[USC02] 50 USC CHAPTER 44, SUBCHAPTER VIII: EDUCATION IN SUPPORT OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
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50 USC CHAPTER 44, SUBCHAPTER VIII: EDUCATION IN SUPPORT OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE
From Title 50—WAR AND NATIONAL DEFENSECHAPTER 44—NATIONAL SECURITY

SUBCHAPTER VIII—EDUCATION IN SUPPORT OF NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE

Part A—Science and Technology

§3191. Scholarships and work-study for pursuit of graduate degrees in science and technology

(a) Program authorized

The Director of National Intelligence may carry out a program to provide scholarships and work-study for individuals who are pursuing graduate degrees in fields of study in science and technology that are identified by the Director as appropriate to meet the future needs of the intelligence community for qualified scientists and engineers.

(b) Administration

If the Director of National Intelligence carries out the program under subsection (a), the Director of National Intelligence shall administer the program through the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.

(c) Identification of fields of study

If the Director of National Intelligence carries out the program under subsection (a), the Director shall identify fields of study under subsection (a) in consultation with the other heads of the elements of the intelligence community.

(d) Eligibility for participation

An individual eligible to participate in the program is any individual who—

(1) either—

(A) is an employee of the intelligence community; or

(B) meets criteria for eligibility for employment in the intelligence community that are established by the Director of National Intelligence;


(2) is accepted in a graduate degree program in a field of study in science or technology identified under subsection (a); and

(3) is eligible for a security clearance at the level of Secret or above.

(e) Regulations

If the Director of National Intelligence carries out the program under subsection (a), the Director shall prescribe regulations for purposes of the administration of this section.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1001, as added Pub. L. 107–306, title III, §331(a)(3), Nov. 27, 2002, 116 Stat. 2394; amended Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §§1071(a)(1)(MM), (3)(C)–(F), 1072(a)(8), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3689, 3690, 3692.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441g of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1001 of act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, was renumbered section 1101 and is classified to section 3231 of this title.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 108–458, §1071(a)(1)(MM), substituted "Director of National Intelligence" for "Director of Central Intelligence".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 108–458, §1072(a)(8), substituted "Office of the Director of National Intelligence" for "Assistant Director of Central Intelligence for Administration".

Pub. L. 108–458, §1071(a)(3)(C), which directed amendment of subsec. (b) by substituting "Director of National Intelligence" for "Director" each place it appeared, was executed by making the substitution the first two places it appeared to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–458, §1071(a)(3)(D), substituted "If the Director of National Intelligence" for "If the Director".

Subsec. (d)(1)(B). Pub. L. 108–458, §1071(a)(3)(E), substituted "Director of National Intelligence" for "Director".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 108–458, §1071(a)(3)(F), substituted "If the Director of National Intelligence" for "If the Director".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

For Determination by President that amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 take effect on Apr. 21, 2005, see Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 21, 2005, 70 F.R. 23925, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–458 effective not later than six months after Dec. 17, 2004, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 1097(a) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out in an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment; Transition Provisions note under section 3001 of this title.

Pilot Program on Recruitment and Training of Intelligence Analysts

Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §318, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2613, as amended by Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §§1071(g)(3)(A)(iii), 1072(d)(2)(B), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3692, 3693, which required the Director of National Intelligence to carry out a pilot program during fiscal years 2004 through 2006 to provide financial assistance for academic training in areas of deficiency in the analytic capabilities of the intelligence community, and to submit reports to Congress not later than 120 days after Dec. 13, 2003, and not later than one year after the commencement of the program, was repealed by Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §311(b)(2)(A), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2663.

§3192. Framework for cross-disciplinary education and training

The Director of National Intelligence shall establish an integrated framework that brings together the educational components of the intelligence community in order to promote a more effective and productive intelligence community through cross-disciplinary education and joint training.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1002, as added Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1042, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3679.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441g–1 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Effective Date

For Determination by President that section take effect on Apr. 21, 2005, see Memorandum of President of the United States, Apr. 21, 2005, 70 F.R. 23925, set out as a note under section 3001 of this title.

Section effective not later than six months after Dec. 17, 2004, except as otherwise expressly provided, see section 1097(a) of Pub. L. 108–458, set out in an Effective Date of 2004 Amendment; Transition Provisions note under section 3001 of this title.

§3193. Repealed. Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §313(b)(1)(B), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2666

Section, act July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1003, as added Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1043, Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3679; amended Pub. L. 111–259, title VIII, §804(8), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2747, related to Intelligence Community Scholarship Program.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441g–2 of this title and repealed prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Savings Provision

Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §313(b)(2), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2666, provided that: "Notwithstanding the repeals made by paragraph (1) [repealing this section, amending provisions set out as a note under section 3023 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3021 of this title], nothing in this subsection [repealing this section, amending provisions set out as a note under section 3023 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as a note under section 3021 of this title] shall be construed to amend, modify, or abrogate any agreement, contract, or employment relationship that was in effect in relation to the provisions repealed under paragraph (1) on the day prior to the date of the enactment of this Act [Oct. 7, 2010]."

Part B—Foreign Languages Program

§3201. Program on advancement of foreign languages critical to the intelligence community

(a) In general

The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence may jointly carry out a program to advance skills in foreign languages that are critical to the capability of the intelligence community to carry out the national security activities of the United States (hereinafter in this part referred to as the "Foreign Languages Program").

(b) Identification of requisite actions

In order to carry out the Foreign Languages Program, the Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall jointly identify actions required to improve the education of personnel in the intelligence community in foreign languages that are critical to the capability of the intelligence community to carry out the national security activities of the United States and to meet the long-term intelligence needs of the United States.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1011, as added Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §612(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3955.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441j of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Pilot Program for Intensive Language Instruction in African Languages

Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §314, Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2666, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The Director of National Intelligence, in consultation with the National Security Education Board established under section 803(a) of the David L. Boren National Security Education Act of 1991 (50 U.S.C. 1903(a)), may establish a pilot program for intensive language instruction in African languages.

"(b) Program.—A pilot program established under subsection (a) shall provide scholarships for programs that provide intensive language instruction—

"(1) in any of the five highest priority African languages for which scholarships are not offered under the David L. Boren National Security Education Act of 1991 (50 U.S.C. 1901 et seq.), as determined by the Director of National Intelligence; and

"(2) both in the United States and in a country in which the language is the native language of a significant portion of the population, as determined by the Director of National Intelligence.

"(c) Termination.—A pilot program established under subsection (a) shall terminate on the date that is five years after the date on which such pilot program is established.

"(d) Authorization of Appropriations.—

"(1) In general.—There is authorized to be appropriated to carry out this section $2,000,000.

"(2) Availability.—Funds authorized to be appropriated under paragraph (1) shall remain available until the termination of the pilot program in accordance with subsection (c)."

§3202. Education partnerships

(a) In general

In carrying out the Foreign Languages Program, the head of a covered element of the intelligence community may enter into one or more education partnership agreements with educational institutions in the United States in order to encourage and enhance the study in such educational institutions of foreign languages that are critical to the capability of the intelligence community to carry out the national security activities of the United States.

(b) Assistance provided under educational partnership agreements

Under an educational partnership agreement entered into with an educational institution pursuant to this section, the head of a covered element of the intelligence community may provide the following assistance to the educational institution:

(1) The loan of equipment and instructional materials of the element of the intelligence community to the educational institution for any purpose and duration that the head of the element considers appropriate.

(2) Notwithstanding any other provision of law relating to the transfer of surplus property, the transfer to the educational institution of any computer equipment, or other equipment, that is—

(A) commonly used by educational institutions;

(B) surplus to the needs of the element of the intelligence community; and

(C) determined by the head of the element to be appropriate for support of such agreement.


(3) The provision of dedicated personnel to the educational institution—

(A) to teach courses in foreign languages that are critical to the capability of the intelligence community to carry out the national security activities of the United States; or

(B) to assist in the development for the educational institution of courses and materials on such languages.


(4) The involvement of faculty and students of the educational institution in research projects of the element of the intelligence community.

(5) Cooperation with the educational institution in developing a program under which students receive academic credit at the educational institution for work on research projects of the element of the intelligence community.

(6) The provision of academic and career advice and assistance to students of the educational institution.

(7) The provision of cash awards and other items that the head of the element of the intelligence community considers appropriate.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1012, as added Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §612(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3956.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441j–1 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§3203. Voluntary services

(a) Authority to accept services

Notwithstanding section 1342 of title 31 and subject to subsection (b), the Foreign Languages Program under section 3201 of this title shall include authority for the head of a covered element of the intelligence community to accept from any dedicated personnel voluntary services in support of the activities authorized by this part.

(b) Requirements and limitations

(1) In accepting voluntary services from an individual under subsection (a), the head of a covered element of the intelligence community shall—

(A) supervise the individual to the same extent as the head of the element would supervise a compensated employee of that element providing similar services; and

(B) ensure that the individual is licensed, privileged, has appropriate educational or experiential credentials, or is otherwise qualified under applicable law or regulations to provide such services.


(2) In accepting voluntary services from an individual under subsection (a), the head of a covered element of the intelligence community may not—

(A) place the individual in a policymaking position, or other position performing inherently governmental functions; or

(B) compensate the individual for the provision of such services.

(c) Authority to recruit and train individuals providing services

The head of a covered element of the intelligence community may recruit and train individuals to provide voluntary services under subsection (a).

(d) Status of individuals providing services

(1) Subject to paragraph (2), while providing voluntary services under subsection (a) or receiving training under subsection (c), an individual shall be considered to be an employee of the Federal Government only for purposes of the following provisions of law:

(A) Section 552a of title 5 (relating to maintenance of records on individuals).

(B) Chapter 11 of title 18 (relating to conflicts of interest).


(2)(A) With respect to voluntary services under paragraph (1) provided by an individual that are within the scope of the services accepted under that paragraph, the individual shall be deemed to be a volunteer of a governmental entity or nonprofit institution for purposes of the Volunteer Protection Act of 1997 (42 U.S.C. 14501 et seq.).

(B) In the case of any claim against such an individual with respect to the provision of such services, section 4(d) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 14503(d)1 shall not apply.

(3) Acceptance of voluntary services under this section shall have no bearing on the issuance or renewal of a security clearance.

(e) Reimbursement of incidental expenses

(1) The head of a covered element of the intelligence community may reimburse an individual for incidental expenses incurred by the individual in providing voluntary services under subsection (a). The head of a covered element of the intelligence community shall determine which expenses are eligible for reimbursement under this subsection.

(2) Reimbursement under paragraph (1) may be made from appropriated or nonappropriated funds.

(f) Authority to install equipment

(1) The head of a covered element of the intelligence community may install telephone lines and any necessary telecommunication equipment in the private residences of individuals who provide voluntary services under subsection (a).

(2) The head of a covered element of the intelligence community may pay the charges incurred for the use of equipment installed under paragraph (1) for authorized purposes.

(3) Notwithstanding section 1348 of title 31, the head of a covered element of the intelligence community may use appropriated funds or nonappropriated funds of the element in carrying out this subsection.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1013, as added Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §612(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3957.)

References in Text

The Volunteer Protection Act of 1997, referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(A), is Pub. L. 105–19, June 18, 1997, 111 Stat. 218, which is classified generally to chapter 139 (§14501 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 14501 of Title 42 and Tables.

Section 4(d) of such Act (42 U.S.C. 14503(d)), meaning the Volunteer Protection Act of 1997 and referred to in subsec. (d)(2)(B), was redesignated section 4(e) of the Act by Pub. L. 115–254, div. B, title V, §584(1), Oct. 5, 2018, 132 Stat. 3399.

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441j–2 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

1 See References in Text note below.

§3204. Regulations

(a) In general

The Secretary of Defense and the Director of National Intelligence shall jointly prescribe regulations to carry out the Foreign Languages Program.

(b) Elements of the intelligence community

The head of each covered element of the intelligence community shall prescribe regulations to carry out sections 3202 and 3203 of this title with respect to that element including the following:

(1) Procedures to be utilized for the acceptance of voluntary services under section 3203 of this title.

(2) Procedures and requirements relating to the installation of equipment under section 3203(f) of this title.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1014, as added Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §612(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3958.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441j–3 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§3205. Definitions

In this part:

(1) The term "covered element of the intelligence community" means an agency, office, bureau, or element referred to in subparagraphs (B) through (L) of section 3003(4) of this title.

(2) The term "educational institution" means—

(A) a local educational agency (as that term is defined in section 7801 of title 20);

(B) an institution of higher education (as defined in section 1002 of title 20, other than institutions referred to in subsection (a)(1)(C) of such section); or

(C) any other nonprofit institution that provides instruction of foreign languages in languages that are critical to the capability of the intelligence community to carry out national security activities of the United States.


(3) The term "dedicated personnel" means employees of the intelligence community and private citizens (including former civilian employees of the Federal Government who have been voluntarily separated, and members of the United States Armed Forces who have been honorably discharged, honorably separated, or generally discharged under honorable circumstances and rehired on a voluntary basis specifically to perform the activities authorized under this part).

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1015, as added Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §612(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3958; amended Pub. L. 114–95, title IX, §9215(tt), (hhh), Dec. 10, 2015, 129 Stat. 2183, 2187.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441j–4 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2015—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 114–95, §9215(tt), (hhh), made similar amendments, resulting in the substitution of "section 7801 of title 20)" for "section 7801(26) of title 20)".

Effective Date of 2015 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 114–95 effective Dec. 10, 2015, except with respect to certain noncompetitive programs and competitive programs, see section 5 of Pub. L. 114–95, set out as a note under section 6301 of Title 20, Education.

Part C—Additional Education Provisions

§3221. Assignment of intelligence community personnel as language students

(a) In general

The Director of National Intelligence, acting through the heads of the elements of the intelligence community, may assign employees of such elements in analyst positions requiring foreign language expertise as students at accredited professional, technical, or other institutions of higher education for training at the graduate or undergraduate level in foreign languages required for the conduct of duties and responsibilities of such positions.

(b) Authority for reimbursement of costs of tuition and training

(1) The Director of National Intelligence may reimburse an employee assigned under subsection (a) for the total cost of the training described in that subsection, including costs of educational and supplementary reading materials.

(2) The authority under paragraph (1) shall apply to employees who are assigned on a full-time or part-time basis.

(3) Reimbursement under paragraph (1) may be made from appropriated or nonappropriated funds.

(c) Relationship to compensation as an analyst

Reimbursement under this section to an employee who is an analyst is in addition to any benefits, allowances, travel expenses, or other compensation the employee is entitled to by reason of serving in such an analyst position.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1021, as added Pub. L. 108–487, title VI, §612(a)(2), Dec. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 3959.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441m of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§3222. Program on recruitment and training

(a) Program

(1) The Director of National Intelligence shall carry out a program to ensure that selected students or former students are provided funds to continue academic training, or are reimbursed for academic training previously obtained, in areas of specialization that the Director, in consultation with the other heads of the elements of the intelligence community, identifies as areas in which the current capabilities of the intelligence community are deficient or in which future capabilities of the intelligence community are likely to be deficient.

(2) A student or former student selected for participation in the program shall commit to employment with an element of the intelligence community, following completion of appropriate academic training, under such terms and conditions as the Director considers appropriate.

(3) The program shall be known as the Pat Roberts Intelligence Scholars Program.

(b) Elements

In carrying out the program under subsection (a), the Director shall—

(1) establish such requirements relating to the academic training of participants as the Director considers appropriate to ensure that participants are prepared for employment as intelligence professionals; and

(2) periodically review the areas of specialization of the elements of the intelligence community to determine the areas in which such elements are, or are likely to be, deficient in capabilities.

(c) Use of funds

Funds made available for the program under subsection (a) shall be used—

(1) to provide a monthly stipend for each month that a student is pursuing a course of study;

(2) to pay the full tuition of a student or former student for the completion of such course of study;

(3) to pay for books and materials that the student or former student requires or required to complete such course of study;

(4) to pay the expenses of the student or former student for travel requested by an element of the intelligence community in relation to such program; or

(5) for such other purposes the Director considers reasonably appropriate to carry out such program.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1022, as added Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §311(a), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2662.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441n of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§3223. Educational scholarship program

The head of a department or agency containing an element of the intelligence community may establish an undergraduate or graduate training program with respect to civilian employees and prospective civilian employees of such element similar in purpose, conditions, content, and administration to the program that the Secretary of Defense is authorized to establish under section 3614 of this title.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1023, as added Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §312(e)(1), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2664.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441o of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

§3224. Intelligence officer training program

(a) Programs

(1) The Director of National Intelligence may carry out grant programs in accordance with subsections (b) and (c) to enhance the recruitment and retention of an ethnically and culturally diverse intelligence community workforce with capabilities critical to the national security interests of the United States.

(2) In carrying out paragraph (1), the Director shall identify the skills necessary to meet current or emergent needs of the intelligence community and the educational disciplines that will provide individuals with such skills.

(b) Institutional grant program

(1) The Director may provide grants to institutions of higher education to support the establishment or continued development of programs of study in educational disciplines identified under subsection (a)(2).

(2) A grant provided under paragraph (1) may, with respect to the educational disciplines identified under subsection (a)(2), be used for the following purposes:

(A) Curriculum or program development.

(B) Faculty development.

(C) Laboratory equipment or improvements.

(D) Faculty research.

(c) Grant program for certain minority-serving colleges and universities

(1) The Director may provide grants to historically black colleges and universities, Predominantly Black Institutions, Hispanic-serving institutions, and Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-serving institutions to provide programs of study in educational disciplines identified under subsection (a)(2) or described in paragraph (2).

(2) A grant provided under paragraph (1) may be used to provide programs of study in the following educational disciplines:

(A) Intermediate and advanced foreign languages deemed in the immediate interest of the intelligence community, including Farsi, Pashto, Middle Eastern, African, and South Asian dialects.

(B) Study abroad programs and cultural immersion programs.

(d) Application

An institution of higher education seeking a grant under this section shall submit an application describing the proposed use of the grant at such time and in such manner as the Director may require.

(e) Reports

An institution of higher education that receives a grant under this section shall submit to the Director regular reports regarding the use of such grant, including—

(1) a description of the benefits to students who participate in the course of study funded by such grant;

(2) a description of the results and accomplishments related to such course of study; and

(3) any other information that the Director may require.

(f) Regulations

The Director shall prescribe such regulations as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(g) Definitions

In this section:

(1) The term "Director" means the Director of National Intelligence.

(2) Historically black college and university.—The term "historically black college and university" has the meaning given the term "part B institution" in section 1061 of title 20.

(3) The term "institution of higher education" has the meaning given the term in section 1001 of title 20.

(4) Predominantly black institution.—The term "Predominantly Black Institution" has the meaning given the term in section 1059e of title 20.

(5) Hispanic-serving institution.—The term "Hispanic-serving institution" has the meaning given that term in section 1101a(a)(5) of title 20.

(6) Asian american and native american pacific islander-serving institution.—The term "Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-serving institution" has the meaning given that term in section 1059g(b)(2) of title 20.

(7) Study abroad program.—The term "study abroad program" means a program of study that—

(A) takes places 1 outside the geographical boundaries of the United States;

(B) focuses on areas of the world that are critical to the national security interests of the United States and are generally underrepresented in study abroad programs at institutions of higher education, including Africa, Asia, Central and Eastern Europe, Eurasia, Latin America, and the Middle East; and

(C) is a credit or noncredit program.

(July 26, 1947, ch. 343, title X, §1024, as added Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §313(a), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2665; amended Pub. L. 112–18, title III, §304, June 8, 2011, 125 Stat. 226; Pub. L. 113–293, title III, §306, Dec. 19, 2014, 128 Stat. 3997; Pub. L. 114–113, div. M, title VII, §712, Dec. 18, 2015, 129 Stat. 2934.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 441p of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Amendments

2015—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 114–113, §712(1)(B), substituted "certain minority-serving" for "historically black" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 114–113, §712(1)(A), substituted "historically black colleges and universities, Predominantly Black Institutions, Hispanic-serving institutions, and Asian American and Native American Pacific Islander-serving institutions" for "historically black colleges and universities and Predominantly Black Institutions".

Subsec. (g)(5) to (7). Pub. L. 114–113, §712(2), added pars. (5) and (6) and redesignated former par. (5) as (7).

2014—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–293, §306(1), inserted "and Predominantly Black Institutions" after "universities".

Subsec. (g)(4), (5). Pub. L. 113–293, §306(2), added par. (4) and redesignated former par. (4) as (5).

2011—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 112–18, §304(1), substituted "subsections (b) and (c)" for "subsection (b)".

Subsecs. (c) to (f). Pub. L. 112–18, §304(2), (3), added subsec. (c) and redesignated former subsecs. (c) to (e) as (d) to (f), respectively. Former subsec. (f) redesignated (g).

Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 112–18, §304(2), redesignated subsec. (f) as (g).

Subsec. (g)(2) to (4). Pub. L. 112–18, §304(4), added pars. (2) and (4) and redesignated former par. (2) as (3).

Findings Regarding Improvement of Equality of Employment Opportunities in the Intelligence Community

Pub. L. 108–177, title III, §319, Dec. 13, 2003, 117 Stat. 2614, as amended by Pub. L. 108–458, title I, §1071(g)(3)(A)(iv), (B), Dec. 17, 2004, 118 Stat. 3692; Pub. L. 111–259, title III, §313(b)(1)(A), (3), Oct. 7, 2010, 124 Stat. 2666, provided that: "Congress makes the following findings:

"(1) It is the recommendation of the Joint Inquiry of the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence and the House Permanent Select Committee on Intelligence into Intelligence Community Activities Before and After the Terrorist Attacks of September 11, 2001, that the Intelligence Community should enhance recruitment of a more ethnically and culturally diverse workforce and devise a strategy to capitalize upon the unique cultural and linguistic capabilities of first generation Americans.

"(2) The Intelligence Community could greatly benefit from an increased number of employees who are proficient in foreign languages and knowledgeable of world cultures, especially in foreign languages that are critical to the national security interests of the United States. Particular emphasis should be given to the recruitment of United States citizens whose linguistic capabilities are acutely required for the improvement of the overall intelligence collection and analysis effort of the United States Government.

"(3) The Intelligence Community has a significantly lower percentage of women and minorities than the total workforce of the Federal government and the total civilian labor force.

"(4) Women and minorities continue to be under-represented in senior grade levels, and in core mission areas, of the intelligence community."

1 So in original. Probably should be "takes place".