[USC02] 7 USC CHAPTER 35A, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
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7 USC CHAPTER 35A, SUBCHAPTER I: GENERAL PROVISIONS
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 35A—PRICE SUPPORT OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES

SUBCHAPTER I—GENERAL PROVISIONS

§1421. Price support

(a) Source

The Secretary shall provide the price support authorized or required herein through the Commodity Credit Corporation and other means available to him.

(b) Authority of Secretary; factors considered

Except as otherwise provided in this Act, the amounts, terms, and conditions of price support operations and the extent to which such operations are carried out, shall be determined or approved by the Secretary. The following factors shall be taken into consideration in determining, in the case of any commodity for which price support is discretionary, whether a price-support operation shall be undertaken and the level of such support and, in the case of any commodity for which price support is mandatory, the level of support in excess of the minimum level prescribed for such commodity: (1) the supply of the commodity in relation to the demand therefor, (2) the price levels at which other commodities are being supported and, in the case of feed grains, the feed values of such grains in relation to corn, (3) the availability of funds, (4) the perishability of the commodity, (5) the importance of the commodity to agriculture and the national economy, (6) the ability to dispose of stocks acquired through a price-support operation, (7) the need for offsetting temporary losses of export markets, (8) the ability and willingness of producers to keep supplies in line with demand and (9), in the case of upland cotton, changes in the cost of producing such cotton.

(c) Compliance by producer; program for diverted acres

Compliance by the producer with acreage allotments, production goals and marketing practices (including marketing quotas when authorized by law), prescribed by the Secretary, may be required as a condition of eligibility for price support. In administering any program for diverted acres the Secretary may make his regulations applicable on an appropriate geographical basis. Such regulations shall be administered (1) in semiarid or other areas where good husbandry requires maintenance of a prudent feed reserve in such manner as to permit, to the extent so required by good husbandry, the production of forage crops for storage and subsequent use either on the farm or in feeding operations of the farm operator, and (2) in areas declared to be disaster areas by the President under the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.], in such manner as will most quickly restore the normal pattern of their agriculture.

(d) Time of determining levels

The level of price support for any commodity shall be determined upon the basis of its parity price as of the beginning of the marketing year or season in the case of any commodity marketed on a marketing year or season basis and as of January 1 in the case of any other commodity.

(e) Processors' assurances; payment if assurances inadequate

(1) Whenever any price support or surplus removal operation for any agricultural commodity is carried out through purchases from or loans or payments to processors, the Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, obtain from the processors such assurances as he deems adequate that the producers of the agricultural commodity involved have received or will receive maximum benefits from the price support or surplus removal operation.

(2)(A) If the assurances under paragraph (1) are not adequate to cause the producers of sugar beets and sugarcane, because of the bankruptcy or other insolvency of the processor, to receive maximum benefits from the price support program within 30 days after the final settlement date provided for in the contract between such producers and processor, the Secretary, on demand made by such producers and on such assurances as to nonpayment as the Secretary shall require, shall pay such producers such maximum benefits less benefits previously received by such producers.

(B) On such payment, the Secretary shall—

(i) be subrogated to all claims of such producers against the processor and other persons responsible for nonpayment; and

(ii) have authority to pursue such claims as necessary to recover the benefits not paid to the producers.


(C) The Secretary shall carry out this paragraph through the Commodity Credit Corporation.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §401, 63 Stat. 1054; Aug. 28, 1954, ch. 1041, title II, §§206, 207, 68 Stat. 901; Pub. L. 88–297, title I, §103(c), Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 175; Pub. L. 99–198, title IX, §903(a), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1444; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, 109(a)(1), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4708.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note below and Tables.

The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (c), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, known as the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, which is classified principally to chapter 68 (§5121 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of Title 42 and Tables.

Amendments

1988—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–707, substituted "the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act" for "Public Law 875, Eighty-first Congress".

1985—Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 99–198 designated existing provisions as par. (1) and added par. (2).

1964—Subsec. (b)(9). Pub. L. 88–297 added cl. (9).

1954—Subsec. (c). Act Aug. 28, 1954, §206, provided a program for diverted acres.

Subsec. (e). Act Aug. 28, 1954, §207, added subsec. (e).

Effective Date of 1996 Amendment

Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §263(c), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 974, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [repealing provisions set out as notes under this section and section 1446 of this title] shall be effective beginning with the 1996 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice."

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–237, title XI, §1101, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1906, as amended by Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(NN), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1098; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (2)(NN), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this Act, this Act and the amendments made by this Act [see Tables for classification] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 1991].

"(b) Inclusion in Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990.—The amendments made by the following provisions of this Act shall take effect as if included in the provision of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990 (Public Law 101–624) to which the amendment relates:

"(1) Section 201 [amending sections 5403, 5503, 5505, 5506, and 5822 of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 4201 of this title] (other than section 201(h) [enacting section 3125c of this title]).

"(2) Section 307 [amending section 1736bb–6 of this title].

"(3) Subsections (a) through (c), (e), (h), and (i) of section 501 [amending sections 1924, 1942, 1981, 1983, 2001, and 2006e of this title].

"(4) Subsections (a), (b), (f) through (i), and (l) of section 502 [amending sections 2019, 2071, 2129, 2214, 2252, 2271, and 2278a–2 of Title 12, Banks and Banking].

"(5) Section 602(c) [amending provisions set out as a note below].

"(6) Section 701 [amending sections 1926, 1926c, 1932, 1981, 1994, 2000, 2006f, 2008, 2008a, and 2008b of this title] (except as provided in subsection (c) of this section).

"(7) Section 702 [amending sections 950aaa–1, 1926–1, 1991, 1994, 2007a, and 2007c to 2007e of this title and provisions set out as a note under section 2006f of this title].

"(8) Section 703(c) [amending section 950aa of this title].

"(c) Miscellaneous Amendments to Consolidated Farm and Rural Development Act.—The amendments made by section 701(h) of this Act [amending sections 1926, 1932, 1981, 1994, and 2000 of this title] to any provision specified therein shall take effect as if such amendments had been included in the Act that added the provision so specified at the time such Act became law.

"(d) Food and Nutrition Programs.—

"(1) In general.—Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, title IX of this Act [amending sections 1431e, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2017, 2018, 2020, 2025, 2026, 2028, 2029, and 2031 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 2015, 2016, 2026, and 5930 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under sections 612c and 2012 of this title], and the amendments made by title IX of this Act, shall take effect and be implemented no later than February 1, 1992.

"(2) PASS accounts exclusion.—

"(A) In general.—The amendment made by section 903(3) of this Act [amending section 2014 of this title] shall take effect on the earlier of—

"(i) the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 1991];

"(ii) October 1, 1990, for supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits households for which the State agency knew, or had notice, that a member of the household had a plan for achieving self-support as provided under section 1612(b)(4)(B)(iv) of the Social Security Act (42 U.S.C. 1382a(b)(4)(B)(iv)); or

"(iii) beginning on the date that a fair hearing was requested under the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 (7 U.S.C. 2011 et seq.) contesting the denial of an exclusion for supplemental nutrition assistance program benefits purposes for amounts necessary for the fulfillment of such a plan for achieving self-support.

"(B) Limitation on application of section.—Notwithstanding section 11(b) of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [section 2020(b) of this title] (as redesignated by section 941(6) of this Act), no State agency shall be required to search its files for cases to which the amendment made by section 903(3) of this Act [amending section 2014 of this title] applies, except where the excludability of amounts described in section 5(d)(16) of the Food and Nutrition Act of 2008 [section 2014(d)(16) of this title] (as added by section 903(3) of this Act) was raised with the State agency prior to the date of enactment of the Act [Dec. 13, 1991].

"(3) Performance standards for employment and training programs.—The amendments made by section 908 [907, amending section 2015 of this title] of this Act shall take effect on September 30, 1991.

"(4) Recovery of claims caused by nonfraudulent household errors.—The amendment made by section 911 of this Act [amending section 2022 of this title] shall take effect on the date of enactment of this Act [Dec. 13, 1991].

"(5) Definition of retail food store.—The amendment made by section 913 of this Act [amending provisions set out as a note under section 2012 of this title] shall take effect on October 1, 1990, and shall not apply with respect to any period occurring before such date."

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1171, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3521, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise specifically provided in title I through this title [see Tables for classification], such titles and the amendments made by such titles shall become effective beginning with the 1991 crop of an agricultural commodity.

"(b) Prior Crops.—Except as otherwise specifically provided and notwithstanding any other provision of law, title I through this title, and the amendments made by such titles, shall not affect the authority of the Secretary of Agriculture to carry out a price support or production adjustment program for any of the 1986 through 1990 crops of an agricultural commodity established under a provision of law in effect immediately before the effective date prescribed by subsection (a)."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–198, title IX, §903(b), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1444, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section] shall apply to nonpayments occurring after January 1, 1985."

Short Title of 1993 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–66, title I, §1001(a), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 312, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 936c and 1314i of this title and section 460l–6c of Title 16, Conservation, amending sections 511r, 608b, 1308, 1308–3, 1314c, 1314e, 1358–1, 1359a, 1359bb, 1441–2, 1444–2, 1444f, 1445, 1445–1, 1445–2, 1445b–3a, 1445c–3, 1445j, 1446e, 1446f, 1446g, 1446h, 1463, 1465, 1469, 1506, 1508, 1508a, 1782, 1783, 1785, 5623, and 5641 of this title and sections 3830, 3831, and 3837 of Title 16, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 936c, 1446e, 1506, and 5623 of this title, and amending provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 608c and 1445b–3a of this title] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Reconciliation Act of 1993'."

Short Title of 1991 Amendment

Pub. L. 102–237, §1, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1818, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act Amendments of 1991'."

Short Title of 1990 Amendments

Pub. L. 101–624, §1(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3359, provided that: "This Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990'."

Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §1001(a), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388, provided that: "This title [enacting section 940d of this title, amending sections 511r, 1441–2, 1444–2, 1444f, 1445, 1445b–3a, 1445c–3, 1445j, 1446e, 1446f to 1446h, 1722, 1736, 1736a, 1783, 1994, 1999, and 5822 of this title and section 136a of Title 21, Food and Drugs, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 136w, 511r, and 1445b–3a of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Reconciliation Act of 1990'."

Short Title of 1989 Amendments

Pub. L. 101–239, title I, §1001(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2106, provided that: "This title [enacting section 1433d of this title, amending sections 1444e, 1445b–2, 1446, 1464, and 1736s of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1433d, 1444e, 1445b–2, 1446, and 1464 of this title and section 2278b–9 of Title 12, Banks and Banking, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Reconciliation Act of 1989'."

Pub. L. 101–82, §1(a), Aug. 14, 1989, 103 Stat. 564, provided that: "This Act [enacting sections 1508a and 1926a of this title and section 5142 of Title 25, Indians, amending sections 1359, 1464, 1471d, and 1471e of this title and section 2202 of Title 16, Conservation, enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1359, 1464, 1926a, 1929a, 1941, and 1961 of this title and sections 2202 and 2203 of Title 16, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Disaster Assistance Act of 1989'."

Short Title of 1988 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2221, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1336, provided that: "This part [part II (§§2221–2227) of subtitle B of title II of Pub. L. 100–418, which amended section 1431 of this title and enacted provisions set out as notes under section 1431 of this title] may be cited as the 'American Aid to Poland Act of 1988'."

Pub. L. 100–387, §1, Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 924, provided: "That this Act [see Tables for classification] may be cited as the 'Disaster Assistance Act of 1988'."

Act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title VI, §601, as added Aug. 11, 1988, Pub. L. 100–387, title I, §101(a), 102 Stat. 925, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 1471 to 1471j of this title] may be cited as the 'Emergency Livestock Feed Assistance Act of 1988'."

Short Title of 1987 Amendments

Pub. L. 100–203, title I, §1001(a), Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 940b, 940c, 944a, 1308–1 to 1308–3, and 2030 of this title, amending sections 608c, 946, 948, 1308, 1308–1, 1314b, 1314c, 1423, 1431, 1441–1, 1444, 1444–1, 1444e, 1445, 1445b–2, 1445b–3, 1445c–2, 1446, 1466, 1782, 1932, and 2371 of this title and section 713a–11 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 936a, 948, 1308 to 1308–3, 1441–1, 1444, 1444–1, 1444e, 1445, 1445b–2, 1445b–3, 1445c–2, 1446, 1466, and 1508 of this title, sections 713a–11 and 714b of Title 15, and section 7545 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare, and amending provisions set out as a note under this section] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Reconciliation Act of 1987'."

Pub. L. 100–45, §1, May 27, 1987, 101 Stat. 318, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 1441–1, 1444–1, 1444e, 1445b–3, and 1446 of this title and section 701n of Title 33, Navigation and Navigable Waters, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1441–1, 1444–1, 1444e, 1445b–3, and 1446 of this title and section 3835 of Title 16, Conservation] may be cited as the 'Farm Disaster Assistance Act of 1987'."

Short Title of 1984 Amendment

Pub. L. 98–258, §1, Apr. 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 130, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 1981b of this title, amending sections 1431, 1441, 1444, 1444d, 1445b–1, 1943, 1946, 1961, 1964, 1986, and 1994 of this title, enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1921, 1961, and 1981 of this title, and amending provisions set out as a note preceding section 1961 of this title] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Programs Adjustment Act of 1984'."

Short Title of 1983 Amendments

Pub. L. 98–180, §1, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1128, provided: "That this Act [enacting sections 511r, 4501 to 4514, and 4531 to 4538 of this title, amending section 608c, 1314b, 1314b–1, 1314b–2, 1314c, 1314d, 1314e, 1379, 1445, 1445–1, 1445–2, and 1446 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under this section and sections 1314b, 1314c, 1314e, 1427, 1445, 1446, and 1727g of this title] may be cited as the 'Dairy and Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983'."

Pub. L. 98–180, title I, §101, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1128, provided that: "This title [enacting sections 4501 to 4513 of this title, amending section 1446 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under section 1446 of this title] may be cited as the 'Dairy Production Stabilization Act of 1983'."

Pub. L. 98–180, title II, §201, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1143, provided that: "This title [enacting section 511r of this title, amending sections 1314b, 1314b–1, 1314b–2, 1314c, 1314d, 1314e, 1379, 1445, 1445–1, and 1445–2 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1314b, 1314c, 1314e, and 1445 of this title] may be cited as the 'Tobacco Adjustment Act of 1983'."

Pub. L. 98–88, §1, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 494, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 1308, 1427, 1441, and 1444 of this title, repealing section 1347 of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1342, 1347, and 1444 of this title] may be cited as the 'Extra Long Staple Cotton Act of 1983'."

Short Title of 1982 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–358, §1, Oct. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1714, provided: "That this Act [enacting section 1433b of this title] may be cited as the 'Surplus Agricultural Commodities Disposal Act of 1982'."

Short Title of 1980 Amendment

Pub. L. 96–213, §1, Mar. 18, 1980, 94 Stat. 119, provided: "That this Act [amending sections 1308, 1309, 1441, 1444, 1444c, and 1445b of this title, and enacting provisions set out as notes under sections 1308 and 1309 of this title] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1980'."

Short Title

Act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, §1, 63 Stat. 1051, provided: "That this Act [enacting this section and sections 1422 to 1431, 1432, 1433, 1441, 1443 to 1445a, 1446, 1446a, 1446d, 1447 to 1449, and 1461 to 1468 of this title, amending sections 612c, 1301, 1322, 1328, 1343, 1344, 1345, and 1353 to 1356 of this title, and repealing section 1302 of this title; amending sections 1134c and 1134j of Title 12, Banks and Banking, section 713a–4 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade, section 410 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare] may be cited as the 'Agricultural Act of 1949'."

Repeals

Act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §414, 63 Stat. 1057, provided in part that: "any provision of law in conflict with the provisions of this Act [see Short Title note set out above] are [is] hereby repealed."

Regulations

Pub. L. 106–224, title II, §263, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 427, provided that:

"(a) Promulgation.—As soon as practicable after the date of the enactment of this Act [June 20, 2000], the Secretary and the Commodity Credit Corporation, as appropriate, shall promulgate such regulations as are necessary to implement this title and the amendments made by this title [see Tables for classification]. The promulgation of the regulations and administration of this title shall be made without regard to—

"(1) the notice and comment provisions of section 553 of title 5, United States Code;

"(2) the Statement of Policy of the Secretary of Agriculture effective July 24, 1971 (36 Fed. Reg. 13804), relating to notices of proposed rulemaking and public participation in rulemaking; and

"(3) chapter 35 of title 44, United States Code (commonly known as the 'Paperwork Reduction Act').

"(b) Congressional Review of Agency Rulemaking.—In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall use the authority provided under section 808 of title 5, United States Code."

Separability Provision for Pub. L. 101–624

Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2518, formerly §2519, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4078; renumbered §2518 by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1101(h), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 710, provided that: "If any provision of this Act [see Short Title of 1990 Amendment note above] or the application thereof to any person or circumstance is held invalid, the invalidity shall not affect other provisions or applications of this Act which can be given effect without regard to the invalid provision or application, and to this end the provisions of this Act are severable."

Separability Provision for Pub. L. 98–180

Pub. L. 98–180, title III, §305, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1152, provided that: "Except as otherwise provided in this Act [see Short Title of 1983 Amendment note above], if any provision of this Act or the application thereof to any person or circumstances is held invalid, the validity of the remainder of this Act and of the application of such provision to other persons and circumstances shall not be affected thereby."

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

Crop and Pasture Flood Compensation Program

Pub. L. 106–224, title II, §257(a)–(d), June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 424, 425, limited the per-person and total amounts payable from the Commodity Credit Corporation to compensate producers with covered land with respect to losses from long-term flooding during the 2000 crop year.

Restoration of Eligibility for Crop Loss Assistance

Pub. L. 106–224, title II, §259, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 426, as amended by Pub. L. 106–472, title III, §315, Nov. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 2081, restored the eligibility of individuals otherwise eligible for disaster assistance under section 1102(c) of the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1999 (as contained in section 101(a) of division A of Public Law 105–277; formerly 7 U.S.C. 1421 note), but deemed ineligible solely because the individual or entity changed the legal structure of the individual's or entity's farming operation.

Emergency and Disaster Assistance for Producers

Pub. L. 106–224, title II, subtitle A, June 20, 2000, 114 Stat. 398, as amended by Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VIII, §816], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-57, provided emergency and disaster assistance to farm owners and producers of various farm products in the 1999 marketing year and the 2000 crop year and provided payments in lieu of loan deficiency payments for producers of certain crops in the 2001 crop year.

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(5) [title I], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-290, provided for an additional amount for specialty crop assistance authorized by section 803(c)(1) of Public Law 106–78, formerly set out in a note below.

Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(5) [title I], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-290, as amended by Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VIII, §802], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-49, provided for an additional amount for livestock assistance authorized by section 805 of Public Law 106–78, formerly set out in a note below.

Pub. L. 106–78, title VIII, Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1175, as amended by Pub. L. 106–113, div. B, §1000(a)(5) [title I, §102], Nov. 29, 1999, 113 Stat. 1536, 1501A-291, provided for emergency market loss payments and other disaster assistance to producers of crops and livestock in 1999.

Pub. L. 106–31, title I, §101, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 61, provided for crop loss assistance for multiyear losses due to disasters in two crop years during the five-crop year period beginning with the 1994 crop year.

Pub. L. 106–31, title I, §104, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 62, provided an additional amount for the Livestock Assistance Program under Pub. L. 105–277 (see section 101(a) [title XI] of Pub. L. 105–277, formerly set out as a note below).

Pub. L. 105–277, div. A, §101(a) [title XI], Oct. 21, 1998, 112 Stat. 2681, 2681-42, as amended by Pub. L. 106–31, title III, §3018, May 21, 1999, 113 Stat. 99; Pub. L. 106–78, title VIII, §817(a)(2), title IX, §913(b), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1184, 1205; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §754], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-42; Pub. L. 107–25, §9, Aug. 13, 2001, 115 Stat. 203, provided emergency assistance for crop and livestock feed losses, for market loss assistance, and for other assistance to agricultural producers who incurred losses in the 1998 crop year due to disaster or who incurred multiyear losses in the period including 1998 and preceding crop years.

Programs for Farmers and Ranchers Who Were Activated Reservists During Persian Gulf Conflict

Pub. L. 102–25, title III, §§381–388, Apr. 6, 1991, 105 Stat. 95–98, as amended by Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (J), (2)(MM), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1096, 1098; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4002(b)(1)(B), (D), (J), (2)(MM), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1857, 1859, established programs for farmers and ranchers who were activated reservists during Persian Gulf conflict to provide for protection of producer's crop acreage base for any program crop, waiver of minimum planting requirement, temporary waiver of conservation requirements, relief for borrowers under farm credit provisions, and authority of a spouse or close relative to participate in programs administered by Secretary of Agriculture on behalf of activated reservists.

Survey of Program Participants

Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1148, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3517, directed Secretary of Agriculture to require producers, during sign-up period for commodity programs under section 1421 et seq. of this title in the 1992 calendar year, to complete survey regarding preference of producers, either to increase efficiency of their farming operation or to assist in meeting conservation requirements for farm, for redistribution of any crop acreage bases on each producer's farm, to compile and analyze data collected from survey to determine potential increases and decreases in State, regional, and national acreage that would be planted to various program crops, potential commodity program costs or savings, and potential impact of such redistribution on competitiveness of United States agriculture in world markets, and, not later than Jan. 31, 1993, to submit to Congress results of survey.

Options Pilot Program

Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, subtitle E, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3518, as amended by Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §114(a)(2), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1838, known as Options Pilot Program Act of 1990, authorized Secretary of Agriculture to conduct pilot program for each of the 1991 through 1995 crops of corn and for each of the 1993 through 1995 crops of wheat and soybeans, to determine whether regulated agricultural commodity options trading could be used by producers to obtain protection from fluctuations in market prices of commodities produced and impact of such trading on prices of the commodities, authorized terms and conditions for participation in pilot program, provided for consultation with representatives of commodity futures trading industry, and provided that the pilot program was to be carried out by and through the Commodity Credit Corporation, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §191(i), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 942.

Hurricane Hugo Forestry Assistance; Cost-Share Assistance

Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §2235(b), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3960, directed Secretary of Agriculture to develop and implement cost-share program to provide financial assistance to owners of private timber stands that were damaged in 1989 by Hurricane Hugo.

Appropriations for Forestry Assistance and Double Cropping on Disaster Areas

Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §2235(c), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3961, provided that benefits or assistance provided under section 2235 of Pub. L. 101–624 or amendments made by such that (enacting provisions set out above and amending provisions set out below) were to be provided only to extent provided for in advance by appropriation acts and authorized appropriations for fiscal years 1991 through 1995.

Scarce Federal Resources

Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2515, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4075, authorized Secretary of Agriculture, after concurrence of certain Members of Congress, to rank by priority studies or reports authorized by Pub. L. 101–624 and determine which of those studies or reports was to be completed, but directed Secretary to complete at least 12 of the studies or reports.

Recordkeeping Improvement

Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2516, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4075, which provided that section could be cited as "Agricultural Program Reporting and Recordkeeping Improvement Act of 1990", directed Secretary of Agriculture, not later than 240 days after Nov. 28, 1990, to submit to Congress a report containing specific proposals for reducing and simplifying recordkeeping and other paperwork required of producers participating in programs administered by Secretary and directed Secretary to take appropriate action to integrate various data bases of Department relating to agricultural program data, and to facilitate sharing of relevant data among various agencies of Department.

Readjustment of Support Levels

Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §1302, Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–12, as amended by Pub. L. 103–66, title I, §1301(b), Aug. 10, 1993, 107 Stat. 330, provided that, if by June 30, 1992, and by June 30, 1993, the United States had not entered into agricultural trade agreement in Uruguay Round of multilateral trade negotiations under General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) the Secretary of Agriculture was to reconsider and adjust agricultural acreage limitation and price support and production adjustment programs and export promotion levels, as appropriate to protect interests of American agricultural producers and ensure international competitiveness of United States agriculture and that such provisions were to cease to be effective if President certified to Congress that failure to enter into such agreement was result in whole or in part of provisions of 19 U.S.C. 2191, or essentially similar provisions, not applying or in effect not applying during period ending May 31, 1991 (or during period June 1, 1991, through May 31, 1993, if condition of 19 U.S.C. 2903(b)(1)(B)(i) was satisfied) to implementing bills submitted with respect to such an agreement entered into during applicable period under 19 U.S.C. 2902(b), prior to repeal by Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §263(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 974.

Repayment of Advance Deficiency Payments

Pub. L. 101–220, §14, Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1885, provided that effective only for the 1988 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice, produced by producers that qualified for assistance under section 201(a) of Pub. L. 100–387 or section 101(a) of Pub. L. 101–82 (set out below), if the Secretary of Agriculture determines that any portion of the advance deficiency payment made to producers for such crop under section 1445b–2 of this title had to be refunded, such refund could not be required to be made prior to July 31, 1990.

Pilot Project on Clean Grain Premiums

Pub. L. 100–518, §3, Oct. 24, 1988, 102 Stat. 2587, directed Secretary of Agriculture to conduct study of schedule of premiums and discounts applied to loans made in accordance with this chapter to determine how premiums and discounts could be used to encourage production, marketing, and exporting of high quality, clean grain, to submit, not later than May 1, 1989, to Congress report on results of such study, to include recommendations with respect to schedule of premiums and discounts in such report, and to establish pilot project for 1989 crops of wheat, soybeans, and feed grains to test effectiveness of such recommendations, and to submit report describing result of project, not later than 180 days after end of 1989 marketing year for feed grains.

Emergency Crop Loss Assistance

Pub. L. 102–229, title I, Dec. 12, 1991, 105 Stat. 1712, as amended by Pub. L. 102–368, title VI, Sept. 23, 1992, 106 Stat. 1130, appropriated an additional $1,750,000,000, to remain available until expended, for losses associated with 1990 crops as authorized by Pub. L. 101–624, formerly set out below, and for losses associated with 1991 and 1992 crops under same terms and conditions.

Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §§2241–2272, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3962–3977, as amended by Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §1204(d), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–12; Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §114(a)(4)–(16), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1838, 1839, related to emergency crop loss assistance for the 1990 crop of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, and rice, for orchards, and for forest crops, prior to repeal by Pub. L. 103–354, title I, §119(c), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3208. Similar provisions for prior crop years were contained in:

Pub. L. 101–82, title I, Aug. 14, 1989, 103 Stat. 565, as amended by Pub. L. 101–134, §1, Oct. 30, 1989, 103 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 101–220, §9(a)–(c), Dec. 12, 1989, 103 Stat. 1882; Pub. L. 101–624, title XXII, §§2231, 2232, 2235(a), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3958, 3959; Pub. L. 102–237, title VI, §602(a), (c), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1878.

Pub. L. 100–387, title II, Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 933, as amended by Pub. L. 101–82, title VI, §602, Aug. 14, 1989, 103 Stat. 587; Pub. L. 101–239, title I, §1004(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2108.

Special Study and Pilot Projects on Futures Trading

Pub. L. 99–198, title XVII, subtitle E, §§1741–1743, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1643, 1644, as amended by Pub. L. 100–203, title I, §1502, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–27, directed Secretary of Agriculture to conduct study to determine manner in which commodity futures markets and commodity options markets might be used by producers of commodities traded on such markets to provide price stability and income protection, extent of price stability and income protection producers might reasonably expect to receive from such participation, and Federal budgetary impact of such participation compared with cost of applicable established price support programs, to report results of study to Congress on or before Dec. 31, 1989, and in connection with such study, to conduct pilot program with respect to crops of wheat, feed grains, soybean, and cotton.

Farm Income Protection Insurance Program Task Force, Study, and Report

Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, §1112, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1267, directed Secretary of Agriculture to appoint a special task force to study and report to Congress, not later than 18 months after Dec. 22, 1981, as to whether farm income protection insurance would provide the basis for an acceptable alternative to the commodity price support, income maintenance, and disaster assistance programs currently administered by the Department of Agriculture for the benefit of farmers.

Studies in Rice Price Support; Report to Congress; Termination Date

Act Aug. 28, 1954, ch. 1041, title III, §315, 68 Stat. 905, directed Secretary of Agriculture to study various two-price systems of price support and marketing which could be made applicable to rice and to submit to Congress on or before Mar. 1, 1955, a detailed report thereon.

§1421a. Financial impact study

(a) Study

The Secretary of Agriculture shall conduct an annual study of the financial impact of the support levels established and announced by the Secretary under programs contained in the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.] (hereafter in this section referred to as "programs"), including a study of the effect of the support levels on the ability of producers to meet their financial obligations (with special emphasis on borrowers from the Farmers Home Administration and the Farm Credit System).

(b) Report

The Secretary shall annually prepare a report containing the results of the study and submit the report to the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate, not later than the date of the final announcement for the programs by the Secretary for any 1 year.

(c) Informational purposes

The study under this section (including the study of the effect of the support levels on the ability of producers to meet their financial obligations) shall be only for informational purposes and for Congressional oversight and shall not give rise to any cause of action, be a basis for, or be used as evidence in support of, any claim or right of any person, including farmers and borrowers, in any administrative or judicial proceeding.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1147, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3516.)

References in Text

The Agricultural Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Effective Date

Section effective beginning with 1991 crop of an agricultural commodity, with provision for prior crops, see section 1171 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

§1421b. Costs of production

Congress finds that, to improve the accuracy of commodity program benefit forecasts, the Secretary of Agriculture should designate a single organization to manage its commodity program forecasting and establish a quality control program to—

(1) systematically identify the source of forecasting errors;

(2) maintain records of data used for supply and demand forecasts;

(3) document its forecasting methods; and

(4) correct weaknesses in its various forecasting components.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4073; Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1011(b), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 709.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1995Pub. L. 104–66 struck out subsec. (a) designation and heading "Improving accuracy of commodity program budget forecasts" before "Congress finds that", and struck out subsec. (b) "Return on assets" which read as follows: "The Secretary of Agriculture shall annually publish a report analyzing the return on assets resulting from the production of upland cotton, rice, wheat, corn, oats, barley, grain sorghum, soybeans, peanuts, sugar from sugar beets, and raw sugar from sugar cane. In conducting this analysis, the Secretary shall consider returns from agricultural price support programs, the effects of agricultural price support programs on cost of production, the factors currently used in Department of Agriculture cost of production data, current value of land, and any other information that he considers necessary to reflect accurately return on the production of such crops."

§1421c. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1011(c), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 709

Section, Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2513, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4074, directed Secretary of Agriculture to develop system for informing consumers of farm value of agricultural products and to submit annual reports on such information to Congress.

§1421d. Commodity reports

(a) Crop reports

The Secretary of Agriculture (hereafter in this section referred to as the "Secretary") shall gather data from producers to be used to develop crop reports to be distributed by the Secretary during the growing season. The report shall contain statements of the conditions of those crops by State, with such explanations, comparisons, and information as may be useful for illustrating such reports.

(b) Special reports

(1) In general

In addition to the reports compiled pursuant to subsection (a), the Secretary shall annually survey producers for information for reports regarding supply, acreage, production, disposition, and prices for the following commodities as determined by the Secretary:

(A) 25 fresh market vegetables;

(B) 3 processing vegetables;

(C) 6 fruits and nuts;

(D) 17 forage and turf seeds;

(E) 50 vegetable seeds; and

(F) maple syrup.

(2) Administrative

The Secretary shall annually prepare a report containing results of the surveys described in paragraph (1) in such States as determined by the Secretary. Such reports shall be submitted to and officially approved by the Secretary of Agriculture before being issued or published.

(c) Tree inventories

The Secretary shall survey producers for information for reports regarding fruit and nut tree inventories. Such surveys and reports shall be conducted, printed, and distributed on a regular basis every 3 to 5 years as determined by the Secretary. Reports shall be submitted to and officially approved by the Secretary before being issued or published.

(d) Omitted

(e) Authorization

There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out this section.

(Pub. L. 101–624, title XXV, §2514, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 4074.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food, Agriculture, Conservation, and Trade Act of 1990, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Section is comprised of section 2514 of Pub. L. 101–624. Subsec. (d) of section 2514 of Pub. L. 101–624 repealed section 411a of this title.

§1422. Increase of price support levels

(a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, price support at a level in excess of the maximum level of price support otherwise prescribed in this Act may be made available for any agricultural commodity if the Secretary determines, after a public hearing of which reasonable notice has been given, that price support at such increased level is necessary in order to prevent or alleviate a shortage in the supply of any agricultural commodity essential to the national welfare or in order to increase or maintain the production of any agricultural commodity in the interest of national security. The Secretary's determination and the record of the hearing shall be available to the public.

(b) Effective only for the 1991 through 1995 crops of wheat, feed grains, cotton, and rice, the Secretary of Agriculture may provide for annual adjustments in the established prices for such program crops to reflect any change during the last calendar year ending before the beginning of each such crop year in the index of prices paid by farmers for production items, interest, taxes, and wage rates in such calendar year.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §402, 63 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1127, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3508.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–624 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective beginning with 1991 crop of an agricultural commodity, with provision for prior crops, see section 1171 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1423. Adjustments of support prices

(a) In general

The Secretary may make appropriate adjustments in the support price for any commodity (excluding cotton) for differences in grade, type, quality, location and other factors. The adjustments shall, so far as practicable, be made in such manner that the average support price for the commodity will, on the basis of the anticipated incidence of such factors be equal to the level of support determined as provided in this Act. Beginning with the 1991 crops of wheat, feed grains, and soybeans for which price support is provided under this Act, the Secretary shall establish premiums and discounts related to cleanliness factors in addition to any other premiums or discounts related to quality.

(b) Adjustment in support prices for cotton

The Secretary may make appropriate adjustments in the support price for cotton for differences in quality factors and location. Beginning with the 1991 crop, the quality differences (premiums and discounts for quality factors) for the upland cotton loan program shall be established by the Secretary by giving equal weight to (1) loan differences for the preceding crop, and (2) market differences for such crop in the designated United States spot markets.

(c) Limitation on adjustments for wheat and feed grains

Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, for each of the 1990 through 1995 crops of wheat and feed grains, no adjustment in the loan rate applicable to a particular region, State, or county for the purpose of reflecting transportation differentials may increase or decrease the regional, State, or county loan rate from the level established for the previous year by more than the percentage change in the national average loan rate plus or minus 3 percent.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §403, 63 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 85–835, title I, §§108, 111, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 993; Pub. L. 89–321, title VIII, §802, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1213; Pub. L. 97–98, title V, §507, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1241; Pub. L. 100–203, title I, §1105, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–5; Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1128, title XX, §2011, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3508, 3932.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–624, §2011, inserted at end of subsec. (a) "Beginning with the 1991 crops of wheat, feed grains, and soybeans for which price support is provided under this Act, the Secretary shall establish premiums and discounts related to cleanliness factors in addition to any other premiums or discounts related to quality."

Pub. L. 101–624, §1128, in amending section generally, designated part of existing text as subsecs. (a), (b), and (c), and in subsec. (a) inserted provisions excluding cotton, in subsec. (b) substituted reference to 1991 crop for reference to 1982 crop, and substituted reference to quality factors for reference to grade, staple and micronaire, and in subsec. (c) substituted reference to 1990 through 1995 crops for reference to 1988 through 1990 crops, substituted reference to 3 percent for reference to 2 percent, and struck out provisions relating to establishment and duties of a study committee and authority of Secretary to review and revise procedures and criteria for establishing values of premiums and discounts for grade, staple and micronaire for upland cotton program.

1987Pub. L. 100–203 inserted at end "Notwithstanding the preceding provisions of this section, for each of the 1988 through 1990 crops of wheat and feed grains, no adjustment in the loan rate applicable to a particular region, State, or county for the purpose of reflecting transportation differentials may increase or decrease such regional, State, or county loan rate from the level established for the previous year by more than the percentage change in the national average loan rate plus or minus 2 percent."

1981Pub. L. 97–98 inserted provision directing that beginning with 1982 crop of upland cotton, the quality differences for the loan program be established by giving equal weight to the loan differences for the preceding crop and to the market differences for the crop in the nine designated United States spot markets and authorizing the Secretary to establish a study committee to study and report on alternative methods of establishing values of premiums and discounts for grade, staple, and micronaire for the upland cotton loan program that accurately represent true relative market values and reflect actual market demand for upland cotton produced in the United States and to review procedures and criteria for determining quality differences, prior to the announcement of the loan rate differences for the 1982 crop of upland cotton, and based on such review, revise such procedures and criteria to actually reflect the actual market value of upland cotton produced in the United States.

1965Pub. L. 89–321 provided that, in determining support prices for 1966 and 1967 rice crops, the Secretary shall use head and broken rice value factors for the various varieties which are not lower than those with respect to the 1965 crop and which do not differ as between any two varieties by a greater amount than the value factors used with respect to the 1965 crop for such two varieties differed.

1958Pub. L. 85–835 provided for support of split grades and struck out, effective with the 1961 crop, sentence prescribing standard cotton grade for parity and price support purposes.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by section 1128 of Pub. L. 101–624 effective beginning with 1991 crop of an agricultural commodity, with provision for prior crops, see section 1171 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1424. Utilization of services and facilities of Commodity Credit Corporation

The Secretary, in carrying out programs under section 612c of this title and section 1755 of title 42, may utilize the services and facilities of the Commodity Credit Corporation (including but not limited to procurement by contract), and make advance payments to it.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §404, 63 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §752(b)(2), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1169.)

Amendments

1999Pub. L. 106–78 made technical amendment to reference in original act which appears in text as reference to section 1755 of title 42.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§1425. Producer rights and liabilities

(a) Liability for deficiencies

Except as otherwise provided in section 1425a of this title, no producer shall be personally liable for any deficiency arising from the sale of the collateral securing any loan made under authority of this Act unless such loan was obtained through fraudulent representations by the producer. This provision shall not, however, be construed to prevent the Commodity Credit Corporation or the Secretary from requiring producers to assume liability for deficiencies in the grade, quality, or quantity of commodities stored on the farm or delivered by them, for failure properly to care for and preserve commodities, or for failure or refusal to deliver commodities in accordance with the requirements of the program. There is authorized to be included in the terms and conditions of any such nonrecourse loan a provision whereby on and after the maturity of the loan or any extension thereof Commodity Credit Corporation shall have the right to acquire title to the unredeemed collateral without obligation to pay for any market value which such collateral may have in excess of the loan indebtedness.

(b) Sugarcane and sugar beets

The security interests obtained by the Commodity Credit Corporation as a result of the execution of security agreements by the processors of sugarcane and sugar beets shall be superior to all statutory and common law liens on raw cane sugar and refined beet sugar in favor of the producers of sugarcane and sugar beets and all prior recorded and unrecorded liens on the crops of sugarcane and sugar beets from which the sugar was derived. The preceding sentence shall not affect the application of section 1421(e)(2) of this title.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §405, 63 Stat. 1054; Pub. L. 85–835, title V, §502, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1004, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1447; Pub. L. 100–460, title VI, §634(a), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2263; Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §111(b), Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1830.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1991—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 102–237 amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows:

"(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary may provide a negotiable certificate to any producer who repays, together with interest, a price support loan made available to such producer under any of the annual programs, for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, or rice established under this Act.

"(2) The amount of such certificates shall be equal to the amount of the interest paid by the producer on such loan.

"(3) Such certificate shall be redeemable in wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, or rice, as the case may be, owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation.

"(4) The issuance of such certificate shall be subject to the availability of commodities owned by the Corporation."

1988—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–460 substituted "Except as otherwise provided in section 1425a of this title, no producer" for "No producer".

1985Pub. L. 99–198 temporarily designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment note below.

1958Pub. L. 85–835 authorized the Commodity Credit Corporation to acquire title to agricultural commodities on which nonrecourse price-support loans have been made without the necessity of computing and making payments to the farmer.

Effective Date of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–460, title VI, §634(a), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2263, provided that the amendment made by section 634(a) is effective beginning with 1989 crop year for honey.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1004, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1447, provided that the amendment made by section 1004 is effective only for the 1986 through 1990 crops.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1425a. Producers of honey; loan obligations and liabilities

(a) Loan forfeiture limitation

A producer of honey may satisfy the producer's obligation to repay a loan, or a portion of a loan, made to the producer under section 1446h 1 of this title by forfeiting the collateral for the loan, or portion of the loan, only if the value of the collateral forfeited, when taken together with the value of the collateral forfeited on any other loan or loans of the person for such crop of honey under section 1446h 1 of this title, does not exceed $200,000 in the 1991 crop year, $175,000 in the 1992 crop year, $150,000 in the 1993 crop year, and $125,000 in each of the 1994 and subsequent crop years: Provided, however, That the loan forfeiture limitation provided by this section shall not be applicable for any crop year for which the Secretary does not permit producers of honey to repay the price support loans at a level determined under section 1446h(b)(2) 1 of this title.

(b) Liability for nonforfeitable part of obligation

The producer of honey shall be personally liable for the repayment of a loan or loans made to the producer under the program for the crop of honey involved, with respect to that portion of the loan or loans for which satisfaction of the loan by forfeiture, as provided in subsection (a), is prohibited.

(c) Extent of personal liability

The loan contracts of the Commodity Credit Corporation entered into with producers of honey shall clearly indicate the extent to which a producer of honey may be personally liable for repayment of a loan under this section.

(d) Promulgation of regulations

The Commodity Credit Corporation may issue such regulations as the Corporation deems necessary to carry out this section. The regulations shall provide for the attribution of the value of collateral forfeited on loans described in subsection (a).

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §405A, as added Pub. L. 100–460, title VI, §634(b), Oct. 1, 1988, 102 Stat. 2263; amended Pub. L. 101–624, title X, §1002, title XI, §1161(d), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3490, 3521.)

References in Text

Section 1446h of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was repealed by Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §171(b)(2)(H), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938.

Amendments

1990—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 101–624, §1161(d), substituted references to sections 1446h and 1446h(b)(2) of this title for references to sections 1446(b) and 1446(b)(2)(B) of this title, respectively.

Pub. L. 101–624, §1002(1), substituted "person for such crop of honey under section 1446h of this title, does not exceed $200,000 in the 1991 crop year, $175,000 in the 1992 crop year, $150,000 in the 1993 crop year, and $125,000 in each of the 1994 and subsequent crop years" for "producer for such crop of honey under section 1446(b) of this title, does not exceed $250,000".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–624, §1002(2), inserted provisions requiring that the regulations issued pursuant to this subsection provide for the attribution of the value of collateral forfeited on loans described in subsec. (a).

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective beginning with 1991 crop of an agricultural commodity, with provision for prior crops, see section 1171 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

Prohibition on Use of Funds for Honey Payments or Loan Forfeitures

Pub. L. 104–37, title VII, §718, Oct. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 331, provided that none of the funds appropriated or otherwise made available by Pub. L. 104–37 were to be used by the Secretary of Agriculture to provide total amount of payments and/or total amount of loan forfeitures to a person to support the price of honey under this section or former section 1446h of this title in excess of zero dollars in the 1994, 1995, and 1996 crop years.

Similar provisions were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 103–330, title VII, §723, Sept. 30, 1994, 108 Stat. 2469.

Pub. L. 103–111, title VII, §728, Oct. 21, 1993, 107 Stat. 1081.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1426. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §171(b)(2)(I), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, acts Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §406, 63 Stat. 1055; Dec. 23, 1985, Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1016, 99 Stat. 1457; Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1129, 104 Stat. 3508; Dec. 13, 1991, Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §113(11), 105 Stat. 1838, provided for advance announcement of price support levels.

§1427. Commodity Credit Corporation sales price restrictions

(a) In general

The Commodity Credit Corporation may sell any farm commodity owned or controlled by the Corporation at any price not prohibited by this section.

(b) Inventories

In determining sales policies for basic agricultural commodities or storable nonbasic commodities, the Corporation should consider the establishment of such policies with respect to prices, terms, and conditions as the Corporation determines will not discourage or deter manufacturers, processors, and dealers from acquiring and carrying normal inventories of the commodity of the current crop.

(c) Sales price restrictions

(1) In general

Except as otherwise provided in this section, the Corporation shall not sell any basic agricultural commodity or storable nonbasic commodity at less than 115 percent of the lower of—

(A) the current national average price support loan rate for the commodity adjusted for the current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, reasonable carrying charges, and other factors determined appropriate by the Corporation; or

(B) the loan repayment level.

(2) Extra long staple cotton

The Corporation may sell extra long staple cotton for unrestricted use at such price as the Corporation determines is appropriate to maintain and expand export and domestic markets.

(3) Oilseeds

The Corporation shall not sell oilseeds at less than the lower of—

(A) 105 percent of the current national average price support loan rate for the oilseed, adjusted for the current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, reasonable carrying charges, and other factors determined appropriate by the Corporation; or

(B) 115 percent of the loan repayment level.

(4) Wheat and feed grains

Whenever the producer reserve program for wheat and feed grains established under section 1445e of this title is in effect, the Corporation may not sell any of its stocks of wheat or feed grains at a level that is less than 150 percent of the then current loan rate for wheat or feed grains.

(5) Upland cotton

The Commodity Credit Corporation shall sell upland cotton for unrestricted use at the same price the Corporation sells upland cotton for export, but in no event at less than the amount provided for in paragraph (1).

(d) Nonapplication of sales price restrictions

The foregoing restrictions of this section shall not apply to—

(1) sales for new or byproduct uses;

(2) sales of peanuts and oilseeds for the extraction of oil;

(3) sales for seed or feed if the sales will not substantially impair any price support program;

(4) sales of commodities that have substantially deteriorated in quality or as to which there is a danger of loss or waste through deterioration or spoilage;

(5) sales for the purpose of establishing claims arising out of contract or against persons who have committed fraud, misrepresentation, or other wrongful acts with respect to the commodity;

(6) sales for export (excluding sales of upland cotton for export);

(7) sales of wool; and

(8) sales for other than primary uses.

(e) Distress, disaster, and livestock emergency areas

(1) In general

Notwithstanding the foregoing provisions of this section, the Corporation, on such terms and conditions as the Secretary may consider in the public interest, may—

(A) make available any farm commodity or product thereof owned or controlled by the Corporation for use in relieving distress—

(i) in any area in the United States (including the Virgin Islands) declared by the President to be an acute distress area because of unemployment or other economic cause, if the President finds that the use will not displace or interfere with normal marketing of agricultural commodities; and

(ii) in connection with any major disaster determined by the President to warrant assistance by the Federal Government under the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (42 U.S.C. 5121 et seq.); and


(B) donate or sell commodities in accordance with subchapter V.

(2) Costs

Except on a reimbursable basis, the Corporation shall not bear any costs in connection with making the commodity available under this subsection beyond the cost of the commodities to the Corporation in—

(A) the storage of the commodity; and

(B) the handling and transportation costs in making delivery of the commodity to designated agencies at one or more central locations in each State or other area.

(f) Efficient operations

(1) In general

Subject to paragraph (2), the foregoing restrictions of this section shall not apply to sales of commodities the disposition of which is desirable in the interest of the effective and efficient conduct of the operations of the Corporation because of the small quantities involved, or because of age, location or questionable continued storability of the commodity.

(2) Offsets

The sales shall be offset (if necessary) by the purchases of commodities as the Corporation determines is appropriate to prevent the sales from substantially impairing any price support program or unduly affecting market prices, except that the purchase price shall not exceed the Corporation's minimum sales price for the commodities for unrestricted use.

(3) Competitive bid basis

Subject to the sales price restrictions contained in this section, the Corporation may sell any basic agricultural commodity or storable nonbasic commodity on a competitive bid basis, if the sale is determined to be appropriate by the Secretary.

(g) Sales for export

For the purposes of this section, sales for export shall include—

(1) sales made on condition that the identical commodities sold be exported; and

(2) sales made on condition that commodities of the same kind and of comparable value or quantity be exported, either in raw or processed form.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §407, 63 Stat. 1055; July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title III, §308, formerly §301, 68 Stat. 458, renumbered §308, Pub. L. 95–88, title II, §211(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 548; amended July 29, 1954, ch. 643, 68 Stat. 583; Jan. 28, 1956, ch. 14, 70 Stat. 6; Pub. L. 85–835, title I, §109, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 993; Pub. L. 87–127, Aug. 7, 1961, 75 Stat. 293; Pub. L. 87–703, title III, §325(2), title IV, §404, Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 631, 632; Pub. L. 88–297, title I, §104, title II, §204, Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 175, 183; Pub. L. 88–585, §1, Sept. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 927; Pub. L. 89–321, title IV, §404, Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1197; Pub. L. 89–808, §3(e), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 90–475, §7, Aug. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 703; Pub. L. 90–559, §1(5), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §409, title VI, §603, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1367, 1377; Pub. L. 95–113, title IV, §408, title VI, §603, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 927, 939; Pub. L. 97–98, title V, §503, title XI, §§1103, 1111(a), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1240, 1264, 1267; Pub. L. 98–88, §5, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 499; Pub. L. 99–198, title V, §503, title X, §1007, title XVII, §1763(b), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1418, 1451, 1651; Pub. L. 100–387, title I, §101(b)(2), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 931; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §109(a)(2), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4708; Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1130, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3509.)

References in Text

The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (e)(1)(A)(ii), is Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended, known as the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, which is classified principally to chapter 68 (§5121 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of Title 42 and Tables.

Prior Provisions

A prior section 308 of act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title III, as added Sept. 21, 1959, Pub. L. 86–341, title I, §13, 73 Stat. 609; amended Sept. 27, 1962, Pub. L. 87–703, title II, §203, 76 Stat. 611, cited as a credit to this section, which enacted section 1697 of this title, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–808, §2(D), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1535.

Amendments

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, designating part of existing text as subsecs. (a) to (g), and as so designated, in subsec. (c), substituting provisions restricting sales of nonbasic or agricultural commodities at less than 115 percent of the levels of the current national price support level or the loan repayment level for provisions restricting such sales at less than 5 percent above the current support price, substituting provisions authorizing the sale of extra long staple cotton at any price determined appropriate for provisions that it sell at not less than 15 percent above the current support price, adding provisions relating to oilseeds, and wheat and feed grains, deleting provisions relating to sales of extra long staple cotton for unrestricted use and the authority of Secretary in carrying out this section.

1988Pub. L. 100–707, substituted "the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act" for "Public Law 875, Eighty-first Congress, as amended (42 U.S.C. 1855)".

Pub. L. 100–387 substituted provision authorizing the Commodity Credit Corporation to donate or sell commodities in accordance with subchapter V of this chapter for provision authorizing the Commodity Credit Corporation to make feed for livestock available to certain persons in certain areas during emergencies.

1985Pub. L. 99–198, §1007, temporarily reenacted substantially without change the amendments made in 1981 by section 1103 of Pub. L. 97–98, which had established a floor for sales of wheat and feed grains in inventory for unrestricted use at 115 per centum of the current national average loan rate for the commodity adjusted for current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, and other value factors, plus reasonable carrying charges; designated such provisions as thus reenacted as cl. (A) of the proviso involved and added cl. (B) relating to the Secretary's permitting the repayment of loans at a loan rate less than the loan level determined for such crop; and reenacted, also without change, the amendments by Pub. L. 97–98 which had the price at which purchases had to be made to offset sales in the interest of the efficient conduct of the Corporation's operations to an amount not exceeding the minimum sales price for the commodity for unrestricted use. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment note below.

Pub. L. 99–198, §1763(b), inserted provision giving the Commodity Credit Corporation authority to (1) make available feed for livestock to certain persons during emergencies in areas in which feed grains are normally produced and normally available for feed purposes, but in which they are unavailable because of a catastrophe described in the fourth sentence of this section, (2) make such feed available to such persons through feed dealers in the areas, (3) make such feed available at a price not less than the price prescribed in the fourth sentence of this section, and (4) bear any expenses incurred in connection with making such feed available to such persons under this sentence, including transportation and handling costs.

Pub. L. 99–198, §503, temporarily reenacted substantially without change the amendments made in 1981 by section 503 of Pub. L. 97–98, which provided that the Commodity Credit Corporation sell upland cotton for unrestricted use at the same prices as it sells cotton for export, but in no event at less than 115 per centum of the loan rate for Strict Low Middling one and one-sixteenth inch upland cotton, micronaire 3.5 through 4.9, adjusted for such current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, and other value factors as the Secretary determines appropriate plus reasonable carrying charges, and substituted "as it sells upland cotton" for "as it sells cotton" and "percent" for "per centum"; designated such provisions as thus reenacted as cl. (A), and added cl. (B) relating to the Secretary's permitting the repayment of loans at a loan rate less than the loan level determined for such crop. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment note below.

1983Pub. L. 98–88 inserted provision that, beginning Aug. 26, 1983, the Commodity Credit Corporation may sell extra long staple cotton for unrestricted use at such price levels as the Secretary determines appropriate to maintain and expand export and domestic markets for such cotton.

1981Pub. L. 97–98 temporarily reenacted without change the amendments made in 1977 by section 408 of Pub. L. 95–113, which had established a floor for sales of wheat and feed grains in inventory for unrestricted use at 115 per centum of the current national average loan rate for the commodity adjusted for current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, and other value factors, plus reasonable carrying charges, and which had changed the price at which purchases had to be made to offset sales in the interest of the efficient conduct of the Corporation's operations to an amount not exceeding the minimum sales price for the commodity for unrestricted use, and the amendment made in 1977 by section 603 of Pub. L. 95–113, which provided that the Commodity Credit Corporation sell upland cotton for unrestricted use at the same prices as it sells cotton for export, but in no event at less than 115 per centum of the loan rate for Strict Middling one and one-sixteenth inch upland cotton, micronaire 3.5 through 4.9, adjusted for such current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, and other value factors as the Secretary determines appropriate plus reasonable carrying charges, and substituted "may make available" for "shall make available" and "may make feed" for "shall make feed". See Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendment note below.

1977Pub. L. 95–113 temporarily reenacted without change the amendments made in 1970 by section 409 of Pub. L. 91–524 which had established a floor for sales of wheat and feed grains in inventory for unrestricted use at 115 per centum of the current national average loan rate for the commodity adjusted for current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, and other value factors, plus reasonable carrying charges, and which had changed the price at which purchases had to be made to offset sales in the interest of the efficient conduct of the Corporation's operations to an amount not exceeding the minimum sales price for the commodity for unrestricted use, and reenacted the amendment made in 1970 by section 603 of Pub. L. 91–524 with regard to the sale of upland cotton by the Corporation with the single change of substituting "at less than 115 per centum of the loan rate for Strict Low Middling one and one-sixteenth inch upland cotton" for "at less than 110 per centum of the loan rate for Middling one-inch upland cotton" in provisions setting the minimum price at which the Corporation shall sell upland cotton for unrestricted use. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1977 Amendment note below.

1970Pub. L. 91–524 temporarily established a floor for sales of wheat and feed grains in inventory for unrestricted use at 115 per centum of the current national average loan rate for the commodity adjusted for current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, and other value factors, plus reasonable carrying charges, changed the price at which purchases must be made to offset sales in the interest of the efficient conduct of the Corporation's operations to an amount not exceeding the minimum sales price for the commodity for unrestricted use, and provided for sale of upland cotton by the Corporation for unrestricted use at the same prices as it sold for export, in no event, however, at less than 110 percent of the loan rate for Middling one-inch cotton (micronaire 3.5 through 4.9) adjusted for such current market differentials reflecting grade, quality, location, and other value factors as deemed appropriate by the Secretary, plus reasonable carrying charges. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment note below.

1968Pub. L. 90–559 extended termination date for sale of upland cotton from July 31, 1970, to July 31, 1971.

Pub. L. 90–475 required that notwithstanding any other provision of this section, effective Aug. 1, 1968, the Commodity Credit Corporation make available for sale for unrestricted use at current market prices a quantity of American grown extra long staple cotton equal to the specified amount, with the proviso that beginning with the marketing year for which the national marketing quota is not established pursuant to section 1347(b)(3) of this title, no sales shall be made at less than 115 percent of the loan rate for extra long staple cotton under section 1441(f) of this title, and required the Secretary to make adjustments in the quantities of cotton to be made available.

1966Pub. L. 89–808 inserted proviso to third sentence prohibiting, whenever carryover at end of any marketing year of a price supported agricultural commodity for which a voluntary adjustment program is in effect will be less than 25 per centum (35 per centum in the case of wheat) of the estimated export and domestic consumption of such commodity during such marketing year, sale of CCC stocks of such commodity during such year for unrestricted use at less than 115 per centum (120 per centum in the case of wheat whenever its carryover will be less than 25 per centum of such estimated export and domestic consumption) of the current price support loan plus reasonable carrying charges.

1965Pub. L. 89–321 required that notwithstanding any other provision of this section, for the period August 1, 1966, through July 31, 1970, (1) the Commodity Credit Corporation shall sell upland cotton for unrestricted use at the same prices as it sells cotton for export, in no event, however, at less than 110 per centum of the loan rate, and (2) the Commodity Credit Corporation shall sell or make available for unrestricted use at current market prices in each marketing year a quantity of upland cotton equal to the amount by which the production of upland cotton is less than the estimated requirements for domestic use and for export for such marketing year, permitted the Secretary to make such estimates and adjustments therein at such times as he determines will best effectuate the provisions of part (2) of the foregoing sentence, and required such quantities of cotton as are required to be sold under such sentence to be offered for sale in an orderly manner and so as not to affect market prices unduly.

1964Pub. L. 88–585 provided that the Corporation, in providing feed to distressed areas, may charge not less than 75 percent of the current basic county support rate including the value of any applicable price support payment in kind, included the Virgin Islands within those areas where such feed can be made obtainable, authorized the Secretary to provide feed by feed dealers under such arrangement that the feed so furnished would be replaced with feed owned or controlled by the Corporation and sold to such persons, and inserted "or other area" after "one or more central locations in each State".

Pub. L. 88–297, §104, inserted proviso that beginning Aug. 1, 1964, the Corporation may sell upland cotton for unrestricted use at not less than 105 per centum of the current loan rate for such cotton under section 1444(a) of this title plus reasonable carrying charges.

Pub. L. 88–297, §204, temporarily substituted proviso that if wheat marketing allocation program is in effect, the current price for wheat shall be the support price for wheat not accompanied by marketing certificates for proviso prescribing support price for wheat accompanied by marketing certificate and sale of wheat to be accompanied by marketing certificate, respectively. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1964 Amendment note below.

1962Pub. L. 87–703 prescribed that a marketing certificate accompany the support price for wheat and wheat sold and authorized the Secretary to make Commodity Credit Corporation feed available, prior to Dec. 31, 1963, to milk producers to assure supply free of radioactive fallout contamination, respectively.

1961Pub. L. 87–127 empowered Corporation to sell, at not less than 75 percent of the current support price, feed owned or controlled by it to assist in the preservation and maintenance of foundation herds of cattle, sheep, and goats in such areas where the Secretary determines an emergency exists warranting such assistance.

1958Pub. L. 85–835 required Corporation to sell cotton for unrestricted use at not less than 15 per centum above support price plus reasonable carrying charges, and authorized Corporation to sell at market price a number of bales equal to that by which the national marketing quota is less than domestic consumption and exports.

1956—Act Jan. 28, 1956, included as "sales for export" sales made on condition that like commodities of comparable value or quantity be exported in raw or processed form.

1954—Act July 29, 1954, exempted from the minimum price requirement any sales where disposition is desirable in the interest of effective and efficient conduct of the Corporation's operations because of the small quantities involved or because of age, location, or questionable storability.

Act July 10, 1954, inserted provisions relating to use of farm commodities and products in relieving distress.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective beginning with 1991 crop of an agricultural commodity, with provision for prior crops, see section 1171 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment

Pub. L. 100–387, title I, §101(c), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 932, provided that:

"(1) This section and the amendments made by this section [enacting sections 1471 to 1471j of this title, amending this section, repealing sections 1433 and 2267 of this title, enacting provisions set out as a note under section 1421 of this title, and repealing provisions set out as notes under this section] shall become effective 15 days after the date of the enactment of this Act [Aug. 11, 1988].

"(2) The provisions of section 604(d), 605(c), 606(a)(2)(A), 606(e), 609(c), and 609(d) of the Agricultural Act of 1949, as added by subsection (a) [7 U.S.C. 1471b(d), 1471c(c), 1471d(a)(2)(A), (e), 1471g(c), (d)], shall apply only with respect to any livestock emergency in 1988."

Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–198, title V, §503, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1418, provided that the amendment made by section 503 is effective only with respect to the period beginning Aug. 1, 1978, and ending July 31, 1991.

Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1007, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1451, provided that the amendment made by section 1007 is effective only for the marketing years for the 1986 through 1990 crops.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–98, title V, §503, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1240, provided that the amendment made by section 503 is effective only with respect to the period beginning Aug. 1, 1978, and ending July 31, 1986.

Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, §1103, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1264, provided that the amendment made by section 1103 is effective only for the marketing years for the 1982 through 1985 crops.

Amendment by §1111(a) of Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–113, title IV, §408, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 927, provided that the amendment made by section 408 (which reenacted without change the amendment first made by section 409 of Pub. L. 91–524 establishing a floor for sales of wheat and feed grains and changing price at which purchases must be made to offset sales in interest of efficient conduct of Corporation's operations) is effective only with respect to the marketing years for the 1978 through 1981 crops.

Pub. L. 95–113, title VI, §603, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 939, provided that the amendment made by section 603, which reenacted with some changes (see 1977 Amendment note above) the amendment first made by section 603 of Pub. L. 91–524 relating to sale of upland cotton by Corporation, is effective only with respect to the period beginning Aug. 1, 1978, and ending July 31, 1982.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §409, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1367, as amended by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(16), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 230, provided that the amendment made by section 409 (establishing a floor for sales of wheat and feed grains and changing price at which purchases must be made to offset sales in interest of efficient conduct of Corporation's operations) is effective only with respect to the marketing years for 1971 through 1977 crops of the commodity.

Pub. L. 91–524, title VI, §603, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1377, as amended by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(21), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 235, provided that the amendment made by section 603 (covering sale of upland cotton by Corporation) is effective only with respect to the period beginning Aug. 1, 1971, and ending July 31, 1978.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–808 effective Jan. 1, 1967, see section 5 of Pub. L. 89–808, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–297, title II, §204, Apr. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 183, as amended by Pub. L. 89–321, title V, §505(3), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1203; Pub. L. 90–559, §1(1), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996, provided that the amendment made by section 204 is effective only with respect to the marketing years beginning in calendar years 1964 through 1970.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

Sale of Corn to Ethanol Producers

Pub. L. 100–387, title III, §332, Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 951, provided that:

"(a) In General.—Except as otherwise provided in this section and notwithstanding section 110(f) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1445e(f)) or any other provision of law, if, during any month commencing after July 31, 1988, the average corn price (as determined under subsection (d)) exceeds the fuel conversion price (as defined in section 212 of the Agricultural Trade Suspension Adjustment Act of 1980 (7 U.S.C. 4005)), the Secretary of Agriculture may make available for sale to domestic producers of ethanol fuel, for the production of ethanol, not more than 12,000,000 bushels per month of corn owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation.

"(b) Price.—Corn shall be sold under this section at a price that is not more than such fuel conversion price, except that such price shall not be less than 110 percent of the basic county loan rate for corn, prior to any adjustment made under section 105C(a)(3) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1444e(a)(3)).

"(c) Maximum Amount.—The total quantity of corn sold to any ethanol producer under this section may not exceed 2,000,000 bushels per month.

"(d) Average Corn Price.—The average corn price under this section shall be determined by the Secretary based on the average corn price in markets used for determinations made under clause (5) of the third sentence of section 110(b) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1445e(b)).

"(e) Terms.—(1) The Secretary may not make corn or other commodities available under this section to any domestic producer of ethanol that uses in excess of 30,000,000 bushels of corn or comparable commodity annually in producing ethanol.

"(2) Domestic producers of ethanol fuel purchasing corn under this section shall agree not to resell such corn and to make available a quantity of feed byproducts equivalent to the quantity processed from such corn for sale to domestic livestock producers and feeders in a manner and subject to such terms and conditions as are approved by the Secretary.

"(f) Termination.—The Secretary shall terminate any program established under this section no later than September 1, 1989. The Secretary shall terminate the program on an earlier date if the Secretary determines that—

"(1) such program is no longer necessary to maintain the economic viability of the ethanol industry; or

"(2) a sufficient supply of corn otherwise would not be available to fulfill estimated obligations of the Commodity Credit Corporation under emergency livestock feeding programs during the subsequent 180-day period.

"(g) Other Commodities.—The Secretary may, at the request of a domestic producer of ethanol, substitute other feed grains (such as grain sorghum) for corn on an equitable basis, taking into account variations in the value of such commodities in the production of ethanol."

Emergency Feed Assistance

Pub. L. 98–180, title III, §303, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1151, which authorized Secretary of Agriculture to make damaged corn available to assist eligible farmers and ranchers in areas adversely affected by drought, hot weather, or related disaster to preserve and maintain foundation herds of livestock and poultry, which corn was to be available until Sept. 30, 1984, or date, as determined by the Secretary, on which emergency no longer exists, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–387, title I, §101(b)(5), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 932, eff. 15 days after Aug. 11, 1988.

Sale of Feed for Livestock in Emergency Areas; Designation of Emergency Area; Conditions; Penalty

Pub. L. 86–299, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 574, as amended by Pub. L. 88–585, §3, Sept. 11, 1964, 78 Stat. 927, which authorized Secretary of Agriculture to sell feed grains to provide feed for livestock in any area determined by Secretary to be an emergency area, and provided penalty for any person disposing of such feed other than by feeding livestock owned by him, was repealed by Pub. L. 100–387, title I, §101(b)(4), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 931, eff. 15 days after Aug. 11, 1988.

Feed Grain; Sale by CCC; Termination Date

Act Aug. 28, 1954, ch. 1041, title II, §208, 68 Stat. 901, authorized the Commodity Credit Corporation until March 1, 1955, to sell at the point of storage any feed grain owned by the Corporation at 10 per centum above the current support price for the commodity.

Authorization for Commodity Credit Corporation To Sell Wheat and Corn

Pub. L. 85–683, Aug. 19, 1958, 72 Stat. 635, as authorizing Commodity Credit Corporation to purchase flour and cornmeal for donation and to sell, without regard to this section, an equivalent amount of wheat and corn, see note set out under section 1431 of this title.

Sale of Commodities for Foreign Currencies

Sale of surplus agricultural commodities for foreign currencies, see section 1691 et seq., of this title.

Ex. Ord. No. 11336. Delegation of Authority Relating to Emergency Livestock Feed

Ex. Ord. No. 11336, Mar. 22, 1967, 32 F.R. 4489, provided:

By virtue of the authority vested in me by section 301 of Title 3 of the United States Code, and as President of the United States, it is ordered as follows:

Section 1. (a) The Secretary of Agriculture is hereby designated and empowered to exercise, without the approval, ratification, or other action of the President, the authority vested in the President by clause (1) of the fifth sentence of section 407 of the Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended (7 U.S.C. 1427), to the extent prescribed in subsection (b) of this section.

(b) Whenever the Secretary of Agriculture determines that the chronic economic distress of the needy members of an Indian tribe is materially increased by severe drought, flood, hurricane, blizzard, or other uncontrollable catastrophe affecting any reservation or other land designated for Indian use which is utilized by members of such tribe for grazing livestock, he may, under subsection (a) of this section, declare such reservation or other land to be an acute distress area because of unemployment or other economic reasons if he finds that the use of farm commodities or the products thereof made available by the Commodity Credit Corporation for livestock feed in that area will not displace or interfere with normal marketing of agricultural commodities.

Sec. 2. Federal assistance in relieving distress, extended as a result of action by the Secretary of Agriculture under the authority delegated by section 1 of this order, shall terminate in each instance upon notice by the Secretary of Agriculture.

Sec. 3. In carrying out the provisions of this order the Secretary of Agriculture shall maintain liaison with the Secretary of the Interior and shall consult with the latter as may be appropriate.

Sec. 4. The declaration contained in the letter of the President to the Secretary of Agriculture, dated February 1, 1965, that reservation lands in Arizona, Utah and New Mexico, which are grazed in common by Indian tribes, are an acute distress area shall continue in effect until January 1, 1968, or until such earlier date as may be fixed by notice of the Secretary of Agriculture published in the Federal Register.

Lyndon B. Johnson.      

§1427–1. Quality requirements for Commodity Credit Corporation owned grain

(a) Establishment of minimum standards

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary shall establish minimum quality standards that shall apply to grain that is deposited for storage for the account of the Commodity Credit Corporation. In establishing such standards, the Secretary shall take into consideration factors related to the ability of grain to withstand storage and assurance of acceptable end-use performance.

(b) Inspection of grain acquisitions

The Commodity Credit Corporation shall utilize Federal Grain Inspection Service approved procedures to inspect and evaluate the condition of the grain it acquires from producers. In no case shall this section require the use of an official inspection unless the producer so requests.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §407A, as added Pub. L. 101–624, title XX, §2012, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3933.)

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1427a. Reserve inventories for alleviation of distress of natural disaster

(a) Establishment, maintenance and disposal by Secretary; amount and nature of reserve

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Secretary of Agriculture may under the provisions of this Act establish, maintain, and dispose of a separate reserve of inventories of not to exceed 75 million bushels of wheat, feed grains, and soybeans for the purpose of alleviating distress caused by a natural disaster.

Such reserve inventories may include such quantities of grain that the Secretary deems needed to provide for the alleviation of distress as the result of a natural disaster.

(b) Acquisition of commodities through price support program

The Secretary may acquire such commodities through the price support program. However, if the Secretary determines that no wheat, feed grains, or soybeans are available through the price support program at locations where they may be economically utilized to alleviate distress caused by a natural disaster, the Secretary is authorized to purchase through the facilities of the Commodity Credit Corporation such wheat, feed grains, soybeans, hay, or other livestock forages as the Secretary deems necessary for disposition in accordance with the authority provided in subsection (d) of this section. The Secretary may acquire wheat, feed grains, soybeans, hay, or other livestock forages at such locations, at such times, and in such quantities as the Secretary finds necessary and appropriate and may pay such transportation and other costs as may be required to permit disposition of such wheat, feed grains, soybeans, hay, and other livestock forages under subsection (d) of this section.

(c) Prerequisites for sale or disposition of commodities in reserve

Except when a state of emergency has been proclaimed by the President or by concurrent resolution of Congress declaring that such reserves should be disposed of, the Secretary shall not offer any commodity in the reserve for sale or disposition.

(d) Additional authorization for disposition of commodities to relieve distress or for civil defense emergencies

The Secretary is also authorized to dispose of such commodities only for (1) use in relieving distress (A) in any State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, or the Virgin Islands of the United States, (B) in connection with any major disaster or emergency determined by the President to warrant assistance by the Federal Government under the Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (88 Stat. 143, as amended; 42 U.S.C. 5121), and (C) in connection with any emergency determined by the Secretary to warrant assistance under section 1427 of this title, the Act of September 21, 1959 (73 Stat. 574, as amended; 7 U.S.C. 1427 note), or section 2267 1 of this title; or (2) use in connection with a state of civil defense emergency as proclaimed by the President or by concurrent resolution of the Congress in accordance with title VI of The 2 Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act [42 U.S.C. 5195 et seq.].

(e) Sale at equivalent prices for maintenance of reserve

The Secretary may sell at an equivalent price, allowing for the customary location and grade price differentials, substantially equivalent quantities in different locations or warehouses to the extent needed to properly handle, rotate, distribute, and locate such reserve.

(f) Utilization of Commodity Credit Corporation and usual and customary channels, etc., of trade and commerce

The Secretary may use the Commodity Credit Corporation to the extent feasible to fulfill the purposes of this section; and to the maximum extent practicable consistent with the fulfillment of the purposes of this section and the effective and efficient administration of this section shall utilize the usual and customary channels, facilities, and arrangements of trade and commerce.

(g) Rules and regulations

The Secretary may issue such rules and regulations as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

(h) Authorization of appropriations

There is hereby authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the purposes of this section.

(Pub. L. 91–524, title VIII, §813, as added Pub. L. 93–86, §1(27)(B), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 239; amended Pub. L. 95–113, title XI, §1103, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 97–98, title X, §1003, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1260; Pub. L. 100–707, title I, §109(b), Nov. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 4708; Pub. L. 103–337, div. C, title XXXIV, §3412(b)(3), Oct. 5, 1994, 108 Stat. 3111.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 91–524, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1358, known as the Agricultural Act of 1970. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1970 Amendment note set out under section 1281 of this title and Tables.

The Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act and the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act, referred to in subsec. (d), are Pub. L. 93–288, May 22, 1974, 88 Stat. 143, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 68 (§5121 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Title VI of the Act is classified generally to subchapter IV–B (§5195 et seq.) of chapter 68 of Title 42. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 5121 of Title 42 and Tables.

Act of September 21, 1959, referred to in subsec. (d), is Pub. L. 86–299, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 574, as amended, which is set out as a note under section 1427 of this title.

Section 2267 of this title, referred to in subsec. (d), was repealed by Pub. L. 100–387, title I, §101(b)(1), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 931.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Agricultural Act of 1970 as added by the Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1994—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 103–337 substituted "title VI of The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act" for "the provisions of the Federal Civil Defense Act of 1950, as amended (50 U.S.C. App. 2251–2297)".

1988—Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 100–707 substituted "and Emergency Assistance Act" for "Act of 1974".

1981—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 97–98 substituted "may" for "shall" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 97–98 substituted "Secretary may acquire such commodities" for "Secretary shall acquire such commodities".

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–113, §1103(a), inserted provisions authorizing Secretary to act if it is determined that no wheat, feed grains, or soybeans are available through the price support program at locations where they can be economically utilized to alleviate distress caused by a natural disaster.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 95–113, §1103(b), substituted "(A) in any State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, or the Virgin Islands of the United States, (B) in connection with any major disaster or emergency determined by the President to warrant assistance by the Federal Government under the Disaster Relief Act of 1974, and (C) in connection with any emergency determined by the Secretary to warrant assistance under section 1427 of this title, the Act of September 21, 1959, or section 2267 of this title" for "(a) in any State, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Guam, or the Virgin Islands and (b) in connection with any major disaster determined by the President to warrant assistance by the Federal Government under Public Law 875, Eighty-first Congress, as amended".

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Commodity Credit Corporation Fund; Disaster Reserve Assistance Program

Pub. L. 105–18, title II, June 12, 1997, 111 Stat. 170, provided in part: "That notwithstanding any other provision of law, beginning on October 1, 1997, grain in the disaster reserve established in the Agricultural Act of 1970 [see Short Title of 1970 Amendment note set out under section 1281 of this title] shall not exceed 20 million bushels".

1 See References in Text note below.

2 So in original. Probably should not be capitalized.

§1428. Definitions

For the purposes of this Act—

(a) A commodity shall be considered storable upon determination by the Secretary that, in normal trade practice, it is stored for substantial periods of time and that it can be stored under the price-support program without excessive loss through deterioration or spoilage or without excessive cost for storage for such periods as will permit its disposition without substantial impairment of the effectiveness of the price-support program.

(b) A "cooperator" with respect to any basic agricultural commodity shall be a producer on whose farm the acreage planted to the commodity does not exceed the farm acreage allotment for the commodity under subchapter II of chapter 35 of this title, or in the case of price support for corn or wheat to a producer outside the commercial corn-producing or wheat-producing area, a producer who complies with conditions of eligibility prescribed by the Secretary: Provided, That for upland cotton a cooperator shall be a producer on whose farm the acreage planted to such cotton does not exceed the cooperator percentage, which shall be in the case of the 1966 crop, 87.5 per centum of such farm acreage allotment and, in the case of each of the 1967 through 1970 crops, such percentage, not less than 87.5 or more than 100 per centum, of such farm acreage allotment as the Secretary may specify for such crop, except that in the case of small farms (i.e. farms on which the acreage allotment is 10 acres or less, or on which the projected farm yield times the acreage allotment is 3,600 pounds or less, and the acreage allotment has not been reduced under section 1344(m) of this title) the acreage of cotton on the farm shall not be required to be reduced below the farm acreage allotment: And provided, That for the 1971 through 1977 crops of upland cotton a cooperator shall be a producer on a farm on which a farm base acreage allotment has been established who has set aside the acreage required under section 1444(e) of this title: Provided further, That for the 1976 through 1981 crops of rice, a cooperator shall be a person who produces rice on a farm for which a farm acreage allotment has been established or to which a producer acreage allotment has been allocated and, if a set-aside is in effect, who has set aside any acreage required under section 1441(g) of this title: Provided further, That for the 1978 through 1981 crops of upland cotton, a cooperator shall be a producer on a farm who has set aside the acreage required under section 1444(f) of this title. For the purpose of this subsection, a producer shall not be deemed to have exceeded his farm acreage allotment unless such producer knowingly exceeded such allotment.

(c) A "basic agricultural commodity" shall mean corn, cotton, rice, and wheat, respectively.

(d) A "nonbasic agricultural commodity" shall mean any agricultural commodity other than a basic agricultural commodity.

(e) The "supply percentage" as to any commodity shall be the percentage which the estimated total supply is of the normal supply as determined by the Secretary from the latest available statistics of the Department of Agriculture as of the beginning of the marketing year for the commodity.

(f) "Total supply" of any nonbasic agricultural commodity for any marketing year shall be the carry-over at the beginning of such marketing year, plus the estimated production of the commodity in the United States during the calendar year in which such marketing year begins and the estimated imports of the commodity into the United States during such marketing year.

(g) "Carry-over" of any nonbasic agricultural commodity for any marketing year shall be the quantity of the commodity on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, not including any part of the crop or production of such commodity which was produced in the United States during the calendar year then current. The carryover of any such commodity may also include the quantity of such commodity in processed form on hand in the United States at the beginning of such marketing year, if the Secretary determines that the inclusion of such processed quantity of the commodity is necessary to effectuate the purposes of this Act.

(h) "Normal supply" of any nonbasic agricultural commodity for any marketing year shall be (1) the estimated domestic consumption of the commodity for the marketing year for which such normal supply is being determined, plus (2) the estimated exports of the commodity for such marketing year, plus (3) an allowance for carry-over. The allowance for carry-over shall be the average carry-over of the commodity for the five marketing years immediately preceding the marketing year in which such normal supply is determined, adjusted for surpluses or deficiencies caused by abnormal conditions, changes in marketing conditions, or the operation of any agricultural program. In determining normal supply, the Secretary shall make such adjustments for current trends in consumption and for unusual conditions as he may deem necessary.

(i) "Marketing year" for any nonbasic agricultural commodity means any period determined by the Secretary during which substantially all of a crop or production of such commodity is normally marketed by the producers thereof.

(j) Any term defined in the Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938 [7 U.S.C. 1281 et seq.], shall have the same meaning when used in this Act.

(k)(1) Reference made in sections 1422, 1423, 1426, 1427, and 1431 of this title to the terms "support price", "level of support", and "level of price support" shall be considered to apply as well to the loan and purchase level for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, honey, oilseeds and rice under this Act.

(2) References made to the terms "price support", "price support operations", and "price support program" in such sections and in section 1421(a) of this title shall be considered as applying as well to loan and purchase operations for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, honey, oilseeds and rice under this Act.

(3) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, this subsection shall be effective only for the 1991 through 1995 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, extra long staple cotton, honey, oilseeds and rice.

(l) "Producer" shall include a person growing hybrid seed under contract. In determining the interest of a grower of hybrid seed in a crop, the Secretary shall not take into consideration the existence of a hybrid seed contract.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §408, 63 Stat. 1055; Aug. 28, 1954, ch. 1041, title II, §209, 68 Stat. 901; Pub. L. 89–321, title IV, §402(b), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1197; Pub. L. 90–559, §1(4), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996; Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §408, title VI, §§604, 607, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1367, 1378; Pub. L. 93–86, §1(22), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 235; Pub. L. 94–214, title III, §§303, 304, Feb. 16, 1976, 90 Stat. 187, 188; Pub. L. 95–113, title IV, §407, title VI, §604(a), (b), title VII, §§704, 705, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 927, 939, 944; Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, §1104, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1264; Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1018, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1459; Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1131, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3511; Pub. L. 107–171, title I, §1310(a)(2)(B), May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 182; Pub. L. 108–357, title VI, §612(c), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1524.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Section 1441(g) of this title, referred to in subsec. (b), was omitted from the Code.

The Agricultural Adjustment Act of 1938, referred to in subsec. (j), is act Feb. 16, 1938, ch. 30, 52 Stat. 31, as amended, which is classified principally to chapter 35 (§1281 et seq.) of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 1281 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 108–357 struck out "tobacco," before "and wheat".

2002—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–171 struck out "peanuts," before "rice,".

1990—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 101–624, §1131(a), amended subsec. (k) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (k) read as follows:

"(1) Reference made in sections 1422, 1423, 1426, 1427, and 1431 of this title to the terms 'support price', 'level of support', and 'level of price support' shall be considered to apply as well to the loan and purchase level for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice under this Act.

"(2) References made to the terms 'price support', 'price support operations', and 'price support program' in such sections and in section 1421(a) of this title shall be considered as applying as well to loan and purchase operations for wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice under this Act."

Subsecs. (l), (m). Pub. L. 101–624, §1131(b), added subsec. (l) and struck out former subsecs. (l) and (m). See 1977 Amendment note below.

1985—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 99–198 temporarily amended subsec. (k) generally, designating provisions before the semicolon as par. (1) and substituting "loan and purchase level" for "level of loans and purchases", and designating provisions after the semicolon as par. (2). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment note below.

1981—Subsec. (k). Pub. L. 97–98 temporarily substituted "Reference made" for "References made" and inserted reference to section 1427 of this title and to upland cotton and rice. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendment note below.

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–113, §§604(a), 704, inserted proviso defining cooperator for purposes of the 1978 through 1981 crops of upland cotton as a producer on a farm who has set aside the acreage required under section 1444(f) of this title and substituted "1976 through 1981 crops of rice" for "1976 and 1977 crops of rice" in proviso defining cooperator for purposes of specific crops of rice.

Subsecs. (k) to (m). Pub. L. 95–113, §§407, 604(b), 705, temporarily amended subsecs. (k) to (m) generally. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1977 Amendment note below.

1976—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 94–214, §303, inserted proviso defining "cooperator" for 1976 and 1977 crops of rice.

Subsec. (m). Pub. L. 94–214, §304, temporarily added subsec. (m). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1976 Amendment note below.

1973—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 93–86 substituted "1971 through 1977" for "1971, 1972, and 1973" in proviso requiring that for such designated crops of upland cotton a cooperator shall be a producer on a farm on which a farm base acreage allotment has been established who has set aside the acreage required under section 1444(e) of this title.

1970—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 91–524, §604, inserted proviso that, for the 1971, 1972, and 1973 crops of upland cotton, a cooperator shall be a producer on a farm on which a farm base acreage allotment has been established who has set aside the acreage required under section 1444(e) of this title.

Subsecs. (k), (l). Pub. L. 91–524, §§408, 607, temporarily added subsecs. (k) and (l). See Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment note below.

1968—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 90–559 provided for a one year extension, substituting "1967 through 1970" for "1967, 1968, and 1969".

1965—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 89–321 temporarily inserted proviso. See Effective and Termination Dates of 1965 Amendment note below.

1954—Subsec. (b). Act Aug. 28, 1954, inserted "or wheat" after "corn", and "or wheat-producing" after "corn producing".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to the 2005 and subsequent crops of tobacco, see section 643 of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 518 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective beginning with 1991 crop of an agricultural commodity, with provision for prior crops, see section 1171 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1018, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1459, provided that the amendment made by section 1018 is effective only for the 1986 through 1990 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1981 Amendment

Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, §1104, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1264, provided that the amendment made by section 1104 is effective only for the 1982 through 1985 crops of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1977 Amendment

Pub. L. 95–113, title IV, §407, title VI, §604(b), title VII, §705, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 927, 939, 944, provided that the provisions amended by sections 407, 604(b), and 705 were effective for the 1978 through 1981 crops.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1976 Amendment

Pub. L. 94–214, title III, §304, Feb. 16, 1976, 90 Stat. 188, provided that the amendment made by section 304 is effective only with respect to the 1976 and 1977 crops of rice.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1970 Amendment

Pub. L. 91–524, title IV, §408, title VI, §607, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1367, 1378, as amended by Pub. L. 93–86, §1(15), (22), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 229, 235, provided that the amendments made by sections 408 and 607 are effective only with respect to the 1971 through 1977 crops of the commodity.

Effective and Termination Dates of 1965 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–321, title IV, §402(b), Nov. 3, 1965, 79 Stat. 1197, as amended by Pub. L. 90–559, §1(1), Oct. 11, 1968, 82 Stat. 996, provided that the amendment made by section 402(b) is effective only for the 1966 through 1970 crops.

Savings Provision

Amendment by sections 611 to 614 of Pub. L. 108–357 not to affect the liability of any person under any provision of law so amended with respect to the 2004 or an earlier crop of tobacco, see section 614 of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 515 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1429. Determinations of Secretary as final and conclusive

Determinations made by the Secretary under this Act shall be final and conclusive: Provided, That the scope and nature of such determinations shall not be inconsistent with the provisions of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act [15 U.S.C. 714 et seq.].

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §412, 63 Stat. 1057.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

The Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act, referred to in text, is act June 29, 1948, ch. 704, 62 Stat. 1070, as amended, which is classified generally to subchapter II (§714 et seq.) of chapter 15 of Title 15, Commerce and Trade. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 714 of Title 15 and Tables.

§1430. Retroactive effect

This Act shall not be effective with respect to price support operations for any agricultural commodity for any marketing year or season commencing prior to January 1, 1950, except to the extent that the Secretary of Agriculture shall, without reducing price support theretofore undertaken or announced, elect to apply the provisions of this Act.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §413, 63 Stat. 1057.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1431. Disposition of commodities to prevent waste

(a) Eligible recipients; barter; estimates; reprocessing and other charges

In order to prevent the waste of commodities whether in private stocks or acquired through price-support operations by the Commodity Credit Corporation before they can be disposed of in normal domestic channels without impairment of the price-support program or sold abroad at competitive world prices, the Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized, on such terms and under such regulations as the Secretary of Agriculture may deem in the public interest: (1) upon application, to make such commodities available to any Federal agency for use in making payment for commodities not produced in the United States; (2) to barter or exchange such commodities for strategic or other materials as authorized by law; (3) in the case of food commodities to donate such commodities to the Bureau of Indian Affairs and to such State, Federal, or private agency or agencies as may be designated by the proper State or Federal authority and approved by the Secretary, for use in the United States in nonprofit school-lunch programs, in nonprofit summer camps for children, in the assistance of needy persons, and in charitable institutions, including hospitals and facilities, to the extent that they serve needy persons (including infants and children). In the case of clause (3) the Secretary shall obtain such assurance as he deems necessary that the recipients thereof will not diminish their normal expenditures for food by reason of such donation. In order to facilitate the appropriate disposal of such commodities, the Secretary may from time to time estimate and announce the quantity of such commodities which he anticipates will become available for distribution under clause (3). The Commodity Credit Corporation may pay, with respect to commodities disposed of under this subsection, reprocessing, packaging, transporting, handling, and other charges accruing up to the time of their delivery to a Federal agency, or to the designated State or private agency. In addition, in the case of food commodities disposed of under this subsection, the Commodity Credit Corporation may pay the cost of processing such commodities into a form suitable for home or institutional use, such processing to be accomplished through private trade facilities to the greatest extent possible. For the purpose of this subsection the terms "State" and "United States" include the District of Columbia and any Territory or possession of the United States. Dairy products acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation through price support operations may, insofar as they can be used in the United States in nonprofit school lunch and other nonprofit child feeding programs, in the assistance of needy persons, and in charitable institutions, including hospitals, to the extent that needy persons are served, be donated for any such use prior to any other use or disposition. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, such dairy products may be donated for distribution to needy households in the United States and to meet the needs of persons receiving nutrition assistance under the Older Americans Act of 1965 [42 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.].

(b) Furnishing of eligible commodities for carrying out programs of assistance in developing and friendly countries; availability of eligible commodities for nonprofit and voluntary agencies and cooperatives

(1) The Secretary, subject to the requirements of paragraph (10), may furnish eligible commodities for carrying out programs of assistance in developing countries and friendly countries under titles II and III of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1721 et seq., 1727 et seq.] and under the Food for Progress Act of 1985 [7 U.S.C. 1736o], as approved by the Secretary, and for such purposes as are approved by the Secretary. To ensure that the furnishing of commodities under this subsection is coordinated with and complements other United States foreign assistance, assistance under this subsection shall be coordinated through the mechanism designated by the President to coordinate assistance under the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.].

(2) As used in this subsection, the term "eligible commodities" means—

(A) dairy products, wheat, rice, feed grains, and oilseeds acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation through price support operations, and the products thereof, that the Secretary determines meet the criteria specified in subsection (a); and

(B) such other edible agricultural commodities as may be acquired by the Secretary or the Commodity Credit Corporation in the normal course of operations and that are available for disposition under this subsection, except that no such commodities may be acquired for the purpose of their use under this subsection.


(3)(A) Commodities may not be made available for disposition under this subsection in amounts that (i) will, in any way, reduce the amounts of commodities that traditionally are made available through donations to domestic feeding programs or agencies, or (ii) will prevent the Secretary from fulfilling any agreement entered into by the Secretary under a payment-in-kind program under this Act or other Acts administered by the Secretary.

(B)(i) The requirements of section 403(a) of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1733(a)] shall apply with respect to commodities furnished under this subsection. Commodities may not be furnished for disposition to any country under this subsection except on determinations by the Secretary that—

(I) the receiving country has the absorptive capacity to use the commodities efficiently and effectively; and

(II) such disposition of the commodities will not interfere with usual marketings of the United States, nor disrupt world prices of agricultural commodities and normal patterns of commercial trade with developing countries.


(ii) The requirement for safeguarding usual marketings of the United States shall not be used to prevent the furnishing under this subsection of any eligible commodity for use in countries that—

(I) have not traditionally purchased the commodity from the United States; or

(II) do not have adequate financial resources to acquire the commodity from the United States through commercial sources or through concessional sales arrangements.


(C) The Secretary shall take reasonable precautions to ensure that—

(i) commodities furnished under this subsection will not displace or interfere with sales that otherwise might be made; and

(ii) sales or barter under paragraph (7) will not unduly disrupt world prices of agricultural commodities nor normal patterns of commercial trade with friendly countries.


(D) If eligible commodities are made available under this subsection to a friendly country, nonprofit and voluntary agencies and cooperatives shall also be eligible to receive commodities for food aid programs in the country.

(4) Agreements may be entered into under this subsection to provide eligible commodities in installments over an extended period of time. In agreements with recipients of eligible commodities under this subsection (including nonprofit and voluntary agencies or cooperatives), subject to the availability of commodities each fiscal year, the Secretary, on request, shall approve multiyear agreements to make agricultural commodities available for distribution or sale by the recipients if the agreements otherwise meet the requirements of this subsection.

(5)(A) Section 406 of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1736] shall apply to the commodities furnished under this subsection.

(B) The Commodity Credit Corporation may pay the processing and domestic handling costs incurred, as authorized under this subsection, in the form of eligible commodities, as defined in paragraph (2)(A), if the Secretary determines that such in-kind payment will not disrupt domestic markets.

(6) The cost of commodities furnished under this subsection, and expenses incurred under section 406 of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1736] in connection with those commodities, shall be in addition to the level of assistance programmed under that Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.] and shall not be considered expenditures for international affairs and finance.

(7) Eligible commodities furnished under this subsection may be sold or bartered only with the approval of the Secretary and solely as follows:

(A) Sales and barter that are incidental to the donation of the commodities or products.

(B) Sales and barter to finance the distribution, handling, and processing costs of the donated commodities or products in the importing country or in a country through which such commodities or products must be transshipped, or other activities in the importing country that are consistent with providing food assistance to needy people.

(C) Sales and barter of commodities and products furnished to intergovernmental agencies or organizations, insofar as they are consistent with normal programming procedures in the distribution of commodities by those agencies or organizations.

(D)(i) Sales of commodities and products furnished to nonprofit and voluntary agencies, or cooperatives, for food assistance under agreements that provide for the use, by the agency or cooperative, of proceeds generated from such sale of commodities or products for the purposes established in clause (ii) of this subparagraph.

(ii) Proceeds generated from partial or full sales or barter of commodities by a nonprofit and voluntary agency or cooperative shall be used—

(I) to transport, store, distribute, and otherwise enhance the effectiveness of the use of commodities and the products thereof donated under this section; and

(II) to implement income generating, community development, health, nutrition, cooperative development, agricultural programs, and other developmental activities.


In addition, proceeds generated in Poland may also be used by governmental and nongovernmental agencies or cooperatives for eligible activities approved by the joint commission established pursuant to section 2226 of the American Aid to Poland Act of 1988 and by the United States chief of diplomatic mission in Poland that would improve the quality of life of the Polish people and would strengthen and support the activities of governmental or private, nongovernmental independent institutions in Poland. Activities eligible under the preceding sentence include—

(I) any project undertaken in Poland under the auspices of the Charitable Commission of the Polish Catholic Episcopate for the benefit of handicapped or orphaned children;

(II) any project for the reconstruction, renovation, or maintenance of the Research Center on Jewish History and Culture of the Jagiellonian University of Krakow, Poland, established for the study of events related to the Holocaust in Poland;

(III) any other project or activity which strengthens and supports private and independent sectors of the Polish economy, especially independent farming and agriculture; and

(IV) the Polish Catholic Episcopate's Rural Water Supply Foundation.


(iii) Except as otherwise provided in clause (v), such agreements, taken together for each fiscal year, shall provide for sales of commodities and products for proceeds in amounts that are, in the aggregate, not less than 10 percent of the aggregate value of all commodities and products furnished, or the minimum tonnage required, whichever is greater, for carrying out programs of assistance under this subsection in such fiscal year. The minimum allocation requirements of this clause apply with respect to commodities and products made available under this subsection for carrying out programs of assistance under titles II and III of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1721 et seq., 1727 et seq.], and not with respect to commodities and products made available to carry out the Food for Progress Act of 1985 [7 U.S.C. 1736o].

(iv) Proceeds generated from the sale of commodities or products under this subparagraph shall be expended within the country of origin within a reasonable length of time, as determined by the Secretary, except that the Secretary may permit the use of proceeds in a country other than the country of origin as necessary to expedite the transportation of commodities and products furnished under this subsection, or to otherwise carry out the purposes of this subsection.

(v) The provisions of clause (iii) of this subparagraph establishing minimum annual allocations for sales and use of proceeds shall not apply to the extent that there have not been sufficient requests for such sales and use of proceeds nor to the extent required under paragraph (3).

(E) Sales and barter to cover expenses incurred under paragraph (5)(a).

(F) The provisions of sections 403(i) and 407(c) 1 of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1733(i), 1736a(c)] shall apply to donations, sales and barters of eligible commodities under this subsection.


The Secretary may approve the use of proceeds or services realized from the sale or barter of a commodity furnished under this subsection by a nonprofit voluntary agency, cooperative, or intergovernmental agency or organization to meet administrative expenses incurred in connection with activities undertaken under this subsection.

(8) Administrative provisions.—

(A) Expedited procedures.—To the maximum extent practicable, expedited procedures shall be used in the implementation of this subsection.

(B) Estimate of commodities.—The Secretary shall publish in the Federal Register, not later than October 31 of each fiscal year, an estimate of the types and quantities of commodities and products that will be available under this section for the fiscal year.

(C) Finalization of agreements.—The Secretary is encouraged to finalize program agreements under this section not later than December 31 of each fiscal year.

(D) Regulations.—The Secretary shall be responsible for regulations governing sales and barter, and the use of foreign currency proceeds, under paragraph (7) of this subsection that will provide reasonable safeguards to prevent the occurrence of abuses in the conduct of activities provided for in paragraph (7).


(9)(A) Each recipient of commodities and products approved for sale or barter under paragraph (7) shall report to the Secretary information with respect to the items required to be included in the Secretary's report pursuant to clauses (i) through (iv) of subparagraph (B). Reports pursuant to this subparagraph shall be submitted in accordance with regulations of the Secretary. Such regulations shall require at least one report annually, to be submitted not later than December 31 following the end of the fiscal year in which the commodities and products are received; except that a report shall not be required with respect to fiscal year 1985.

(B) Omitted.

(10) Sale procedure.—In approving sales of commodities under this subsection, the Secretary shall follow the sale procedure described in section 403(l) of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1733(l)].

(11) Requirements.—

(A) In general.—Not later than 270 days after May 13, 2002, the Secretary shall review and, as necessary, make changes in regulations and internal procedures designed to streamline, improve, and clarify the application, approval, and implementation processes pertaining to agreements under this section.

(B) Considerations.—In conducting the review, the Secretary shall consider—

(i) revising procedures for submitting proposals;

(ii) developing criteria for program approval that separately address the objectives of the program;

(iii) pre-screening organizations and proposals to ensure that the minimum qualifications are met;

(iv) implementing e-government initiatives and otherwise improving the efficiency of the proposal submission and approval processes;

(v) upgrading information management systems;

(vi) improving commodity and transportation procurement processes; and

(vii) ensuring that evaluation and monitoring methods are sufficient.


(C) Consultations.—Not later than 1 year after May 13, 2002, the Secretary shall consult with the Committee on Agriculture, and the Committee on International Relations, of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate on changes made in regulations and procedures under this paragraph.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §416, 63 Stat. 1058; July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title III, §309, formerly §302, 68 Stat. 458, renumbered §309, Pub. L. 95–88, title II, §211(a)(1), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 548; amended May 28, 1956, ch. 327, title II, §212, 70 Stat. 203; Pub. L. 85–483, §1, July 2, 1958, 72 Stat. 286; Aug. 26, 1954, ch. 937, title IV, §402, 68 Stat. 843, as amended Pub. L. 86–108, ch. II, §205(c), July 24, 1959, 73 Stat. 250; Pub. L. 87–703, title II, §202, Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 611; Pub. L. 88–638, §4, Oct. 8, 1964, 78 Stat. 1038; Pub. L. 89–808, §3(c), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 91–233, Apr. 17, 1970, 84 Stat. 199; Pub. L. 92–603, title IV, §411(g), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1492; Pub. L. 95–113, title XIII, §1302(a)(2), Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 979; Pub. L. 97–253, title I, §110, Sept. 8, 1982, 96 Stat. 766; Pub. L. 98–258, title V, §502, Apr. 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 137; Pub. L. 99–83, title X, §1007, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 271; Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §§1109, 1129, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1467, 1486; Pub. L. 99–260, §16, Mar. 20, 1986, 100 Stat. 55; Pub. L. 100–203, title I, §1503, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1330–28; Pub. L. 100–277, §§1–5, Apr. 4, 1988, 102 Stat. 67, 68; Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2225, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1337; Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §562 (part), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2032; Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §§1514, 1575, title XVII, §1771(b)(2), Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3662, 3702, 3807; Pub. L. 102–237, title III, §333, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1859; Pub. L. 102–289, §1, May 20, 1992, 106 Stat. 176; Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §576(c), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1654; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §264, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 974; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §§3009(b)(1), 3201, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 283, 299; Pub. L. 107–206, title I, §105, Aug. 2, 2002, 116 Stat. 824; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(B), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820.)

References in Text

The Older Americans Act of 1965, referred to in subsec. (a), is Pub. L. 89–73, July 14, 1965, 79 Stat. 218, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Food for Peace Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), (6), (7)(D)(iii), is act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, 68 Stat. 454, which is classified generally to chapter 41 (§1691 et seq.) of this title. Titles II and III of the Act are classified generally to subchapters III (§1721 et seq.) and III–A (§1727 et seq.), respectively, of chapter 41 of this title. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1691 of this title and Tables.

The Food for Progress Act of 1985, referred to in subsec. (b)(1), (7)(D)(iii), is Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §1110, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1472, which is classified to section 1736o of this title.

This Act, referred to in subsec. (b)(3)(A), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Section 2226 of the American Aid to Poland Act of 1988, referred to in subsec. (b)(7)(D)(ii), is section 2226 of Pub. L. 100–418, which is set out as a note below.

Section 407(c) of the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1736a(c)], referred to in subsec. (b)(7)(F), was redesignated section 407(b) of that Act [7 U.S.C. 1736a(b)] by Pub. L. 104–66, title I, §1011(e)(2), Dec. 21, 1995, 109 Stat. 709.

Codification

Subsection (b)(9)(B), which required the Secretary to submit an annual report to Congress on sales and barter, and use of foreign currency proceeds, under subsection (b)(7) of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 46 of House Document No. 103–7.

Amendments

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954" wherever appearing.

2002—Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(i). Pub. L. 107–171, §3201(a)(1), struck out "foreign currency" before "proceeds generated from such sale".

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 107–171, §3201(a)(2), substituted "Proceeds" for "Foreign currencies" in introductory provisions and struck out "foreign currency" before "proceeds generated in Poland" in concluding provisions.

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 107–171, §3201(a)(1), struck out "foreign currency" before "proceeds in amounts".

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 107–206 substituted "subsection, or to otherwise carry out the purposes of this subsection." for "subsection."

Pub. L. 107–171, §3201(a)(3), substituted "Proceeds generated" for "Foreign currency proceeds generated", "country of origin as necessary to expedite" for "country of origin—

"(I) as necessary to expedite",

and a period for "; or" after "this subsection", and struck out subcl. (II) which read as follows: "if the proceeds are generated in a currency generally accepted in the other country."

Subsec. (b)(8). Pub. L. 107–171, §3201(b)(1), inserted heading, added subpars. (A) to (C), redesignated former subpar. (B) as (D) and inserted heading, and struck out former subpar. (A) which read as follows: "To the maximum extent practicable, expedited procedures shall be used in the implementation of this subsection."

Subsec. (b)(10). Pub. L. 107–171, §3009(b)(1), added par. (10).

Subsec. (b)(11). Pub. L. 107–171, §3201(b)(2), added par. (11).

1996—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 104–127, §264(1)(A)(ii), inserted concluding provisions and struck out former concluding provisions which read as follows: "No portion of the proceeds or services realized from sales or barter under this paragraph may be used to meet operating and overhead expenses, except as otherwise provided in subparagraph (C) and except for personnel and administrative costs incurred by local cooperatives."

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 104–127, §264(1)(A)(i), substituted "a reasonable length of time, as determined by the Secretary, except that the Secretary may permit the use of proceeds in a country other than the country of origin—" and subcls. (I) and (II) for "one year of acquisition of such currency, except that the Secretary may permit the use of such proceeds (I) in countries other than the country of origin as necessary to expedite the transportation of commodities and products furnished under this subsection, (II) after one year of acquisition as appropriate to achieve the purposes of clause (i), and (III) in a country other than the country of origin, if such proceeds are generated in a currency generally accepted in such other country."

Subsec. (b)(8)(C). Pub. L. 104–127, §264(1)(B), struck out subpar. (C), which related to proposals by nonprofit and voluntary agencies or cooperatives to make eligible commodities available, notice and comment on issuance of final guidelines, and transmission of orders to Commodity Credit Corporation.

Subsec. (b)(10) to (12). Pub. L. 104–127, §264(1)(C), struck out pars. (10) to (12) which, in par. (10), authorized Secretary to make available for disposition in each of fiscal years 1986 through 1990 not less than specified minimum quantities of eligible commodities, in par. (11), authorized Secretary to furnish eligible commodities in connection with concessional sales agreements entered into under title I of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 or other statutes, or agricultural export bonus or promotion programs carried out under the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act or other statutes, and, in par. (12), authorized funding for fiscal year 1988 for technical assistance for sale or barter of commodities under paragraph (7) to strengthen nonprofit private organizations and cooperatives in the Philippines.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–127, §264(2), struck out subsec. (c), which established 2 year pilot program relating to barter or exchange of dairy products for ultra-high temperature processed fluid milk, and required reports to Congress.

1994—Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(ii)(IV). Pub. L. 103–306 added subcl. (IV).

1992—Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(iv). Pub. L. 102–289 substituted "(II)" for "and (II)" and inserted before period at end ", and (III) in a country other than the country of origin, if such proceeds are generated in a currency generally accepted in such other country".

1991—Subsec. (b)(7)(F). Pub. L. 102–237 made technical amendment to directory language of Pub. L. 101–624, §1514(5)(B). See 1990 Amendment note below.

1990—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 101–624, §1771(b)(2), substituted "hospitals and facilities, to the extent that they serve needy persons (including infants and children)" for "hospitals, to the extent that needy persons are served".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 101–624, §1514(1), inserted reference to title III of Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954.

Subsec. (b)(3)(B)(i). Pub. L. 101–624, §1514(2), substituted reference to section 403(a) of Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 for reference to section 401(b) of such Act.

Subsec. (b)(5)(A). Pub. L. 101–624, §1514(3), substituted reference to section 406 of Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 for reference to section 203 of such Act.

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 101–624, §1514(4), substituted reference to section 406 of Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 for reference to section 203 of such Act.

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 101–513 substituted "governmental and nongovernmental" for "such" and inserted "governmental or" after "activities of".

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 101–624, §1514(5)(A), inserted reference to title III of Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954.

Subsec. (b)(7)(F). Pub. L. 101–624, §1514(5)(B), as amended by Pub. L. 102–237, added subpar. (F).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 101–624, §1575, struck out subsec. (d) which established pilot program for barter of agricultural commodities for strategic materials not produced in sufficient amounts domestically and for which national stockpile or reserve goals are unmet.

1988—Subsec. (b)(2)(A). Pub. L. 100–277, §1(a), substituted "wheat, rice, feed grains" for "grains" and inserted ", and the products thereof," after "price support operations".

Subsec. (b)(3)(D). Pub. L. 100–277, §2, added subpar. (D).

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 100–277, §3, inserted at end "In agreements with recipients of eligible commodities under this subsection (including nonprofit and voluntary agencies or cooperatives), subject to the availability of commodities each fiscal year, the Secretary, on request, shall approve multiyear agreements to make agricultural commodities available for distribution or sale by the recipients if the agreements otherwise meet the requirements of this subsection."

Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 100–277, §1(b)(2), in introductory provisions struck out ", and products thereof," after "commodities".

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(ii). Pub. L. 100–418 inserted provisions respecting use of foreign currency proceeds generated in Poland and describing activities eligible for such funds.

Pub. L. 100–277, §4(a), amended cl. (ii) generally. Prior to amendment, cl. (ii) read as follows: "Foreign currency proceeds generated from the sales of commodities and products under this subparagraph shall be used by nonprofit and voluntary agencies, or cooperatives, for activities carried out by the agency or cooperative that will enhance the effectiveness of transportation, distribution, and use of commodities and products donated under this subsection, including food for work programs and cooperative and agricultural projects."

Subsec. (b)(7)(D)(iii). Pub. L. 100–277, §4(b), substituted "10 percent" for "5 percent" and inserted ", or the minimum tonnage required, whichever is greater," after "furnished".

Subsec. (b)(8)(C). Pub. L. 100–277, §5, added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (b)(10)(B)(i). Pub. L. 100–277, §1(b)(1), substituted "wheat, rice, feed grains," for "grains" in two places.

1987—Subsec. (b)(12). Pub. L. 100–203 added par. (12).

1986—Subsec. (b)(10)(B). Pub. L. 99–260 inserted "or, in the case of fiscal year 1986, prior to March 31, 1986" in two places.

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–198, §1109(1), struck out provisions that such dairy products could also be donated through foreign governments and public and nonprofit private humanitarian organizations for assistance of needy persons outside the United States, that Commodity Credit Corporation could pay, with respect to commodities so donated, reprocessing, packaging, transporting, handling, and other charges, including cost of overseas delivery, and that in order to assure that any such donations for use outside the United States were coordinated with and would complement other United States foreign assistance, such donations had to be coordinated through mechanism designated by President to coordinate assistance under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 and were to be in addition to level of assistance programmed under that Act.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–198, §1109(2), in amending subsec. (b) generally, substituted provisions relating to furnishing of eligible commodities for purpose of carrying out programs of assistance in developing and friendly countries under title II of the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 and section 1736o of this title for provisions relating to furnishing of dairy products, rice and wheat (which had been acquired by Commodity Credit Corporation through price support operations) for purpose of carrying out title II of that Act.

Pub. L. 99–83 added applicability to rice acquired by the Commodity Credit Corporation through price support operations.

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 99–198, §1129, added subsec. (d).

1984Pub. L. 98–258 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), substituted "subsection" for "section" wherever appearing, and added subsecs. (b) and (c).

1982Pub. L. 97–253 inserted provision that notwithstanding any other provision of law, dairy products may be donated for distribution to needy households in the United States and to meet the needs of persons receiving nutrition assistance under the Older Americans Act of 1965, and that such dairy products may also be donated through foreign governments and public and nonprofit private humanitarian organizations for the assistance of needy persons outside the United States, and the Commodity Credit Corporation may pay, with respect to commodities so donated, reprocessing, packaging, transporting, handling, and other charges, including the cost of overseas delivery, and that in order to assure that any such donations for use outside the United States are coordinated with and complement other United States foreign assistance, such donations shall be coordinated through the mechanism designated by the President to coordinate assistance under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 and shall be in addition to the level of assistance programmed under that Act.

1977Pub. L. 95–113 struck out provision that no person who is eligible (or upon application would be eligible) to receive supplemental security income under title XVI of the Social Security Act shall be eligible, with certain exceptions, to participate in any program conducted under this section.

1972Pub. L. 92–603 inserted provision that persons eligible to receive supplemental security income under title XVI of the Social Security Act [42 U.S.C. 1381 et seq.] shall not be eligible to participate in programs conducted under this section, with certain exceptions.

1970Pub. L. 91–233 changed priorities for sales over donations in the disposition of food commodities acquired under support programs insofar as dairy products, so acquired, are concerned by giving preference to the use of such products in nonprofit school lunch and similar feeding programs.

1966Pub. L. 89–808 struck out provisions of cl. (4) for donations of excess food commodities to nonprofit voluntary agencies registered with the Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid of the Foreign Operations Administration or other appropriate Federal agencies and intergovernmental organizations for use in assistance of needy persons and in nonprofit lunch programs outside the United States provisions for payment of charges in case of commodities made available for use within the United States, or their delivery free alongside ship or free on board export carrier at point of export, in the case of commodities made available for use outside the United States, and that assistance to needy persons provided in such cl. (4) be directed toward community and other self-help activities designed to alleviate the causes for the need for such assistance. See section 1721 et seq. of this title.

1964Pub. L. 88–638 directed that assistance to needy persons, insofar as practicable, be directed toward community and other self-help activities designed to alleviate the causes of the need.

1962Pub. L. 87–703 inserted "and in nonprofit school lunch programs" after "needy persons" in cl. (4).

1959Pub. L. 86–108 substituted "waste of commodities whether in private stocks or acquired through price-support operations" for "waste of commodities acquired through price-support operations".

1958Pub. L. 85–483 permitted donation of food commodities for use in nonprofit summer camps for children.

1956—Act May 28, 1956, authorized payment of cost of processing commodities into a form suitable for home or institutional use.

1954—Act July 10, 1954, amended section generally to eliminate its applicability only to "food" commodities; to eliminate the necessity for a finding that commodities are in danger of a loss through "deterioration or spoilage"; to establish barter as a disposal method; and to expand the list of eligible domestic recipients.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1994 Amendment

Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §576(d), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1654, provided that: "The amendments made by this section [amending this section and provisions set out as a note below] shall take effect October 1, 1994."

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1302(b) of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 2012 of this title.

Effective Date of 1972 Amendment

Pub. L. 92–603, title IV, §411(g), Oct. 30, 1972, 86 Stat. 1492, provided that the amendment made by section 411(g) is effective Jan. 1, 1974.

Pub. L. 93–233, §8(b)(2), Dec. 31, 1973, 87 Stat. 956, as amended by Pub. L. 93–335, §1(b), July 8, 1974, 88 Stat. 291; Pub. L. 94–44, §3(b), June 28, 1975, 89 Stat. 235; Pub. L. 94–365, §2(2), July 14, 1976, 90 Stat. 990; Pub. L. 95–59, §3(2), June 30, 1977, 915 Stat. 255, provided that: "The last sentence of section 416 of the Act of October 31, 1949 [this section] (as added by section 411(g) of Public Law 92–603) [see 1972 Amendment Note above] shall not be effective for the period ending September 30, 1978."

[Amendment by Pub. L. 93–335, effective July 1, 1974, see section 1(c) of Pub. L. 93–335, set out as a note under section 1382 of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Section 3 of Pub. L. 95–59 provided in part that the amendment of section 8 of Pub. L. 93–233 by section 3(2) of Pub. L. 95–59 is effective July 1, 1977.]

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–808, §3(c), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1538, provided that the amendment made by section 3(c) is effective Jan. 1, 1967.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer, or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, effective June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

Donation of Surplus Agricultural Commodities

Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2223, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1336, as amended by Pub. L. 101–513, title V, §562 (part), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 2032; Pub. L. 103–306, title V, §576(a), (b), Aug. 23, 1994, 108 Stat. 1654, provided that:

"(a) Authority to Donate.—Notwithstanding any other provision of law, if the Secretary of Agriculture determines for each fiscal year that (1) a donation under this section would not limit the Secretary's ability to meet urgent humanitarian needs for agricultural commodities, and (2) such donation would not cause a reduction in the price of the same or similar agricultural commodities produced in Poland[,] the Secretary of Agriculture shall donate, under the applicable provisions of section 416(b) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1431(b)], for each of the fiscal years 1995 through 1999, 8,000 metric tons of uncommitted stocks of eligible commodities of the Commodity Credit Corporation under an agreement with the Government of Poland that the Government of Poland will sell such commodities and that all the proceeds from such sales will be used by governmental and nongovernmental agencies for eligible activities in Poland described in section 416(b)(7)(D)(ii) of that Act (as amended by section 2225 of this Act) that have been approved, upon application, by the joint commission described in section 2226 [of Pub. L. 100–418, set out below] and by the United States chief of diplomatic mission in Poland.

"(b) Definitions.—For purposes of this section—

"(1) the term 'eligible commodities' has the same meaning as is given such term in section 416(b)(2) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1431(b)(2)] and, in addition, includes feed grains, soybeans, and soybean products; and

"(2) the term 'nongovernmental agencies' includes nonprofit voluntary agencies, cooperatives, intergovernmental agencies such as the World Food Program, and other multilateral organizations."

Use of Polish Currencies

Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2224, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1337, provided that nonconvertible Polish currencies held by the United States on Aug. 23, 1988, pursuant to an agreement with the Government of Poland under the Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954 [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.] which were not assets of the Commodity Credit Corporation would be made available, to the extent and in such amounts as had been provided in advance in appropriation Acts, for eligible activities in Poland described in section 1431(b)(7)(D)(ii) of this title and approved, upon application, by the joint commission described in section 2226 of Pub. L. 100–418, set out below, and by the United States chief of diplomatic mission in Poland.

Joint Commission

Pub. L. 100–418, title II, §2226, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1337, provided that:

"(a) Establishment.—The joint commission referred to in sections 2223 and 2224 [of Pub. L. 100–418, set out above] and in section 416(b)(7)(D)(ii) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1431(b)(7)(D)(ii)] (as amended by section 2225 of this Act) shall be established under an agreement between the United States Government, the Government of Poland, and nongovernmental agencies (as defined in section 2223) operating in Poland.

"(b) Membership.—The joint commission shall be composed of—

"(1) appropriate representatives of the Government of Poland;

"(2) appropriate representatives of nongovernmental agencies which are parties to the agreement described in subsection (a); and

"(3) representatives from the United States diplomatic mission in Poland, which may include a representative of the Foreign Agricultural Service."

Barter of Agricultural Commodities

Pub. L. 100–418, title IV, §4309, Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1399, provided that: "In recognition of the importance of barter programs in expanding agricultural trade, it is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Agriculture should expedite the implementation of section 416(d) of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1431(d)) and section 1167 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (7 U.S.C. 1727g note and 1736aa), relating to the barter of agricultural commodities."

Pub. L. 98–180, title III, §302, Nov. 29, 1983, 97 Stat. 1151, as amended by Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(c), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1821, provided that:

"(a) It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Agriculture should exchange or barter, to the maximum extent practicable under the provisions of law specified in subsection (b), commodities (especially dairy products) owned by the Commodity Credit Corporation for materials, goods, and equipment produced in foreign countries.

"(b) The provisions of law referred to in subsection (a) are—

"(1) section 4(h) of the Commodity Credit Corporation Charter Act (15 U.S.C. 714b(h)),

"(2) section 310 of the Food for Peace Act (7 U.S.C. 1692) [7 U.S.C. 1727g], and

"(3) section 416 of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1431)."

Minimum Level of Food Assistance

Annual minimum of food assistance made available to foreign countries to be not less than one-third of total amount of foreign economic assistance provided for each fiscal year, see section 4310 of Pub. L. 100–418, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Additional Levels of Flour, Cornmeal, Wheat, Soybeans, and Dairy Products for Friendly Countries in Fiscal Years 1987, 1988, and 1989

Pub. L. 99–500, §101(a) [title VI, §646], Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783, 1783-36, and Pub. L. 99–591, §101(a) [title VI, §646], Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341, 3341-36, directed the Secretary of Agriculture, during the three-year period beginning with the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1987, through the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1989, to make available, in addition to the traditional level of assistance made available to friendly countries, specified additional tonnage of flour, cornmeal, wheat, soybeans, and dairy products, subject to certain conditions.

Commodity Distribution Program; Purchase of Agricultural Commodities With Unexpected or Available Funds; Prohibition on Furnishing Commodities to Summer Camps; Participation in Program of Individual Receiving Supplemental Security Income Benefits

Authority of Secretary to purchase and furnish agricultural commodities under commodity distribution programs and participation of individuals receiving supplemental security income benefits in such programs, see section 4 of Pub. L. 93–86, Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 249, set out as a note under section 612c of this title.

Home Economics Training

Pub. L. 86–756, Sept. 13, 1960, 74 Stat. 899, as amended by Pub. L. 87–179, Aug. 30, 1961, 75 Stat. 411, provided: "That schools receiving surplus foods pursuant to clause (3) of section 416 of the Agricultural Act of 1949 (7 U.S.C. 1431) [clause (3) of this section] or section 32 of the Act of August 24, 1935, as amended (7 U.S.C. 612c) are authorized to use such foods in training students in home economics, including college students if the same facilities and instructors are used for training both high school and college students in home economics courses."

Authorization for Commodity Credit Corporation To Purchase and Donate Flour, Cornmeal and Processed Food Grain Products

Pub. L. 85–683, Aug. 19, 1958, 72 Stat. 635, as amended by Pub. L. 88–550, Aug. 31, 1964, 78 Stat. 755; Pub. L. 97–98, title XII, §1209, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1280; Pub. L. 106–387, §1(a) [title VII, §758], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A-43; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(c), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1821, provided: "That at any time Commodity Credit Corporation has any grain available for donation pursuant to the Food for Progress Act of 1985 [7 U.S.C. 1736o], section 416 of the Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended [this section], section 210 of the Agricultural Act of 1956 [section 1859 of this title], or title II of the Food for Peace Act, as amended [sections 1721 to 1726 of this title], the Corporation, in lieu of processing all or any part of such grain into human food products, may purchase such processed food products in quantities not to exceed the equivalent of the respective grain available for donation on the date of such purchase and donate such processed food products pursuant to the Food for Progress Act of 1985, such section 416, and to such section 210, and make such processed food products available pursuant to such title II, and may sell, without regard to the provisions of section 407 of the Agricultural Act of 1949, as amended [section 1427 of this title], a quantity of the grain equivalent to the processed food products so purchased: Provided, That no food product purchased pursuant to the authority contained herein shall constitute less than 50 per centum by weight of the grain from which processed (except that this limitation does not apply in the case of the protein byproduct resulting from the production of fuel alcohol from agricultural commodities), or contain any additive other than for normal vitamin enrichment, preservative, and bleaching purposes."

Irish Potatoes Acquired Under 1949 Price Support Program

Act Mar. 31, 1950, ch. 81, §3, 64 Stat. 41, made Irish potatoes acquired under the 1949 price support program available to school-lunch programs, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, Federal, State, or local public welfare organizations, private or international nonprofit welfare organizations, penal institutions, and nonprofit hospitals.

Bartering Authority of Secretary

Bartering authority of Secretary of Agriculture, exchange of agricultural commodities for strategic materials and materials for other purposes, cooperation of agencies, and assistance to cooperatives, see section 1692 of this title.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1431a. Cotton donations to educational institutions

Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized, on such terms as the Secretary of Agriculture may approve, to donate cotton acquired through its price support operations to educational institutions for use in the training of students in the processing and manufacture of cotton into textiles.

(Pub. L. 85–835, title V, §505, Aug. 28, 1958, 72 Stat. 996.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Agricultural Act of 1958, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

§1431b. Distribution of surplus commodities to other United States areas

Notwithstanding any other provision of law those areas under the jurisdiction or administration of the United States are authorized to receive from the Department of Agriculture for distribution on the same basis as domestic distribution in any State, Territory, or possession of the United States, without exchange of funds, such surplus commodities as may be available pursuant to clause (2) of section 612c of this title and section 1431 of this title.

(Pub. L. 85–931, §9, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1792; Pub. L. 87–703, title II, §204, Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 611; Pub. L. 89–808, §3(a), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1538.)

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1966Pub. L. 89–808 struck out special authority of the Commodity Credit Corporation for purchase of fats and oils for donation abroad, now included in the general authority provided by section 1721 et seq. of this title.

1962Pub. L. 87–703 inserted "and in nonprofit school lunch programs" after "needy persons".

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Pub. L. 89–808, §3(a), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1538, provided that the amendment made by section 3(a) is effective Jan. 1, 1967.

§1431c. Enrichment and packaging of cornmeal, grits, rice, and white flour available for distribution

(a) In order to insure the nutritional value of cornmeal, grits, rice, and white flour when such foods are made available for distribution under section 1431(3) 1 of this title or for distribution to schools under the Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act [42 U.S.C. 1751 et seq.] or any other Act, such foods shall be enriched so as to meet the standards for enriched cornmeal, enriched corn grits, enriched rice, or enriched flour, as the case may be, prescribed in regulations promulgated under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act [21 U.S.C. 301 et seq.]; and in order to protect the nutritional value and sanitary quality of such enriched foods during transportation and storage such foods shall be packaged in sanitary containers. For convenience and ease in handling, the weight of any sanitary container when filled shall not exceed fifty pounds unless a larger container is requested by the recipient agency. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the distribution of fortified parboiled rice which is substantially equal in nutritional value to that of enriched rice.

(b) The term "sanitary container" means any container of such material and construction as (1) will not permit the infiltration of foreign matter into the contents of such container under ordinary conditions of shipping and handling, and (2) will not, for a period of at least one year, disintegrate so as to contaminate the contents of the container, necessitating the washing of the contents prior to use.

(Pub. L. 86–341, title II, §201, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 610; Pub. L. 87–803, Oct. 11, 1962, 76 Stat. 910; Pub. L. 106–78, title VII, §752(b)(3), Oct. 22, 1999, 113 Stat. 1169.)

References in Text

Section 1431(3) of this title, referred to in subsec. (a), was redesignated as section 1431(a)(3) of this title by Pub. L. 98–258, title V, §502(1), Apr. 10, 1984, 98 Stat. 137.

The Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 4, 1946, ch. 281, 60 Stat. 230, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 13 (§1751 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1751 of Title 42 and Tables.

The Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, referred to in subsec. (a), is act June 25, 1938, ch. 675, 52 Stat. 1040, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 9 (§301 et seq.) of Title 21, Food and Drugs. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see section 301 of Title 21 and Tables.

Codification

Section was not enacted as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

1999—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 106–78 substituted "Richard B. Russell National School Lunch Act" for "National School Lunch Act".

1962—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 87–803 inserted provisions requiring the enrichment of rice to meet the standards for enriched rice, empowered recipient agencies to request containers larger than 50 pounds, and provided that nothing in this section shall prohibit the distribution of fortified parboiled rice which is substantially equal in nutritional value to that of enriched rice.

1 See References in Text note below.

§1431d. Donations for school feeding programs abroad; student financing; priorities

In any school feeding programs undertaken on and after September 27, 1962 outside the United States pursuant to section 1431 of this title, section 308 of Public Law 480 (83d Congress), as amended, and section 1431b of this title, the Secretary shall receive assurances satisfactory to him that, insofar as practicable, there will be student participation in the financing of such programs on the basis of ability to pay, and such programs shall be undertaken with the understanding that commodities will be available for those programs only in accordance with the provisions of such statutes and that commodities made available under section 1431 of this title will be available only in accordance with the priorities established in such section.

(Pub. L. 87–703, title II, §205, Sept. 27, 1962, 76 Stat. 611.)

References in Text

Section 308 of Public Law 480 (83d Congress), referred to in text, which was classified to section 1697 of this title, was repealed by Pub. L. 89–808, §2(D), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1535.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1962, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

§1431e. Distribution of surplus commodities to special nutrition projects; reprocessing agreements with private companies

(1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever Government stocks of commodities are acquired under the price support programs and are not likely to be sold by the Commodity Credit Corporation or otherwise used in programs of commodity sale or distribution, such commodities shall be made available without charge or credit to nutrition projects under the authority of the Older Americans Act of 1965 (42 U.S.C. 3001 et seq.), to child nutrition programs providing food service, and to food banks participating in the special nutrition projects established under section 4004 of this title. Such distribution may include bulk distribution to congregate nutrition sites and to providers of home delivered meals under the Older Americans Act of 1965. The Commodity Credit Corporation is authorized to use available funds to operate the program under this subsection and to further process products to facilitate bonus commodity use. Commodities made available under this section shall include, but not be limited to, dairy products, wheat or the products thereof, rice, honey, and cornmeal.

(2)(A) For each of fiscal years 2008 through 2023, whenever a commodity is made available without charge or credit under any nutrition program administered by the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary shall encourage consumption of such commodity through agreements with private companies under which the commodity is reprocessed into end-food products for use by eligible recipient agencies. The expense of reprocessing shall be paid by such eligible recipient agencies.

(B) To maintain eligibility to enter into, and to continue, any agreement with the Secretary of Agriculture under subparagraph (A), a private company shall annually settle all accounts with the Secretary and any appropriate State agency regarding commodities processed under such agreements.

(C) Whenever commodities are made available to agencies pursuant to section 311(a)(4) 1 of the Older Americans Act of 1965, the Secretary shall encourage access to processed end products containing the commodities when in the Secretary's judgment it is cost effective. The requirements of this subparagraph shall be met in the most efficient and effective way possible. The Secretary may, among other alternatives, use direct purchase, State option contracts authorized under section 3A of the Commodity Distribution Reform Act and WIC Amendments of 1987 (Public Law 100–237; 7 U.S.C. 612c note), State processing programs, and (beginning in fiscal year 1994) agreements with private companies operated as a part of the national commodity processing program.

(D) In each of fiscal years 1992, 1993, and 1994, the Secretary shall conduct a pilot project in not more than three States under which any commodity made available to agencies pursuant to section 311(a)(4) 1 of the Older Americans Act of 1965 that the Secretary determines to be appropriate for reprocessing is made available to the agencies as reprocessed end products. The reprocessing shall be performed pursuant to agreements with private companies, at the expense of the agencies, and operated as part of the national commodity processing program established under subparagraph (A). In determining the appropriateness of the commodities to be reprocessed under the pilot project, the Secretary shall consider the common needs of the agencies and the availability of processors.

(Pub. L. 97–98, title XI, §1114(a), Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1269; Pub. L. 99–198, title XV, §1567(a), (b), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1591, 1592; Pub. L. 100–237, §6, Jan. 8, 1988, 101 Stat. 1740; Pub. L. 101–624, title XVII, §1775, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3813; Pub. L. 102–237, title IX, §921, Dec. 13, 1991, 105 Stat. 1887; Pub. L. 104–127, title IV, §405, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 1029; Pub. L. 107–171, title IV, §4203, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 330; Pub. L. 110–234, title IV, §4406(b)(4), May 22, 2008, 122 Stat. 1142; Pub. L. 110–246, §4(a), title IV, §4406(b)(4), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1664, 1903; Pub. L. 113–79, title IV, §4103, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 820; Pub. L. 115–334, title IV, §4103, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4655.)

References in Text

The Older Americans Act of 1965, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 89–73, July 14, 1965, 79 Stat. 218, as amended, which is classified generally to chapter 35 (§3001 et seq.) of Title 42, The Public Health and Welfare. Section 311 of the Act, which is classified to section 3030a of Title 42, was amended by Pub. L. 106–501, title III, §309, Nov. 13, 2000, 114 Stat. 2246, and, as so amended, provisions which formerly appeared in subsec. (a)(4) were struck out. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 3001 of Title 42 and Tables.

Codification

Pub. L. 110–234 and Pub. L. 110–246 made identical amendments to this section. The amendments by Pub. L. 110–234 were repealed by section 4(a) of Pub. L. 110–246.

Section was enacted as part of the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 115–334 substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 113–79 substituted "2018" for "2012".

2008—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 110–246, §4406(b)(4), substituted "For each of fiscal years 2008 through 2012" for "Effective through September 30, 2007".

2002—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 107–171 substituted "2007" for "2002".

1996—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 104–127 substituted "2002" for "1995".

1991—Par. (2)(D). Pub. L. 102–237 substituted "1992, 1993, and 1994" for "1992 and 1993".

1990—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 101–624, §1775(a), substituted "1995" for "1990".

Par. (2)(C), (D). Pub. L. 101–624, §1775(b), added subpars. (C) and (D).

1988—Par. (2)(A). Pub. L. 100–237 substituted "September 30, 1990" for "June 30, 1987".

1985Pub. L. 99–198 designated existing provisions as par. (1), inserted provision directing that commodities made available under this section include, but not be limited to, dairy products, wheat or the products thereof, rice, honey, and cornmeal, and added par. (2).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment of this section and repeal of Pub. L. 110–234 by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, the date of enactment of Pub. L. 110–234, except as otherwise provided, see section 4 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Amendment by section 4406(b)(4) of Pub. L. 110–246 effective Oct. 1, 2008, see section 4407 of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 2002 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 107–171 effective Oct. 1, 2002, except as otherwise provided, see section 4405 of Pub. L. 107–171, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1161 of Title 2, The Congress.

Effective Date of 1991 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 102–237 effective and to be implemented no later than Feb. 1, 1992, see section 1101(d)(1) of Pub. L. 102–237, set out as a note under section 1421 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 4301 of this title.

National Donated Commodity Processing Programs

Pub. L. 99–500, title III, §364, Oct. 18, 1986, 100 Stat. 1783–368, and Pub. L. 99–591, title III, §364, Oct. 30, 1986, 100 Stat. 3341–371; Pub. L. 99–661, div. D, title IV, §4404, Nov. 14, 1986, 100 Stat. 4079, provided that: "In accordance with the terms and conditions of section 1114(a)(2) of the Agriculture and Food Act of 1981 (7 U.S.C. 1431e(a)(2)), whenever a commodity is made available without charge or credit under any nutrition program administered by the Secretary of Agriculture, the Secretary shall encourage consumption of the commodity through agreements with private companies under which the commodity is reprocessed into end-food products for use by eligible recipient agencies."

1 See References in Text note below.

§1431f. Assistance to foreign countries to mitigate effects of HIV and AIDS

On and after November 10, 2005, of any shipments of commodities made pursuant to section 1431(b) of this title, the Secretary of Agriculture shall, to the extent practicable, direct that tonnage equal in value to not more than $25,000,000 shall be made available to foreign countries to assist in mitigating the effects of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome on communities, including the provision of—

(1) agricultural commodities to—

(A) individuals with Human Immunodeficiency Virus or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome in the communities; and

(B) households in the communities, particularly individuals caring for orphaned children; and


(2) agricultural commodities monetized to provide other assistance (including assistance under microcredit and microenterprise programs) to create or restore sustainable livelihoods among individuals in the communities, particularly individuals caring for orphaned children.

(Pub. L. 109–97, title VII, §725, Nov. 10, 2005, 119 Stat. 2153.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Agriculture, Rural Development, Food and Drug Administration, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 2006, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Prior Provisions

Provisions similar to those in this section were contained in the following prior appropriation acts:

Pub. L. 108–447, div. A, title VII, §728, Dec. 8, 2004, 118 Stat. 2843.

Pub. L. 108–199, div. A, title VII, §725, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 34.

Pub. L. 108–7, div. A, title VII, §725, Feb. 20, 2003, 117 Stat. 42.

Pub. L. 107—76, title VII, §727, Nov. 28, 2001, 115 Stat. 735.

Pub. L. 106—387, §1(a) [title VII, §743], Oct. 28, 2000, 114 Stat. 1549, 1549A–35.

§1432. Extension of price support on long staple cotton seeds and products

Any price support program in effect on cottonseed or any of its products shall be extended to the same seed and products of the cottons defined under section 1347(a) of this title.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §420, as added July 17, 1952, ch. 933, §3(2), 66 Stat. 759.)

References in Text

Section 1347 of this title, referred to in text, was repealed by Pub. L. 98–88, §2, Aug. 26, 1983, 97 Stat. 494.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1433. Repealed. Pub. L. 100–387, title I, §101(b)(3), Aug. 11, 1988, 102 Stat. 931

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §421, as added Sept. 11, 1964, Pub. L. 88–585, §2, 78 Stat. 927, related to penalties for misuse of feed intended to relieve distress or preserve foundation herds. See section 1471j of this title.

Effective Date of Repeal

Repeal effective 15 days after Aug. 11, 1988, see section 101(c)(1) of Pub. L. 100–387, set out as an Effective and Termination Dates of 1988 Amendment note under section 1427 of this title.

§1433a. Forgiveness of violations; determinations

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, whenever a producer samples, turns, moves, or replaces grain or any other commodity which is security for a Commodity Credit Corporation producer loan or is held under a producer reserve program, and does so in violation of law or regulation, the appropriate county committee established under section 590h(b) of title 16 may forgive some or all of the penalties and requirements that would normally be imposed on the producer by reason of the violation, if such committee determines that (1) the violation occurred inadvertently or accidentally, because of lack of knowledge or understanding of the law or regulation, or because the producer or the producer's agent acted to prevent spoilage of the commodity, and (2) the violation did not result in harm or damage to the rights or interests of any person. The county committee shall furnish a copy of its determination to the Administrator of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service and the appropriate State committee established under section 590h(b) of title 16. The determination may be disapproved by either the Administrator or the State committee within sixty days after receipt of a copy of the determination. Any determination not disapproved by the Administrator or such State committee within such sixty-day period shall be considered approved.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §422, as added Pub. L. 97–98, title X, §1002, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1260.)

Effective Date

Section effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as a note under section 4301 of this title.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1433b. Processing of surplus agricultural commodities into liquid fuels and agricultural commodity byproducts

(a) Authority of Commodity Credit Corporation; terms and conditions established by Secretary; fuel prices

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, in order to prevent the accumulation of excessive stocks of agricultural commodities through the price support and stabilization operations of the Commodity Credit Corporation 1 the Corporation may, under terms and conditions established by the Secretary, make its accumulated stocks of agricultural commodities available, at no cost or reduced cost, to encourage the purchase of such commodities for the production of liquid fuels and agricultural commodity byproducts. In carrying out the program established by this section, the Secretary shall ensure, insofar as possible, that any use of agricultural commodities made available be made in such manner as to encourage increased use and avoid displacing usual marketings of agricultural commodities.

(b) Feasibility of processing

In determining the feasibility of providing for the processing of Commodity Credit Corporation stocks of commodities under subsection (a), the Secretary shall consider the nature of the commodities, and the acquisition, transportation, handling, storage, interest, and other costs associated with acquiring and maintaining such stocks, including the effect of such stocks in depressing commodity prices, as well as the value and utility of such stocks when processed into liquid fuels and agricultural commodity byproducts.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §423, as added Pub. L. 97–358, §2, Oct. 21, 1982, 96 Stat. 1714; amended Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1024, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1460.)

Codification

Subsection (c), which required the Secretary to report annually to Congress on the operation of this section, terminated, effective May 15, 2000, pursuant to section 3003 of Pub. L. 104–66, as amended, set out as a note under section 1113 of Title 31, Money and Finance. See, also, page 46 of House Document No. 103–7.

Amendments

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–198 substituted provision authorizing the Corporation to make its accumulated agricultural commodities stocks available at no cost or reduced cost to encourage the purchase thereof for the production of liquid fuels and commodity byproducts, with any use of such commodities to be made in such a manner as to encourage increased use and avoid displacing usual marketings of such commodities for provision authorizing the Corporation to provide for processing of its accumulated stock into liquid fuels and commodity byproducts to be either made available to Federal agencies to meet their regular or emergency needs or to be sold commercially by the Corporation, at a price determined by the Secretary notwithstanding any other provisions of law and in a manner so as not to disrupt the prices in commercial markets of agriculturally-derived liquid fuel.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

1 So in original. Probably should be followed by a comma.

§1433c. Advance recourse commodity loans

Notwithstanding any other provision of this Act, the Secretary may make advance recourse loans available to producers of the commodities of the 1986 through 1990 crops for which nonrecourse loans are made available under this Act if the Secretary finds that such action is necessary to ensure that adequate operating credit is available to producers. Such recourse loans may be made available under such reasonable terms and conditions as the Secretary may prescribe, except that the Secretary shall require that a producer obtain crop insurance for the crop as a condition of eligibility for a loan.

(Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §424, as added Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1003, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1447.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, known as the Agricultural Act of 1949, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Effective and Termination Dates

Pub. L. 99–198, title X, §1003, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1447, provided that this section is effective for the 1986 through 1990 crops.

Inapplicability of Section

Section inapplicable to 2014 through 2018 crops of covered commodities, cotton, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Feb. 7, 2014, through Dec. 31, 2018, see section 9092(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2008 through 2012 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning June 18, 2008, through Dec. 31, 2012, see section 8782(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 2002 through 2007 crops of covered commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning May 13, 2002, through Dec. 31, 2007, see section 7992(b)(10) of this title.

Section inapplicable to 1996 through 2002 crops of loan commodities, peanuts, and sugar and inapplicable to milk during period beginning Apr. 4, 1996, and ending Dec. 31, 2002, see section 7301(b)(1)(J) of this title.

§1433c–1. Advance recourse loans

(a) Availability; due date; procedures for repayment; applicability; security; limitation

It is the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Agriculture carry out a program authorized by section 424 of the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1433c]. Such program, if implemented, shall provide for the following:

(1) Advance recourse loans shall be made available only to those producers of a commodity who are unable to obtain sufficient credit elsewhere to finance the production of the 1986 crop of that commodity, taking into consideration prevailing private and cooperative rates and terms for loans for similar purposes (as determined by the Secretary) in the community in or near which the applicant resides. A producer who has received a commitment or been furnished sufficient credit or a loan for production of the 1986 crop of a commodity shall not be eligible for an advance recourse loan to finance the production of that commodity for such crop year.

(2) Advance recourse loans shall be made available to producers of a commodity at the applicable nonrecourse loan rate for the commodity (as determined by the Secretary). Within the limits set out in paragraphs (5) and (7), advance recourse loans shall be available—

(A) to producers of wheat, feed grains, cotton, and rice who agree to participate in the program announced for the commodity on an amount of the commodity equal to one-half of the farm program yield for the commodity multiplied by the farm program acreage intended to be planted to the commodity for harvest in 1986, as determined by the Secretary;

(B) to producers of peanuts who are on a farm for which a marketing quota or poundage quota has been established on an amount of the commodity equal to one-half of the farm marketing quota or poundage quota for the commodity, as determined by the Secretary; and

(C) to producers of other commodities on an amount of the commodity equal to one-half of the farm yield for the commodity multiplied by the farm acreage intended to be planted to the commodity for harvest in 1986, as determined by the Secretary.


(3) An advance recourse loan under section 424 [7 U.S.C. 1433c] shall come due at such time immediately following harvest as the Secretary determines appropriate. Each loan contract entered into under section 424 shall specify the date on which the loan is to come due.

(4)(A) The Secretary shall establish procedures, when practicable, under which a producer, simultaneously with repayment of his recourse loan, may obtain a nonrecourse loan on his crop (as otherwise provided for in the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.]) in an amount sufficient to repay his recourse loan.

(B) In cases in which nonrecourse loans under such Act are not normally made available directly to producers, the Secretary shall establish procedures under which a producer may repay a recourse loan at the same time the producer receives advances or other payment from the producer's disposition of his crop.

(5) Advance recourse loans shall be made available as needed solely to cover costs involved in the production of the 1986 crop that are incurred or are outstanding on or after March 20, 1986.

(6) To obtain an advance recourse loan, the producer on a farm must—

(A) provide as security for the loan a first lien on the crop covered by the loan or provide such other security as may be available to the producer and determined by the Secretary to be adequate to protect the Government's interests; and

(B) obtain multiperil crop insurance, if available, to protect the crop that serves as security for the loan.


If a producer does not have multiperil crop insurance and is located in a county in which the signup period for multiperil crop insurance has expired, the producer shall be required to obtain other crop insurance, if available.

(7) The total amount in advance recourse loans that may be made to a producer under section 424 [7 U.S.C. 1433c] may not exceed $50,000.

(8) An advance recourse loan may be made available only to a producer who agrees to comply with such other terms and conditions determined appropriate by the Secretary and consistent with the provisions of section 424 [7 U.S.C. 1433c].

(b) Use of Commodity Credit Corporation, Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service, and county committees

The Secretary shall carry out the program provided for under section 424 [7 U.S.C. 1433c] through the Commodity Credit Corporation, using the services of the Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service and the county committees established under section 590h(b) of title 16 to make determinations of eligibility with respect to the credit test under subsection (a)(1), and determinations as to the sufficiency of security under subsection (a)(6). The Secretary may use such committees for such other purposes as the Secretary determines appropriate in carrying out section 424.

(c) Regulations

It is further the sense of Congress that the Secretary of Agriculture issue or, as appropriate, amend regulations to implement any program established under section 424 [7 U.S.C. 1433c] as soon as practicable, but not later than 15 days after March 20, 1986. Loans and other assistance provided under such program shall be made available beginning on the date such regulations are issued or amended.

(Pub. L. 99–260, §13, Mar. 20, 1986, 100 Stat. 53; Pub. L. 108–357, title VI, §611(q), Oct. 22, 2004, 118 Stat. 1523.)

References in Text

The Agricultural Act of 1949, referred to in subsec. (a)(4), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food Security Improvements Act of 1986, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Amendments

2004—Subsec. (a)(2)(B). Pub. L. 108–357 struck out "tobacco and" before "peanuts".

Effective Date of 2004 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 108–357 applicable to the 2005 and subsequent crops of tobacco, see section 643 of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as an Effective Date note under section 518 of this title.

Savings Provision

Amendment by sections 611 to 614 of Pub. L. 108–357 not to affect the liability of any person under any provision of law so amended with respect to the 2004 or an earlier crop of tobacco, see section 614 of Pub. L. 108–357, set out as a note under section 515 of this title.

§1433d. Omitted

Codification

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §425, as added Dec. 19, 1989, Pub. L. 101–239, title I, §1003(a), 103 Stat. 2108, related to reduction of deficiency payments. See Effective and Termination Dates note below.

Effective and Termination Dates

Pub. L. 101–239, title I, §1003(a), Dec. 19, 1989, 103 Stat. 2108, provided that this section is effective only for the 1990 crops.

§1433e. Repealed. Pub. L. 103–354, title II, §281(b), Oct. 13, 1994, 108 Stat. 3233

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §426, as added Nov. 28, 1990, Pub. L. 101–624, title XI, §1132(a), 104 Stat. 3512; amended Dec. 13, 1991, Pub. L. 102–237, title I, §113(12), 105 Stat. 1838, related to appeals from determinations by State and county committees under Agricultural Act of 1949 and other Acts administered by Agricultural Stabilization and Conservation Service. See section 6991 et seq. of this title.

§1433f. Repealed. Pub. L. 104–127, title I, §171(b)(2)(I), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 938

Section, act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, title IV, §427, as added Oct. 13, 1994, Pub. L. 103–354, title I, §119(a)(1), 108 Stat. 3207, required producer to obtain at least catastrophic risk protection insurance coverage as condition of receiving any benefit (including payments) for each of 1995 and subsequent crops of tobacco, rice, extra long staple cotton, upland cotton, feed grains, wheat, peanuts, oilseeds, and sugar.

§1434. Encouragement of production of crops of which United States is a net importer and for which price support programs are not in effect; authority to plant on set-aside acreage with no reduction in payment rate

Notwithstanding any other provisions of this Act, the Secretary shall encourage the production of any crop of which the United States is a net importer and for which a price support program is not in effect by permitting the planting of such crop on set-aside acreage and with no reduction in the rate of payment for the commodity.

(Pub. L. 91–524, title VIII, §814, as added Pub. L. 93–86, §1(27)(B), Aug. 10, 1973, 87 Stat. 240.)

References in Text

This Act, referred to in text, is Pub. L. 91–524, Nov. 30, 1970, 84 Stat. 1358, known as the Agricultural Act of 1970. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 1970 Amendment note set out under section 1281 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Agricultural Act of 1970 as added by the Agriculture and Consumer Protection Act of 1973, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

§1435. Production of commodities for conversion into alcohol or hydrocarbons for use as motor fuels or other fuels; terms and conditions; determinations; payments, etc., for program

(a) The Secretary of Agriculture shall permit, subject to such terms and conditions as the Secretary shall prescribe, all or any part of the acreage set aside or diverted under the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.] from the production of a commodity for any crop year to be devoted to the production of any commodity for conversion into alcohol or hydrocarbons for use as motor fuel or other fuel, if the Secretary of Agriculture determines that such production is desirable in order to provide an adequate supply of commodities for such conversion, is not likely to increase the cost of price support programs, and will not adversely affect farm income.

(b)(1) During any year in which no set-aside or diversion of acreage is in effect under the Agricultural Act of 1949 [7 U.S.C. 1421 et seq.], the Secretary of Agriculture may formulate and administer a program for the production, subject to such terms and conditions as he may prescribe, of commodities for conversion into alcohol or hydrocarbons for use as motor fuel or other fuel. Under such program, producers of wheat, feed grains, upland cotton, and rice shall be paid incentive payments to devote a portion of their acreage to such production.

(2) The payments under this subsection shall be made at such rate or rates as the Secretary of Agriculture determines to be fair and reasonable, taking into consideration the participation necessary to ensure an adequate supply of commodities for such conversion.

(3) The Secretary may issue any regulations necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection.

(4) There are authorized to be appropriated such sums as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this subsection.

(Pub. L. 95–113, title XX, §2001, as added Pub. L. 96–294, title II, §260(a), June 30, 1980, 94 Stat. 709.)

References in Text

The Agricultural Act of 1949, referred to in subsecs. (a) and (b)(1), is act Oct. 31, 1949, ch. 792, 63 Stat. 1051, as amended, which is classified principally to this chapter (§1421 et seq.). For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food and Agriculture Act of 1977 as added by the Biomass Energy and Alcohol Fuels Act of 1980 which is title II of the Energy and Security Act, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

§1436. Reimbursement of appropriations available for classing or grading agriculture commodities without charge

On and after June 29, 1949, appropriations available for classing or grading any agricultural commodity without charge to the producers thereof may be reimbursed from nonadministrative funds of the Commodity Credit Corporation for the cost of classing or grading any such commodity for producers who obtain Commodity Credit Corporation price support.

(June 29, 1949, ch. 280, title I, 63 Stat. 344.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 440 of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1950, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.

Exceptions From Transfer of Functions

Functions of Corporations of Department of Agriculture, boards of directors and officers of such corporations; Advisory Board of Commodity Credit Corporation; and Farm Credit Administration or any agency, officer or entity of, under, or subject to supervision of the said Administration excepted from functions of officers, agencies, and employees transferred to Secretary of Agriculture by 1953 Reorg. Plan No. 2, §1, eff. June 4, 1953, 18 F.R. 3219, 67 Stat. 633, set out as a note under section 2201 of this title.

§1436a. Transfer of nonadministrative funds of Commodity Credit Corporation for classing and grading purposes

On and after August 31, 1951, there may be transferred to appropriations available for classing or grading any agricultural commodity without charge to the producers thereof such sums from nonadministrative funds of the Commodity Credit Corporation as may be necessary in addition to other funds available for these purposes, such transfers to be reimbursed from subsequent appropriations therefor.

(Aug. 31, 1951, ch. 374, title I, 65 Stat. 239.)

Codification

Section was formerly classified to section 414a of this title prior to editorial reclassification and renumbering as this section.

Section was enacted as part of the Department of Agriculture Appropriation Act, 1952, and not as part of the Agricultural Act of 1949 which is classified principally to this chapter. For complete classification of the 1949 Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 1421 of this title and Tables.