and freezing drizzle;

"(B) oceanic weather, including convective weather;

"(C) en route turbulence prediction and detection; and

"(D) all hazards during oceanic operations, where commercial traffic is high and only rudimentary satellite sensing is available."

Assessment of Wake Turbulence Research and Development Program

Pub. L. 108–176, title V, §505, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2559, required the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration to enter into an arrangement with the National Research Council for an assessment of the Federal Aviation Administration's proposed wake turbulence research and development program and required that a report on the assessment be provided to Committees of Congress not later than 1 year after Dec. 12, 2003.

Ensuring Appropriate Standards for Airfield Pavements

Pub. L. 108–176, title VII, §705, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2581, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall review and determine whether the Federal Aviation Administration's standards used to determine the appropriate thickness for asphalt and concrete airfield pavements are in accordance with the Federal Aviation Administration's standard 20-year-life requirement using the most up-to-date available information on the life of airfield pavements. If the Administrator determines that such standards are not in accordance with that requirement, the Administrator shall make appropriate adjustments to the Federal Aviation Administration's standards for airfield pavements.

"(b) Report.—Within 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003], the Administrator shall report the results of the review conducted under subsection (a) and the adjustments, if any, made on the basis of that review to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure and Committee on Science [now Committee on Science, Space, and Technology]."

Use of Recycled Materials

Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §157, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 89, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall conduct a study of the use of recycled materials (including recycled pavements, waste materials, and byproducts) in pavement used for runways, taxiways, and aprons and the specification standards in tests necessary for the use of recycled materials in such pavement. The primary focus of the study shall be on the long-term physical performance, safety implications, and environmental benefits of using recycled materials in aviation pavement.

"(b) Contracting.—The Administrator may carry out the study by entering into a contract with a university of higher education with expertise necessary to carry out the study.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study, together with recommendations concerning the use of recycled materials in aviation pavement.

"(d) Funding.—Of the amounts appropriated pursuant to section 106(k) of title 49, United States Code, not to exceed $1,500,000 may be used to carry out this section."

Airfield Pavement Conditions

Pub. L. 106–181, title I, §160, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 90, provided that:

"(a) Evaluation of Options.—The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall evaluate options for improving the quality of information available to the Federal Aviation Administration on airfield pavement conditions for airports that are part of the national air transportation system, including—

"(1) improving the existing runway condition information contained in the airport safety data program by reviewing and revising rating criteria and providing increased training for inspectors;

"(2) requiring such airports to submit pavement condition index information as part of their airport master plan or as support in applications for airport improvement grants; and

"(3) requiring all such airports to submit pavement condition index information on a regular basis and using this information to create a pavement condition database that could be used in evaluating the cost-effectiveness of project applications and forecasting anticipated pavement needs.

"(b) Report to Congress.—Not later than 12 months after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], the Administrator shall transmit a report containing an evaluation of the options described in subsection (a) to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure."

Pilot Program To Permit Cost-Sharing of Air Traffic Modernization Projects

Pub. L. 106–181, title III, §304, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 122, provided that:

"(a) Purpose.—It is the purpose of this section to improve aviation safety and enhance mobility of the Nation's air transportation system by encouraging non-Federal investment on a pilot program basis in critical air traffic control facilities and equipment.

"(b) In General.—Subject to the requirements of this section, the Secretary [of Transportation] shall carry out a pilot program under which the Secretary may make grants to project sponsors for not more than 10 eligible projects.

"(c) Federal Share.—The Federal share of the cost of an eligible project carried out under the program shall not exceed 33 percent. The non-Federal share of the cost of an eligible project shall be provided from non-Federal sources, including revenues collected pursuant to section 40117 of title 49, United States Code.

"(d) Limitation on Grant Amounts.—No eligible project may receive more than $15,000,000 under the program.

"(e) Funding.—The Secretary shall use amounts appropriated under section 48101(a) of title 49, United States Code, for fiscal years 2001 through 2003 to carry out the program.

"(f) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

"(1) Eligible project.—The term 'eligible project' means a project relating to the Nation's air traffic control system that is certified or approved by the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] and that promotes safety, efficiency, or mobility. Such projects may include—

"(A) airport-specific air traffic facilities and equipment, including local area augmentation systems, instrument landings systems, weather and wind shear detection equipment, lighting improvements, and control towers;

"(B) automation tools to effect improvements in airport capacity, including passive final approach spacing tools and traffic management advisory equipment; and

"(C) facilities and equipment that enhance airspace control procedures, including consolidation of terminal radar control facilities and equipment, or assist in en route surveillance, including oceanic and offshore flight tracking.

"(2) Project sponsor.—The term 'project sponsor' means a public-use airport or a joint venture between a public-use airport and one or more air carriers.

"(g) Transfers of Equipment.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, project sponsors may transfer, without consideration, to the Federal Aviation Administration, facilities, equipment, and automation tools, the purchase of which was assisted by a grant made under this section. The Administration shall accept such facilities, equipment, and automation tools, which shall thereafter be operated and maintained by the Administration in accordance with criteria of the Administration.

"(h) Guidelines.—Not later than 90 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], the Administrator shall issue advisory guidelines on the implementation of the program."

Aircraft Dispatchers

Pub. L. 106–181, title V, §516, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 145, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall conduct a study of the role of aircraft dispatchers in enhancing aviation safety.

"(b) Contents.—The study shall include an assessment of whether or not aircraft dispatchers should be required for those operations not presently requiring aircraft dispatcher assistance, operational control issues related to the aircraft dispatching functions, and whether or not designation of positions within the Federal Aviation Administration for oversight of dispatchers would enhance aviation safety.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study conducted under this section."

Occupational Injuries of Airport Workers

Pub. L. 106–181, title V, §520, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 149, provided that:

"(a) Study.—The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall conduct a study to determine the number of persons working at airports who are injured or killed as a result of being struck by a moving vehicle while on an airport tarmac, the seriousness of the injuries to such persons, and whether or not reflective safety vests or other actions should be required to enhance the safety of such workers.

"(b) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this Act [Apr. 5, 2000], the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study conducted under this section."

Alkali Silica Reactivity Distress

Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §743, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 175, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] may conduct a study on the impact of alkali silica reactivity distress on airport runways and taxiways and the use of lithium salts and other alternatives for mitigation and prevention of such distress. The study shall include a determination based on in-the-field inspections followed by petrographic analysis or other similar techniques.

"(b) Authority To Make Grants.—The Administrator may carry out the study by making a grant to, or entering into a cooperative agreement with, a nonprofit organization for the conduct of all or a part of the study.

"(c) Report.—Not later than 18 months after the date of initiation of the study under subsection (a), the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report on the results of the study."

Research Program To Improve Airfield Pavements

Pub. L. 108–176, title VII, §704, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2581, provided that:

"(a) Continuation of Program.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall continue the program to consider awards to nonprofit concrete and asphalt pavement research foundations to improve the design, construction, rehabilitation, and repair of airfield pavements to aid in the development of safer, more cost effective, and more durable airfield pavements.

"(b) Use of Grants or Cooperative Agreements.—The Administrator may use grants or cooperative agreements in carrying out this section.

"(c) Statutory Construction.—Nothing in this section requires the Administrator to prioritize an airfield pavement research program above safety, security, Flight 21, environment, or energy research programs."

Pub. L. 106–181, title IX, §905, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 196, provided that: "The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall consider awards to nonprofit concrete pavement research foundations to improve the design, construction, rehabilitation, and repair of rigid concrete airfield pavements to aid in the development of safer, more cost-effective, and durable airfield pavements. The Administrator may use a grant or cooperative agreement for this purpose. Nothing in this section shall require the Administrator to prioritize an airfield pavement research program above safety, security, Flight 21, environment, or energy research programs."

§44506. Air traffic controllers

(a) Research on Effect of Automation on Performance.—To develop the means necessary to establish appropriate selection criteria and training methodologies for the next generation of air traffic controllers, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall conduct research to study the effect of automation on the performance of the next generation of air traffic controllers and the air traffic control system. The research shall include investigating—

(1) methods for improving and accelerating future air traffic controller training through the application of advanced training techniques, including the use of simulation technology;

(2) the role of automation in the air traffic control system and its physical and psychological effects on air traffic controllers;

(3) the attributes and aptitudes needed to function well in a highly automated air traffic control system and the development of appropriate testing methods for identifying individuals with those attributes and aptitudes;

(4) innovative methods for training potential air traffic controllers to enhance the benefits of automation and maximize the effectiveness of the air traffic control system; and

(5) new technologies and procedures for exploiting automated communication systems, including Mode S Transponders, to improve information transfers between air traffic controllers and aircraft pilots.


(b) Research on Human Factor Aspects of Automation.—The Administrators of the Federal Aviation Administration and National Aeronautics and Space Administration may make an agreement for the use of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's unique human factor facilities and expertise in conducting research activities to study the human factor aspects of the highly automated environment for the next generation of air traffic controllers. The research activities shall include investigating—

(1) human perceptual capabilities and the effect of computer-aided decision making on the workload and performance of air traffic controllers;

(2) information management techniques for advanced air traffic control display systems; and

(3) air traffic controller workload and performance measures, including the development of predictive models.


(c) Collegiate Training Initiative.—(1) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may maintain the Collegiate Training Initiative program by making new agreements and continuing existing agreements with institutions of higher education (as defined by the Administrator) under which the institutions prepare students for the position of air traffic controller with the Department of Transportation (as defined in section 2109 of title 5). The Administrator may establish standards for the entry of institutions into the program and for their continued participation.

(2)(A) The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may appoint an individual who has successfully completed a course of training in a program described in paragraph (1) of this subsection to the position of air traffic controller noncompetitively in the excepted service (as defined in section 2103 of title 5). An individual appointed under this paragraph serves at the pleasure of the Administrator, subject to section 7511 of title 5. However, an appointment under this paragraph may be converted from one in the excepted service to a career conditional or career appointment in the competitive civil service (as defined in section 2102 of title 5) when the individual achieves full performance level air traffic controller status, as decided by the Administrator.

(B) The authority under subparagraph (A) of this paragraph to make appointments in the excepted service expires on October 6, 1997, except that the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may extend the authority for one or more successive one-year periods.

(d) Air Traffic Control Specialist Qualification Training.—

(1) Appointment of air traffic control specialists.—The Administrator is authorized to appoint a qualified air traffic control specialist candidate for placement in an airport traffic control facility if the candidate has—

(A) received a control tower operator certification (referred to in this subsection as a "CTO" certificate); and

(B) satisfied all other applicable qualification requirements for an air traffic control specialist position, including successful completion of orientation training at the Federal Aviation Administration Academy.


(2) Compensation and benefits.—An individual appointed under paragraph (1) shall receive the same compensation and benefits, and be treated in the same manner as, any other individual appointed as a developmental air traffic controller.

(3) Report.—Not later than 2 years after the date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, the Administrator shall submit to Congress a report that evaluates the effectiveness of the air traffic control specialist qualification training provided pursuant to this section, including the graduation rates of candidates who received a CTO certificate and are working in airport traffic control facilities.

(4) Additional appointments.—If the Administrator determines that air traffic control specialists appointed pursuant to this subsection are more successful in carrying out the duties of an air traffic controller than air traffic control specialists hired from the general public without any such certification, the Administrator shall increase, to the maximum extent practicable, the number of appointments of candidates who possess such certification.

(5) Reimbursement for travel expenses associated with certifications.—

(A) In general.—Subject to subparagraph (B), the Administrator may accept reimbursement from an educational entity that provides training to an air traffic control specialist candidate to cover reasonable travel expenses of the Administrator associated with issuing certifications to such candidates.

(B) Treatment of reimbursements.—Notwithstanding section 3302 of title 31, any reimbursement authorized to be collected under subparagraph (A) shall—

(i) be credited as offsetting collections to the account that finances the activities and services for which the reimbursement is accepted;

(ii) be available for expenditure only to pay the costs of activities and services for which the reimbursement is accepted, including all costs associated with collecting such reimbursement; and

(iii) remain available until expended.


(e) Staffing Report.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall submit annually to the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate a report containing—

(1) the staffing standards used to determine the number of air traffic controllers needed to operate the air traffic control system of the United States;

(2) a 3-year projection of the number of controllers needed to be employed to operate the system to meet the standards; and

(3) a detailed plan for employing the controllers, including projected budget requests.


(f) Hiring of Certain Air Traffic Control Specialists.—

(1) Consideration of applicants.—

(A) Ensuring selection of most qualified applicants.—In appointing individuals to the position of air traffic controller, the Administrator shall give preferential consideration to qualified individuals maintaining 52 consecutive weeks of air traffic control experience involving the full-time active separation of air traffic after receipt of an air traffic certification or air traffic control facility rating within 5 years of application while serving at—

(i) a Federal Aviation Administration air traffic control facility;

(ii) a civilian or military air traffic control facility of the Department of Defense; or

(iii) a tower operating under contract with the Federal Aviation Administration under section 47124.


(B) Consideration of additional applicants.—

(i) In general.—After giving preferential consideration to applicants under subparagraph (A), the Administrator shall consider additional applicants for the position of air traffic controller by referring an approximately equal number of individuals for appointment among the 2 applicant pools described in this subparagraph. The number of individuals referred for consideration from each group shall not differ by more than 10 percent.

(ii) Pool 1.—Pool 1 applicants are individuals who—

(I) have successfully completed air traffic controller training and graduated from an institution participating in the Collegiate Training Initiative program maintained under subsection (c)(1) and who have received from the institution—

(aa) an appropriate recommendation; or

(bb) an endorsement certifying that the individual would have met the requirements in effect as of December 31, 2013, for an appropriate recommendation;


(II) are eligible for a veterans recruitment appointment pursuant to section 4214 of title 38 and provide a Certificate of Release or Discharge from Active Duty within 120 days of the announcement closing;

(III) are eligible veterans (as defined in section 4211 of title 38) maintaining aviation experience obtained in the course of the individual's military experience; or

(IV) are preference eligible veterans (as defined in section 2108 of title 5).


(iii) Pool 2.—Pool 2 applicants are individuals who apply under a vacancy announcement recruiting from all United States citizens.


(C) Special rule.—

(i) In general.—Notwithstanding subparagraph (B), after giving preferential consideration to applicants under subparagraph (A) and if, after consulting with the labor organization recognized as the exclusive representative of air traffic controllers under section 7111 of title 5, the Administrator determines there are unique circumstances affecting a covered facility that warrant a vacancy announcement with a limited area of consideration, the Administrator may consider applicants for the position of air traffic controller who apply under a vacancy announcement recruiting from the local commuting area for that covered facility.

(ii) Biographical assessments.—The Administrator shall not use any biographical assessment with respect to an applicant under this subparagraph who would otherwise qualify as a Pool 1 applicant under subparagraph (B)(ii).

(iii) Covered facility defined.—In this subparagraph the term "covered facility" means a radar facility with at least 1,000,000 operations annually that is located in a metropolitan statistical area (as defined by the Office of Management and Budget) with a population estimate by the Bureau of the Census of more than 15,000,000 (as of July 1, 2016).


(2) Use of biographical assessments.—

(A) Biographical assessments.—The Administrator shall not use any biographical assessment when hiring under paragraph (1)(A) or paragraph (1)(B)(ii).

(B) Reconsideration of applicants disqualified on basis of biographical assessments.—

(i) In general.—If an individual described in paragraph (1)(A) or paragraph (1)(B)(ii), who applied for the position of air traffic controller with the Administration in response to Vacancy Announcement FAA–AMC–14–ALLSRCE–33537 (issued on February 10, 2014), was disqualified from the position as the result of a biographical assessment, the Administrator shall provide the applicant an opportunity to reapply for the position as soon as practicable under the revised hiring practices.

(ii) Waiver of age restriction.—The Administrator shall waive any maximum age restriction for the position of air traffic controller with the Administration that would otherwise disqualify an individual from the position if the individual—

(I) is reapplying for the position pursuant to clause (i) on or before December 31, 2017; and

(II) met the maximum age requirement on the date of the individual's previous application for the position during the interim hiring process.


(3) Maximum entry age for experienced controllers.—Notwithstanding section 3307 of title 5, except for individuals covered by the program described in paragraph (4), the maximum limit of age for an original appointment to a position as an air traffic controller shall be 35 years of age for those maintaining 52 weeks of air traffic control experience involving the full-time active separation of air traffic after receipt of an air traffic certification or air traffic control facility rating in a civilian or military air traffic control facility.

(4) Retired military controllers.—The Administrator may establish a program to provide an original appointment to a position as an air traffic controller for individuals who—

(A) are on terminal leave pending retirement from active duty military service or have retired from active duty military service within 5 years of applying for the appointment; and

(B) have held either an air traffic certification or air traffic control facility rating according to Administration standards within 5 years of applying for the appointment.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1178; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(9), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3389; Pub. L. 112–95, title VI, §607, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 114; Pub. L. 114–190, title II, §2106(a), July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 620; Pub. L. 115–141, div. M, title I, §108, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 1047.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44506(a), (b) 49 App.:1353 (note). Nov. 3, 1988, Pub. L. 100–591, §8(a)–(c), 102 Stat. 3015; Nov. 17, 1988, Pub. L. 100–685, §§601–603, 102 Stat. 4102.
44506(c) 49 App.:1348a. Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–388, §362, 106 Stat. 1560.
44506(d) 49 App.:1348 (note). Oct. 31, 1992, Pub. L. 102–581, §120, 106 Stat. 4884.

In subsections (a) and (b), the text of section 8(a) and (b)(3) of the Aviation Safety Research Act of 1988 (Public Law 100–581, 102 Stat. 3015, 3016) and sections 601 and 602(3) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration Authorization Act, Fiscal Year 1989 (Public Law 100–685, 102 Stat. 4102, 4103) is omitted as executed.

In subsection (c), the words "institutions of higher education" are substituted for "post-secondary educational institutions" for consistency in the revised title.

References in Text

The date of enactment of the FAA Modernization and Reform Act of 2012, referred to in subsec. (d)(3), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 112–95, which was approved Feb. 14, 2012.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (f)(1)(C). Pub. L. 115–141, §108(1), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (f)(3). Pub. L. 115–141, §108(2)(A), inserted "except for individuals covered by the program described in paragraph (4)," after "section 3307 of title 5,".

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 115–141, §108(2)(B), added par. (4).

2016—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 114–190 added subsec. (f).

2012—Subsecs. (d), (e). Pub. L. 112–95 added subsec. (d) and redesignated former subsec. (d) as (e).

1996—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Transportation and Infrastructure" for "Public Works and Transportation".

Notification of Vacancies

Pub. L. 114–190, title II, §2106(b), July 15, 2016, 130 Stat. 622, provided that: "The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall consider directly notifying secondary schools and institutions of higher learning, including Historically Black Colleges and Universities, Hispanic-serving institutions, Minority Institutions, and Tribal Colleges and Universities, of a vacancy announcement under section 44506(f)(1)(B)(iii) of title 49, United States Code."

Air Traffic Controller Staffing Initiatives and Analysis

Pub. L. 112–95, title II, §224, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 55, provided that: "As soon as practicable, and not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall—

"(1) ensure, to the extent practicable, a sufficient number of contract instructors, classroom space (including off-site locations as needed), and simulators to allow for an increase in the number of air traffic controllers at air traffic control facilities;

"(2) distribute, to the extent practicable, the placement of certified professional air traffic controllers-in-training and developmental air traffic controllers at facilities evenly across the calendar year in order to avoid training bottlenecks;

"(3) initiate an analysis, to be conducted in consultation with the exclusive bargaining representative of air traffic controllers certified under section 7111 of title 5, United States Code, of scheduling processes and practices, including overtime scheduling practices at those facilities;

"(4) provide, to the extent practicable and where appropriate, priority to certified professional air traffic controllers-in-training when filling staffing vacancies at facilities;

"(5) assess training programs at air traffic control facilities with below-average success rates to determine if training is being carried out in accordance with Administration standards, and conduct exit interview analyses with all candidates to determine potential weaknesses in training protocols, or in the execution of such training protocols; and

"(6) prioritize, to the extent practicable, such efforts to address the recommendations for the facilities identified in the Department of Transportation's Office of the Inspector General Report Number: AV-2009-047."

Facility Training Program

Pub. L. 112–95, title VI, §609(b), Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 116, provided that: "Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Feb. 14, 2012], the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall conduct a comprehensive review and evaluation of its Academy and facility training efforts. The Administrator shall—

"(1) clarify responsibility for oversight and direction of the Academy's facility training program at the national level;

"(2) communicate information concerning that responsibility to facility managers; and

"(3) establish standards to identify the number of developmental air traffic controllers that can be accommodated at each facility, based on—

"(A) the number of available on-the-job training instructors;

"(B) available classroom space;

"(C) the number of available simulators;

"(D) training requirements; and

"(E) the number of recently placed new personnel already in training."

Controller Staffing

Pub. L. 116–6, div. G, title I, Feb. 15, 2019, 133 Stat. 401, provided in part: "That not later than March 31 of each fiscal year hereafter, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall transmit to Congress an annual update to the report submitted to Congress in December 2004 pursuant to section 221 of Public Law 108–176 [set out below]".

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 115–141, div. L, title I, Mar. 23, 2018, 132 Stat. 977.

Pub. L. 115–31, div. K, title I, May 5, 2017, 131 Stat. 730.

Pub. L. 114–113, div. L, title I, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2839.

Pub. L. 113–235, div. K, title I, Dec. 16, 2014, 128 Stat. 2700.

Pub. L. 113–76, div. L, title I, Jan. 17, 2014, 128 Stat. 578.

Pub. L. 112–55, div. C, title I, Nov. 18, 2011, 125 Stat. 645.

Pub. L. 111–117, div. A, title I, Dec. 16, 2009, 123 Stat. 3039.

Pub. L. 111–8, div. I, title I, Mar. 11, 2009, 123 Stat. 918.

Pub. L. 110–161, div. K, title I, Dec. 26, 2007, 121 Stat. 2378.

Pub. L. 108–176, title II, §221, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2526, provided that:

"(a) Annual Report.—Beginning with the submission of the Budget of the United States to the Congress for fiscal year 2005, the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall transmit a report to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation and the House of Representatives Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure that describes the overall air traffic controller staffing plan, including strategies to address anticipated retirement and replacement of air traffic controllers.

"(b) Human Capital Workforce Strategy.—

"(1) Development.—The Administrator shall develop a comprehensive human capital workforce strategy to determine the most effective method for addressing the need for more air traffic controllers that is identified in the June 2002 report of the General Accounting Office [now Government Accountability Office].

"(2) Completion date.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003], the Administrator shall complete development of the strategy.

"(3) Report.—Not later than 30 days after the date on which the strategy is completed, the Administrator shall transmit to Congress a report describing the strategy."

§44507. Regions and centers

(a) Civil Aeromedical Institute.—The Civil Aeromedical Institute established by section 106(j) of this title may—

(1) conduct civil aeromedical research, including research related to—

(A) the protection and survival of aircraft occupants;

(B) medical accident investigation and airman medical certification;

(C) toxicology and the effects of drugs on human performance;

(D) the impact of disease and disability on human performance;

(E) vision and its relationship to human performance and equipment design;

(F) human factors of flight crews, air traffic controllers, mechanics, inspectors, airway facility technicians, and other individuals involved in operating and maintaining aircraft and air traffic control equipment; and

(G) agency work force optimization, including training, equipment design, reduction of errors, and identification of candidate tasks for automation;


(2) make comments to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration on human factors aspects of proposed air safety regulations;

(3) make comments to the Administrator on human factors aspects of proposed training programs, equipment requirements, standards, and procedures for aviation personnel;

(4) advise, assist, and represent the Federal Aviation Administration in the human factors aspects of joint projects between the Administration and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government, industry, and governments of foreign countries; and

(5) provide medical consultation services to the Administrator about medical certification of airmen.


(b) William J. Hughes Technical Center.—The Secretary of Transportation shall define the roles and responsibilities of the William J. Hughes Technical Center in a manner that is consistent with the defined roles and responsibilities of the Civil Aeromedical Institute under subsection (a).

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1179; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title V, §524(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3363.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44507 49 App.:1353(e). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(e); added Nov. 3, 1988, Pub. L. 100–591, §5(b), 102 Stat. 3013.

In clause (4), the words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government" are substituted for "Government agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–254 substituted "Regions and centers" for "Civil aeromedical research" in section catchline, designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and inserted heading, and added subsec. (b).

§44508. Research advisory committee

(a) Establishment and Duties.—(1) There is a research advisory committee in the Federal Aviation Administration. The committee shall—

(A) provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and Congress about needs, objectives, plans, approaches, content, and accomplishments of all aviation research and development activities and programs carried out, including those under sections 40119,1 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title;

(B) assist in ensuring that the research is coordinated with similar research being conducted outside the Administration;

(C) review the operations of the regional centers of air transportation excellence established under section 44513 of this title; and

(D) annually review the allocation made by the Administrator of the amounts authorized by section 48102(a) of this title among the major categories of research and development activities carried out by the Administration and provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator on whether such allocation is appropriate to meet the needs and objectives identified under subparagraph (A).


(2) The Administrator may establish subordinate committees to provide advice on specific areas of research conducted under sections 40119,1 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title.

(b) Members, Chairman, Pay, and Expenses.—(1) The committee is composed of not more than 30 members appointed by the Administrator from among individuals who are not employees of the Administration and who are specially qualified to serve on the committee because of their education, training, or experience. In appointing members of the committee, the Administrator shall ensure that the regional centers of air transportation excellence, universities, corporations, associations, consumers, and other departments, agencies, and instrumentalities of the United States Government are represented.

(2) The Administrator shall designate the chairman of the committee.

(3) A member of the committee serves without pay. However, the Administrator may allow a member, when attending meetings of the committee or a subordinate committee, expenses as authorized under section 5703 of title 5.

(c) Support Staff, Information, and Services.—The Administrator shall provide support staff for the committee. On request of the committee, the Administrator shall provide information, administrative services, and supplies that the Administrator considers necessary for the committee to carry out its duties and powers.

(d) Nonapplication.—Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 App. U.S.C.) does not apply to the committee.

(e) Use and Limitation of Amounts.—(1) Not more than .1 percent of the amounts made available to conduct research under sections 40119,1 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title may be used by the Administrator to carry out this section.

(2) A limitation on amounts available for obligation by or for the committee does not apply to amounts made available to carry out this section.

(f) Written Reply.—

(1) In general.—Not later than 60 days after receiving any recommendation from the research advisory committee, the Administrator shall provide a written reply to the research advisory committee that, at a minimum—

(A) clearly states whether the Administrator accepts or rejects the recommendation;

(B) explains the rationale for the Administrator's decision;

(C) sets forth the timeframe in which the Administrator will implement the recommendation; and

(D) describes the steps the Administrator will take to implement the recommendation.


(2) Transparency.—The written reply to the research advisory committee, when transmitted to the research advisory committee, shall be—

(A) made publicly available on the research advisory committee website; and

(B) transmitted to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate.


(3) National aviation research plan.—The national aviation research plan required under section 44501(c) shall include a summary of all research advisory committee recommendations and a description of the status of their implementation.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1180; Pub. L. 104–264, title XI, §1104, Oct. 9, 1996, 110 Stat. 3279; Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title VII, §712, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3410.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44508(a)(1) 49 App.:1353(f)(1), (2). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(f); added Nov. 3, 1988, Pub. L. 100–591, §6, 102 Stat. 3013; Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9209(b), 104 Stat. 1388–377.
44508(a)(2) 49 App.:1353(f)(6) (last sentence).
44508(b) 49 App.:1353(f)(3)–(5).
44508(c) 49 App.:1353(f)(6) (1st sentence), (7).
44508(d) 49 App.:1353(f)(8).
44508(e) 49 App.:1353(f)(9).

In subsection (a)(1), before clause (A), the words "There is a" are substituted for "Not later than 180 days after November 3, 1988, the Administrator shall establish" to eliminate obsolete words. In clause (C), the words "operations of" are substituted for "research and training to be carried out by" for consistency with section 44513 of the revised title.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "to the advisory committee" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b)(1), the words "departments, agencies, and instrumentalities" are substituted for "agencies" for consistency in the revised title and with other titles of the United States Code.

In subsection (b)(3), the words "travel or transportation" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (e), the words "for fiscal years beginning after September 30, 1988" are omitted as obsolete.

References in Text

Section 40119 of this title, referred to in subsecs. (a)(1)(A), (2) and (e)(1), was repealed by Pub. L. 115–254, div. K, title I, §1991(c)(3), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3627.

Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (d), is section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1)(A). Pub. L. 115–254, §712(a), amended subpar. (A) generally. Prior to amendment, subpar. (A) read as follows: "provide advice and recommendations to the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration about needs, objectives, plans, approaches, content, and accomplishments of the aviation research program carried out under sections 40119, 44504, 44505, 44507, 44511–44513, and 44912 of this title;".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–254, §712(b), added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(D). Pub. L. 104–264 added subpar. (D).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Except as otherwise specifically provided, amendment by Pub. L. 104–264 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1996, and not to be construed as affecting funds made available for a fiscal year ending before Oct. 1, 1996, see section 3 of Pub. L. 104–264, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§44509. Demonstration projects

The Secretary of Transportation may carry out under this chapter demonstration projects that the Secretary considers necessary for research and development activities under this chapter.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1181.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44509 49 App.:2205(b)(1). Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §506(b)(1), 96 Stat. 678; restated Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §105(b)(1), 101 Stat. 1490.

§44510. Airway science curriculum grants

(a) General Authority.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make competitive grant agreements with institutions of higher education having airway science curricula for the United States Government's share of the allowable direct costs of the following categories of items to the extent that the items are in support of airway science curricula:

(1) the construction, purchase, or lease with an option to purchase, of buildings and associated facilities.

(2) instructional material and equipment.


(b) Cost Guidelines.—The Administrator shall establish guidelines to determine the direct costs allowable under a grant to be made under this section. The Government's share of the allowable cost of a project assisted by a grant under this section may not be more than 65 percent.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1181.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44510(a) 49 App.:1354a (1st sentence). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–516, (1st sentence last proviso, 3d, last sentences in par. under heading "Facilities and Equipment"), 104 Stat. 2160.
  Oct. 28, 1991, Pub. L. 102–143, (1st sentence last proviso, 3d, last sentences in par. under heading "Facilities and Equipment"), 105 Stat. 922.
  Oct. 6, 1992, Pub. L. 102–388, (1st sentence last proviso, 3d, last sentences in par. under heading "Facilities and Equipment"), 106 Stat. 1525.
44510(b) 49 App.:1354a (3d, last sentences).

In subsection (a), before clause (1), the words "With appropriations made for the Airway Science Program, as authorized below in this section" are omitted as unnecessary because of section 48106 of the revised title.

In subsection (b), the proviso is omitted as executed.

§44511. Aviation research grants

(a) General Authority.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher education and nonprofit research organizations to conduct aviation research in areas the Administrator considers necessary for the long-term growth of civil aviation.

(b) Applications.—An institution of higher education or nonprofit research organization interested in receiving a grant under this section may submit an application to the Administrator. The application must be in the form and contain the information the Administrator requires.

(c) Solicitation, Review, and Evaluation Process.—The Administrator shall establish a solicitation, review, and evaluation process that ensures—

(1) providing grants under this section for proposals having adequate merit and relevancy to the mission of the Administration;

(2) a fair geographical distribution of grants under this section; and

(3) the inclusion of historically black institutions of higher education and other minority nonprofit research organizations for grant consideration under this section.


(d) Records.—Each person receiving a grant under this section shall maintain records that the Administrator requires as being necessary to facilitate an effective audit and evaluation of the use of money provided under the grant.

(e) Annual Report.—The Administrator shall submit an annual report to the Committee on Science of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate on carrying out this section.

(f) Airport Cooperative Research Program.—

(1) Establishment.—The Secretary of Transportation shall maintain an airport cooperative research program to—

(A) identify problems that are shared by airport operating agencies and can be solved through applied research but that are not being adequately addressed by existing Federal research programs; and

(B) fund research to address those problems.


(2) Governance.—The Secretary of Transportation shall appoint an independent governing board for the research program established under this subsection. The governing board shall be appointed from candidates nominated by national associations representing public airport operating agencies, airport executives, State aviation officials, and the scheduled airlines, and shall include representatives of appropriate Federal agencies. Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act shall not apply to the governing board.

(3) Implementation.—The Secretary of Transportation shall enter into an arrangement with the National Academy of Sciences to provide staff support to the governing board established under paragraph (2) and to carry out projects proposed by the governing board that the Secretary considers appropriate.

(4) Report.—Not later than September 30, 2012, the Secretary shall transmit to the Congress a report on the program.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1181; Pub. L. 104–287, §5(74), Oct. 11, 1996, 110 Stat. 3396; Pub. L. 108–176, title VII, §712, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2586; Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §906, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 139.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44511 49 App.:1353(g). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(g); added Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9205(a), 104 Stat. 1388–373.

In this section, the words "institutions of higher education" and "institution of higher education" are substituted for "colleges, universities", "university, college", and "colleges and universities" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (c), the words "providing grants" are substituted for "the funding", the word "grants" is substituted for "grant funds", and the words "grant consideration" are substituted for "funding consideration", for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (d), the words "money provided under the grant" are substituted for "grant funds" for consistency.

References in Text

Section 14 of the Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (f)(2), is section 14 of Pub. L. 92–463, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (f)(1). Pub. L. 112–95, §906(1), substituted "maintain an" for "establish a 4-year pilot" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(4). Pub. L. 112–95, §906(2), substituted "Not later than September 30, 2012," for "Not later than 6 months after the expiration of the program under this subsection," and "program" for "program, including recommendations as to the need for establishing a permanent airport cooperative research program".

2003—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 108–176 added subsec. (f).

1996—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–287 substituted "Committee on Science" for "Committee on Science, Space, and Technology".

Change of Name

Committee on Science of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Science and Technology of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007. Committee on Science and Technology of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 5, One Hundred Twelfth Congress, Jan. 5, 2011.

Effective Date of 2003 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–176 applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as a note under section 106 of this title.

§44512. Catastrophic failure prevention research grants

(a) General Authority.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher education and nonprofit research organizations—

(1) to conduct aviation research related to the development of technologies and methods to assess the risk of, and prevent, defects, failures, and malfunctions of products, parts, processes, and articles manufactured for use in aircraft, aircraft engines, propellers, and appliances that could result in a catastrophic failure of an aircraft; and

(2) to establish centers of excellence for continuing the research.


(b) Solicitation, Application, Review, and Evaluation Process.—The Administrator shall establish a solicitation, application, review, and evaluation process that ensures providing grants under this section for proposals having adequate merit and relevancy to the research described in subsection (a) of this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1182.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44512 49 App.:1353(h). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(h); added Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9208(b), 104 Stat. 1388–376.

In this section, the words "institutions of higher education" are substituted for "colleges, universities" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (b), the words "providing grants" are substituted for "the funding" for consistency in the revised title.

§44513. Regional centers of air transportation excellence

(a) General Authority.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to institutions of higher education to establish and operate regional centers of air transportation excellence. The locations shall be distributed in a geographically fair way.

(b) Responsibilities.—(1) The responsibilities of each center established under this section shall include—

(A) conducting research on—

(i) airspace and airport planning and design;

(ii) airport capacity enhancement techniques;

(iii) human performance in the air transportation environment;

(iv) aviation safety and security;

(v) the supply of trained air transportation personnel, including pilots and mechanics; and

(vi) other aviation issues related to developing and maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation system; and


(B) interpreting, publishing, and disseminating the results of the research.


(2) In conducting research described in paragraph (1)(A) of this subsection, each center may make contracts with nonprofit research organizations and other appropriate persons.

(c) Applications.—An institution of higher education interested in receiving a grant under this section may submit an application to the Administrator. The application must be in the form and contain the information that the Administrator requires by regulation.

(d) Selection Criteria.—The Administrator shall select recipients of grants under this section on the basis of the following criteria:

(1) the extent to which the needs of the State in which the applicant is located are representative of the needs of the region for improved air transportation services and facilities.

(2) the demonstrated research and extension resources available to the applicant to carry out this section.

(3) the ability of the applicant to provide leadership in making national and regional contributions to the solution of both long-range and immediate air transportation problems.

(4) the extent to which the applicant has an established air transportation program.

(5) the demonstrated ability of the applicant to disseminate results of air transportation research and educational programs through a statewide or regionwide continuing education program.

(6) the projects the applicant proposes to carry out under the grant.


(e) Expenditure Agreements.—A grant may be made under this section in a fiscal year only if the recipient makes an agreement with the Administrator that the Administrator requires to ensure that the recipient will maintain its total expenditures from all other sources for establishing and operating the center and related research activities at a level at least equal to the average level of those expenditures in the 2 fiscal years of the recipient occurring immediately before November 5, 1990.

(f) Government's Share of Costs.—The United States Government's share of establishing and operating a center and all related research activities that grant recipients carry out shall not exceed 50 percent of the costs, except that the Administrator may increase such share to a maximum of 75 percent of the costs for a fiscal year if the Administrator determines that a center would be unable to carry out the authorized activities described in this section without additional funds.

(g) Allocating Amounts.—The Administrator shall allocate amounts made available to carry out this section in a geographically fair way.

(h) Annual Report.—The Administrator shall transmit annually to the Committee on Science, Space, and Technology of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate at the time of the President's budget request a report that lists—

(1) the research projects that have been initiated by each center in the preceding year;

(2) the amount of funding for each research project and the funding source;

(3) the institutions participating in each research project and their shares of the overall funding for each research project; and

(4) the level of cost-sharing for each research project.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1182; Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §907, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 140.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44513 49 App.:1353(i). Aug. 23, 1958, Pub. L. 85–726, 72 Stat. 731, §312(i); added Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9209(a), 104 Stat. 1388–376.

In this section, the words "institutions of higher education" and "institution of higher education" are substituted for "colleges or universities" and "college or university" for consistency in the revised title.

In subsection (a), the words "one or more" are omitted as surplus.

Amendments

2012—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 112–95, §907(a), amended subsec. (f) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The United States Government's share of a grant under this section is 50 percent of the costs of establishing and operating the center and related research activities that the grant recipient carries out."

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 112–95, §907(b), added subsec. (h).

Center of Excellence for Aviation Human Resource Research

Pub. L. 112–95, title IX, §908, Feb. 14, 2012, 126 Stat. 140, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—Using amounts made available under section 48102(a) of title 49, United States Code, the Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] may establish a center of excellence to conduct research on—

"(1) human performance in the air transportation environment, including among air transportation personnel such as air traffic controllers, pilots, and technicians; and

"(2) any other aviation human resource issue pertinent to developing and maintaining a safe and efficient air transportation system.

"(b) Activities.—Activities conducted under this section may include the following:

"(1) Research, development, and evaluation of training programs for air traffic controllers, aviation safety inspectors, airway transportation safety specialists, and engineers.

"(2) Research and development of best practices for recruitment of individuals into the aviation field for mission critical positions.

"(3) Research, in consultation with other relevant Federal agencies, to develop a baseline of general aviation employment statistics and an analysis of future needs in the aviation field.

"(4) Research and the development of a comprehensive assessment of the airframe and power plant technician certification process and its effect on employment trends.

"(5) Evaluation of aviation maintenance technician school environments.

"(6) Research and an assessment of the ability to develop training programs to allow for the transition of recently unemployed and highly skilled mechanics into the aviation field."

§44514. Flight service stations

(a) Hours of Operation.—(1) The Secretary of Transportation may close, or reduce the hours of operation of, a flight service station in an area only if the service provided in the area after the closing or during the hours the station is not in operation is provided by an automated flight service station with at least model 1 equipment.

(2) The Secretary shall reopen a flight service station closed after March 24, 1987, but before July 15, 1987, as soon as practicable if the service in the area in which the station is located has not been provided since the closing by an automatic flight service station with at least model 1 equipment. The hours of operation for the reopened station shall be the same as were the hours of operation for the station on March 25, 1987. After reopening the station, the Secretary may close, or reduce the hours of operation of, the station only as provided in paragraph (1) of this subsection.

(b) Manned Auxiliary Stations.—The Secretary and the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall establish a system of manned auxiliary flight service stations. The manned auxiliary flight service stations shall supplement the services of the planned consolidation to 61 automated flight service stations under the flight service station modernization program. A manned auxiliary flight service station shall be located in an area of unique weather or operational conditions that are critical to the safety of flight.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1183.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44514(a) 49 App.:2224. Sept. 3, 1982, Pub. L. 97–248, §528, 96 Stat. 699; restated Dec. 30, 1987, Pub. L. 100–223, §113, 101 Stat. 1505.
44514(b) 49 App.:1348 (notes). Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–508, §9115, 104 Stat. 1388–364.
  Nov. 5, 1990, Pub. L. 101–516, §330(a), 104 Stat. 2184.

In subsection (a)(1), the words "On or after July 15, 1987" are omitted as obsolete.

In subsection (a)(2), the words "after December 30, 1987" are omitted as obsolete. The words "the date of" are omitted as surplus.

In subsection (b), the text of section 9115(b) of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–508, 104 Stat. 1388–364) and section 330(a) (last sentence) of the Department of Transportation and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1991 (Public Law 101–516, 104 Stat. 2184) is omitted as obsolete.

§44515. Advanced training facilities for maintenance technicians for air carrier aircraft

(a) General Authority.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration may make grants to not more than 4 vocational technical educational institutions to acquire or construct facilities to be used for the advanced training of maintenance technicians for air carrier aircraft.

(b) Eligibility.—The Administrator may make a grant under this section to a vocational technical educational institution only if the institution has a training curriculum that prepares aircraft maintenance technicians who hold airframe and power plant certificates under subpart D of part 65 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to maintain, without direct supervision, air carrier aircraft.

(c) Limitation.—A vocational technical educational institution may not receive more than a total of $5,000,000 in grants under this section.

(Pub. L. 103–272, §1(e), July 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 1184.)

Historical and Revision Notes
Revised

Section

Source (U.S. Code)Source (Statutes at Large)
44515 49 App.:1354 (note). Oct., 31, 1992, Pub. L. 102–581, §119(a)–(c), 106 Stat. 4883.

The words "vocational technical educational institution" are used throughout this section for consistency in this section.

Aviation Maintenance Industry Technical Workforce

Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title VI, §624, Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3404, provided that:

"(a) Regulations.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act [Oct. 5, 2018], the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall issue a final rule to modernize training programs at aviation maintenance technician schools governed by part 147 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(b) Guidance.—Not later than 180 days after the date of enactment of this Act, the Administrator shall coordinate with government, educational institutions, labor organizations representing aviation maintenance workers, and businesses to develop and publish guidance or model curricula for aviation maintenance technician schools referred to in subsection (a) to ensure workforce readiness for industry needs, including curricula related to training in avionics, troubleshooting, and other areas of industry needs.

"(c) Review and Periodic Updates.—The Administrator shall—

"(1) ensure training programs referred to in subsection (a) are revised and updated in correlation with aviation maintenance technician airman certification standards as necessary to reflect current technology and maintenance practices; and

"(2) publish updates to the guidance or model curricula required under subsection (b) at least once every 2 years, as necessary, from the date of initial publication.

"(d) Report to Congress.—If the Administrator does not issue such final rule by the deadline specified in subsection (a), the Administrator shall, not later than 30 days after such deadline, submit to the appropriate committees of Congress [Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives] a report containing—

"(1) an explanation as to why such final rule was not issued by such deadline; and

"(2) a schedule for issuing such final rule.

"(e) Study.—The Comptroller General of the United States shall conduct a study on technical workers in the aviation maintenance industry.

"(f) Contents.—In conducting the study under subsection (e), the Comptroller General shall—

"(1) analyze the current Standard Occupational Classification system with regard to the aviation profession, particularly technical workers in the aviation maintenance industry;

"(2) analyze how changes to the Federal employment classification of aviation maintenance industry workers might affect government data on unemployment rates and wages;

"(3) analyze how changes to the Federal employment classification of aviation maintenance industry workers might affect projections for future aviation maintenance industry workforce needs and project technical worker shortfalls;

"(4) analyze the impact of Federal regulation, including Federal Aviation Administration oversight of certification, testing, and education programs, on employment of technical workers in the aviation maintenance industry;

"(5) develop recommendations on how Federal Aviation Administration regulations and policies could be improved to modernize training programs at aviation maintenance technical schools and address aviation maintenance industry needs for technical workers;

"(6) develop recommendations for better coordinating actions by government, educational institutions, and businesses to support workforce growth in the aviation maintenance industry; and

"(7) develop recommendations for addressing the needs for government funding, private investment, equipment for training purposes, and other resources necessary to strengthen existing training programs or develop new training programs to support workforce growth in the aviation industry.

"(g) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of enactment of this Act, the Comptroller General shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report on the results of the study.

"(h) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

"(1) Aviation maintenance industry.—The term 'aviation maintenance industry' means repair stations certificated under part 145 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.

"(2) Technical worker.—The term 'technical worker' means an individual authorized under part 43 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, to maintain, rebuild, alter, or perform preventive maintenance on an aircraft, airframe, aircraft engine, propeller, appliance, or component part or employed by an entity so authorized to perform such a function."

Improvement of Curriculum Standards for Aviation Maintenance Technicians

Pub. L. 108–176, title V, §504, Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2559, provided that:

"(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall ensure that the training standards for airframe and powerplant mechanics under part 65 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations, are updated and revised in accordance with this section. The Administrator may update and revise the training standards through the initiation of a formal rulemaking or by issuing an advisory circular or other agency guidance.

"(b) Elements for Consideration.—The updated and revised standards required under subsection (a) shall include those curriculum adjustments that are necessary to more accurately reflect current technology and maintenance practices.

"(c) Certification.—Any adjustment or modification of current curriculum standards made pursuant to this section shall be reflected in the certification examinations of airframe and powerplant mechanics.

"(d) Completion.—The revised and updated training standards required by subsection (a) shall be completed not later than 12 months after the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 12, 2003].

"(e) Periodic Reviews and Updates.—The Administrator shall review the content of the curriculum standards for training airframe and powerplant mechanics referred to in subsection (a) every 3 years after completion of the revised and updated training standards required under subsection (a) as necessary to reflect current technology and maintenance practices."

Improved Training for Airframe and Powerplant Mechanics

Pub. L. 106–181, title V, §517, Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 145, provided that: "The Administrator [of the Federal Aviation Administration] shall form a partnership with industry and labor to develop a model program to improve the curricula, teaching methods, and quality of instructors for training individuals that need certification as airframe and powerplant mechanics."

§44516. Human factors program

(a) Human Factors Training.—

(1) Air traffic controllers.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall—

(A) address the problems and concerns raised by the National Research Council in its report "The Future of Air Traffic Control" on air traffic control automation; and

(B) respond to the recommendations made by the National Research Council.


(2) Pilots and flight crews.—The Administrator shall work with representatives of the aviation industry and appropriate aviation programs associated with universities to develop specific training curricula to address critical safety problems, including problems of pilots—

(A) in recovering from loss of control of an aircraft, including handling unusual attitudes and mechanical malfunctions;

(B) in deviating from standard operating procedures, including inappropriate responses to emergencies and hazardous weather;

(C) in awareness of altitude and location relative to terrain to prevent controlled flight into terrain; and

(D) in landing and approaches, including nonprecision approaches and go-around procedures.


(b) Test Program.—The Administrator shall establish a test program in cooperation with air carriers to use model Jeppesen approach plates or other similar tools to improve precision-like landing approaches for aircraft.

(c) Report.—Not later than 1 year after the date of the enactment of this section, the Administrator shall transmit to the Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation of the Senate and the Committee on Transportation and Infrastructure of the House of Representatives a report on the status of the Administration's efforts to encourage the adoption and implementation of advanced qualification programs for air carriers under this section.

(d) Advanced Qualification Program Defined.—In this section, the term "advanced qualification program" means an alternative method for qualifying, training, certifying, and ensuring the competency of flight crews and other commercial aviation operations personnel subject to the training and evaluation requirements of parts 121 and 135 of title 14, Code of Federal Regulations.

(Added Pub. L. 106–181, title VII, §713(a), Apr. 5, 2000, 114 Stat. 160.)

References in Text

The date of the enactment of this section, referred to in subsec. (c), is the date of enactment of Pub. L. 106–181, which was approved Apr. 5, 2000.

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 1999, see section 3 of Pub. L. 106–181, set out as an Effective Date of 2000 Amendments note under section 106 of this title.

§44517. Program to permit cost sharing of air traffic modernization projects

(a) In General.—Subject to the requirements of this section, the Secretary may carry out a program under which the Secretary may make grants to project sponsors for not more than 10 eligible projects per fiscal year for the purpose of improving aviation safety and enhancing mobility of the Nation's air transportation system by encouraging non-Federal investment in critical air traffic control equipment and software.

(b) Federal Share.—The Federal share of the cost of an eligible project carried out under the program shall not exceed 33 percent. The non-Federal share of the cost of an eligible project shall be provided from non-Federal sources, including revenues collected pursuant to section 40117.

(c) Limitation on Grant Amounts.—No eligible project may receive more than $5,000,000 in Federal funds under the program.

(d) Funding.—The Secretary shall use amounts appropriated under section 48101(a) to carry out the program.

(e) Definitions.—In this section, the following definitions apply:

(1) Eligible project.—The term "eligible project" means a project to purchase equipment or software relating to the Nation's air traffic control system that is certified or approved by the Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration and that promotes safety, efficiency, or mobility. Such projects may include—

(A) airport-specific air traffic facilities and equipment, including local area augmentation systems, instrument landing systems, weather and wind shear detection equipment, and lighting improvements;

(B) automation tools to effect improvements in airport capacity, including passive final approach spacing tools and traffic management advisory equipment; and

(C) equipment and software that enhance airspace control procedures or assist in en route surveillance, including oceanic and offshore flight tracking.


(2) Project sponsor.—The term "project sponsor" means any major user of the national airspace system, as determined by the Secretary, including a public-use airport or a joint venture between a public-use airport and one or more air carriers.


(f) Transfers of Equipment.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, and upon agreement by the Administrator, a project sponsor may transfer, without consideration, to the Federal Aviation Administration, facilities, equipment, or automation tools, the purchase of which was assisted by a grant made under this section, if such facilities, equipment or tools meet Federal Aviation Administration operation and maintenance criteria.

(g) Guidelines.—The Administrator shall issue advisory guidelines on the implementation of the program. The guidelines shall not be subject to administrative rulemaking requirements under subchapter II of chapter 5 of title 5.

(Added Pub. L. 108–176, title I, §183(a), Dec. 12, 2003, 117 Stat. 2516.)

Effective Date

Section applicable only to fiscal years beginning after Sept. 30, 2003, except as otherwise specifically provided, see section 3 of Pub. L. 108–176, set out as an Effective Date of 2003 Amendment note under section 106 of this title.

§44518. Advanced Materials Center of Excellence

(a) In General.—The Administrator of the Federal Aviation Administration shall continue operation of the Advanced Materials Center of Excellence (referred to in this section as the "Center") under its structure as in effect on March 1, 2016, which shall focus on applied research and training on the durability and maintainability of advanced materials in transport airframe structures.

(b) Responsibilities.—The Center shall—

(1) promote and facilitate collaboration among academia, the Transportation Division of the Federal Aviation Administration, and the commercial aircraft industry, including manufacturers, commercial air carriers, and suppliers; and

(2) establish goals set to advance technology, improve engineering practices, and facilitate continuing education in relevant areas of study.

(Added Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title VII, §762(a), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3428.)