[USC02] 7 USC CHAPTER 100, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part A: Dairy
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7 USC CHAPTER 100, SUBCHAPTER IV, Part A: Dairy
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 100—AGRICULTURAL MARKET TRANSITIONSUBCHAPTER IV—OTHER COMMODITIES

Part A—Dairy

§7251. Milk price support program

(a) Support activities

The Secretary of Agriculture shall support the price of milk produced in the 48 contiguous States through the purchase of cheese, butter, and nonfat dry milk produced from the milk.

(b) Rate

The price of milk shall be supported at the following rates per hundredweight for milk containing 3.67 percent butterfat:

(1) During calendar year 1996, $10.35.

(2) During calendar year 1997, $10.20.

(3) During calendar year 1998, $10.05.

(4) During each of calendar years 1999 through 2001, $9.90.

(5) During the period beginning on January 1, 2002, and ending on May 31, 2002, $9.90.

(c) Purchase prices

The support purchase prices under this section for each of the products of milk (butter, cheese, and nonfat dry milk) announced by the Secretary shall be the same for all of that product sold by persons offering to sell the product to the Secretary. The purchase prices shall be sufficient to enable plants of average efficiency to pay producers, on average, a price that is not less than the rate of price support for milk in effect under subsection (b).

(d) Special rule for butter and nonfat dry milk purchase prices

(1) Allocation of purchase prices

The Secretary may allocate the rate of price support between the purchase prices for nonfat dry milk and butter in a manner that will result in the lowest level of expenditures by the Commodity Credit Corporation or achieve such other objectives as the Secretary considers appropriate. Not later than 10 days after making or changing an allocation, the Secretary shall notify the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate of the allocation. Section 553 of title 5 shall not apply with respect to the implementation of this section.

(2) Timing of purchase price adjustments

The Secretary may make any such adjustments in the purchase prices for nonfat dry milk and butter the Secretary considers to be necessary not more than twice in each calendar year.

(e) Refunds of 1995 and 1996 assessments

(1) Refund required

The Secretary shall provide for a refund of the entire reduction required under section 204(h)(2) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1446e(h)(2)), as in effect on the day before the amendment made by subsection (g), in the price of milk received by a producer during calendar year 1995 or 1996, if the producer provides evidence that the producer did not increase marketings in calendar year 1995 or 1996 when compared to calendar year 1994 or 1995, respectively.

(2) Exception

This subsection shall not apply with respect to a producer for a particular calendar year if the producer has already received a refund under section 204(h) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 for the same fiscal year before the effective date of this section.

(3) Treatment of refund

A refund under this subsection shall not be considered as any type of price support or payment for purposes of sections 3811 and 3821 of title 16.

(f) Commodity Credit Corporation

The Secretary shall carry out the program authorized by this section through the Commodity Credit Corporation.

(g) Omitted

(h) Period of effectiveness

This section (other than subsection (g)) shall be effective only during the period beginning on the first day of the first month beginning after April 4, 1996, and ending on May 31, 2002. The program authorized by this section shall terminate on May 31, 2002, and shall be considered to have expired notwithstanding section 907 of title 2.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §141, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 914; Pub. L. 106–78, title VIII, §807(a), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1181; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §742(a)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-35; Pub. L. 107–76, title VII, §772(a), Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 745.)

References in Text

Section 204 of the Agricultural Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (e)(1), (2), was classified to section 1446e of this title prior to repeal by subsec. (g) of this section. See Codification note below.

Codification

Section is comprised of section 141 of Pub. L. 104–127. Subsec. (g) of section 141 of Pub. L. 104–127 repealed section 1446e of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1446e of this title.

Amendments

2001—Subsec. (b)(5). Pub. L. 107–76, §772(a)(1), added par. (5).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–76, §772(a)(2), substituted "May 31, 2002" for "December 31, 2001" in two places.

2000—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §742(a)(1)], substituted "through 2001" for "and 2000".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §742(a)(2)], substituted "2001" for "2000" in two places.

1999—Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 106–78, §807(a)(1), substituted "each of calendar years 1999 and 2000" for "calendar year 1999".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 106–78, §807(a)(2), substituted "2000" for "1999" in two places.

§7252. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–76, title VII, §772(b), Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 745

Section, Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §142, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 915; Pub. L. 106–78, title VIII, §807(b), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1181; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §742(b)], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-35, related to recourse loan program for commercial processors of dairy products.

§7253. Consolidation and reform of Federal milk marketing orders

(a) Amendment of orders

(1) Required consolidation

The Secretary shall amend Federal milk marketing orders issued under section 608c of this title to limit the number of Federal milk marketing orders to not less than 10 and not more than 14 orders.

(2) Inclusion of California as separate order

Upon the petition and approval of California dairy producers in the manner provided in section 608c of this title, the Secretary shall designate the State of California as a separate Federal milk marketing order. The order covering California shall have the right to reblend and distribute order receipts to recognize quota value. Subsection (b) does not apply to the authority of the Secretary under this subsection.

(3) Related issues addressed in consolidation

Among the issues the Secretary is authorized to implement as part of the consolidation of Federal milk marketing orders are the following:

(A) The use of utilization rates and multiple basing points for the pricing of fluid milk.

(B) The use of uniform multiple component pricing when developing 1 or more basic formula prices for manufacturing milk.

(4) Effect of existing law

In implementing the consolidation of Federal milk marketing orders and related reforms under this subsection, the Secretary may not consider, or base any decision on, the table contained in section 608c(5)(A) of this title.

(b) Expedited process

(1) Use of informal rulemaking

To implement the consolidation of Federal milk marketing orders and related reforms under subsection (a), the Secretary shall use the notice and comment procedures provided in section 553 of title 5.

(2) Time limitations

(A) Proposed amendments

The Secretary shall announce the proposed amendments to be made under subsection (a) not later than 2 years after April 4, 1996.

(B) Final amendments

The Secretary shall implement the amendments not later than 3 years after April 4, 1996.

(3) Effect of court order

The actions authorized by this subsection are intended to ensure the timely publication and implementation of new and amended Federal milk marketing orders. In the event that the Secretary is enjoined or otherwise restrained by a court order from publishing or implementing the consolidation and related reforms under subsection (a), the length of time for which that injunction or other restraining order is effective shall be added to the time limitations specified in paragraph (2) thereby extending those time limitations by a period of time equal to the period of time for which the injunction or other restraining order is effective.

(c) Failure to timely consolidate orders

If the Secretary fails to implement the consolidation required under subsection (a)(1) within the time period required under subsection (b)(2)(B) (plus any additional period provided under subsection (b)(3)), the Secretary may not assess or collect assessments from milk producers or handlers under such section 608c of this title for marketing order administration and services provided under such section after the end of that period until the consolidation is completed. The Secretary may not reduce the level of services provided under the section on account of the prohibition against assessments, but shall rather cover the cost of marketing order administration and services through funds available for the Agricultural Marketing Service of the Department.

(d) Report regarding further reforms

(1) Report required

Not later than April 1, 1997, the Secretary shall submit to Congress a report—

(A) reviewing the Federal milk marketing order system established pursuant to section 608c of this title in light of the reforms required by subsection (a);

(B) describing the efforts underway and the progress made in implementing the reforms required by subsection (a); and

(C) containing such recommendations as the Secretary considers appropriate for further improvements and reforms to the Federal milk marketing order system.

(2) Effect of other laws

Any limitation imposed by Act of Congress on the conduct or completion of reports to Congress shall not apply to the report required under this section, unless the limitation specifically refers to this section.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §143, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 915; Pub. L. 113–79, title I, §1410(d), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 693.)

Amendments

2014—Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 113–79 inserted at end "Subsection (b) does not apply to the authority of the Secretary under this subsection."

Use of Option 1A as Price Structure for Class I Milk Under Consolidated Federal Milk Marketing Orders

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(8) [§1], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-517, provided that:

"(a) Final Rule Defined.—In this section, the term 'final rule' means the final rule for the consolidation and reform of Federal milk marketing orders that was published in the Federal Register on September 1, 1999 (64 Fed. Reg. 47897–48021), to comply with section 143 of the Federal Agriculture Improvement and Reform Act of 1996 (7 U.S.C. 7253).

"(b) Implementation of Final Rule for Milk Order Reform.—Subject to subsection (c), the final rule shall take effect, and be implemented by the Secretary of Agriculture, on the first day of the first month beginning at least 30 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1999].

"(c) Use of Option 1A for Pricing Class I Milk.—In lieu of the Class I price differentials specified in the final rule, the Secretary of Agriculture shall price fluid or Class I milk under the Federal milk marketing orders using the Class I price differentials identified as Option 1A 'Location-Specific Differentials Analysis' in the proposed rule published in the Federal Register on January 30, 1998 (63 Fed. Reg. 4802, 4809), except that the Secretary shall include the corrections and modifications to such Class I differentials made by the Secretary through April 2, 1999.

"(d) Effect of Prior Announcement of Minimum Prices.—If the Secretary of Agriculture announces minimum prices for milk under Federal milk marketing orders pursuant to section 1000.50 of title 7, Code of Federal Regulations, before the effective date specified in subsection (b), the minimum prices so announced before that date shall be the only applicable minimum prices under Federal milk marketing orders for the month or months for which the prices have been announced.

"(e) Implementation of Requirement.—The implementation of the final rule, as modified by subsection (c), shall not be subject to any of the following:

"(1) The notice and hearing requirements of section 8c(3) of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 608c(3)), reenacted with amendments by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, or the notice and comment provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code.

"(2) A referendum conducted by the Secretary of Agriculture pursuant to subsections (17) or (19) of section 8c of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 608c), reenacted with amendments by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937.

"(3) The Statement of Policy of the Secretary of Agriculture effective July 24, 1971 (36 Fed. Reg. 13804), relating to notices of proposed rulemaking and public participation in rulemaking.

"(4) Chapter 35 of title 44, United States Code (commonly known as the Paperwork Reduction Act).

"(5) Any decision, restraining order, or injunction issued by a United States court before the date of the enactment of this Act [Nov. 29, 1999]."

Further Rulemaking To Develop Pricing Methods for Class III and Class IV Milk Under Marketing Orders

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(8) [§2], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-518, provided that:

"(a) Congressional Finding.—The Class III and Class IV milk pricing formulas included in the final decision for the consolidation and reform of Federal milk marketing orders, as published in the Federal Register on April 2, 1999 (64 Fed. Reg. 16025), do not adequately reflect public comment on the original proposed rule published in the Federal Register on January 30, 1998 (63 Fed. Reg. 4802), and are sufficiently different from the proposed rule and any comments submitted with regard to the proposed rule that further emergency rulemaking is merited.

"(b) Rulemaking Required.—The Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct rulemaking, on the record after an opportunity for an agency hearing, to reconsider the Class III and Class IV milk pricing formulas included in the final rule for the consolidation and reform of Federal milk marketing orders that was published in the Federal Register on September 1, 1999 (64 Fed. Reg. 47897–48021).

"(c) Time Period for Rulemaking.—On December 1, 2000, the Secretary of Agriculture shall publish in the Federal Register a final decision on the Class III and Class IV milk pricing formulas. The resulting formulas shall take effect, and be implemented by the Secretary, on January 1, 2001.

"(d) Effect of Court Order.—The actions authorized by subsections (b) and (c) are intended to ensure the timely publication and implementation of new pricing formulas for Class III and Class IV milk. In the event that the Secretary of Agriculture is enjoined or otherwise restrained by a court order from implementing a final decision within the time period specified in subsection (c), the length of time for which that injunction or other restraining order is effective shall be added to the time limitations specified in subsection (c) thereby extending those time limitations by a period of time equal to the period of time for which the injunction or other restraining order is effective.

"(e) Failure To Timely Complete Rulemaking.—If the Secretary of Agriculture fails to implement new Class III and Class IV milk pricing formulas within the time period required under subsection (c) (plus any additional period provided under subsection (d)), the Secretary may not assess or collect assessments from milk producers or handlers under section 8c of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 608c), reenacted with amendments by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937, for marketing order administration and services provided under such section after the end of that period until the pricing formulas are implemented. The Secretary may not reduce the level of services provided under that section on account of the prohibition against assessments, but shall rather cover the cost of marketing order administration and services through funds available for the Agricultural Marketing Service of the Department.

"(f) Implementation of Requirement.—The implementation of the final decision on new Class III and Class IV milk pricing formulas shall not be subject to congressional review under chapter 8 of title 5, United States Code."

§7254. Effect on fluid milk standards in State of California

Nothing in this Act or any other provision of law shall be construed to preempt, prohibit, or otherwise limit the authority of the State of California, directly or indirectly, to establish or continue to effect any law, regulation, or requirement regarding—

(1) the percentage of milk solids or solids not fat in fluid milk products sold at retail or marketed in the State of California; or

(2) the labeling of such fluid milk products with regard to milk solids or solids not fat.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §144, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 917.)

§7255. Milk manufacturing marketing adjustment

(a) Maximum allowances established

No State shall provide for a manufacturing allowance for the processing of milk in excess of—

(1) $1.65 per hundredweight of milk for milk manufactured into butter and nonfat dry milk; and

(2) $1.80 per hundredweight of milk for milk manufactured into cheese.

(b) "Manufacturing allowance" defined

In this section, the term "manufacturing allowance" means—

(1) the amount by which the product price value of butter and nonfat dry milk manufactured from a hundred pounds of milk containing 3.5 pounds of butterfat and 8.7 pounds of milk solids not fat resulting from a State's yield and product price formulas exceeds the class price for the milk used to produce those products; or

(2) the amount by which the product price value of cheese manufactured from a hundred pounds of milk containing 3.5 pounds of butterfat and 8.7 pounds of milk solids not fat resulting from a State's yield and product price formulas exceeds the class price for the milk used to produce cheese.

(c) Effect of violation

If the Secretary determines following a hearing that a State has in effect a manufacturing allowance that exceeds the manufacturing allowance authorized in subsection (a), the Secretary shall suspend purchases of cheddar cheese, butter, and nonfat dry milk produced in that State until such time as the State complies with such subsection.

(d) Effective date; implementation

This section (other than subsection (e) 1) shall be effective during the period beginning on the first day of the first month beginning after April 4, 1996, and ending on December 31, 1999. During that period, the Secretary may exercise the authority provided to the Secretary under this section without regard to the issuance of regulations intended to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §145, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 917.)

Codification

Section is comprised of section 145 of Pub. L. 104–127. Subsec. (e) of section 145 of Pub. L. 104–127 repealed section 1446e–1 of this title and enacted provisions set out as a note under section 1446e–1 of this title.

1 See Codification note below.

§7256. Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact

Congress hereby consents to the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact entered into among the States of Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island and Vermont as specified in section 1(b) Senate 1 Joint Resolution 28 of the 104th Congress, as placed on the calendar of the Senate, subject to the following conditions:

(1) Finding of compelling public interest

Based upon a finding by the Secretary of a compelling public interest in the Compact region, the Secretary may grant the States that have ratified the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact, as of April 4, 1996, the authority to implement the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact.

(2) Limitation on manufacturing price

The Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact Commission shall not regulate Class II, Class III, or Class III–A milk used for manufacturing purposes or any other milk, other than Class I (fluid) milk, as defined by a Federal milk marketing order issued under section 608c of this title.

(3) Duration

Consent for the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact shall terminate on September 30, 2001.

(4) Additional States

Delaware, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Maryland, and Virginia are the only additional States that may join the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact, individually or otherwise, if upon entry the State is contiguous to a participating State and if Congress consents to the entry of the State into the Compact after April 4, 1996.

(5) Compensation of Commodity Credit Corporation

Before the end of each fiscal year that a Compact price regulation is in effect, the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact Commission shall compensate the Commodity Credit Corporation for the cost of any purchases of milk and milk products by the Corporation that result from the projected rate of increase in milk production for the fiscal year within the Compact region in excess of the projected national average rate of the increase in milk production, as determined by the Secretary.

(6) Milk marketing order Administrator

At the request of the Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact Commission, the Administrator of the applicable Federal milk marketing order issued under section 608c(5) 2 of this title shall provide technical assistance to the Compact Commission and be compensated for that assistance.

(7) Further conditions

The Northeast Interstate Dairy Compact Commission shall not prohibit or in any way limit the marketing in the Compact region of any milk or milk product produced in any other production area in the United States. The Compact Commission shall respect and abide by the ongoing procedures between Federal milk marketing orders with respect to the sharing of proceeds from sales within the Compact region of bulk milk, packaged milk, or producer milk originating from outside of the Compact region. The Compact Commission shall not use compensatory payments under section 10(6) of the Compact as a barrier to the entry of milk into the Compact region or for any other purpose. Establishment of a Compact over-order price, in itself, shall not be considered a compensatory payment or a limitation or prohibition on the marketing of milk.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §147, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 919; Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(8) [§4], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-520.)

References in Text

Section 608c(5) of this title, referred to in par. (6), was in the original "section 8(c)5 of the Agricultural Adjustment Act (7 U.S.C. 608c), reenacted with amendments by the Agricultural Marketing Agreement Act of 1937," which was translated as meaning section 8c(5) of the Agricultural Adjustment Act, to reflect the probable intent of Congress.

Amendments

1999—Par. (3). Pub. L. 106–113 substituted "on September 30, 2001." for "concurrent with the Secretary's implementation of the dairy pricing and Federal milk marketing order consolidation and reforms under section 7253 of this title."

1 So in original. Probably should be preceded by "of".

2 See References in Text note below.

§7257. Authority to assist in establishment and maintenance of one or more export trading companies

The Secretary of Agriculture shall, consistent with the obligations of the United States as a member of the World Trade Organization, provide such advice and assistance to the United States dairy industry as may be necessary to enable that industry to establish and maintain one or more export trading companies under the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.) for the purpose of facilitating the international market development for and exportation of dairy products produced in the United States.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §149, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 921.)

References in Text

The Export Trading Company Act of 1982, referred to in text, is title I of Pub. L. 97–290, Oct. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 1233, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§4001 et seq.) of chapter 66 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4001 of Title 15 and Tables.

§7258. Standby authority to indicate entity best suited to provide international market development and export services

(a) Indication of entity best suited to assist international market development for and export of United States dairy products

The Secretary of Agriculture shall indicate which entity or entities autonomous of the Government of the United States, which seeks such a designation, is best suited to facilitate the international market development for and exportation of United States dairy products, if the Secretary determines that—

(1) the United States dairy industry has not established an export trading company under the Export Trading Company Act of 1982 (15 U.S.C. 4001 et seq.) for the purpose of facilitating the international market development for an exportation of dairy products produced in the United States on or before June 30, 1997; or

(2) the quantity of exports of United States dairy products during the 12-month period preceding July 1, 1998 does not exceed the quantity of exports of United States dairy products during the 12-month period preceding July 1, 1997 by 1.5 billion pounds (milk equivalent, total solids basis).

(b) Funding of export activities

The Secretary shall assist the entity or entities identified under subsection (a) in identifying sources of funding for the activities specified in subsection (a) from within the dairy industry and elsewhere.

(c) Application of section

This section shall apply only during the period beginning on July 1, 1997 and ending on September 30, 2000.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §150, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 921.)

References in Text

The Export Trading Company Act of 1982, referred to in subsec. (a)(1), is title I of Pub. L. 97–290, Oct. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 1233, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter I (§4001 et seq.) of chapter 66 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 4001 of Title 15 and Tables.

§7259. Study and report regarding potential impact of Uruguay Round on prices, income, and government purchases

(a) Study

The Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct a study, on a variety by variety of cheese basis, to determine the potential impact on milk prices in the United States, dairy producer income, and Federal dairy program costs, of the allocation of additional cheese granted access to the United States as a result of the obligations of the United States as a member of the World Trade Organization.

(b) Report

Not later than June 30, 1997, the Secretary shall report to the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate and the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives the results of the study conducted under this section.

(c) Rule of construction

Any limitation imposed by Act of Congress on the conduct or completion of studies or reports to Congress shall not apply to the study and report required under this section, unless the limitation specifically refers to this section.

(Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §151, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 922.)