[USC02] 7 USC CHAPTER 41, SUBCHAPTER III: EMERGENCY AND PRIVATE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
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7 USC CHAPTER 41, SUBCHAPTER III: EMERGENCY AND PRIVATE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS
From Title 7—AGRICULTURECHAPTER 41—FOOD FOR PEACE

SUBCHAPTER III—EMERGENCY AND PRIVATE ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS

§1721. General authority

The President shall establish a program under this subchapter (to be implemented by the Administrator) to provide agricultural commodities to foreign countries on behalf of the people of the United States to—

(1) address famine and food crises, and respond to emergency food needs, arising from man-made and natural disasters;

(2) combat malnutrition, especially in children and mothers;

(3) carry out activities that attempt to alleviate the causes of hunger, mortality and morbidity;

(4) promote economic and community development;

(5) promote food security and support sound environmental practices;

(6) carry out feeding programs; and

(7) build resilience to mitigate and prevent food crises and reduce the future need for emergency aid.

(July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §201, 68 Stat. 457; May 28, 1956, ch. 327, title II, §208(b), 70 Stat. 201; Aug. 3, 1956, ch. 933, §4, 70 Stat. 988; Pub. L. 89–808, §2(C), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1534; Pub. L. 94–161, title II, §208, Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 853; Pub. L. 95–88, title II, §206, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 547; Pub. L. 97–113, title IV, §404, Dec. 29, 1981, 95 Stat. 1538; Pub. L. 99–83, title X, §1002, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 270; Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §§1102, 1103, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3636; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3007, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1823; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3001, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 772.)

Amendments

2014Pub. L. 113–79 inserted "(to be implemented by the Administrator)" after "under this subchapter" in introductory provisions and struck out concluding provisions which read as follows: "Such program shall be implemented by the Administrator."

Par. (7). Pub. L. 113–79, §3001(2), added par. (7) and struck out former par. (7). Prior to amendment, par. (7) read as follows: "promote economic and nutritional security by increasing educational, training, and other productive activities."

2008—Par. (1). Pub. L. 110–246, §3007(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1) which read as follows: "address famine or other urgent or extraordinary relief requirements;".

Par. (5). Pub. L. 110–246, §3007(2)(A), inserted "food security and support" after "promote".

Par. (7). Pub. L. 110–246, §3007(2)(B)–(4), added par. (7).

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions requiring President to furnish commodities to meet famine, combat malnutrition, promote economic development in friendly countries, and for needy persons and school lunch and preschool feeding programs, setting minimum quantity for distribution, requiring use of certain distribution networks, requiring President to consider benefits of distributing processed and protein-fortified foods, nutritional needs of recipients, cost effectiveness of particular commodities, and purposes of this subchapter, requiring that 75 percent of commodities distributed be in form of processed or fortified products or bagged commodities, and authorizing waiver of such 75 percent requirement.

1985—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 99–198, §1102, amended subsec. (b) generally. Prior to amendment, subsec. (b) read as follows: "The minimum quantity of agricultural commodities distributed under this subchapter—

"(1) for fiscal years 1978 through 1980 shall be 1,600,000 metric tons, of which not less than 1,300,000 metric tons shall be distributed through nonprofit voluntary agencies and the World Food Program;

"(2) for fiscal year 1981 shall be 1,650,000 metric tons, of which not less than 1,350,000 metric tons shall be distributed through nonprofit voluntary agencies and the World Food Program; and

"(3) for fiscal year 1982 and each fiscal year thereafter shall be 1,700,000 metric tons, of which not less than 1,200,000 metric tons for nonemergency programs shall be distributed through nonprofit voluntary agencies and the World Food Program, except that for fiscal year 1986 the minimum quantity distributed shall be 1,800,000 metric tons, of which not less than 1,300,000 metric tons for nonemergency programs shall be distributed through nonprofit voluntary agencies and the World Food Program, and for fiscal year 1987 the minimum quantity distributed shall be 1,900,000 metric tons, of which not less than 1,425,000 metric tons for nonemergency programs shall be distributed through nonprofit voluntary agencies and the World Food Program;

unless the President determines and reports to the Congress, together with his reasons, that such quantity cannot be used effectively to carry out the purposes of this subchapter: Provided, That such minimum quantity shall not exceed the total quantity of commodities determined to be available for disposition under this chapter pursuant to section 1731 of this title, less the quantity of commodities required to meet famine or other urgent or extraordinary relief requirements."

Pub. L. 99–83 inserted provisions relating to minimum quantities for fiscal years 1986 and 1987.

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–198, §1103, added subsec. (c).

1981—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 97–113 substituted "1,200,000 metric tons for nonemergency programs" for "1,400,000 metric tons".

1977—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–88 substituted provisions increasing and setting specific minimums for commodities to be distributed for fiscal years 1978 through 1980, for 1981, and for fiscal year 1982 and each fiscal year thereafter, for provisions which had set a fixed minimum of 1,300,000 tons of agricultural commodities each fiscal year, of which the minimum to be distributed through nonprofit voluntary agencies and the World Food Program was 1,000,000 tons each fiscal year.

1975Pub. L. 94–161 designated existing provisions as subsec. (a) and added subsec. (b).

1966Pub. L. 89–808 expanded scope of assistance to include emergency relief without regard to recipient being a friendly people, combating malnutrition in children, promotion of economic and community development in friendly developing areas, and for nonprofit school lunch and preschool feeding programs outside the United States and to be furnished from available commodities rather than surplus agricultural commodities.

1956—Act Aug. 3, 1956, inserted "or extraordinary" after "urgent" wherever appearing.

Act May 28, 1956, struck out "f.o.b. vessels in United States ports," before "as he may request".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 1513 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–88 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 215 of Pub. L. 95–88, set out as a note under section 1702 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–808 effective Jan. 1, 1967, see section 5 of Pub. L. 89–808, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Nonemergency Food Assistance Programs

Pub. L. 105–385, title II, §201, Nov. 13, 1998, 112 Stat. 3465, as amended by Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(D), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1820, provided that:

"(a) In General.—In providing nonemergency assistance under title II of the Food for Peace Act (7 U.S.C. 1721 et seq.), the Administrator of the United States Agency for International Development shall ensure that—

"(1) in planning, decisionmaking, and implementation in providing such assistance, the Administrator takes into consideration local input and participation directly and through United States and indigenous private and voluntary organizations;

"(2) each of the nonemergency activities described in paragraphs (2) through (6) of section 201 of such Act (7 U.S.C. 1721), including programs that provide assistance to people of any age group who are otherwise unable to meet their basic food needs (including feeding programs for the disabled, orphaned, elderly, sick and dying), are carried out; and

"(3) greater flexibility is provided for program and evaluation plans so that such assistance may be developed to meet local needs, as provided for in section 202(f) of such Act (7 U.S.C. 1722(f)).

"(b) Other Requirements.—In providing assistance under the Food for Peace Act [7 U.S.C. 1691 et seq.], the Secretary of Agriculture and the Administrator of United States Agency for International Development shall ensure that commodities are provided in a manner that is consistent with sections 403(a) and (b) of such Act (7 U.S.C. 1733(a) and (b))."

[Section 3001(b)(1)(A), (2)(D) of Pub. L. 110–246, which directed amendment of section 201 of Pub. L. 105–385, set out above, by substituting "Food for Peace Act" for "Agricultural Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954", was executed in subsec. (b) by making the substitution for "Agriculture Trade Development and Assistance Act of 1954", to reflect the probable intent of Congress.]

Authorization for Commodity Credit Corporation To Purchase and Donate Flour and Cornmeal

Pub. L. 85–683, Aug. 19, 1958, 72 Stat. 635, as authorizing Commodity Credit Corporation to purchase and donate flour and cornmeal when it has wheat or corn available for donation pursuant to this subchapter, see note set out under section 1431 of this title.

Implementation of Program

Program under this subchapter to provide for donation of agricultural commodities to foreign countries to be implemented by Administrator of the Agency for International Development, see Ex. Ord. No. 12752, §1(b), Feb. 25, 1991, 56 F.R. 8255, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

§1722. Provision of agricultural commodities

(a) Emergency assistance

Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the Administrator may provide agricultural commodities to meet emergency food needs under this subchapter through governments and public or private agencies, including intergovernmental organizations such as the World Food Program and other multilateral organizations, in such manner and on such terms and conditions as the Administrator determines appropriate to respond to the emergency.

(b) Nonemergency assistance

(1) In general

The Administrator may provide agricultural commodities for nonemergency assistance under this subchapter through eligible organizations (as described in subsection (d)) that have entered into an agreement with the Administrator to use the commodities in accordance with this subchapter.

(2) Limitation

The Administrator may not use as a sole rationale for denying a request for funds submitted under this subsection because the program for which the funds are requested—

(A) would be carried out by the eligible organization in a foreign country in which the Agency for International Development does not have a mission, office, or other presence; or

(B) is not part of a development plan for the country prepared by the Agency.

(3) Program diversity

The Administrator shall—

(A) encourage eligible organizations to propose and implement program plans to address 1 or more aspects of the program under section 1721 of this title; and

(B) consider proposals that incorporate a variety of program objectives and strategic plans based on the identification by eligible organizations of appropriate activities, consistent with section 1721 of this title, to assist development of foreign countries.

(c) Uses of assistance

Agricultural commodities provided under this subchapter may be made available for direct distribution, sale, barter, or other appropriate disposition.

(d) Eligible organizations

To be eligible to receive assistance under subsection (b) an organization shall be—

(1) a private voluntary organization or cooperative that is, to the extent practicable, registered with the Administrator; or

(2) an intergovernmental organization, such as the World Food Program.

(e) Support for eligible organizations

(1) In general

Of the funds made available in each fiscal year under this subchapter to the Administrator, not less than 7.5 percent nor more than 20 percent of the funds shall be made available in each fiscal year to eligible organizations described in subsection (d), to assist the organizations in—

(A) establishing and enhancing programs under this subchapter;

(B) meeting specific administrative, management, personnel, transportation, storage, and distribution costs for carrying out programs in foreign countries under this subchapter;

(C) implementing income-generating, community development, health, nutrition, cooperative development, agricultural, and other developmental activities within 1 or more recipient countries or within 1 or more countries in the same region; and

(D) improving and implementing methodologies for food aid programs, including needs assessments (upon the request of the Administrator), monitoring, and evaluation.

(2) Request for funds

To receive funds made available under paragraph (1), an eligible organization described in subsection (d) shall submit a request for the funds that is subject to approval by the Administrator.

(3) Assistance with respect to sale

Upon the request of an eligible organization, the Administrator may provide assistance to the eligible organization with respect to the sale of agricultural commodities made available to it under this subchapter.

(4) Investment authority

An eligible organization that receives funds made available under paragraph (1) may invest the funds pending the eligible organization's use of the funds. Any interest earned on such investment may be used for the purposes for which the assistance was provided to the eligible organization without further appropriation by Congress.

(f) Effective use of commodities

To ensure that agricultural commodities made available under this subchapter are used effectively and in the areas of greatest need, organizations or cooperatives through which such commodities are distributed shall—

(1) to the extent feasible, work with indigenous institutions and employ indigenous workers;

(2) assess and take into account nutritional and other needs of beneficiary groups;

(3) help such beneficiary groups design and carry out mutually acceptable projects;

(4) recommend to the Administrator methods of making assistance available that are the most appropriate for each local setting;

(5) supervise the distribution of commodities provided and the implementation of programs carried out under this subchapter; and

(6) periodically evaluate the effectiveness of projects undertaken under this subchapter.

(g) Labeling of assistance

Agricultural commodities and other assistance provided under this subchapter shall, to the extent practicable, be clearly identified with appropriate markings on the package or container of such agricultural commodities or food procured outside of the United States, or on printed material that accompanies other assistance, in the language of the locality in which such commodities and other assistance are distributed, as being furnished by the people of the United States of America.

(h) Food aid quality

(1) In general

The Administrator shall use funds made available for fiscal year 2014 and subsequent fiscal years to carry out this subchapter—

(A) to assess the types and quality of agricultural commodities and products donated for food aid;

(B) to adjust products and formulations, including potential introduction of new fortificants and products, as necessary to cost-effectively meet nutrient needs of target populations;

(C) to test prototypes;

(D) to adopt new specifications or improve existing specifications for micronutrient fortified food aid products, based on the latest developments in food and nutrition science, and in coordination with other international partners;

(E) to develop new program guidance to facilitate improved matching of products to purposes having nutritional intent, in coordination with other international partners;

(F) to develop improved guidance for implementing partners on how to address nutritional deficiencies that emerge among recipients for whom food assistance is the sole source of diet in emergency programs that extend beyond 1 year, in coordination with other international partners; and

(G) to evaluate, in appropriate settings and as necessary, the performance and cost-effectiveness of new or modified specialized food products and program approaches designed to meet the nutritional needs of the most vulnerable groups, such as pregnant and lactating mothers, and children under the age of 5.

(2) Administration

The Administrator—

(A) shall carry out this subsection in consultation with and through independent entities with proven expertise in food aid commodity quality enhancements;

(B) may enter into contracts to obtain the services of such entities; and

(C) shall consult with the Food Aid Consultative Group on how to carry out this subsection.

(3) Funding limitation

Of the funds made available under section 1726a(f) of this title,1 for fiscal years 2014 through 2023, not more than $4,500,000 may be used to carry out this subsection.

(July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §202, 68 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 86–472, ch. VI, §601(a)(1), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 140; Pub. L. 88–205, pt. IV, §403(d), Dec. 16, 1963, 77 Stat. 390; Pub. L. 89–808, §2(C), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1534; Pub. L. 95–88, title II, §§207, 208(a), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 547; Pub. L. 96–53, title I, §121, title II, §202, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 366, 368; Pub. L. 99–83, title X, §§1003, 1004(a), 1005, Aug. 8, 1985, 99 Stat. 270, 271; Pub. L. 100–202, §11, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–448; Pub. L. 101–508, title I, §1204(b)(1), Nov. 5, 1990, 104 Stat. 1388–11; Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3636; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §207(a), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 953; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3002, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 280; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3008, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1823; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §§3002, 3003, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 773; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §§3101, 3102, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4603, 4604.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (g). Pub. L. 115–334, §3101, amended subsec. (g) generally. Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Commodities provided under this subchapter shall, to the extent practicable, be clearly identified with appropriate markings on the package or container of such commodity in the language of the locality in which such commodities are distributed, as being furnished by the people of the United States of America."

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 115–334, §3102, substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §3002(1)(A), substituted "20 percent" for "13 percent" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1)(A). Pub. L. 113–79, §3002(1)(B), substituted "and enhancing" for "new".

Subsec. (e)(1)(B) to (D). Pub. L. 113–79, §3002(1)(C)–(E), added subpars. (B) and (C), redesignated former subpar. (C) as (D), and struck out former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, subpar. (B) read as follows: "meeting specific administrative, management, personnel and internal transportation and distribution costs for carrying out programs in foreign countries under this subchapter; and".

Subsec. (e)(4). Pub. L. 113–79, §3002(2), added par. (4).

Subsec. (h)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §3003(1), added par. (1) and struck out former par. (1). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "The Administrator shall use funds made available for fiscal year 2009 and subsequent fiscal years to carry out this subchapter—

"(A) to assess the types and quality of agricultural commodities and products donated for food aid;

"(B) to adjust products and formulations (including the potential introduction of new fortificants and products) as necessary to cost-effectively meet nutrient needs of target populations; and

"(C) to test prototypes."

Subsec. (h)(3). Pub. L. 113–79, §3003(2), substituted "fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "fiscal years 2009 through 2011".

2008—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 110–246, §3008(1), substituted "may not use as a sole rationale for denying a request for funds" for "may not deny a request for funds" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 110–246, §3008(2)(A), substituted "not less than 7.5 percent nor more than 13 percent" for "not less than 5 percent nor more than 10 percent" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (e)(1)(C). Pub. L. 110–246, §3008(2)(B)–(D), added subpar. (C).

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 110–246, §3008(3), added subsec. (h) and struck out former subsec. (h) which required Administrator to streamline program procedures and guidelines not later than 1 year after May 13, 2002, and incorporate changes, to the maximum extent practicable, beginning in fiscal year 2004.

2002—Subsec. (b)(3). Pub. L. 107–171, §3002(1), added par. (3).

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §3002(2), substituted "not less than 5 percent nor more than 10 percent of the funds" for "not less than $10,000,000, and not more than $28,000,000,".

Subsec. (h). Pub. L. 107–171, §3002(3), added subsec. (h).

1996—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(a)(1), added subsec. (b) and struck out heading and text of former subsec. (b). Text read as follows: "The Administrator may provide agricultural commodities for non-emergency assistance under this subchapter through eligible organizations (as described in subsection (d) of this section) that have entered into an agreement with the Administrator to use such commodities in accordance with this subchapter."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(a)(2)(A), substituted "eligible organizations" for "private voluntary organizations and cooperatives" in heading.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(a)(2)(B), in introductory provisions, substituted "$28,000,000" for "$13,500,000" and "eligible organizations described in subsection (d), to assist the organizations" for "private voluntary organizations and cooperatives to assist such organizations and cooperatives".

Subsec. (e)(2). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(a)(2)(C), added par. (2) and struck out heading and text of former par. (2). Text read as follows: "In order to receive funds made available under paragraph (1), a private voluntary organization or cooperative must submit a request for such funds (which must be approved by the Administrator) when submitting a proposal to the Administrator for an agreement under this subchapter. Such request for funds shall include a specific explanation of—

"(A) the program costs to be offset by such funds;

"(B) the reason why such funds are needed in carrying out the particular assistance program; and

"(C) the degree to which such funds will improve the provision of food assistance to foreign countries (particularly those in sub-Saharan Africa suffering from acute, long-term food shortages)."

Subsec. (e)(3). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(a)(2)(D), substituted "an eligible organization, the Administrator may provide assistance to the eligible organization" for "a private voluntary organization or cooperative, the Administrator may provide assistance to that organization or cooperative".

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to furnishing commodities through friendly governments, agencies, and organizations, assistance for community and other self-help activities, and multiyear agreements for distribution of commodities through nonprofit voluntary agencies and cooperatives.

Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 101–508, in introductory provisions, substituted "the Administrator, not less than $10,000,000, and not more than $13,500,000, shall be made available in each fiscal year to private voluntary organizations and cooperatives" for "private voluntary organizations and cooperatives, not less than $10,000,000 and not more than $13,500,000 shall be made available by the Administrator".

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–202 inserted "or cooperatives" after "voluntary agencies".

1985—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 99–83, §1003, inserted provisions relating to appropriate disposition under section 1721 of this title.

Subsec. (b)(4). Pub. L. 99–83, §1004(a), added par. (4).

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 99–83, §1005, added subsec. (c).

1979—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 96–53, §121, substituted "Agency for International Development" for "Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid", and "Advisory Committee" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 96–53, §202, substituted provisions relating to encouragement of entities distributing commodities to work with indigenous institutions and to employ indigenous workers, for provisions relating to employment of indigenous workers.

1977—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 95–88, §§207(1), (2), 208(a), designated existing provisions as subsec. (a), struck out requirement that assistance to needy persons, insofar as practicable, be directed toward community and other self-help activities designed to alleviate the causes of the need for such assistance, and inserted provisions authorizing the President to utilize a foreign nonprofit voluntary agency which is registered with and approved by the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid if no United States nonprofit voluntary agency registered with and approved by the Advisory Committee is available.

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 95–88, §207(3), added subsec. (b).

1966Pub. L. 89–808 substituted provisions for furnishing commodities for prescribed purposes through use of friendly governments, agencies, and organizations, using to extent practicable registered and approved nonprofit voluntary agencies, identification of source of commodities, determination by the President of the manner and terms and conditions of furnishing the commodities and for directions of the assistance toward community and self-help activities for former provisions for transfer of commodities on a grant bases to assist the prescribed programs.

1963Pub. L. 88–205 substituted "economic and community development" for "economic developments".

1960Pub. L. 86–472 substituted "In order to facilitate the utilization of surplus agricultural commodities in meeting the requirements of needy peoples, and in order to promote economic development in underdeveloped areas in addition to that which can be accomplished under sections 1701 to 1704 and 1705 to 1709 of this title, the" for "The".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 1513 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–508 effective Nov. 29, 1990, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 101–508, set out as an Effective Date note under section 1994 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 99–83 effective Oct. 1, 1985, see section 1301 of Pub. L. 99–83, set out as a note under section 2151–1 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1979 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 96–53 effective Oct. 1, 1979, see section 512(a) of Pub. L. 96–53, set out as a note under section 2151 of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–88 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 215 of Pub. L. 95–88, set out as a note under section 1702 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–808 effective Jan. 1, 1967, see section 5 of Pub. L. 89–808, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Registration of Foreign Nonprofit Voluntary Agencies

Pub. L. 95–88, title II, §208(b), Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 548, provided that: "For purposes of implementing the amendment made by subsection (a) [providing for the utilization by the President of foreign nonprofit voluntary agencies], the President shall issue regulations governing registration with an approval by the Advisory Committee on Voluntary Foreign Aid of foreign nonprofit voluntary agencies."

Continuation of Authority

Pub. L. 86–472, ch. VI, §601(a)(2), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 140, which provided that the amendment of this section by section 601(a)(1) shall expire June 30, 1961, was repealed by Pub. L. 87–92, July 20, 1961, 75 Stat. 211.

1 So in original. The comma probably should not appear.

§1723. Generation and use of currencies by private voluntary organizations and cooperatives

(a) Local sale and barter of commodities

An agreement entered into between the Administrator and a private voluntary organization or cooperative to provide food assistance through such organization or cooperative under this subchapter may provide for the sale or barter in 1 or more recipient countries, or 1 or more countries in the same region, of the commodities to be provided under such agreement to generate proceeds to be used as provided in this section.

(b) Description of intended uses

A private voluntary organization or cooperative submitting a proposal to enter into a non-emergency food assistance agreement under this subchapter shall include in such proposal a description of the intended uses of any proceeds that may be generated through the sale, in 1 or more recipient countries, or in 1 or more countries in the same region, of any commodities provided under an agreement entered into between the Administrator and the organization or cooperative.

(c) Use

Proceeds generated from any partial or full sale or barter of commodities by a private voluntary organization or cooperative under a non-emergency food assistance agreement under this subchapter may—

(1) be used to transport, store, distribute, and otherwise enhance the effectiveness of the use of agricultural commodities provided under this subchapter;

(2) be used to implement income-generating, community development, health, nutrition, cooperative development, agricultural, and other developmental activities within 1 or more recipient countries or within 1 or more countries in the same region; or

(3) be invested, and any interest earned on such investment may be used, for the purposes for which the assistance was provided to that organization, without further appropriation by Congress.

(July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §203, 68 Stat. 458; May 28, 1956, ch. 327, title II, §208(c), 70 Stat. 201; Pub. L. 85–128, §1(3), Aug. 13, 1957, 71 Stat. 345; Pub. L. 86–341, title I, §3, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 606; Pub. L. 86–472, ch. VI, §601(b), May 14, 1960, 74 Stat. 140; Pub. L. 87–128, title II, §202(1), Aug. 8, 1961, 75 Stat. 307; Pub. L. 88–638, §1(13), (14), Oct. 8, 1964, 78 Stat. 1037; Pub. L. 89–808, §2(C), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1535; Pub. L. 95–88, title II, §209, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 548; Pub. L. 98–473, title III, §305, Oct. 12, 1984, 98 Stat. 2195; Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3638; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §208, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 954; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3003, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 281; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3009, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1824; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3103, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4604.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 115–334, §3103(1), inserted "to generate proceeds to be used as provided in this section" before period at end.

Subsecs. (b) to (d). Pub. L. 115–334, §3103(2), (3), redesignated subsecs. (c) and (d) as (b) and (c), respectively, and struck out former subsec. (b). Prior to amendment, text of subsec. (b) read as follows: "In carrying out agreements of the type referred to in subsection (a), the Administrator shall permit private voluntary organizations and cooperatives to sell, in 1 or more recipient countries, or in 1 or more countries in the same region, an amount of commodities equal to not less than 15 percent of the aggregate amounts of all commodities distributed under non-emergency programs under this subchapter for each fiscal year, to generate proceeds to be used as provided in this section."

2008—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 110–246 inserted "in" before "1 or more recipient countries".

2002Pub. L. 107–171, §3003(1), struck out "foreign" before "currencies" in section catchline.

Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–171, §3003(2), substituted "1 or more recipient countries, or 1 or more countries" for "the recipient country, or in a country".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–171, §3003(3), substituted "1 or more recipient countries, or in 1 or more countries" for "in recipient countries, or in countries" and struck out "foreign currency" before "proceeds".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 107–171, §3003(4), struck out "foreign currency" before "proceeds" and substituted "1 or more recipient countries, or in 1 or more countries" for "the recipient country, or in a country".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 107–171, §3003(5)(A), substituted "Proceeds" for "Foreign currencies" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 107–171, §3003(5)(B), substituted "income-generating" for "income generating" and "1 or more recipient countries or within 1 or more countries" for "the recipient country or within a country".

Subsec. (d)(3). Pub. L. 107–171, §3003(5)(C), inserted comma after "invested" and after "investment may be used".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127, §208(1), inserted ", or in a country in the same region," after "in the recipient country".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 104–127, §208(2), inserted "or in countries in the same region," after "in recipient countries," and substituted "15 percent" for "10 percent".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 104–127, §208(3), inserted "or in a country in the same region," after "recipient country,".

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 104–127, §208(4), inserted "or within a country in the same region" after "recipient country".

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to the payment of costs and charges by the Commodity Credit Corporation for packaging, enrichment, preservation, processing, transportation, handling, and other incidental charges relating to commodities.

1984Pub. L. 98–473 inserted following cl. (4): "in the case of commodities for urgent and extraordinary relief requirements, including pre-positioned commodities, transportation costs from designated points of entry or ports of entry abroad to storage and distribution sites and associated storage and distribution costs;".

1977Pub. L. 95–88 substituted "transportation from United States ports to designated points of entry abroad in the case (1) of landlocked countries, (2) where ports cannot be used effectively because of natural or other disturbances, (3) where carriers to a specific country are unavailable, or (4) where a substantial savings in costs or time can be effected by the utilization of points of entry other than ports" for ", or, in the case of landlocked countries, transportation from United States ports to designated points of entry abroad".

1966Pub. L. 89–808 reenacted, with linguistic changes, existing provisions for payment of costs and charges, included costs of acquisition, packaging, enrichment, preservation, fortification, processing, handling, other incidents, struck out provisions for authorization of appropriations for reimbursement of CCC, limitation on amount, and use of funds for purchase of foreign currencies, now covered by section 1724 of this title, and deleted other provisions for use of agencies, organizations, and facilities in making transfers, now covered by section 1722 of this title, and provision for transfer of funds from the CCC to such other Federal agency designated by the President for payment of ocean freight costs or for purchase of foreign currencies under this subchapter.

1964Pub. L. 88–638 substituted "1965"; for "1961", "1966" for "1964", and "$400,000,000" for "$300,000,000", inserted "or donated under said section 1431, or section 1431b or 1697 of this title", provisions authorizing use of funds available under subchapter III, not exceeding $7,500,000 annually, to purchase foreign currencies accruing under subchapter II in order to meet costs designed to assure that commodities available under subchapters I or III are used to carry out more effectively the purposes for which such commodities are made available or to promote activities to alleviate the causes of the need for such assistance, provided that such funds are used to supplement, not substitute for, funds normally available for such purposes from other non-United States Government sources, and "or for the purchase of foreign currencies" after "ocean freight costs".

1961Pub. L. 87–128 substituted authorization provision for period beginning January 1, 1961, and ending December 31, 1964, for authorization provision beginning January 1, 1960, and ending December 31, 1961, and made the annual limitation applicable to the amount programed rather than to the amount spent.

1960Pub. L. 86–472 authorized payment for transportation from United States ports to designated points of entry abroad in the case of landlocked countries, and permitted the payment of charges for general average contributions arising out of the ocean transport of transferred commodities.

1959Pub. L. 86–341 amended first sentence generally. Prior to amendment, first sentence read as follows: "Not more than $800,000,000 (including the Corporation's investment in such commodities) shall be expended for all such transfers and for other costs authorized by this subchapter."

1957Pub. L. 85–128 increased limitation on expenditures from $500,000,000 to $800,000,000.

1956—Act May 28, 1956, increased limitation on expenditures from $300,000,000 to $500,000,000, and authorized payment of ocean freight charges.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 1513 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–88 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 215 of Pub. L. 95–88, set out as a note under section 1702 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–808 effective Jan. 1, 1967, see section 5 of Pub. L. 89–808, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Effective Date of 1964 Amendment

Pub. L. 88–638, §1(13), Oct. 8, 1964, 78 Stat. 1037, provided that the substitutions of "1965" for "1961", "1966" for "1964", and "$400,000,000" for "$300,000,000" are not effective until Jan. 1, 1965.

Effective Date of 1959 Amendment

Pub. L. 86–341, title I, §3, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 606, provided that the amendment made by section 3 is effective Jan. 1, 1960.

§1724. Levels of assistance

(a) Minimum levels

(1) Minimum assistance

Except as provided in paragraph (3), the Administrator shall make agricultural commodities available for food distribution under this subchapter in an amount that for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2023 is not less than 2,500,000 metric tons.

(2) Minimum non-emergency assistance

Of the amounts specified in paragraph (1), and except as provided in paragraph (3), the Administrator shall make agricultural commodities available for non-emergency food distribution through eligible organizations under section 1722 of this title in an amount that for each of fiscal years 2008 through 2023 is not less than 1,875,000 metric tons.

(3) Exception

The Administrator may waive the requirements of paragraphs (1) and (2) for any fiscal year if the Administrator determines that such quantities of commodities cannot be used effectively to carry out this subchapter or in order to meet an emergency. In making a waiver under this paragraph, the Administrator shall prepare and submit to the Committees on International Relations, Agriculture and Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations and Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report containing the reasons for the waiver. No waiver shall be made before the beginning of the applicable fiscal year.

(b) Use of value-added commodities

(1) Minimum levels

Except as provided in paragraph (2), in making agricultural commodities available under this subchapter, the Administrator shall ensure that not less than 75 percent of the quantity of such commodities required to be distributed during each fiscal year under subsection (a)(2) be in the form of processed, fortified, or bagged commodities and that not less than 50 percent of the quantity of the bagged commodities that are whole grain commodities be bagged in the United States.

(2) Waiver of minimum

The Administrator may waive the requirement of paragraph (1) for any fiscal year in which the Administrator determines that the requirements of the programs established under this subchapter will not be best served by the enforcement of such requirement under such paragraph.

(July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §204, 68 Stat. 458; Pub. L. 85–128, §1(1), Aug. 13, 1957, 71 Stat. 345; Pub. L. 85–931, §5, Sept. 6, 1958, 72 Stat. 1791; Pub. L. 86–341, title I, §1, Sept. 21, 1959, 73 Stat. 606; Pub. L. 87–128, title II, §202(2), Aug. 8, 1961, 75 Stat. 307; Pub. L. 88–638, §1(15), Oct. 8, 1964, 78 Stat. 1037; Pub. L. 89–808, §2(C), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1535; Pub. L. 95–113, title XII, §1203, Sept. 29, 1977, 91 Stat. 956; Pub. L. 97–98, title XII, §1212, Dec. 22, 1981, 95 Stat. 1281; Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §1101, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1465; Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3639; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §209, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 954; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3004, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 282; Pub. L. 108–199, div. A, title VII, §758, Jan. 23, 2004, 118 Stat. 38; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3010, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1824; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3004, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3104, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4604.)

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 115–334 substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 113–79 substituted "2018" for "2012".

2008—Subsec. (a)(1), (2). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "2008 through 2012" for "2002 through 2007".

2004—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 108–199 substituted "the Committees on International Relations, Agriculture and Appropriations of the House of Representatives, and the Committees on Appropriations and" for "the Committee on Foreign Affairs and Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives, and the Committee on".

2002—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 107–171, §3004(1), (2), substituted "2002 through 2007" for "1996 through 2002" and "2,500,000 metric tons" for "2,025,000 metric tons".

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 107–171, §3004(1), (3), substituted "2002 through 2007" for "1996 through 2002" and "1,875,000 metric tons" for "1,550,000 metric tons".

1996—Subsec. (a)(1). Pub. L. 104–127, §209(1)(A), substituted "amount that for each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002 is not less than 2,025,000 metric tons." for "amount that—

"(A) for fiscal year 1991, is not less than 1,925,000 metric tons;

"(B) for fiscal year 1992, is not less than 1,950,000 metric tons;

"(C) for fiscal year 1993, is not less than 1,975,000 metric tons;

"(D) for fiscal year 1994, is not less than 2,000,000 metric tons; and

"(E) for fiscal year 1995, is not less than 2,025,000 metric tons."

Subsec. (a)(2). Pub. L. 104–127, §209(1)(B), substituted "amount that for each of fiscal years 1996 through 2002 is not less than 1,550,000 metric tons." for "an amount that—

"(A) for fiscal year 1991, is not less than 1,450,000 metric tons;

"(B) for fiscal year 1992, is not less than 1,475,000 metric tons;

"(C) for fiscal year 1993, is not less than 1,500,000 metric tons;

"(D) for fiscal year 1994, is not less than 1,525,000 metric tons; and

"(E) for fiscal year 1995, is not less than 1,550,000 metric tons."

Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 104–127, §209(1)(C), inserted at end "No waiver shall be made before the beginning of the applicable fiscal year."

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–127, §209(2), inserted before period at end "and that not less than 50 percent of the quantity of the bagged commodities that are whole grain commodities be bagged in the United States".

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to authorization of appropriations for reimbursement of Commodity Credit Corporation for costs incurred in connection with programs of assistance undertaken under this subchapter, and appropriations for purchase of foreign currencies.

1985Pub. L. 99–198 substituted "fiscal" for "calendar" in two places in first sentence and authorized a waiver of limitation on assistance when the President determines waiver is necessary to undertake programs of assistance to meet humanitarian needs.

1981Pub. L. 97–98 substituted "$1,000,000,000" for "$750,000,000".

1977Pub. L. 95–113 substituted "$750,000,000" for "$600,000,000".

1966Pub. L. 89–808 substituted part of provisions of former section 1723 of this title relating to authorization of appropriations for reimbursement of the CCC, limitations on amount, and use of funds for purchase of foreign currencies for former provisions for termination date for assistance under this subchapter (Dec. 31, 1966), now provided for by section 1736c of this title.

1964Pub. L. 88–638 extended termination date from Dec. 31, 1964, to Dec. 31, 1966.

1961Pub. L. 87–128 extended termination date from Dec. 31, 1961, to Dec. 31, 1964.

1959Pub. L. 86–341 extended termination date from Dec. 31, 1959, to Dec. 31, 1961.

1958Pub. L. 85–931 extended termination date from June 30, 1958, to Dec. 31, 1959.

1957Pub. L. 85–128 extended termination date from June 30, 1957, to June 30, 1958.

Change of Name

Committee on International Relations of House of Representatives changed to Committee on Foreign Affairs of House of Representatives by House Resolution No. 6, One Hundred Tenth Congress, Jan. 5, 2007.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 1513 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Effective Date of 1985 Amendment

Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §1101, Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1465, provided that the amendment made by that section is effective Oct. 1, 1985.

Effective Date of 1981 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 97–98 effective Dec. 22, 1981, see section 1801 of Pub. L. 97–98, set out as an Effective Date note under section 4301 of this title.

Effective Date of 1977 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 95–113 effective Oct. 1, 1977, see section 1901 of Pub. L. 95–113, set out as a note under section 1307 of this title.

Effective Date of 1966 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 89–808 effective Jan. 1, 1967, see section 5 of Pub. L. 89–808, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

§1725. Food Aid Consultative Group

(a) Establishment

There is established a Food Aid Consultative Group (hereinafter referred to in this section as the "Group") that shall meet regularly to review and address issues concerning the effectiveness of the regulations and procedures that govern food assistance programs established and implemented under this subchapter, and the implementation of other provisions of this subchapter that may involve eligible organizations described in section 1722(d)(1) of this title.

(b) Membership

The Group shall be composed of—

(1) the Administrator;

(2) the Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs;

(3) the Inspector General of the Agency for International Development;

(4) a representative of each private voluntary organization and cooperative participating in a program under this subchapter, or receiving planning assistance funds from the Agency to establish programs under this subchapter;

(5) representatives from African, Asian and Latin American indigenous non-governmental organizations determined appropriate by the Administrator;

(6) representatives from agricultural producer groups in the United States;

(7) representatives from the United States agricultural processing sector involved in providing agricultural commodities for programs under this chapter; and

(8) representatives from the maritime transportation sector involved in transporting agricultural commodities overseas for programs under this chapter.

(c) Chairperson

The Administrator shall be the chairperson of the Group.

(d) Consultations

(1) Consultation in advance of issuance of implementation regulations, handbooks, and guidelines

Not later than 30 days before a proposed regulation, handbook, or guideline implementing this subchapter, or a proposed significant revision to a regulation, handbook, or guideline implementing this subchapter, becomes final, the Administrator shall provide the proposal to the Group for review and comment. The Administrator shall consult and, when appropriate (but at least twice per year), meet with the Group regarding such proposed regulations, handbooks, guidelines, or revisions thereto prior to the issuance of such.

(2) Consultation regarding food aid quality efforts

The Administrator shall seek input from and consult with the Group on the implementation of section 1722(h) of this title.

(e) Advisory Committee Act

The Federal Advisory Committee Act (5 U.S.C. App.) shall not apply to the Group.

(f) Termination

The Group shall terminate on December 31, 2023.

(July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §205, as added Pub. L. 89–808, §2(C), Nov. 11, 1966, 80 Stat. 1535; amended Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3639; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §210, Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 955; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3005, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 282; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3011, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1824; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3005, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 774; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3105, title XII, §12405(c), Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4604, 4975.)

References in Text

The Federal Advisory Committee Act, referred to in subsec. (e), is Pub. L. 92–463, Oct. 6, 1972, 86 Stat. 770, as amended, which is set out in the Appendix to Title 5, Government Organization and Employees.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 115–334, §12405(c), substituted "Under Secretary of Agriculture for Trade and Foreign Agricultural Affairs" for "Under Secretary of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services".

Subsec. (d)(1). Pub. L. 115–334, §3105(1), substituted "30 days" for "45 days".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–334, §3105(2), substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (b)(7), (8). Pub. L. 113–79, §3005(a), added par. (7) and redesignated former par. (7) as (8).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–79, §3005(b), designated existing provisions as par. (1), substituted "Not later than 45 days before a proposed regulation, handbook, or guideline implementing this subchapter, or a proposed significant revision to a regulation, handbook, or guideline implementing this subchapter, becomes final, the Administrator shall provide the proposal to the Group for review and comment." for "In preparing regulations, handbooks, or guidelines implementing this subchapter, or significant revisions thereto, the Administrator shall provide such proposals to the Group for review and comment.", and added par. (2).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–79, §3005(c), substituted "2018" for "2012".

2008—Subsec. (b)(7). Pub. L. 110–246, §3011(1), added par. (7).

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–246, §3011(2), substituted "2012" for "2007".

2002—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–171 substituted "2007" for "2002".

1996—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 104–127, §210(1), substituted "eligible organizations described in section 1722(d)(1) of this title" for "private voluntary organizations, cooperatives and indigenous non-governmental organizations".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–127, §210(2)(A), substituted "of Agriculture for Farm and Foreign Agricultural Services" for "for International Affairs and Commodity Programs".

Subsec. (b)(6). Pub. L. 104–127, §210(2)(B)–(D), added par. (6).

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 104–127, §210(3), inserted "(but at least twice per year)" after "when appropriate".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 104–127, §210(4), substituted "2002" for "1995".

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions declaring sense of Congress that President should encourage advanced nations to increase contributions for combating hunger, particularly through expansion of international food and agricultural assistance programs, and that United States should work for expansion of United Nations World food program.

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 1513 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Effective Date

Section effective Jan. 1, 1967, see section 5 of Pub. L. 89–808, set out as an Effective Date of 1966 Amendment note under section 1691 of this title.

§1726. Repealed. Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3006, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 282

Section, act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §206, as added Pub. L. 94–161, title II, §209, Dec. 20, 1975, 89 Stat. 854; amended Pub. L. 95–88, title II, §210, Aug. 3, 1977, 91 Stat. 548; Pub. L. 96–53, title II, §203, Aug. 14, 1979, 93 Stat. 368; Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §1112(a)(2), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1478; Pub. L. 100–202, §§12, 13, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–448; Pub. L. 100–418, title IV, §4610(d), Aug. 23, 1988, 102 Stat. 1411; Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3640, related to maximum level of expenditures.

§1726a. Administration

(a) Proposals

(1) Recipient countries

A proposal to enter into a nonemergency food assistance agreement under this subchapter shall identify the recipient country or countries that are the subject of the agreement.

(2) Timing

Not later than 120 days after the date of receipt by the Administrator of a proposal submitted by an eligible organization under this subchapter, the Administrator shall determine whether to accept the proposal.

(3) Denial

If a proposal under paragraph (1) is denied, the response shall specify the reasons for denial.

(b) Notice and comment

Not later than 30 days prior to the issuance of a final guideline or annual policy guidance to carry out this subchapter, the Administrator shall—

(1) provide notice of the existence of a proposed guideline or annual policy guidance, and that such guideline or annual policy guidance is available for review and comment, to eligible organizations that participate in programs under this subchapter, and to other interested persons;

(2) make the proposed guideline or annual policy guidance available, on request, to the eligible organizations and other persons referred to in paragraph (1); and

(3) take any comments received into consideration prior to the issuance of the final guideline or annual policy guidance.

(c) Regulations and guidance

(1) In general

The Administrator shall promptly issue all necessary regulations and make revisions to agency guidelines with respect to changes in the operation or implementation of the program established under this subchapter. Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018, the Administrator shall issue all regulations and revisions to agency guidance necessary to implement the amendments made to this subchapter by such Act.

(2) Requirements

The Administrator shall develop regulations and guidance with the intent of—

(A) simplifying procedures for participation in the programs established under this subchapter;

(B) reducing paperwork requirements under such programs;

(C) establishing reasonable and realistic accountability standards to be applied to eligible organizations participating in the programs established under this subchapter, taking into consideration the problems associated with carrying out programs in developing countries; and

(D) providing flexibility for carrying out programs under this subchapter.

(d) Timely provision of commodities

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary, shall develop procedures that ensure expedited processing of commodity call forwards in order to provide commodities overseas in a timely manner and to the extent feasible, according to planned delivery schedules.

(e) Timely approval

The Administrator is encouraged to finalize program agreements and resource requests for programs under this section before the beginning of each fiscal year.

(f) Program oversight, monitoring, and evaluation

(1) Duties of Administrator

The Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary, shall establish systems and carry out activities—

(A) to determine the need for assistance provided under this subchapter; and

(B) to improve, monitor, and evaluate the effectiveness and efficiency of the assistance provided under this subchapter to maximize the impact of the assistance.

(2) Requirements of systems and activities

The systems and activities described in paragraph (1) shall include—

(A) program monitors in countries that receive assistance under this subchapter;

(B) country and regional food aid impact evaluations;

(C) the identification and implementation of best practices for food aid programs;

(D) the evaluation of monetization programs;

(E) early warning assessments and systems to help prevent famines; and

(F) maintenance of information technology systems.

(3) Contract authority

(A) In general

Subject to subparagraphs (B) and (C), in carrying out administrative and management activities relating to each activity carried out by the Administrator under paragraph (1), the Administrator may enter into contracts with 1 or more individuals for personal service to be performed in recipient countries or neighboring countries.

(B) Prohibition

An individual who enters into a contract with the Administrator under subparagraph (A) shall not be considered to be an employee of the Federal Government for the purpose of any law (including regulations) administered by the Office of Personnel Management.

(C) Personal service

Subparagraph (A) does not limit the ability of the Administrator to enter into a contract with any individual for personal service under section 1722(a) of this title.

(4) Funding

(A) In general

Subject to section 1722(h)(3) of this title, in addition to other funds made available to the Administrator to carry out the monitoring of emergency food assistance, the Administrator may implement this subsection using up to 1.5 percent, but not less than $17,000,000, of the funds made available under this subchapter for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2023, except for paragraph (2)(F), for which not more than $500,000 shall be made available for each of the fiscal years 2014 through 2023.

(B) Limitations

(i) In general

Subject to clause (ii), of the funds made available under subparagraph (A), for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2023, not more than $8,000,000 may be used by the Administrator to carry out paragraph (2)(E).

(ii) Condition

No funds shall be made available under subparagraph (A), in accordance with clause (i), unless not less than $8,000,000 is made available under the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 (22 U.S.C. 2151 et seq.) for such purposes for such fiscal year.

(g) Project reporting

(1) In general

In submitting project reports to the Administrator, a private voluntary organization or cooperative shall provide a copy of the report in such form as is necessary for the report to be displayed for public use on the website of the United States Agency for International Development.

(2) Confidential information

An organization or cooperative described in paragraph (1) may omit any confidential information from the copy of the report submitted for public display under that paragraph.

(July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §207, as added Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §1104(a), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1466; amended Pub. L. 100–202, §14, Dec. 22, 1987, 101 Stat. 1329–449; Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3640; Pub. L. 104–127, title II, §207(b), Apr. 4, 1996, 110 Stat. 954; Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3007, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 282; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §§3012, 3018(b), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1824, 1828; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3006(a), (b), Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 774, 775; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §§3106, 3107, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4604.)

References in Text

The Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018 and such Act, referred to in subsec. (c)(1), is Pub. L. 115–334, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4490. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title of 2018 Amendment note set out under section 9001 of this title and Tables.

The Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, referred to in subsec. (f)(4)(B)(ii), is Pub. L. 87–195, Sept. 4, 1961, 75 Stat. 424, which is classified principally to chapter 32 (§2151 et seq.) of Title 22, Foreign Relations and Intercourse. For complete classification of this Act to the Code, see Short Title note set out under section 2151 of Title 22 and Tables.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 115–334, §3106, substituted "the Agriculture Improvement Act of 2018" for "the Agricultural Act of 2014".

Subsec. (f)(4)(A). Pub. L. 115–334, §3107(1), substituted "1.5 percent, but not less than $17,000,000," for "$17,000,000" and "2023" for "2018" in two places.

Subsec. (f)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 115–334, §3107(2)(A), substituted "2023" for "2018".

Subsec. (f)(4)(B)(ii). Pub. L. 115–334, §3107(2)(B), struck out "chapter 1 of part I of" before "the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961".

2014—Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(a)(1), inserted "and guidance" after "Regulations" in heading.

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(a)(2), inserted at end "Not later than 270 days after the date of the enactment of the Agricultural Act of 2014, the Administrator shall issue all regulations and revisions to agency guidance necessary to implement the amendments made to this subchapter by such Act."

Subsec. (c)(2). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(a)(3), inserted "and guidance" after "develop regulations" in introductory provisions.

Subsec. (f)(2)(F). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(b)(1), substituted "maintenance of" for "upgraded".

Subsec. (f)(3), (4). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(b)(2), (3), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (3) and (4), respectively, and struck out former pars. (3) and (4) which related to reports to be submitted by the Administrator and the Comptroller General.

Subsec. (f)(4)(A). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(b)(4)(A), substituted "$17,000,000 of the funds made available under this subchapter for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018, except for paragraph (2)(F), for which not more than $500,000 shall be made available for each of the fiscal years 2014 through 2018." for "$22,000,000 of the funds made available under this subchapter for each of fiscal years 2009 through 2012, except for paragraph (2)(F), for which only $2,500,000 shall be made available during fiscal year 2009."

Subsec. (f)(4)(B)(i). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(b)(4)(B), substituted "2018" for "2012".

Subsec. (f)(5), (6). Pub. L. 113–79, §3006(b)(3), redesignated pars. (5) and (6) as (3) and (4), respectively.

2008—Subsec. (a)(3). Pub. L. 110–246, §3012(1), struck out "and the conditions that must be met for the approval of such proposal" before period at end.

Subsec. (c)(3). Pub. L. 110–246, §3012(2), struck out par. (3). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Handbooks developed by the Administrator to assist in carrying out the program under this subchapter shall be designed to foster the development of programs under this subchapter by eligible organizations."

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 110–246, §3012(3), added subsec. (d) and struck out former subsec. (d). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not later than 15 days after receipt from a United States field mission of a call forward for agricultural commodities for programs that meet the requirements of this subchapter, the order for the purchase or the supply, from inventory, of such commodities or products shall be transmitted to the Commodity Credit Corporation."

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 110–246, §3018(b), struck out par. (1) designation and struck out par. (2). Prior to amendment, text read as follows: "Not later than December 1 of each year, the Administrator shall submit to the Committee on Agriculture and the Committee on International Relations of the House of Representatives and the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate a report that contains—

"(A) a list of programs, countries, and commodities approved to date for assistance under this section; and

"(B) a statement of the total amount of funds approved to date for transportation and administrative costs under this section."

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 110–246, §3012(4), added subsecs. (f) and (g).

2002—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 107–171, §3007(1), added pars. (1) and (2), redesignated former par. (2) as (3), and struck out heading and text of former par. (1). Text read as follows: "Not later than 45 days after the receipt by the Administrator of a proposal submitted—

"(A) by an eligible organization, with the concurrence of the appropriate United States field mission, for commodities; or

"(B) by a United States field mission to make commodities available to an eligible organization;

under this subchapter, the Administrator shall make a decision concerning such proposal."

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 107–171, §3007(2), substituted "guideline or annual policy guidance" for "guideline" wherever appearing.

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 107–171, §3007(3), added subsec. (e).

1996—Subsec. (a)(1)(A), (B). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(b)(1), substituted "an eligible organization" for "a private voluntary organization or cooperative".

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(b)(2)(A), substituted "eligible organizations" for "private voluntary organizations and cooperatives".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 104–127, §207(b)(2)(B), substituted "eligible organizations" for "organizations, cooperatives,".

1990Pub. L. 101–624 amended section generally, substituting present provisions for provisions relating to requests by nonprofit voluntary agency or cooperative for nonemergency food assistance agreements, and uses of foreign currency proceeds.

1987—Subsec. (a). Pub. L. 100–202, §14(1), inserted "or cooperative" after "agency".

Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 100–202, §14(2), substituted "10 percent" for "5 percent".

Subsec. (c). Pub. L. 100–202, §14(3), added subsec. (c).

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

Effective Date of 1990 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 101–624 effective Jan. 1, 1991, see section 1513 of Pub. L. 101–624, set out as a note under section 1691 of this title.

Effective Date

Pub. L. 99–198, title XI, §1104(b), Dec. 23, 1985, 99 Stat. 1466, as amended by Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3001(c), June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1821, provided that: "Section 207 of the Food for Peace Act (as added by subsection (a)) [this section] shall apply with respect to agreements entered into after December 31, 1985."

§1726b. International food relief partnership

(a) In general

The Administrator may provide grants to—

(1) United States nonprofit organizations (described in section 501(c)(3) of title 26 and exempt from tax under section 501(a) of title 26) for the preparation of shelf-stable prepackaged foods requested by eligible organizations and the establishment and maintenance of stockpiles of the foods in the United States; and

(2) private voluntary organizations and international organizations for the rapid transportation, delivery, and distribution of shelf-stable prepackaged foods described in paragraph (1) to needy individuals in foreign countries.

(b) Grants for establishment of stockpiles

(1) In general

Not more than 70 percent of the amount made available to carry out this section shall be used to provide grants under subsection (a)(1).

(2) Priority

In providing grants under subsection (a)(1), the Administrator shall provide a preference to a United States nonprofit organization that agrees to provide—

(A) non-Federal funds in an amount equal to 50 percent of the amount of funds received under a grant under subsection (a)(1);

(B) an in-kind contribution in an amount equal to that percentage; or

(C) a combination of such funds and an in-kind contribution,


for the preparation of shelf-stable prepackaged foods and the establishment and maintenance of stockpiles of the foods in the United States in accordance with subsection (a)(1).

(c) Grants for rapid transportation, delivery, and distribution

Not less than 20 percent of the amount made available to carry out this section shall be used to provide grants under subsection (a)(2).

(d) Administration

Not more than 10 percent of the amount made available to carry out this section may be used by the Administrator for the administration of grants under subsection (a).

(e) Regulations or guidelines

Not later than 180 days after November 9, 2000, the Administrator, in consultation with the Secretary, shall issue such regulations or guidelines as the Administrator determines to be necessary to carry out this section, including regulations or guidelines that provide to United States nonprofit organizations eligible to receive grants under subsection (a)(1) guidance with respect to the requirements for qualified shelf-stable prepackaged foods and the quantity of the foods to be stockpiled by the organizations.

(f) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Administrator to carry out this section, in addition to amounts otherwise available to carry out this section, $10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2023, to remain available until expended.

(July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §208, as added Pub. L. 106–472, title III, §310(a), Nov. 9, 2000, 114 Stat. 2075; amended Pub. L. 107–171, title III, §3008, May 13, 2002, 116 Stat. 283; Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3013, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1826; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3007, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 775; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3108, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4604.)

Prior Provisions

A prior section 1726b, act July 10, 1954, ch. 469, title II, §208, as added Dec. 22, 1987, Pub. L. 100–202, §15, 101 Stat. 1329–449, which related to periods for review of proposals for famine relief and promulgation of guidelines for such proposals, was omitted in the general revision of this chapter by Pub. L. 101–624, title XV, §1512, Nov. 28, 1990, 104 Stat. 3633.

Amendments

2018Pub. L. 115–334, §3108(1), amended section catchline generally. Prior to amendment, section catchline read as follows: "Assistance for stockpiling and rapid transportation, delivery, and distribution of shelf-stable prepackaged foods".

Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 115–334, §3108(2), substituted "2023" for "2018".

2014—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 113–79 substituted "$10,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2014 through 2018" for "$8,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2001 through 2012".

2008—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 110–246 substituted "$8,000,000" for "$3,000,000" and "2012" for "2007".

2002—Subsec. (f). Pub. L. 107–171 substituted "through 2007" for "and 2002".

Effective Date of 2008 Amendment

Amendment by Pub. L. 110–246 effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as an Effective Date note under section 8701 of this title.

§1726c. Local and regional food aid procurement projects

(a) Definitions

In this section:

(1) Administrator

The term "Administrator" means the Administrator of the Agency for International Development.

(2) Appropriate committee of Congress

The term "appropriate committee of Congress" means—

(A) the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry of the Senate;

(B) the Committee on Agriculture of the House of Representatives; and

(C) the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the House of Representatives.

(3) Eligible commodity

The term "eligible commodity" means an agricultural commodity (or the product of an agricultural commodity) that—

(A) is produced in, and procured from, a developing country; and

(B) at a minimum, meets each nutritional, quality, and labeling standard of the country that receives the agricultural commodity, as determined by the Secretary.

(4) Eligible organization

The term "eligible organization" means an organization that is—

(A) described in section 1722(d) of this title; and

(B) with respect to nongovernmental organizations, subject to regulations promulgated or guidelines issued to carry out this section, including United States audit requirements that are applicable to nongovernmental organizations.

(b) Field-based projects

(1) In general

In accordance with paragraph (2), the Secretary shall provide grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements with, eligible organizations to carry out field-based projects that consist of local or regional procurements of eligible commodities to respond to food crises and disasters in accordance with this section.

(2) Consultation with Administrator

In carrying out the development and implementation of field-based projects under paragraph (1), the Secretary shall consult with the Administrator.

(c) Procurement

(1) In general

Any eligible commodity that is procured for a field-based project carried out under subsection (b) shall be procured through any approach or methodology that the Secretary considers to be an effective approach or methodology to provide adequate information regarding the manner by which to expedite, to the maximum extent practicable, the provision of food aid to affected populations without significantly increasing commodity costs for low-income consumers who procure commodities sourced from the same markets at which the eligible commodity is procured.

(2) Requirements

(A) Impact on local farmers and countries

The Secretary shall ensure that the local or regional procurement of any eligible commodity under this section will not have a disruptive impact on farmers located in, or the economy of—

(i) the recipient country of the eligible commodity; or

(ii) any country in the region in which the eligible commodity may be procured.

(B) Transshipment

The Secretary shall, in accordance with such terms and conditions as the Secretary considers to be appropriate, require from each eligible organization commitments designed to prevent or restrict—

(i) the resale or transshipment of any eligible commodity procured under this section to any country other than the recipient country; and

(ii) the use of the eligible commodity for any purpose other than food aid.

(C) World prices

(i) In general

In carrying out this section, the Secretary shall take any precaution that the Secretary considers to be reasonable to ensure that the procurement of eligible commodities will not unduly disrupt—

(I) world prices for agricultural commodities; or

(II) normal patterns of commercial trade with foreign countries.

(ii) Procurement price

The procurement of any eligible commodity shall be made at a reasonable market price with respect to the economy of the country in which the eligible commodity is procured, as determined by the Secretary.

(d) Field-based project grants or cooperative agreements

(1) In general

The Secretary shall award grants to, or enter into cooperative agreements with, eligible organizations to carry out field-based projects.

(2) Requirements of eligible organizations

(A) In general

To be eligible to receive a grant from, or enter into a cooperative agreement with, the Secretary under this subsection, an eligible organization shall submit to the Secretary an application by such date, in such manner, and containing such information as the Secretary may require.

(B) Other applicable requirements

Any other applicable requirement relating to the submission of proposals for consideration shall apply to the submission of an application required under subparagraph (A), as determined by the Secretary.

(3) Requirements of Secretary

(A) Project diversity

(i) In general

Subject to clause (ii) and subparagraph (B), in selecting proposals for field-based projects to fund under this section, the Secretary shall select a diversity of projects, including projects located in—

(I) food surplus regions;

(II) food deficit regions (that are carried out using regional procurement methods); and

(III) multiple geographical regions.

(ii) Priority

In selecting proposals for field-based projects under clause (i), the Secretary shall ensure that the majority of selected proposals are for field-based projects that—

(I) are located in Africa; and

(II) procure eligible commodities that are produced in Africa.

(B) Development assistance

A portion of the funds provided under this subsection shall be made available for field-based projects that provide development assistance for a period of not less than 1 year.

(e) Funding

(1) Authorization of appropriations

There is authorized to be appropriated to the Secretary to carry out this section $80,000,000 for each of fiscal years 2019 through 2023.

(2) Preference

In carrying out this section, the Secretary may give a preference to eligible organizations that have, or are working toward, projects under the McGovern-Dole International Food for Education and Child Nutrition Program established under section 1736o–1 of this title.

(3) Reporting

Each year, the Secretary shall submit to the appropriate committees of Congress a report that describes the use of funds under this section, including—

(A) the impact of procurements and projects on—

(i) local and regional agricultural producers; and

(ii) markets and consumers, including low-income consumers; and


(B) implementation time frames and costs.

(Pub. L. 110–246, title III, §3206, June 18, 2008, 122 Stat. 1840; Pub. L. 113–79, title III, §3207, Feb. 7, 2014, 128 Stat. 780; Pub. L. 115–334, title III, §3311, Dec. 20, 2018, 132 Stat. 4623.)

Codification

Section was enacted as part of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008, and not as part of the Food for Peace Act which comprises this chapter.

Amendments

2018—Subsec. (e)(1). Pub. L. 115–334 inserted "to the Secretary" after "appropriated" and substituted "2019 through 2023" for "2014 through 2018".

2014—Subsec. (b). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(1)(A), (B), substituted "Field-based projects" for "Study; field-based projects" in heading, struck out par. (2) designation and heading, redesignated subpars. (A) and (B) of former par. (2) as pars. (1) and (2), respectively, and struck out former par. (1) which required a study of prior local and regional procurements for food aid programs and a report to Congress.

Subsec. (b)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(1)(C), substituted "paragraph (2)" for "subparagraph (B)".

Subsec. (b)(2). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(1)(D), substituted "paragraph (1)" for "subparagraph (A)".

Subsec. (c)(1). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(2), substituted "subsection (b)" for "subsection (b)(2)".

Subsec. (d). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(3), (4), redesignated subsec. (e) as (d) and struck out former subsec. (d) which related to regulations and guidelines.

Subsec. (d)(2). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(5)(A), struck out subpar. (A) designation and heading, redesignated cls. (i) and (ii) of former subpar. (A) as subpars. (A) and (B), respectively, substituted "subparagraph (A)" for "clause (i)" in subpar. (B), and struck out former subpar. (B). Prior to amendment, text of subpar. (B) read as follows: "To be eligible to receive a grant from, or enter into a cooperative agreement with, the Secretary under this subsection, an eligible organization shall agree—

"(i) to collect by September 30, 2011, data containing the information required under subsection (f)(1)(B) relating to the field-based project funded through the grant; and

"(ii) to provide to the Secretary the data collected under clause (i)."

Subsec. (d)(4). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(5)(B), struck out par. (4). Text read as follows: "The Secretary shall not award a grant to any eligible organization under paragraph (1) until the date on which the Secretary promulgates regulations or issues guidelines under subsection (d)(1)".

Subsec. (e). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(6), added subsec. (e). Former subsec. (e) redesignated (d).

Subsecs. (f), (g). Pub. L. 113–79, §3207(3), struck out subsecs. (f) and (g) which related, respectively, to independent evaluations of field-based projects and report to Congress and to Commodity Credit Corporation funding and funding amounts for fiscal years 2009 through 2012.

Effective Date

Section effective May 22, 2008, see section 4(b) of Pub. L. 110–246, set out as a note under section 8701 of this title.

Definition of "Secretary"

"Secretary" as meaning the Secretary of Agriculture, see section 8701 of this title.